This gene encodes a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. The central feature of this gene family is a novel, highly conserved DNA-binding motif, known as the paired box. Paired box transcription factors are important regulators in early development, and alterations in the expression of their genes are thought to contribute to neoplastic transformation. This gene encodes the B-cell lineage specific activator protein that is expressed at early, but not late stages of B-cell differentiation. Its expression has also been detected in developing CNS and testis and so the encoded protein may also play a role in neural development and spermatogenesis. This gene is located at 9p13, which is involved in t(9;14)(p13;q32) translocations recurring in small lymphocytic lymphomas of the plasmacytoid subtype, and in derived large-cell lymphomas. This translocation brings the potent E-mu enhancer of the IgH gene into close proximity of the PAX5 promoter, suggesting that the deregulation of transcription of this gene contributes to the pathogenesis of these lymphomas. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
PAX5 is implicated in: - cell differentiation
- DNA binding
- humoral immune response
- multicellular organismal development
- negative regulation of histone H3-K9 methylation
- negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
- nervous system development
- organ morphogenesis
- positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
- regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent
- sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
- transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
- transcription, DNA-dependent
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP [Hide]
Yazdanparast S, Khatami SR, Galehdari H, Jaseb K One missense mutation in exon 2 of the PAX5 gene in Iran. Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):17768-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
The PAX5 gene, which encodes the B-cell specific activator protein, is one of the most important factors in determination of B-cell development. This gene is the main target of somatic mutations in acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). For example, point mutations, deletions, as well as other gene rearrangements may lead to several forms of B-cell malignancy. In this study, we obtained 50 blood samples from patients diagnosed with ALL, and screened for PAX5 mutations using sequencing in exons 1, 2 and 3. We found a heterozygous germline variant, c.113G>A (p.Arg38His), which affects the paired domain of PAX5. It seems that this mutation is pathogenic, but is recessive. Our findings suggest that this mutation in a single allele of the PAX5 gene is not sufficient to cause disease, and it is possible that other alleles are also involved in the onset of B-ALL.
The transcription factor PAX5 is required for normal B cell development and is frequently mutated or deleted in B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). A new study demonstrates that germline hypomorphic mutations of PAX5 are associated with susceptibility to B-ALL, implicating PAX5 in a growing list of hematopoietic transcription factors mutated in familial leukemia predisposition syndromes.
Somatic alterations of the lymphoid transcription factor gene PAX5 (also known as BSAP) are a hallmark of B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), but inherited mutations of PAX5 have not previously been described. Here we report a new heterozygous germline variant, c.547G>A (p.Gly183Ser), affecting the octapeptide domain of PAX5 that was found to segregate with disease in two unrelated kindreds with autosomal dominant B-ALL. Leukemic cells from all affected individuals in both families exhibited 9p deletion, with loss of heterozygosity and retention of the mutant PAX5 allele at 9p13. Two additional sporadic ALL cases with 9p loss harbored somatic PAX5 substitutions affecting Gly183. Functional and gene expression analysis of the PAX5 mutation demonstrated that it had significantly reduced transcriptional activity. These data extend the role of PAX5 alterations in the pathogenesis of pre-B cell ALL and implicate PAX5 in a new syndrome of susceptibility to pre-B cell neoplasia.
Ohno H, Nishikori M, Haga H, Isoda K Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma carrying a t(9;14)(p13;q32) translocation. Int J Hematol. 2009; 89(5):704-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We, herein, report a 75-year-old man with lymphoma who initially presented with disseminated disease involving the lung, followed by temporal regression, and finally died of disease progression. Lymph-node biopsy showed a morphology of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), containing CD30(+) Reed-Sternberg-like cells. The lymphoma cells were stained by in situ hybridization (ISH) for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA, and the presence of the EBV genome was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction. A cytogenetic study showed that the lymphoma cells carried a t(9;14)(p13;q32) translocation, and rearrangement of the PAX5 gene was determined by fluorescence ISH using a split signal probe. This case report is the first to identify t(9;14)(p13;q32) in EBV(+) DLBCL of the elderly, which was very recently listed among subtypes of DLBCL.
Souabni A, Jochum W, Busslinger M Oncogenic role of Pax5 in the T-lymphoid lineage upon ectopic expression from the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus. Blood. 2007; 109(1):281-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Four of 9 PAX transcription factor genes have been associated with chromosomal translocations in human tumors, although their oncogenic potential has not yet been demonstrated in transgenic mouse models. The B-lymphoidPAX5 gene participates in the generation of the t(9;14)(p13;q32) translocation in germinal center B cells, which leads to deregulated PAX5 expression under the control of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus in a subset of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Here we reconstructed a human t(9;14) translocation in a knock-in mouse by inserting a PAX5 minigene into the IgH locus. The IgH(P5ki) allele, which corresponds to a germline rather than somatic mutation, is activated in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors and is subsequently expressed in dendritic cells (DCs) and in natural killer (NK), T, and B cells. Ectopic Pax5 expression interferes with normal T-cell development and causes immature T-lymphoblastic lymphomas in IgH(P5ki/+) and IgH(P5ki/P5ki) mice. Aggressive T-cell lymphomas develop even faster in Ik(Pax5/+) mice expressing Pax5 from the Ikaros locus. Pax5 expression in thymocytes activates B-cell-specific genes and represses T-lymphoid genes, suggesting that Pax5 contributes to lymphomagenesis by deregulating the T-cell gene-expression program. These data identify Pax5 as a potent oncogene and demonstrate that the T-lymphoid lineage is particularly sensitive to the oncogenic action of Pax5.
Baró C, Salido M, Domingo A, et al. Translocation t(9;14)(p13;q32) in cases of splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Haematologica. 2006; 91(9):1289-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Translocation t(9;14)(p13;q32) involving PAX5 and IGH genes was first described in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. New data suggest that this translocation is not restricted to a specific morphologic subtype but occurs in other B-cell lymphomas. We present three cases with a diagnosis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma and t(9;14) confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization.
Daibata M, Taguchi T, Nemoto Y, et al. In vitro Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized lymphoma cell line carrying t(9;14)(p13;q32) chromosome abnormality, derived from splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes. Int J Cancer. 2006; 118(2):513-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
We herein describe splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes (SLVL) carrying t(9;14)(p13;q32). The t(9;14)(p13;q32) is a rare reciprocal chromosome translocation found in a subset of B-cell malignancies, mainly in low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. In t(9;14)(p13;q32), PAX-5 gene on 9p13 is involved with the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene on 14q32. It has been thought that the deregulated expression of PAX-5 as a result of t(9;14)(p13;q32) may contribute to abnormal cell proliferation. Although continuous cell lines are invaluable tools for studying lymphomagenesis in the t(9;14)(p13;q32)-bearing lymphomas, establishment of such cell lines is extremely difficult since they are usually mature B-cell malignancies. In an attempt to transform the SLVL cells into a proliferating cell line, we examined the responses of the cells to infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). SLVL cells were found to be susceptible to immortalization by EBV, resulting in a permanent cell line. The cell line, designated SL-15, possessed the t(9;14)(p13;q32). Genotype analysis and immunophenotype profiles confirmed that the cell line arose from the primary lymphoma cells. The cells had characteristic cytoplasmic villi. SL-15 cells has been growing over 2 years equivalent to 350-400 population doubling levels without proliferative crisis that is often observed in EBV-positive lymphoblastoid cell lines. Furthermore, SL-15 cells, when inoculated into nude mice, formed t(9;14)(p13;q32)-bearing tumors with cytoplasmic villi. The validated SLVL-derived cell line provide a useful model system to study molecular biology of t(9;14)(p13;q32)-bearing B-cell malignancies as well as lymphomagenesis of SLVL in vitro and in vivo.
Poppe B, De Paepe P, Michaux L, et al. PAX5/IGH rearrangement is a recurrent finding in a subset of aggressive B-NHL with complex chromosomal rearrangements. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005; 44(2):218-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present an extensive characterization of 10 B-cell lymphomas with a t(9;14)(p13;q32). The presence of the PAX5/IGH gene rearrangement was demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a validated probe set, whereas complex karyotypic changes were reassessed by multiplex-FISH (M-FISH). Pathologic and clinical review revealed the presence of this rearrangement in 4 histiocyte-rich, T-cell-rich B-cell lymphomas (HRTR-BCLs) and 2 posttransplantation diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (PTLD-DLBCLs). In contrast to initial observations describing this translocation in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) and LPL-derived large B-cell lymphoma, our data showed a wide morphologic and clinical spectrum associated with the PAX5/IGH rearrangement, pointing to an association between this aberration and a subset of de novo DLBCLs presenting with advanced disease and adverse prognosis. In addition, the recurrent incidence of this rearrangement in both HRTR-BCL (4 cases) and PTLD-DLBCL (2 cases) was previously unrecognized and is intriguing.
Cook JR, Aguilera NI, Reshmi-Skarja S, et al. Lack of PAX5 rearrangements in lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas: reassessing the reported association with t(9;14). Hum Pathol. 2004; 35(4):447-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
A t(9;14)(p13;q32) involving the PAX5 and IGH genes has been described in association with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Although often described as common, the incidence of this translocation in nodal lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma has never been investigated. Recent studies of patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (often corresponding to marrow-based lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma) have failed to identify the t(9;14). These studies have suggested that either nodal and marrow-based lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas have distinct pathogenetic mechanisms or that the t(9;14) is less frequent in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma than was believed previously. We therefore analyzed a series of nodal or other extramedullary lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas for the presence of the t(9;14) with paraffin section interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. We developed a BAC contig probe spanning all previously described PAX5 breakpoints and validated this assay with the KIS-1 cell line that expresses a t(9;14). Analysis with the PAX5 probe showed a lack of PAX5 rearrangements in all cases that were analyzed successfully. Similarly, analysis by an IGH fluorescence in situ hybridization probe showed no evidence of translocations involving the IGH locus. These findings indicate that the t(9;14) is at least uncommon in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma and should no longer be considered a characteristic finding in this type of lymphoma as defined by World Health Organization criteria.
Andrieux J, Fert-Ferrer S, Copin MC, et al. Three new cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with t(9;14)(p13;q32). Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2003; 145(1):65-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The majority of non-Hodgkin lymphomas of B-cell type (B-NHL) exhibit chromosomal abnormalities including many types of reciprocal translocations closely related to specific histopathologic entities. The t(9;14)(p13;q32) has been recognized as a primary genetic event directly involved in the development of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. In the 14 published cases, the t(9;14)(p13;32) seems to delineate a variety of low-grade B-cell disorders characterized by a common clinical history and immunopathologic similarities. We report here three new cases presenting a t(9;14)(p13;q32) with other chromosomal abnormalities which have been referred to as B-cell low-grade or high-grade malignant lymphoproliferative disorders. Two of these cases showed diffuse large B cell lymphoma morphology and two patients had a favorable clinical outcome. These data suggest that t(9;14)(p13;q32) is not restricted to low-grade lymphoma.