Gene Summary

Gene:NEDD4; NEDD4 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase
Aliases: RPF1, NEDD4-1
Summary:This gene is the founding member of the NEDD4 family of HECT ubiquitin ligases that function in the ubiquitin proteasome system of protein degradation. The encoded protein contains an N-terminal calcium and phospholipid binding C2 domain followed by multiple tryptophan-rich WW domains and, a C-terminal HECT ubiquitin ligase catalytic domain. It plays critical role in the regulation of a number of membrane receptors, endocytic machinery components and the tumor suppressor PTEN. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (47)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Mutation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Systems Biology
  • Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cell Movement
  • Phosphorylation
  • Nedd4 Ubiquitin Protein Ligases
  • Ubiquitin
  • Breast Cancer
  • siRNA
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Staging
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Chromosome 15
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Ubiquitination
  • Lung Cancer
  • Brain Stem Glioma, Childhood
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Xenograft Models
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Protein Binding
  • Apoptosis
  • Messenger RNA
  • PTEN
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NEDD4 (cancer-related)

Luhtala S, Staff S, Kallioniemi A, et al.
Clinicopathological and prognostic correlations of HER3 expression and its degradation regulators, NEDD4-1 and NRDP1, in primary breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1045 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor HER3 (ErbB3), especially in association with its relative HER2 (ErbB2), is known as a key oncogene in breast tumour biology. Nonetheless, the prognostic relevance of HER3 remains controversial. NEDD4-1 and NRDP1 are signalling molecules closely related to the degradation of HER3 via ubiquitination. NEDD4-1 and NRDP1 have been reported to contribute to HER3-mediated signalling by regulating its localization and cell membrane retention. We studied correlations between HER3, NEDD4-1, and NRDP1 protein expression and their association with tumour histopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes.
METHODS: The prevalence of immunohistochemically detectable expression profiles of HER3 (n = 177), NEDD4-1 (n = 145), and NRDP1 (n = 145) proteins was studied in primary breast carcinomas on archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Clinicopathological correlations were determined statistically using Pearson's Chi-Square test. The Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test (Mantel-Cox), and Cox regression analysis were utilized for survival analysis.
RESULTS: HER3 protein was expressed in breast carcinomas without association with HER2 gene amplification status. Absence or low HER3 expression correlated with clinically aggressive features, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, basal cell origin (cytokeratin 5/14 expression combined with ER negativity), large tumour size, and positive lymph node status. Low total HER3 expression was prognostic for shorter recurrence-free survival time in HER2-amplified breast cancer (p = 0.004, p = 0.020 in univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively). The majority (82.8%) of breast cancers demonstrated NEDD4-1 protein expression - while only a minor proportion (8.3%) of carcinomas expressed NRDP1. NEDD4-1 and NRDP1 expression were not associated with clinical outcomes in HER2-amplified breast cancer, irrespective of adjuvant trastuzumab therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Low HER3 expression is suggested to be a valuable prognostic biomarker to predict recurrence in HER2-amplified breast cancer. Neither NEDD4-1 nor NRDP1 demonstrated relevance in prognostics or in the subclassification of HER2-amplified breast carcinomas.

Yilmaz E, Gul M, Melekoglu R, et al.
Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 4-like: a new biomarker in the pathophysiology of endometrial cancer.
J Int Med Res. 2018; 46(9):3709-3716 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objectives Endometrial cancer is the most frequent tumor of the female genital tract. Ubiquitin is a small protein (8.5 kDa) found in all eukaryotic cells, binds to substrate proteins via a three-phase enzymatic pathway referred to as ubiquitination and plays an important role in cellular stability. Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 4-like (NEDD4L) functions in the last phase of this enzymatic process. In this study, we investigated NEDD4L protein expression in endometrial cancer. Methods The study participants were divided into patients with benign endometrial pathologies (Group 1, n = 23), patients with endometrial hyperplasia (Group 2, n = 21) and patients with endometrial cancer (Group 3, n = 20). NEDD4L expression was detected by immunohistochemical staining and H scores were calculated to standardize staining intensity. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. Results NEDD4L expression levels according to H scores were significantly lower in patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer compared with those with benign endometrial pathologies. Conclusion NEDD4L is involved in maintaining cell stability, and reduced NEDD4L expression as a result of gene mutation may disrupt this balance in favor of tumorigenesis.

Suk FM, Chang CC, Lin RJ, et al.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Monocyte chemotactic protein induced protein 3 (MCPIP3) belongs to the Cys⁻Cys⁻Cys⁻His (CCCH)-zinc finger protein family and contains a highly conserved CCCH-zinc finger domain and a Nedd4-BP1 YacP nuclease (NYN) domain. Previous studies showed that MCPIP3 inhibits the expression of proinflammatory genes, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule (

Guarnieri AL, Towers CG, Drasin DJ, et al.
The miR-106b-25 cluster mediates breast tumor initiation through activation of NOTCH1 via direct repression of NEDD4L.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(28):3879-3893 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-initiating cells (TIC) represent a subset of tumor cells with increased self-renewal capability. TICs display resistance to frontline cancer treatment and retain the ability to repopulate a tumor after therapy, leading to cancer relapse. NOTCH signaling has been identified as an important driver of the TIC population, yet mechanisms governing regulation of this pathway in cancer remain to be fully elucidated. Here we identify a novel mechanism of NOTCH regulation and TIC induction in breast cancer via the miR-106b-25 miRNA cluster. We show that the miR-106b-25 cluster upregulates NOTCH1 in multiple breast cancer cell lines, representing both estrogen receptor (ER+) and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) through direct repression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, NEDD4L. We further show that upregulation of NOTCH1 is necessary for TIC induction downstream of miR-106b-25 in both ER + and TNBC breast cancer cells, and that re-expression of NEDD4L is sufficient to reverse miR106b-25-mediated NOTCH1 upregulation and TIC induction. Importantly, we demonstrate a significant positive correlation between miR-106b-25 and NOTCH1 protein, yet a significant inverse correlation between miR-106b-25 and NEDD4L mRNA in human breast cancer, suggesting a critical role for the miR106b-25/NEDD4L/NOTCH1 axis in the disease. Further, we show for the first time that NEDD4L expression alone is significantly associated with a better relapse-free prognosis for breast cancer patients. These data expand our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying NOTCH activation and TIC induction in breast cancer, and may provide new avenues for the development of therapies targeting this resistant subset of tumor cells.

Cai J, Li R, Xu X, et al.
CK1α suppresses lung tumour growth by stabilizing PTEN and inducing autophagy.
Nat Cell Biol. 2018; 20(4):465-478 [PubMed] Related Publications
The contribution of autophagy to cancer development remains controversial, largely owing to the fact that autophagy can be tumour suppressive or oncogenic in different biological contexts. Here, we show that in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), casein kinase 1 alpha 1 (CK1α) suppresses tumour growth by functioning as an autophagy inducer to activate an autophagy-regulating, tumour-suppressive PTEN/AKT/FOXO3a/Atg7 axis. Specifically, CK1α bound the C-terminal tail of PTEN and enhanced both PTEN stability and activity by competitively antagonizing NEDD4-1-induced PTEN polyubiquitination and abrogating PTEN phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting AKT activity and activating FOXO3a-induced transcription of Atg7. Notably, blocking CK1α-induced Atg7-dependent autophagy cooperates with oncogenic HRas

Peng J, Liu H, Liu C
MiR-155 Promotes Uveal Melanoma Cell Proliferation and Invasion by Regulating NDFIP1 Expression.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 16(6):1160-1167 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs refer to small RNA molecules that destroy the messenger RNA by binding on them inhibiting the production of protein. However, the role of miR-155 in uveal melanoma metastasis remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that miR-155 was upregulated in both uveal melanoma cells and tissues. Transfection of miR-155 mimic into uveal melanoma cells led to an increase in cell growth and invasion; in contrast, inhibition of miR-155 resulted in opposite effects. Also, we identified Nedd4-family interacting protein 1 as a direct target of miR-155, and the expression of Nedd4-family interacting protein 1 was inhibited by miR-155. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Nedd4-family interacting protein 1 restored the effects of miR-155 on cell proliferation and invasion of uveal melanoma cells. In conclusion, miR-155 acts as a tumor promotor in uveal melanoma through increasing cell proliferation and invasion. Thus, miR-155 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in patients with uveal melanoma.

Liang J, Qi WF, Xie S, et al.
Expression of WW domain-containing protein 2 is correlated with pathological grade and recurrence of glioma.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2017 Oct-Dec; 13(6):1032-1037 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: WW domain-containing protein 2 (WWP2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which belongs to the NEDD4-like protein family. Recently, it is reported to play a key role in tumorigenesis and development of tumors such as prostate and lung cancer. However, there has been not related report on glioma until now. The aim of this study is to detect the expression of WWP2 and analyze its correlation to the pathological grade and tumor recurrence in patients with glioma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blot and immunohistochemistry were separately used to detect the expression of WWP2 protein in 31 brain glioma tissue samples and 80 brain glioma paraffin specimens. The method of Kaplan-Meier was used to analyze the correlation between the WWP2 expression and glioma recurrence.
RESULTS: The protein expression level of WWP2 in glioma tissue was significantly higher than that in nontumorous brain tissue (P < 0.05), and the protein expression level of WWP2 in high-grade glioma (Grade III-IV) was significantly higher than that in low-grade glioma (Grade I-II) (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that the patients with high WWP2 expression had significantly shorter tumor recurrence time than the patients with low WWP2 expression (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that WWP2 may play a role in the genesis and development of glioma; it may be a potential biomarker to predict pathological grade and tumor recurrence in patients with glioma.

Zhao F, Gong X, Liu A, et al.
Downregulation of Nedd4L predicts poor prognosis, promotes tumor growth and inhibits MAPK/ERK signal pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 495(1):1136-1143 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence indicates that the neural precursor cell-expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-like (Nedd4L) related with some tumor progression pathways and was found abnormally expressed in several kinds of solid cancers. However, the role and mechanism of Nedd4L in HCC remain unknown. This study was to assess the role of Nedd4L in HCC tumorigenesis and prognosis. The real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that Nedd4L was downregulated in HCC tissues compared to corresponding peri-noncancerous tissue, and HCC patients with low expression of Nedd4L exhibited poor prognosis assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis in 78 HCC patients. Furthermore, knockdown of Nedd4L could significantly promote proliferation of HCC cells by CCK-8 and colony formation assays in vitro; whereas ectopic expression of Nedd4L resulted in attenuating proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivc determined by nude mice xenografts model. Mechanically, Nedd4L could phosphorylate ERK1/2 and regulate genes related with apoptosis. Collectively, Nedd4L plays a tumor suppressive role in HCC, possibly through triggering MAPK/ERK-mediated apoptosis, and Nedd4L downregulation may be a potential prognostic biomarker as well as a therapeutic target for HCC.

Liu Z, Huo X, Zhao S, et al.
Low density lipoprotein receptor class A domain containing 4 (LDLRAD4) promotes tumorigenesis of hepatic cancer cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2017; 360(2):189-198 [PubMed] Related Publications
LDLRAD4 was previously identified and shown to be connected with psychiatric disorders. The structure of LDLRAD4 protein is similar to that of TMEPAI protein, which is overexpressed in many tumors. However, it is still unknown whether LDLRAD4 is involved in tumorigenesis. In this study, the potential role of LDLRAD4 in tumorigenesis was investigated. LDLRAD4 is elevated in hepatic cancer cells and tumor tissues, and expression of LDLRAD4 promotes hepatic cancer cell HepG2 and SMMC-7721 proliferation and migration. LDLRAD4 interacts Nedd4 to promote cell proliferation and migration and negatively regulates the TGF-β signaling. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy analysis indicates that LDLRAD4 is localized to the lysosome and association with Nedd4 is necessary for its intracellular transport to the lysosome. In addition, depletion of LDLRAD4 in HepG2 liver cancer cells inhibited tumorigenesis in nude mice. These results reveal an oncogenic role of LDLRAD4 in tumorigenesis through its association with Nedd4.

Wen W, Li J, Wang L, et al.
Inhibition of NEDD4 inhibits cell growth and invasion and induces cell apoptosis in bladder cancer cells.
Cell Cycle. 2017; 16(16):1509-1514 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 4 (NEDD4) plays a pivotal oncogenic role in various types of human cancers. However, the function of NEDD4 in bladder cancer has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we aim to explore whether NEDD4 governs cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in bladder cancer cells. Our results showed that downregulation of NEDD4 suppressed cell proliferation in bladder cancer cells. Moreover, we found that inhibition of NEDD4 significantly induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, downregulation of NEDD4 retarded cell migration and invasion. Notably, overexpression of NEDD4 enhanced cell growth and inhibited apoptosis. Consistently, upregulation of NEDD4 promoted cell migration and invasion in bladder cancer cells. Mechanically, our Western blotting results revealed that downregulation of NEDD4 activated PTEN and inhibited Notch-1 expression, whereas upregulation of NEDD4 reduced PTEN level and increased Notch-1 level in bladder cancer cells. Our findings indicated that NEDD4 exerts its oncogenic function partly due to regulation of PTEN and Notch-1 in bladder cancer cells. These results further revealed that targeting NEDD4 could be a useful approach for the treatment of bladder cancer.

Sun H, Ma H, Wang J, et al.
Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 degradation induced by NEDD4 promotes acquired erlotinib resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317709639 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, is a critical issue in the treatment of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor mutant-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. Recent evidence suggests that downregulation of gene of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 plays an important role in acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in various types of cancers, including lung cancer. It was reported that the E3 ubiquitin ligase neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated gene (NEDD4) (also known as NEDD4-1) negatively regulated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 protein levels through poly-ubiquitination and proteolysis in carcinomas of the prostate, lung, and bladder. Whether this process plays a role in epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer has not been studied extensively. In view of this, we investigated the involvement of NEDD4 and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 in acquired erlotinib resistance with tyrosine kinase inhibitor-sensitive (HCC827) or tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant (Erlotinib-resistant HCC827/ER cells which harbored exon 19 deletion. Overexpression of NEDD4 in HCC827/ER cells was detected, and the reverse correlation between NEDD4 and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 expression in these cells was also revealed. In HCC827/ER cells with knockdown of NEDD4, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 and p-Akt expressions were decreased; the sensitivity of HCC827/ER cells to erlotinib was partially restored. Similar results were also observed in vivo. In H1650/ER cells harboring both exon 19 and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 deletion, expression of p-Akt and sensitivity to erlotinib were not affected by simple knockdown of NEDD4 but affected after transfection of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 into H1650/ER cells. Our results demonstrate that NEDD4 may promote the acquired resistance of non-small-cell lung cancer cells to erlotinib by decreasing phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 protein expression. Targeted decrease in NEDD4 expression may be a potential therapeutic strategy for tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer.

Wang X, Deng J, Yuan J, et al.
Curcumin exerts its tumor suppressive function via inhibition of NEDD4 oncoprotein in glioma cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(2):467-477 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most common brain cancer in adults. It represents one of the top ten malignant tumors with an average survival time of nine months despite treatments with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Curcumin is a phytochemical turmeric isolated from root of the Curcuma longa plant. Accumulating evidence have proved that curcumin targets numerous cancer signaling pathways. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4, neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 4, is frequently overexpressed in various cancers. However, whether curcumin regulates NEDD4 expression has not been described in human cancers. Therefore, in this study, we explored the roles of NEDD4 in glioma cell proliferation, apoptosis and mobility. We further investigated whether curcumin exerts its antitumor activities via suppressing NEDD4 expression. We found that curcumin reduced the expression of NEDD4 and Notch1 and pAKT, leading to glioma cell growth inhibition, apoptosis, and suppression of migration and invasion. Moreover, deletion of NEDD4 expression enhanced the sensitivity of glioma cells to curcumin treatment. Thus, inactivation of NEDD4 by curcumin could be a promising approach for therapeutic intervention.

Weng M, Luo ZL, Wu XL, Zeng WZ
The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 is translationally upregulated and facilitates pancreatic cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(12):20288-20296 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To determine the regulation and function of the neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down regulated protein 4 (NEDD4) in PDAC and to determine its dependency on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and PI3K/AKT signaling.
METHODS: We investigated the expression of NEDD4 and the tumor suppressor PTEN in normal immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial cell line and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines. We further evaluated whether RNAi-mediated depletion of NEDD4 can attenuate PDAC cell proliferation and migration. We subsequently determined the crosstalk between NEDD4 expression and the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Finally, we determined the mechanism behind differential NEDD4 protein expression in pancreatic cancer.
RESULTS: The expression of NEDD4 was heterogeneous in PDAC cells, but was significantly higher compared to normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Analogically, PTEN was decreased in the PDAC cells. A combination of MTT assay, wound healing migration assay, and transwell invasion assays confirmed that depletion of NEDD4 decreased the proliferation and migration ability of PDAC cells. Western blot and immunofluorescence results revealed that NEDD4 could affect PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in PDAC cells. Polysomal profiling revealed that higher NEDD4 protein expression in PDAC cells was due to undefined mechanism involving translational activation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal a novel mechanism of upregulation of NEDD4 expression in PDAC. Our findings indicate that NEDD4 potentially plays a critical role in activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by negatively regulating PTEN levels in PDAC cells, which promotes pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Therefore, NEDD4 may be a potential therapeutic target in PDAC.

Lu X, Wang J, Shan X, Li Y
Selecting key genes associated with ovarian cancer based on differential expression network.
J BUON. 2017 Jan-Feb; 22(1):48-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose in this study was to select key genes related to ovarian cancer.
METHODS: The gene expression profiles of E-GEOD-6008, E-GEOD-26712, E-GEOD-27651, E-GEOD-14001 were obtained from ArrayExpress database ( Following data recruitment and preprocessing, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were characterized using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). Then, a differential expression network (DEN) was constructed using Cytoscape 2.1 software based on differential and non-differential interactions. Pathway analysis was performed based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database using Pathway Analysis with the nodes contained in the main DEN. Centrality analysis on the DEN was conducted to selected HUB genes. And last, western blot was performed on the selected genes in an independent sample set.
RESULTS: A total of 370 samples (347 ovarian tumors and 23 controls) were selected. In all, 490 DEGs were obtained, which contained 59 upregulated and 431 downregulated genes. A DEN including 875 gene pairs (1028 nodes) was constructed. There were 7 pathways by analyzing the nodes contained in the main DEN. Five HUB genes were gained, and three (UBC, ELAVL1, SIRT1) were both HUB genes and disease genes. Meanwhile, SIRT1 and NEDD4 were downregulated genes. Verification experiments indicated that the expression of SIRT1 and ELAVL1 in the disease group and the normal group were significantly changed.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that SIRT1 could be chosen as a potential biomarker for promoting detection of ovarian cancer, so as to further understand the molecular pathogenesis of this disease.

Chang H, Zhang J, Miao Z, et al.
Suppression of the Smurf1 Expression Inhibits Tumor Progression in Gliomas.
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2018; 38(2):421-430 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma, one of the common malignant brain tumors, results in the highly death, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Smurf1, a member of Nedd4 family of HECT-type ligases, has been reported to contribute to tumorigenicity through several important biological pathways. Recently, it was also found to participate in modulate cellular processes, including morphogenesis, autophagy, growth, and cell migration. In this research, we reported the clinical guiding significance of the expression of Smurf1 in human glioma tissues and cell lines. Western blotting analysis discovered that the expression of Smurf1 was increased with WHO grade. Immunohistochemistry levels discovered that high expression of Smurf1 is closely consistent with poor prognosis of glioma. In addition, suppression of Smurf1 can reduce cell invasion and increase the E-cadherin expression, which is a marker of invasion. Our study firstly demonstrated that Smurf1 may promote glioma cell invasion and suppression of the Smurf1 may provide a novel treatment strategy for glioma.

Zhang X, Li B, Rezaeian AH, et al.
H3 ubiquitination by NEDD4 regulates H3 acetylation and tumorigenesis.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8:14799 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dynamic changes in histone modifications under various physiological cues play important roles in gene transcription and cancer. Identification of new histone marks critical for cancer development is of particular importance. Here we show that, in a glucose-dependent manner, E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 ubiquitinates histone H3 on lysine 23/36/37 residues, which specifically recruits histone acetyltransferase GCN5 for subsequent H3 acetylation. Genome-wide analysis of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing reveals that NEDD4 regulates glucose-induced H3 K9 acetylation at transcription starting site and enhancer regions. Integrative analysis of ChIP-seq and microarray data sets also reveals a consistent role of NEDD4 in transcription activation and H3 K9 acetylation in response to glucose. Functionally, we show that NEDD4-mediated H3 ubiquitination, by transcriptionally activating IL1α, IL1β and GCLM, is important for tumour sphere formation. Together, our study reveals the mechanism for glucose-induced transcriptome reprograming and epigenetic regulation in cancer by inducing NEDD4-dependent H3 ubiquitination.

Verma N, Manna SK
Advanced glycation end products (AGE) potentiates cell death in p53 negative cells via upregulaion of NF-kappa B and impairment of autophagy.
J Cell Physiol. 2017; 232(12):3598-3610 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in diabetic patients and ageing people due to excess availability of simple 3- or 4-carbon sugars, is well-known. AGE has multiple deleterious effects including age-related disorders, apoptosis, inflammation, and obesity. We have found that AGE increases autophagy but the sustained amount of autophagosomes is observed till 3 days without maturation. It is important to understand the underlying mechanism of AGE-mediated signaling responsible for impairment of autophagy and its correlation to the induction of several adverse effects. We have identified cross talk between autophagy and apoptosis upon AGE stimulation, specifically in p53 negative cells. AGE impairs autophagosomes' clearance in p53 negative cells as observed with an autophagosome maturation blocker-bafilomycinA1 treated cells. This autophagy impairment is well supported by upregulation and overexpression of NF-κB in these p53 negative cells. Autophagy impairment acts as a switch to initiate apoptosis via regulation of NF-κB and its dependent genes. Increase in the expression of NF-κB-dependent NEDD4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which targets Beclin1 for cleavage is also evident. Beclin1 interacts with Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein thereby engaging it to facilitate apoptosis upon AGE stimulation. For the first time, we are providing data that NF-κB targeted cell signaling is involved in AGE-mediated autophagy impairment in p53 negative/null cells. The p53 acts antagonistically to prevent this impairment. This study will help to control the AGE-mediated detrimental effects associated with ageing and lysosomal storage disorders.

Quirit JG, Lavrenov SN, Poindexter K, et al.
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) analogues are potent small molecule inhibitors of NEDD4-1 ubiquitin ligase activity that disrupt proliferation of human melanoma cells.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2017; 127:13-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
The HECT domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-1 (Neural precursor cell Expressed Developmentally Down regulated gene 4-1) is frequently overexpressed in human cancers and displays oncogenic-like properties through the ubiquitin-dependent regulation of multiple protein substrates. However, little is known about small molecule enzymatic inhibitors of HECT domain-containing ubiquitin ligases. We now demonstrate that indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural anti-cancer phytochemical derived from cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage and broccoli, represents a new chemical scaffold of small molecule enzymatic inhibitors of NEDD4-1. Using in vitro ubiquitination assays, I3C, its stable synthetic derivative 1-benzyl-I3C and five novel synthetic analogues were shown to directly inhibit NEDD4-1 ubiquitination activity. Compared to I3C, which has an IC50 of 284μM, 1-benzyl-I3C was a significantly more potent NEDD4-1 enzymatic inhibitor with an IC50 of 12.3μM. Compounds 2242 and 2243, the two indolecarbinol analogues with added methyl groups that results in a more nucleophilic benzene ring π system, further enhanced potency with IC50s of 2.71μM and 7.59μM, respectively. Protein thermal shift assays that assess small ligand binding, in combination with in silico binding simulations with the crystallographic structure of NEDD4-1, showed that each of the indolecarbinol compounds bind to the purified catalytic HECT domain of NEDD4-1. The indolecarbinol compounds inhibited human melanoma cell proliferation in a manner that generally correlated with their effectiveness as NEDD4-1 enzymatic inhibitors. Taken together, we propose that I3C analogues represent a novel set of anti-cancer compounds for treatment of human melanomas and other cancers that express indolecarbinol-sensitive target enzymes.

Chen L, Wang G, Luo Y, et al.
Downregulation of LAPTM5 suppresses cell proliferation and viability inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase of bladder cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(1):263-271 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our transcriptome analysis revealed in bladder cancer (BCa) tissues a significant induction of lysosomal-associated multispanning membrane protein 5 (LAPTM5), a lysosomal membrane protein preferentially expressing in immune cells and hematopoietic cells. Transportation of LAPTM5 from Golgi to lysosome could be inhibited by deficiency of Nedd4, a key member of E3 ubiquitin ligase family overexpressing in invasive BCa and promoting its progression. Therefore, we hypothesize that LAPTM5 may be closely correlated with BCa tumorigenesis. In human BCa tissues, we observed that LAPTM5 was significantly induced at both mRNA and protein levels, which is consistent with our microarray result. Furthermore, we established a BCa cell model with downregulated LAPTM5, revealing a significantly delayed growth rate in the BCa cells with knockdown of LAPTM5. Moreover, cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase was triggered by decreased LAPTM5 as well, which could lead to delayed BCa cell growth. In contrast, no significant alteration of apoptosis in the BCa cells with downregulated LAPTM5 was noticed. Analysis of the changes of migration and invasion, showed significant reduced LAPTM5 suppressed cell metastasis. Furthermore, proteins involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were strongly altered, which plays a central role in metastasis. In addition, phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38, key members of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family regulating BCa tumorigenesis, were strongly decreased. Taken together, our results suggested that decreased LAPTM5 inhibited proliferation and viability, as well as induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest possibly via deactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 in BCa cells.

Verma N, Müller AK, Kothari C, et al.
Targeting of PYK2 Synergizes with EGFR Antagonists in Basal-like TNBC and Circumvents HER3-Associated Resistance via the NEDD4-NDRG1 Axis.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(1):86-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive, heterogeneous disease with poor prognosis and no effective targeted therapies. EGFR is highly expressed in basal-like TNBC and is considered as a potential therapeutic target. However, EGFR targeting exerts only marginal clinical benefits, possibly due to activation of compensatory signaling pathways, which are frequently associated with HER3 upregulation. Here we show that concomitant targeting of EGFR and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases PYK2/FAK synergistically inhibits the proliferation of basal-like TNBC cells in vitro and attenuates tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Dual targeting of EGFR and PYK2/FAK inhibited complementary key growth and survival pathways mediated by AKT, S6K, STAT3, and ERK1/2 activation. PYK2 inhibition also abrogated HER3 upregulation in response to EGFR antagonists, thereby circumventing HER3-associated drug resistance. Mechanistically, PYK2 inhibition facilitated the proteasomal degradation of HER3 while inducing upregulation of NDRG1 (N-myc downstream regulated 1 gene). NDRG1 enhanced the interaction of HER3 with the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4, while PYK2, which interacts with NEDD4 and HER3, interfered with NEDD4-HER3 binding, suggesting that the PYK2-NDRG1-NEDD4 circuit has a critical role in receptor degradation, drug response, and resistance mechanism. Our studies offer a preclinical proof of concept for a strategy of cotargeting the EGFR and PYK2/FAK kinases to improve TNBC therapy. Cancer Res; 77(1); 86-99. ©2016 AACR.

Hang X, Zhu S, Di H, et al.
NEDD4 Depletion Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth via Targeting PTEN.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(2):768-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated gene 4 (NEDD4) plays an important role in tumor cell growth, yet its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. This study is to establish NEDD4 as a prognostic biomarker by which the survival of HCC patients can be predicted and to reveal the role of NEDD4 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth.
METHODS: The expression of NEDD4 in 219 HCC specimens was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Postoperative overall survival and time to recurrence were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. The roles of NEDD4 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and invasion were determined.
RESULTS: The patients with low NEDD4 expression tumors had an average cumulative survival of 64.9 ± 6.5 months during follow-up while the patients with high NEDD4 expression tumors had an average cumulative survival of 20.3 ± 15.8 months. NEDD4 silencing inhibited Huh7 cell proliferation and altered cell cytoskeletal assembly, and NEDD4 depletion furthermore seemed to suppress cell migration and invasion. A possible molecular mechanism for the observed effects might be that NEDD4 silence led to an increase in PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) expression, which in turn resulted in the inactivation of STAT3, AKT, and ERK1/2.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that NEDD4 may participate in the HCC progression and may therefore be a potential target for HCC therapy.

Qu Z, Li D, Xu H, et al.
 CUL4B, NEDD4, and UGT1As involve in the TGF-β signalling in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Ann Hepatol. 2016 Jul-Aug; 15(4):568-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED:  Introduction and Aim. TGF-β signalling is involved in pathogenesis and progress of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This bioinformatics study consequently aims to determine the underlying molecular mechanism of TGF- β activation in HCC cells.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dataset GSE10393 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including 2 Huh-7 (HCC cell line) samples treated by TGF- β (100 pmol/L, 48 h) and 2 untreated samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using Limma package (false discovery rate < 0.05 and |log2 fold change| > 1.5), and then enrichment analyses of function, pathway, and disease were performed. In addition, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed based on the PPI data from multiple databases including INACT, MINT, BioGRID, UniProt, BIND, BindingDB, and SPIKE databases. Transcription factor (TF)-DEG pairs (Bonferroni adjusted p-value < 0.01) from ChEA database and DEG-DEG pairs were used to construct TF-DEG regulatory network. Furthermore, TF-pathway-DEG complex network was constructed by integrating DEG-DEG pairs, TF-DEG pairs, and DEG-pathway pairs.
RESULTS: Totally, 209 DEGs and 30 TFs were identified. The DEGs were significantly enriched in adhesion-related functions. PPI network indicted hub genes such as CUL4B and NEDD4. According to the TF-DEG regulatory network, the two hub genes were targeted by SMAD2, SMAD3, and HNF4A. Besides, the 11 pathways in TF-pathway-DEG network were mainly enriched by UGT1A family and CYP3A7, which were predicted to be regulated by SMAD2, SMAD3, SOX2, TP63, and HNF4A.
CONCLUSIONS: TGF- β might influence biological processes of HCC cells via SMAD2/SMAD3-NEDD4, HNF4A-CUL4B/NEDD4, SOX2/TP63/HNF4A-CYP3A7, and SMAD2/SMAD3/SOX2/TP63/HNF4A-UGT1As regulatory pathways.

Shukla V, Shukla A, Joshi SS, Lu R
Interferon regulatory factor 4 attenuates Notch signaling to suppress the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(27):41081-41094 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular pathogenesis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is not fully elucidated. Genome wide association studies have linked Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) to the development of CLL. We recently established a causal relationship between low levels of IRF4 and development of CLL. However, the molecular mechanism through which IRF4 suppresses CLL development remains unclear. Deregulation of Notch signaling pathway has been identified as one of the most recurrent molecular anomalies in the pathogenesis of CLL. Yet, the role of Notch signaling as well as its regulation during CLL development remains poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that IRF4 deficient mice expressing immunoglobulin heavy chain Vh11 (IRF4-/-Vh11) developed spontaneous CLL with complete penetrance. In this study, we show that elevated Notch2 expression and the resulting hyperactivation of Notch signaling are common features of IRF4-/-Vh11 CLL cells. Our studies further reveal that Notch signaling is indispensable for CLL development in the IRF4-/-Vh11 mice. Moreover, we identify E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, which targets Notch for degradation, as a direct target of IRF4 in CLL cells and their precursors. Collectively, our studies provide the first in vivo evidence for an essential role of Notch signaling in the development of CLL and establish IRF4 as a critical regulator of Notch signaling during CLL development.

Qu MH, Han C, Srivastava AK, et al.
miR-93 promotes TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through downregulation of NEDD4L in lung cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):5645-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The level of microRNA-93 (miR-93) in tumors has been recently reported to be negatively correlated with survival of lung cancer patients. Considering that the most devastating aspect of lung cancer is metastasis, which can be promoted by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we sought to determine whether miR-93 is involved in this process. Here, we report that a previously unidentified target of miR-93, neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-like (NEDD4L), is able to mediate TGF-β-mediated EMT in lung cancer cells. miR-93 binds directly to the 3'-UTR of the NEDD4L messenger RNA (mRNA), leading to a downregulation of NEDD4L expression at the protein level. We next demonstrated that the downregulation of NEDD4L enhanced, while overexpression of NEDD4L reduced TGF-β signaling, reflected by increased phosphorylation of SMAD2 in the lung cancer cell line after TGF-β treatment. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-93 in lung cancer cells promoted TGF-β-induced EMT through downregulation of NEDD4L. The analysis of publicly available gene expression array datasets indicates that low NEDD4L expression correlates with poor outcomes among patients with lung cancer, further supporting the oncogenic role of miR-93 in lung tumorigenesis and metastasis.

Yang Q, Zhao J, Cui M, et al.
Nedd4L expression is decreased in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to ovarian non-cancer tissue.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2015; 41(12):1959-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Recent studies have demonstrated that the neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-like (Nedd4L) gene plays a role in the progression of various cancers. However, reports describing Nedd4L expression in ovarian cancer tissues are limited.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort (n = 117) of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded resected normal ovarian epithelial tissues (n = 10), benign ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 10), serous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 14), mucous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 11), and invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues (n = 72) were assessed for Nedd4L protein expression using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Nedd4L protein expression was significantly decreased in invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to non-cancer tissues (P < 0.05). Decreased Nedd4L protein expression correlated with clinical stage, pathological grade, lymph node metastasis and survival (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Nedd4L protein expression may be an independent prognostic marker of ovarian cancer development.

Li D, Xu CY, Cui RJ, et al.
DNA methylation inhibitor, decitabine, promotes MGC803 gastric cancer cell migration and invasion via the upregulation of NEDD4‑1.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(6):8201-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer type and the second leading cause of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide. Metastasis is a crucial feature of its progression. DNA methylation provides a key epigenetic signature in the epigenetic regulation pathway, and is implicated in transcriptional regulation. CpG sites, which are associated with gene transcriptional activity, are underrepresented in the mammalian genome and tend to be clustered within CpG islands (CGIs) located in the vicinity of the transcription start sites of the majority of the protein‑coding genes in humans. The DNA methylation inhibitor, decitabine (DAC), has been demonstrated to be active in hematological disorders. The majority of previous studies in cancer cells demonstrated that DAC inhibits cell proliferation and the motility of the cells. However, since demethylation across the entire genome alters the expression of a large number of genes, the effects of DAC in different tumor cell types are difficult to accurately predict. Neural precursor cell‑expressed, developmentally downregulated (NEDD)4‑1, a member of the NEDD4 family, which belongs to the E3‑ubiquitin ligase family, was reported to be highly expressed in a wide range of tumor types, and it activates the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/Akt pathway by degrading phosphatase and tensin homolog. NEDD4‑1 promotes the migration and invasion of glioma cells via the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cyclic nucleotide‑Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (CNrasGEFs). In gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, NEDD4‑1 acts as an exceptional prognostic biomarker. In the present study, DAC was revealed to promote the invasive properties of MGC803 gastric cancer cells. NEDD4‑1 targeted the CNrasGEF‑mediated DAC invasion‑promoting activity in MGC803 cells, and CGI methylation in neither the NEDD4 promoter nor the first intron was demonstrated to be associated with this effect. The results of the present study revealed that DAC exerts variable effects in different gastric cancer cell lines and may provide a reference for DAC administration in the clinic.

Chen Y, van de Vijver MJ, Hibshoosh H, et al.
PTEN and NEDD4 in Human Breast Carcinoma.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2016; 22(1):41-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PTEN is an important tumor suppressor gene that antagonizes the oncogenic PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and has functions in the nucleus for maintaining genome integrity. Although PTEN inactivation by mutation is infrequent in breast cancer, transcript and protein levels are deficient in >25 % of cases. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 (also known as NEDD4-1) has been reported to negatively regulate PTEN protein levels through poly-ubiquitination and proteolysis in carcinomas of the prostate, lung, and bladder, but its effect on PTEN in the breast has not been studied extensively. To investigate whether NEDD4 contributes to low PTEN levels in human breast cancer, we analyzed the expression of these proteins by immunohistochemistry across a large Swedish cohort of breast tumor specimens, and their transcript expression levels by microarrays. For both NEDD4 and PTEN, their transcript expression was significantly correlated to their protein expression. However, comparing NEDD4 expression to PTEN expression, either no association or a positive correlation was observed at the protein and transcript levels. This unexpected observation was further corroborated in two independent breast cancer cohorts from The Netherlands Cancer Institute and The Cancer Genome Atlas. Our results suggest that NEDD4 is not responsible for the frequent down-regulation of the PTEN protein in human breast carcinoma.

Zhang Y, Goodfellow R, Li Y, et al.
NEDD4 ubiquitin ligase is a putative oncogene in endometrial cancer that activates IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt signaling.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 139(1):127-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The PI3K/Akt pathway is frequently dysregulated in endometrial cancer, the most common gynecologic malignancy. Emerging evidence identifies the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 as a key regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway via activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Our objective was to understand the role of NEDD4 in endometrial cancer.
METHODS: NEDD4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray with 77 endometrial lesions ranging from normal benign endometrium to tumor specimens of varying stage and grade. Studies were extended to a panel of eight endometrial cancer cell lines phenotypically representing the most common endometrial patient tumors.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry demonstrated robust staining of NEDD4 in endometrial tumor specimens, with greater NEDD4 expression in the most aggressive tumors. Expression of NEDD4 was detected in a majority of endometrial cancer cell lines surveyed. Exogenous overexpression of murine Nedd4 in endometrial cancer cell lines with modest endogenous NEDD4 expression resulted in a significant increase in the rate of proliferation. Nedd4 overexpression also promoted an increase in cell surface localization of IGF-1R and activation of Akt. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling reversed the enhanced cell growth in Nedd4-overexpressing endometrial cancer cells. In addition, the expression of NEDD4 in endometrial tumors positively correlated with the Akt downstream effector FoxM1.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies NEDD4 as a putative oncogene in endometrial cancer that may augment activation of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

Morrison MM, Williams MM, Vaught DB, et al.
Decreased LRIG1 in fulvestrant-treated luminal breast cancer cells permits ErbB3 upregulation and increased growth.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(9):1143-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ErbB3, a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is a potent activator of phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, driving tumor cell survival and therapeutic resistance in breast cancers. In luminal breast cancers, ErbB3 upregulation following treatment with the antiestrogen fulvestrant enhances PI3K/mTOR-mediated cell survival. However, the mechanism by which ErbB3 is upregulated in fulvestrant-treated cells is unknown. We found that ErbB3 protein levels and cell surface presentation were increased following fulvestrant treatment, focusing our attention on proteins that regulate ErbB3 at the cell surface, including Nrdp1, NEDD4 and LRIG1. Among these, only LRIG1 correlated positively with ERα, but inversely with ErbB3 in clinical breast cancer data sets. LRIG1, an estrogen-inducible ErbB downregulator, was decreased in a panel of fulvestrant-treated luminal breast cancer cells. Ectopic LRIG1 expression from an estrogen-independent promoter uncoupled LRIG1 from estrogen regulation, thus sustaining LRIG1 and maintaining low ErbB3 levels in fulvestrant-treated cells. An LRIG1 mutant lacking the ErbB3 interaction motif was insufficient to downregulate ErbB3. Importantly, LRIG1 overexpression improved fulvestrant-mediated growth inhibition, whereas cells expressing the LRIG1 mutant were poorly sensitive to fulvestrant, despite effective ERα downregulation. Consistent with these results, LRIG1 expression correlated positively with increased disease-free survival in antiestrogen-treated breast cancer patients. These data suggest that ERα-dependent expression of LRIG1 dampens ErbB3 signaling in luminal breast cancer cells, and by blocking ERα activity with fulvestrant, LRIG1 is decreased thus permitting ErbB3 accumulation, enhanced ErbB3 signaling to cell survival pathways and blunting therapeutic response to fulvestrant.

Zhao R, Cui T, Han C, et al.
DDB2 modulates TGF-β signal transduction in human ovarian cancer cells by downregulating NEDD4L.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(16):7838-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The expression of DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2) has been linked to the prognosis of ovarian cancer and its underlying transcription regulatory function was proposed to contribute to the favorable treatment outcome. By applying gene microarray analysis, we discovered neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-Like (NEDD4L) as a previously unidentified downstream gene regulated by DDB2. Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that DDB2 can bind to the promoter region of NEDD4L and recruit enhancer of zeste homolog 2 histone methyltransferase to repress NEDD4L transcription by enhancing histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) at the NEDD4L promoter. Given that NEDD4L plays an important role in constraining transforming growth factor β signaling by targeting activated Smad2/Smad3 for degradation, we investigated the role of DDB2 in the regulation of TGF-β signaling in ovarian cancer cells. Our data indicate that DDB2 enhances TGF-β signal transduction and increases the responsiveness of ovarian cancer cells to TGF-β-induced growth inhibition. The study has uncovered an unappreciated regulatory mode that hinges on the interaction between DDB2 and NEDD4L in human ovarian cancer cells. The novel mechanism proposes the DDB2-mediated fine-tuning of TGF-β signaling and its downstream effects that impinge upon tumor growth in ovarian cancers.

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