Gene Summary

Gene:MYBL1; MYB proto-oncogene like 1
Aliases: AMYB, A-MYB
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:myb-related protein A
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (6)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MYBL1 (cancer-related)

Fry EA, Inoue K
c-MYB and DMTF1 in Cancer.
Cancer Invest. 2019; 37(1):46-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
The c-Myb gene encodes a transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through protein-protein interaction and transcriptional regulation of signaling pathways. The protein is frequently overexpressed in human leukemias, breast cancers, and other solid tumors suggesting that it is a bona fide oncogene. c-MYB is often overexpressed by translocation in human tumors with t(6;7)(q23;q34) resulting in c-MYB-TCRβ in T cell ALL, t(X;6)(p11;q23) with c-MYB-GATA1 in acute basophilic leukemia, and t(6;9)(q22-23;p23-24) with c-MYB-NF1B in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Antisense oligonucleotides to c-MYB were developed to purge bone marrow cells to eliminate tumor cells in leukemias. Recently, small molecules that inhibit c-MYB activity have been developed to disrupt its interaction with p300. The Dmp1 (cyclin D binding myb-like protein 1; Dmtf1) gene was isolated through its virtue for binding to cyclin D2. It is a transcription factor that has a Myb-like repeat for DNA binding. The Dmtf1 protein directly binds to the Arf promoter for transactivation and physically interacts with p53 to activate the p53 pathway. The gene is hemizygously deleted in 35-42% of human cancers and is associated with longer survival. The significances of aberrant expression of c-MYB and DMTF1 proteins in human cancers and their clinical significances are discussed.

Andreasen S, Tan Q, Agander TK, et al.
MicroRNA dysregulation in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland in relation to prognosis and gene fusion status: a cohort study.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(3):329-340 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is among the most frequent malignancies of the salivary gland, and is notorious for its prolonged clinical course characterized by frequent recurrences often years after initial treatment. No molecular marker has been shown to have independent prognostic value in ACC, including characteristic gene fusions involving MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB. MicroRNA has been shown to be associated with clinical outcome in numerous malignancies, including one study of ACC, warranting further validation of this class of markers in this disease. Here, we investigate the prognostic value of microRNA in two ACC cohorts: a training cohort (n = 64) and a validation cohort (n = 120) with microarray and qPCR. In the training cohort, multivariate analysis of microarray data found high expression of hsa-miR-6835-3p to be associated with reduced recurrence-free survival (RFS) (p = 0.016). Measuring the highest ranking microRNAs identified in survival analysis in the same cohort, qPCR identified high expression of hsa-miR-4676 to be associated with reduced overall survival (OS) and high expression of hsa-mir-1180 to be associated with improved RFS. This was not confirmed in the validation cohort, in which qPCR identified high expression of hsa-mir-21, hsa-mir-181a-2, and hsa-mir-152 to be associated with reduced OS and high expression of hsa-miR-374c to be associated with improved RFS. Interestingly, two distinct subsets of ACC separated in microRNA expression irrespective of gene fusion status, but without significant difference in outcome. Collectively, qPCR identified several microRNAs associated with OS and RFS, and different subsets of ACC separated according to microRNA expression, suggestive of ACC being a heterogeneous group of malignancies in its microRNA profile.

Sakamoto K, Katayama R, Asaka R, et al.
Recurrent 8q24 rearrangement in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: association with immunoblastoid cytomorphology, MYC expression, and drug response.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(12):2590-2603 [PubMed] Related Publications
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare skin-tropic hematological malignancy of uncertain pathogenesis and poor prognosis. We examined 118 BPDCN cases for cytomorphology, MYC locus rearrangement, and MYC expression. Sixty-two (53%) and 41 (35%) cases showed the classic and immunoblastoid cytomorphology, respectively. Forty-one (38%) MYC

Šteiner P, Andreasen S, Grossmann P, et al.
Prognostic significance of 1p36 locus deletion in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(4):471-480 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) of the salivary glands is characterized by MYB-NFIB or MYBL1-NFIB fusion, prolonged but relentlessly progressive clinical course with frequent recurrences, and development of distant metastasis resulting in high long-term mortality. Currently, no effective therapy is available for patients with advanced non-resectable and/or metastatic disease. Complicating the clinical management of this patient group is the lack of prognostic markers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of 1p36 loss in patients with AdCC. The presence of 1p36 deletion and gene fusions involving the MYB, NFIB, and MYBL1 genes in a cohort of 93 salivary gland AdCCs was studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization. These results were statistically correlated with clinical data and outcome. Deletion of 1p36 in AdCC was identified in 13 of 85 analyzable cases (15.29%). MYB-NFIB fusion was detected in 57/85 (67.1%), MYBL1-NFIB fusion in 12/85 (14.1%), MYB-X fusion in 4/85 (4.7%), MYBL1-X in 4/85 (4.7%), and NFIB-X in 2/85 (2.4%) of AdCC cases. None of the 1p36-deleted samples showed MYBL1 rearrangement. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between 1p36 deletion and advanced tumor stage and solid histology (p = 0.0061 and 0.0007, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant correlations between 1p36 deletion and decreased overall survival, disease-specific survival, recurrence-free interval, and recurrence-free survival, all of which were maintained in multivariate analysis. We demonstrate that 1p36 deletion can serve as an indicator of unfavorable outcome of patients with salivary gland AdCC.

Chahal M, Pleasance E, Grewal J, et al.
Personalized oncogenomic analysis of metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma: using whole-genome sequencing to inform clinical decision-making.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2018; 4(2) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
Metastatic adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Because of their slow growth and relative rarity, there is limited evidence for systemic therapy regimens. Recently, molecular profiling studies have begun to reveal the genetic landscape of these poorly understood cancers, and new treatment possibilities are beginning to emerge. The objective is to use whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing and analysis to better understand the genetic alterations underlying the pathology of metastatic and rare ACCs and determine potentially actionable therapeutic targets. We report five cases of metastatic ACC, not originating in the salivary glands, in patients enrolled in the Personalized Oncogenomics (POG) Program at the BC Cancer Agency. Genomic workup included whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing, detailed analysis of tumor alterations, and integration with existing knowledge of drug-target combinations to identify potential therapeutic targets. Analysis reveals low mutational burden in these five ACC cases, and mutation signatures that are commonly observed in multiple cancer types. Notably, the only recurrent structural aberration identified was the well-described

Kyrpychova L, Vanecek T, Grossmann P, et al.
Small Subset of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Skin Is Associated With Alterations of the MYBL1 Gene Similar to Their Extracutaneous Counterparts.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2018; 40(10):721-726 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the skin is a rare malignant neoplasm histologically identical to homonymous tumors in other organs. Cutaneous ACC has been found to harbor MYB gene activations, either through MYB chromosomal abnormalities or by generation of the MYB-NFIB fusion. In salivary gland ACC, in addition to the MYB gene, alterations in MYBL1, the gene closely related to MYB, have been reported. We studied 10 cases of cutaneous ACC (6 women, 4 men; and age range 51-83 years) for alterations in the MYB, NFIB, and MYBL1 genes, using FISH and PCR. MYB break-apart and NFIB break-apart tests were positive in 4 and 5 cases, respectively. MYB-NFIB fusions were found in 4 cases. The break of MYBL1 was found in 2 cases, and in one of them, the NFIB break-apart probe was positive, strongly indicating a MYBL1-NFIB fusion. In 2 cases, the MYB break-apart test was positive, whereas no MYB-NFIB was detected, strongly suggesting another fusion partner. It is concluded that MYBL1 alterations are detected in primary cutaneous ACC but are apparently less common compared with MYB and NFIB alterations.

Velázquez Vega JE, Brat DJ
Incorporating Advances in Molecular Pathology Into Brain Tumor Diagnostics.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2018; 25(3):143-171 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances in molecular pathology have reshaped the practice of brain tumor diagnostics. The classification of gliomas has been restructured with the discovery of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 mutations in the vast majority of lower grade infiltrating gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBM), with IDH-mutant astrocytomas further characterized by TP53 and ATRX mutations. Whole-arm 1p/19q codeletion in conjunction with IDH mutations now define oligodendrogliomas, which are also enriched for CIC, FUBP1, PI3K, NOTCH1, and TERT-p mutations. IDH-wild-type (wt) infiltrating astrocytomas are mostly primary GBMs and are characterized by EGFR, PTEN, TP53, NF1, RB1, PDGFRA, and CDKN2A/B alterations, TERT-p mutations, and characteristic copy number alterations including gains of chromosome 7 and losses of 10. Other clinically and genetically distinct infiltrating astrocytomas include the aggressive H3K27M-mutant midline gliomas, and smaller subsets that occur in the setting of NF1 or have BRAF V600E mutations. Low-grade pediatric gliomas are both genetically and biologically distinct from their adult counterparts and often harbor a single driver event often involving BRAF, FGFR1, or MYB/MYBL1 genes. Large scale genomic and epigenomic analyses have identified distinct subgroups of ependymomas tightly linked to tumor location and clinical behavior. The diagnosis of embryonal neoplasms also integrates molecular testing: (I) 4 molecularly defined, biologically distinct subtypes of medulloblastomas are now recognized; (II) 3 histologic entities have now been reclassified under a diagnosis of "embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR), C19MC-altered"; and (III) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) now require SMARCB1 (INI1) or SMARCA4 (BRG1) alterations for their diagnosis. We discuss the practical use of contemporary biomarkers for an integrative diagnosis of central nervous system neoplasia.

Sato M, Yamamoto H, Hatanaka Y, et al.
Wnt/β-catenin signal alteration and its diagnostic utility in basal cell adenoma and histologically similar tumors of the salivary gland.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(4):586-592 [PubMed] Related Publications
Differential diagnosis among basal cell adenoma (BCA), basal cell adenocarcinoma (BCAC), adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of the salivary gland can be challenging due to their similar histological appearance. Although frequent nuclear β-catenin expression and CTNNB1 mutations have been reported in BCA, further details of the Wnt/β-catenin signal alterations are unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic utility of Wnt/β-catenin signal alteration in BCA and morphological mimics. We performed immunohistochemical staining for β-catenin and mutation analysis for Wnt/β-catenin-related genes (CTNNB1, APC, AXIN1 and AXIN2) in BCA (n = 34), BCAC (n = 3), ACC (n = 67) and PA (n = 31). We also analyzed ACC-specific MYB and MYBL1 gene rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Nuclear β-catenin expression (≥3%) was present in 32/34 cases (94.1%) of BCA, and the nuclear β-catenin labeling index was significantly higher than in other tumor types (p = < 0.0001). In BCA, we found mutations in CTNNB1, APC and AXIN1 genes (41.1%, 2.9% and 8.8%, respectively). In BCAC, nuclear β-catenin expression with CTNNB1 mutation was present in 1/3 cases (33.3%). As for ACC, nuclear β-catenin expression was observed in 3/67 cases (4.4%), but all 3 cases harbored either MYB or MYBL1 gene rearrangement. The results suggest that nuclear β-catenin immunoreactivity with appropriate criteria may be helpful to distinguish BCA from histologically similar tumors. However, a minor subset of ACCs with nuclear β-catenin expression require careful diagnosis. In addition, Wnt/β-catenin signal alteration may play a role in the pathogenesis of BCA and BCAC.

Andreasen S, Tan Q, Agander TK, et al.
Adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary gland, lacrimal gland, and breast are morphologically and genetically similar but have distinct microRNA expression profiles.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(8):1211-1225 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is among the most frequent malignancies in the salivary and lacrimal glands and has a grave prognosis characterized by frequent local recurrences, distant metastases, and tumor-related mortality. Conversely, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare type of triple-negative (estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2) and basal-like carcinoma, which in contrast to other triple-negative and basal-like breast carcinomas has a very favorable prognosis. Irrespective of site, adenoid cystic carcinoma is characterized by gene fusions involving MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB, and the reason for the different clinical outcomes is unknown. In order to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the discrepancy in clinical outcome, we characterized the phenotypic profiles, pattern of gene rearrangements, and global microRNA expression profiles of 64 salivary gland, 9 lacrimal gland, and 11 breast adenoid cystic carcinomas. All breast and lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinomas had triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes, while salivary gland tumors were indeterminate in 13% of cases. Aberrations in MYB and/or NFIB were found in the majority of cases in all three locations, whereas MYBL1 involvement was restricted to tumors in the salivary gland. Global microRNA expression profiling separated salivary and lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma from their respective normal glands but could not distinguish normal breast adenoid cystic carcinoma from normal breast tissue. Hierarchical clustering separated adenoid cystic carcinomas of salivary gland origin from those of the breast and placed lacrimal gland carcinomas in between these. Functional annotation of the microRNAs differentially expressed between salivary gland and breast adenoid cystic carcinoma showed these as regulating genes involved in metabolism, signal transduction, and genes involved in other cancers. In conclusion, microRNA dysregulation is the first class of molecules separating adenoid cystic carcinoma according to the site of origin. This highlights a novel venue for exploring the biology of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

Togashi Y, Dobashi A, Sakata S, et al.
MYB and MYBL1 in adenoid cystic carcinoma: diversity in the mode of genomic rearrangement and transcripts.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(6):934-946 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYB-NFIB and MYBL1-NFIB have been reported in ~60% of adenoid cystic carcinoma cases, but driver alterations in the remaining ~40% of adenoid cystic carcinoma remain unclear. We examined 100 adenoid cystic carcinoma cases for MYB and MYBL1 locus rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with originally designed probe sets using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded materials. Approximately one-third of samples were also analyzed by fusion transcript-specific RT-PCR and capture RNA sequencing. In the 27 cases with frozen materials, MYB-NFIB and MYBL1-NFIB fusion transcripts were detected in 9 (33%) and 6 cases (22%) by RT-PCR, respectively. Meanwhile, high expression of MYB (18 cases, 67%) or MYBL1 (9 cases, 33%) was detected in all 27 cases in a mutually exclusive manner, regardless of its form (full-length, truncation, or fusion transcript). Interestingly, genomic rearrangements around the corresponding highly-expressed gene were observed in all 27 cases by FISH, suggesting a causative relationship between genomic rearrangements and gene expression. Among the 100 cases, including additional 73 cases, 97 harbored genomic rearrangements in the MYB (73 cases) or MYBL1 locus (24 cases) including 10 cases with atypical FISH patterns undetectable through ordinary split FISH approaches: breakpoints far distant from MYB (5 cases) and a small NFIB locus insertion into the MYB (3 cases) or MYBL1 locus (2 cases). In clinicopathological analyses, histological grade, primary tumor size, and lymph node metastasis were identified as prognostic factors, whereas MYB/MYBL1 rearrangements were not, but were associated with histological grade. In the present study, MYB or MYBL1 locus rearrangement was detected in nearly all adenoid cystic carcinoma cases, and therefore it would be a good diagnostic marker for adenoid cystic carcinoma. However, fusion transcript-specific RT-PCR for MYB-NFIB and MYBL1-NFIB and ordinary split FISH assays for MYB and MYBL1 were less sensitive, and thus detection methods should be judiciously designed because of the diversity of rearrangement modes in adenoid cystic carcinoma.

Coulibaly A, Haas A, Steinmann S, et al.
The natural anti-tumor compound Celastrol targets a Myb-C/EBPβ-p300 transcriptional module implicated in myeloid gene expression.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(2):e0190934 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
Myb is a key regulator of hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation and has emerged as a potential target for the treatment of acute leukemia. Using a myeloid cell line with a stably integrated Myb-inducible reporter gene as a screening tool we have previously identified Celastrol, a natural compound with anti-tumor activity, as a potent Myb inhibitor that disrupts the interaction of Myb with the co-activator p300. We showed that Celastrol inhibits the proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and prolongs the survival of mice in an in vivo model of AML, demonstrating that targeting Myb with a small-molecule inhibitor is feasible and might have potential as a therapeutic approach against AML. Recently we became aware that the reporter system used for Myb inhibitor screening also responds to inhibition of C/EBPβ, a transcription factor known to cooperate with Myb in myeloid cells. By re-investigating the inhibitory potential of Celastrol we have found that Celastrol also strongly inhibits the activity of C/EBPβ by disrupting its interaction with the Taz2 domain of p300. Together with previous studies our work reveals that Celastrol independently targets Myb and C/EBPβ by disrupting the interaction of both transcription factors with p300. Myb, C/EBPβ and p300 cooperate in myeloid-specific gene expression and, as shown recently, are associated with so-called super-enhancers in AML cells that have been implicated in the maintenance of the leukemia. We hypothesize that the ability of Celastrol to disrupt the activity of a transcriptional Myb-C/EBPβ-p300 module might explain its promising anti-leukemic activity.

Kim J, Geyer FC, Martelotto LG, et al.
MYBL1 rearrangements and MYB amplification in breast adenoid cystic carcinomas lacking the MYB-NFIB fusion gene.
J Pathol. 2018; 244(2):143-150 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
Breast adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), a rare type of triple-negative breast cancer, has been shown to be driven by MYB pathway activation, most often underpinned by the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. Alternative genetic mechanisms, such as MYBL1 rearrangements, have been reported in MYB-NFIB-negative salivary gland AdCCs. Here we report on the molecular characterization by massively parallel sequencing of four breast AdCCs lacking the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. In two cases, we identified MYBL1 rearrangements (MYBL1-ACTN1 and MYBL1-NFIB), which were associated with MYBL1 overexpression. A third AdCC harboured a high-level MYB amplification, which resulted in MYB overexpression at the mRNA and protein levels. RNA-sequencing and whole-genome sequencing revealed no definite alternative driver in the fourth AdCC studied, despite high levels of MYB expression and the activation of pathways similar to those activated in MYB-NFIB-positive AdCCs. In this case, a deletion encompassing the last intron and part of exon 15 of MYB, including the binding site of ERG-1, a transcription factor that may downregulate MYB, and the exon 15 splice site, was detected. In conclusion, we demonstrate that MYBL1 rearrangements and MYB amplification probably constitute alternative genetic drivers of breast AdCCs, functioning through MYBL1 or MYB overexpression. These observations emphasize that breast AdCCs probably constitute a convergent phenotype, whereby activation of MYB and MYBL1 and their downstream targets can be driven by the MYB-NFIB fusion gene, MYBL1 rearrangements, MYB amplification, or other yet to be identified mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bishop JA, Westra WH
MYB Translocation Status in Salivary Gland Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma: Evaluation of Classic, Variant, and Hybrid Forms.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(3):319-325 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a malignant salivary gland neoplasm comprised of a biphasic arrangement of inner luminal ductal cells and outer myoepithelial cells. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is also a biphasic tumor comprised of ductal and myoepithelial cells, but these components tend to be arranged in a more cribriform pattern. The occurrence of "hybrid carcinomas" that show mixed patterns of EMC and AdCC raises questions about the relationship of these morphologically overlapping but clinically distinct tumors. AdCCs frequently harbor MYB-NFIB gene fusions. Mapping of EMCs (including hybrid forms with an AdCC component) for this fusion could help clarify the true nature of EMC as a distinct entity or simply as some variant form of AdCC. Twenty-nine cases of EMC were evaluated including 15 classic low-grade EMCs, 7 intermediate-grade EMCs, 2 EMCs with myoepithelial anaplasia, 1 EMC with high-grade transformation, and 4 hybrid EMCs with an AdCC component. Break apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed, as was MYB immunohistochemistry. For the hybrid carcinomas and those with high-grade transformation, the divergent tumor components were separately analyzed. A MYB translocation was identified in 5 of 28 (18%) tumors including 3 of 4 (75%) hybrid carcinomas and 2 of 7 (29%) intermediate-grade EMCs. For the positive hybrid carcinomas, the fusion was detected in both the EMC and AdCC components. The MYB fusion was not detected in any of the classic EMCs (0/15) or in any of the EMCs with myoepithelial anaplasia (0/2) or high-grade transformation (0/1). The fluorescence in situ hybridization assay was unsuccessful in 1 case. MYB immunostaining was seen in 5 of 5 fusion-positive cases, and also 9 of 23 fusion-negative tumors. Classic low-grade EMCs are genetically distinct from AdCCs in that they do not harbor MYB fusions. The presence of a MYB fusion in EMCs showing hybrid features of AdCC or exhibiting highly infiltrative growth points to a subset of these tumors that may well be true AdCCs masquerading as EMCs.

Knopfová L, Biglieri E, Volodko N, et al.
Transcription factor c-Myb inhibits breast cancer lung metastasis by suppression of tumor cell seeding.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(8):1020-1030 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
Metastasis accounts for most of cancer-related deaths. Paracrine signaling between tumor cells and the stroma induces changes in the tumor microenvironment required for metastasis. Transcription factor c-Myb was associated with breast cancer (BC) progression but its role in metastasis remains unclear. Here we show that increased c-Myb expression in BC cells inhibits spontaneous lung metastasis through impaired tumor cell extravasation. On contrary, BC cells with increased lung metastatic capacity exhibited low c-Myb levels. We identified a specific inflammatory signature, including Ccl2 chemokine, that was expressed in lung metastatic cells but was suppressed in tumor cells with higher c-Myb levels. Tumor cell-derived Ccl2 expression facilitated lung metastasis and rescued trans-endothelial migration of c-Myb overexpressing cells. Clinical data show that the identified inflammatory signature, together with a MYB expression, predicts lung metastasis relapse in BC patients. These results demonstrate that the c-Myb-regulated transcriptional program in BCs results in a blunted inflammatory response and consequently suppresses lung metastasis.

Skálová A, Stenman G, Simpson RHW, et al.
The Role of Molecular Testing in the Differential Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Carcinomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(2):e11-e27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Salivary gland neoplasms are a morphologically heterogenous group of lesions that are often diagnostically challenging. In recent years, considerable progress in salivary gland taxonomy has been reached by the discovery of tumor type-specific fusion oncogenes generated by chromosome translocations. This review describes the clinicopathologic features of a selected group of salivary gland carcinomas with a focus on their distinctive genomic characteristics. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma is a recently described entity characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma is a low-grade tumor with infrequent nodal and distant metastasis, recently shown to harbor an EWSR1-ATF1 gene fusion. The CRTC1-MAML2 fusion gene resulting from a t(11;19)(q21;p13) translocation, is now known to be a feature of both low-grade and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas associated with improved survival. A t(6;9)(q22-23;p23-34) translocation resulting in a MYB-NFIB gene fusion has been identified in the majority of adenoid cystic carcinomas. Polymorphous (low-grade) adenocarcinoma and cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary gland origin are related entities with partly differing clinicopathologic and genomic profiles; they are the subject of an ongoing taxonomic debate. Polymorphous (low-grade) adenocarcinomas are characterized by hot spot point E710D mutations in the PRKD1 gene, whereas cribriform adenocarcinoma of (minor) salivary glands origin are characterized by translocations involving the PRKD1-3 genes. Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a high-grade adenocarcinoma with morphologic and molecular features akin to invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, including HER2 gene amplification, mutations of TP53, PIK3CA, and HRAS and loss or mutation of PTEN. Notably, a recurrent NCOA4-RET fusion has also been found in SDC. A subset of SDC with apocrine morphology is associated with overexpression of androgen receptors. As these genetic aberrations are recurrent they serve as powerful diagnostic tools in salivary gland tumor diagnosis, and therefore also in refinement of salivary gland cancer classification. Moreover, they are promising as prognostic biomarkers and targets of therapy.

Bishop JA, Andreasen S, Hang JF, et al.
HPV-related Multiphenotypic Sinonasal Carcinoma: An Expanded Series of 49 Cases of the Tumor Formerly Known as HPV-related Carcinoma With Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma-like Features.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2017; 41(12):1690-1701 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related multiphenotypic sinonasal carcinoma (HMSC), originally known as HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features, is a peculiar neoplasm that is restricted to the sinonasal tract, exhibits features of both a surface-derived and salivary gland carcinoma (particularly adenoid cystic carcinoma), and is associated with high-risk HPV. Given the limited number of published cases, the full clinicopathologic spectrum of this neoplasm is unclear. Here, we present an updated experience of 49 cases. All cases of HMSC were obtained from the authors' files. Immunohistochemistry for p16, c-kit, and myoepithelial cell markers (S100, actin, calponin, p63, and/or p40) was performed along with RNA in situ hybridization for HPV (type 33-specific as well as a high-risk cocktail). Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies for fusions of MYB, NFIB, and MYBL1 was performed on a subset of cases. Clinical follow-up was obtained from medical records. A total of 49 cases of HMSC were collected. Twenty-eight (57%) were from women and 18 (43%) from men, ranging in age from 28 to 90 years (mean, 54 y). Of 40 cases with detailed staging information, 43% of HMSCs presented with a high T-stage (T3 or T4). Histologically, most grew predominantly as solid nests of basaloid cells exhibiting high mitotic rates and frequent necrosis, with histologic and immunohistochemical evidence of myoepithelial differentiation. Most cases also demonstrated foci of cribriform and/or tubular growth, along with an inconspicuous population of ducts. Thirty-four (69%) cases demonstrated an unusual pattern of surface involvement where markedly atypical squamous cells colonized tracts of the sinonasal mucosa. Less consistent histologic features included squamous differentiation within the invasive tumor (n=6), sarcomatoid transformation (n=5) including overt chondroid differentiation (n=3), and prominent epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma-like growth (n=3). All cases were positive for p16 by immunostaining and HPV by RNA in situ hybridization. Thirty-three (67%) were positive for HPV 33. No cases tested for MYB, MYBL1, or NFIB gene fusions were positive. In the 38 cases with follow-up data, (mean follow-up, 42 mo) 14 recurred locally and 2 metastasized (lung, finger). There were no regional lymph node metastases, and no tumor-related deaths. HMSC is a distinct sinonasal neoplasm characterized by myoepithelial differentiation, frequent surface epithelial involvement, and the presence of high-risk HPV (especially type 33). Although it classically exhibits a cribriforming pattern that closely resembles adenoid cystic carcinoma, our expanded series highlights a histologic spectrum that is much broader than previously recognized, warranting a change in terminology. HMSC usually presents as a large and destructive sinonasal mass with high-grade histologic features, but it paradoxically behaves in a relatively indolent manner, underscoring the importance of distinguishing HMSC from true adenoid cystic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and other histologic mimickers.

Ryall S, Arnoldo A, Krishnatry R, et al.
Multiplex Detection of Pediatric Low-Grade Glioma Signature Fusion Transcripts and Duplications Using the NanoString nCounter System.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2017; 76(7):562-570 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies identified recurrent fusion and duplication events in pediatric low-grade glioma (pLGG). In addition to their role in diagnosis, the presence of these events aid in dictating therapy and predicting patient survival. Clinically, BRAF alterations are most commonly identified using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). However, this method is costly, labor-intensive and does not identify nonBRAF events. Here, we evaluated the NanoString nCounter gene expression system for detecting 32 of the most commonly reported fusion/duplication events in pLGG. The assay was validated on 90 pLGG samples using FISH as the gold standard and showed sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 98%, respectively. We next profiled formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded preserved biopsy specimens from 429 pLGG cases. 171 (40%) of the cases within our cohort tested positive for a fusion or duplication event contained within our panel. These events, in order of prevalence, were KIAA1549-BRAF 16;9 (89/171, 52.0%), KIAA1549-BRAF 15;9 (42/171, 24.6%), KIAA1549-BRAF 16;11 (14/171, 8.2%), FGFR1-TACC1 17;7 (13/171, 7.6%), MYBL1 duplication (5/171, 2.9%), KIAA1549-BRAF 18;10 (4/171, 2.3%), KIAA1549-BRAF 15;11 (2/171, 1.2%), FAM131B-BRAF 2;9 (1/171, 0.6%), and RNF130-BRAF 3;9 (1/171, 0.6%). This work introduces NanoString as a viable clinical replacement for the detection of fusion and duplication events in pLGG.

Fujii K, Murase T, Beppu S, et al.
MYB, MYBL1, MYBL2 and NFIB gene alterations and MYC overexpression in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Histopathology. 2017; 71(5):823-834 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is one of the most common salivary gland malignancies and the long-term prognosis is poor. In this study, we examined alterations of AdCC-associated genes, MYB, MYBL1, MYBL2 and NFIB, and their target molecules, including MYC. The results were correlated to clinicopathological profile of the patients.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Using paraffin tumour sections from 33 cases of salivary gland AdCC, we performed a detailed fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for gene splits and fusions of MYB, MYBL1, MYBL2 and NFIB. We found that 29 of 33 (88%) AdCC cases showed gene splits in either MYB, MYBL1 or NFIB. None of the cases showed an MYBL2 gene alteration. AdCCs were divided genetically into six gene groups, MYB-NFIB (n = 16), MYB-X (n = 4), MYBL1-NFIB (n = 2), MYBL1-X (n = 1), NFIB-X (n = 6) and gene-split-negative (n = 4). AdCC patients showing the MYB or MYBL1 gene splits were associated with microscopically positive surgical margins (P = 0.0148) and overexpression of MYC (P = 0.0164). MYC expression was detected in both ductal and myoepithelial tumour cells, and MYC overexpression was associated with shorter disease-free survival of the patients (P = 0.0268).
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that (1) nearly 90% of AdCCs may have gene alterations of either MYB, MYBL1 or NFIB, suggesting the diagnostic utility of the FISH assay, (2) MYB or MYBL1 gene splits may be associated with local aggressiveness of the tumours and overexpression of MYC, which is one of the oncogenic MYB/MYBL1 targets and (3) MYC overexpression may be a risk factor for disease-free survival in AdCC.

Ryall S, Tabori U, Hawkins C
A comprehensive review of paediatric low-grade diffuse glioma: pathology, molecular genetics and treatment.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2017; 34(2):51-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas are the most common central nervous system neoplasms affecting children and can be both high- and low-grade. Paediatric low-grade glioma may be either World Health Organization grade I or grade II. Despite being classified as grade II diffuse astrocytoma, these neoplasms arising in children are distinct clinically and molecularly from their adult counterparts. They do not tend to progress to higher grade lesions and only rarely harbour an IDH mutation. Here, we review the clinical, histologic and molecular features of paediatric grade II diffuse glioma, highlighting their diagnostic criteria, prevalence across brain locations, their most common molecular features and how to test for them, and lastly the current status of therapeutic options available for their treatment.

Ramkissoon SH, Bandopadhayay P, Hwang J, et al.
Clinical targeted exome-based sequencing in combination with genome-wide copy number profiling: precision medicine analysis of 203 pediatric brain tumors.
Neuro Oncol. 2017; 19(7):986-996 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
Background: Clinical genomics platforms are needed to identify targetable alterations, but implementation of these technologies and best practices in routine clinical pediatric oncology practice are not yet well established.
Methods: Profile is an institution-wide prospective clinical research initiative that uses targeted sequencing to identify targetable alterations in tumors. OncoPanel, a multiplexed targeted exome-sequencing platform that includes 300 cancer-causing genes, was used to assess single nucleotide variants and rearrangements/indels. Alterations were annotated (Tiers 1-4) based on clinical significance, with Tier 1 alterations having well-established clinical utility. OncoCopy, a clinical genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) assay, was also performed to evaluate copy number alterations and better define rearrangement breakpoints.
Results: Cancer genomes of 203 pediatric brain tumors were profiled across histological subtypes, including 117 samples analyzed by OncoPanel, 146 by OncoCopy, and 60 tumors subjected to both methodologies. OncoPanel revealed clinically relevant alterations in 56% of patients (44 cancer mutations and 20 rearrangements), including BRAF alterations that directed the use of targeted inhibitors. Rearrangements in MYB-QKI, MYBL1, BRAF, and FGFR1 were also detected. Furthermore, while copy number profiles differed across histologies, the combined use of OncoPanel and OncoCopy identified subgroup-specific alterations in 89% (17/19) of medulloblastomas.
Conclusion: The combination of OncoPanel and OncoCopy multiplex genomic assays can identify critical diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment-relevant alterations and represents an effective precision medicine approach for clinical evaluation of pediatric brain tumors.

Guo H, Zhang B, Nairn AV, et al.
J Biol Chem. 2017; 292(10):4123-4137 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
To study the regulation of colorectal adenocarcinoma progression by

Chen TY, Keeney MG, Chintakuntlawar AV, et al.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland is frequently characterized by MYB rearrangement.
Eye (Lond). 2017; 31(5):720-725 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
PurposeAdenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) represents ~10-15% of salivary neoplasms and almost universally exhibits a lethal clinical course. ACC is also known to occur in the lacrimal gland. ACC is characterized by its heterogeneous morphology and may demonstrate tubular, cribriform, and/or solid architectural patterns. Unfortunately, these histopathological features are not specific to ACC and can be seen in other salivary gland-type neoplasms, introducing a diagnostic dilemma. The discovery of fusion transcripts has revolutionized the diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment of epithelial malignancies. In several anatomic subsites ACC is frequently characterized by a fusion transcript involving genes MYB and NFIB; more specifically, t(6;9)(q22-23;p23-24). This study explores the incidence of MYB rearrangement in cases of lacrimal gland ACC using fluorescent in situ hybridization.Materials and methodsRetrospective clinical and histopathological review of 12 cases of lacrimal gland ACC seen at Mayo Clinic over a 25-year period (1990-2015) was performed. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records. Surgical pathology archival material including H&E slides and immunostains was re-examined. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material was further evaluated using immunohistochemistry when appropriate. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using a MYB break-apart probe was applied to all histologically confirmed cases of ACC and benign salivary gland parenchyma.ResultsThe median patient age was 53.6 years (range 12-64) and distributed equally by gender (six male and six female). Rearrangement of MYB was identified using FISH in seven cases (58%). Twenty-five sections of benign salivary gland parenchyma showed no evidence of MYB rearrangement. Primary surgical resection was most common treatment, and 78% of the patient received adjuvant radiation therapy. Median overall survival (OS) was 11 years. Rearrangement of MYB did not affect OS.ConclusionsIn summary, our results indicate that the MYB rearrangement defines a significant subset of lacrimal gland ACCs. Importantly, FISH for MYB rearrangement may be used as a diagnostic tool during pathological examination of lacrimal gland neoplasms. Our results showed no relationship between rearrangement status and clinical outcome. Lastly, the presence of t(6;9) in ACC may provide a platform for molecular-targeting strategies in the future.

Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi M, Aghasharif S, Ilbeigi K
Prognostic efficacy of the human B-cell lymphoma prognostic genes in predicting disease-free survival (DFS) in the canine counterpart.
BMC Vet Res. 2017; 13(1):17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Canine B-cell lymphoma is deemed an ideal model of human non-Hodgkin's lymphoma where the lymphomas of both species share similar clinical features and biological behaviors. However there are some differences between tumor features in both species. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the prognostic efficacy of human B-cell lymphoma prognostic gene signatures in canine B-cell lymphoma.
METHODS: The corresponding probe sets of 36 human B-cell lymphoma prognostic genes were retrieved from 2 canine B-cell lymphoma microarray datasets (GSE43664 and GSE39365) (76 samples), and prognostic probe sets were thereafter detected using the univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazard model and the Kaplan-Meier analysis. The two datasets were employed both as training sets and as external validation sets for each other. Results were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis.
RESULTS: In the univariate analysis, CCND1, CCND2, PAX5, CR2, LMO2, HLA-DQA1, P53, CD38, MYC-N, MYBL1, and BIRCS5 were associated with longer disease-free survival (DFS), while CD44, PLAU, and FN1 were allied to shorter DFS. However, the multivariate Cox proportional-hazard analysis confirmed CCND1 and BIRCS5 as prognostic genes for canine B-cell lymphoma. qRT-PCR used for verification of results indicated that expression level of CCND1 was significantly higher in B-cell lymphoma patients with the long DFS than ones with the short DFS, while expression level of BIRCS5 wasn't significantly different between two groups.
CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed CCND1 as important gene that can be used as a potential predictor in this tumor type.

Andreasen S, Bishop JA, Hansen TV, et al.
Human papillomavirus-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features of the sinonasal tract: clinical and morphological characterization of six new cases.
Histopathology. 2017; 70(6):880-888 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known as causative for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx, but is also found not infrequently in carcinomas of the sinonasal tract. Recently, a subset of these carcinomas was recognized to harbour HPV33 and have a significant morphological overlap with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a rare and aggressive carcinoma originating in the minor salivary glands. Termed 'HPV-related carcinoma with ACC-like features', only nine cases have been reported. To clarify the occurrence of these tumours we screened a large material for the presence of HPV-related ACC-like carcinoma. The identified tumours were characterized immunohistochemically and with fluorescence in-situ hybridization, and clinicopathological information for all cases is presented.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-seven candidate cases were screened for presence of HPV. Six cases were identified and genotyped as HPV types 33, 35, and 56. All six cases had areas of dysplastic mucosal lining and showed remarkable heterogeneous morphologies. MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB genes were intact and, interestingly, staining for MYB protein was largely negative in contrast to what was found in ACC. One patient experienced a local recurrence 11 years after initial treatment and the remaining five patients were alive without evidence of disease.
CONCLUSION: We report six new cases of HPV-related ACC-like carcinoma and found that, although in a small material, the prognosis for these patients seems more favourable than for ACC. For the distinction between ACC and HPV-related ACC-like carcinoma, p16, MYB immunohistochemistry or investigation of MYB, MYBL1 and NFIB gene status are valuable.

Fernández-Martínez JL, deAndrés-Galiana EJ, Sonis ST
Genomic data integration in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
J Gene Med. 2017; 19(1-2) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a heterogeneous disease and the most common adult leukemia in western countries. IgVH mutational status distinguishes two major types of CLL, each associated with a different prognosis and survival. Sequencing identified NOTCH1 and SF3B1 as the two main recurrent mutations. We described a novel method to clarify how these mutations affect gene expression by finding small-scale signatures that predict the IgVH, NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations. We subsequently defined the biological pathways and correlation networks involved in disease development, with the potential goal of identifying new drugable targets.
METHODS: We modeled a microarray dataset consisting of 48807 probes derived from 163 samples. The use of Fisher's ratio and fold change combined with feature elimination allowed us to identify the minimum number of genes with the highest predictive mutation power and, subsequently, we applied network and pathway analyses of these genes to identify their biological roles.
RESULTS: The mutational status of the patients was accurately predicted (94-99%) using small-scale gene signatures: 13 genes for IgVH, 60 for NOTCH1 and 22 for SF3B1. LPL plays an important role in the case of the IgVH mutation, whereas MSI2, LTK, TFEC and CNTAP2 are involved in the NOTCH1 mutation, and RPL32 and PLAGL1 are involved in the SF3B1 mutation. Four high discriminatory genes (IGHG1, MYBL1, NRIP1 and RGS1) are common to these three mutations. The IL-4-mediated signaling events pathway appears to be involved as a common mechanism and suggests an important role of the immune response mechanisms and antigen presentation.
CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective analysis served to provide a deeper understanding of the effects of the different mutations in CLL disease progression, with the expectation that these findings will be clinically applied in the near future to the development of new drugs.

Prieto-Granada CN, Zhang L, Antonescu CR, et al.
Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma with MYB aberrations: report of three cases and comprehensive review of the literature.
J Cutan Pathol. 2017; 44(2):201-209 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a relatively rare slow-growing and often-aggressive epithelial-myoepithelial neoplasm that arises in multiple organs including the skin. The t(6;9) (q22-23;p23-24) translocation, resulting in a MYB-NFIB gene fusion has been found in ACCs from the salivary glands and other organs. Recently, MYB aberrations occurring in a subset (40%) of primary cutaneous ACC (PCACC) examples was described. Herein, we report three additional cases of PCACC harboring MYB aberrations. The tumors presented in three males aged 43, 81 and 55 years old and affected the extremities in the first two patients and the scalp in the third one. None of the patients had history of prior or concurrent ACC elsewhere. Lesions exhibited the classic ACC morphology of nests of basaloid cells arranged in cribriform and adenoid patterns. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in two cases with one case showing lymph node positivity. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with break-apart probes for MYB and NFIB loci revealed that two cases showed MYB rearrangements while one case showed loss of one MYB signal. None of the cases showed NFIB rearrangements. We contribute with three additional cases of PCACC exhibiting MYB aberrations, the apparent driving genetic abnormality in these tumors.

Uttarkar S, Piontek T, Dukare S, et al.
Small-Molecule Disruption of the Myb/p300 Cooperation Targets Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(12):2905-2915 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcription factor c-Myb is essential for the proliferation of hematopoietic cells and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and other human cancers. Pharmacologic inhibition of Myb is therefore emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases. By using a Myb reporter cell line, we have identified plumbagin and several naphthoquinones as potent low-molecular weight Myb inhibitors. We demonstrate that these compounds inhibit c-Myb by binding to the c-Myb transactivation domain and disrupting the cooperation of c-Myb with the coactivator p300, a major driver of Myb activity. Naphthoquinone-induced inhibition of c-Myb suppresses Myb target gene expression and induces the differentiation of the myeloid leukemia cell line HL60. We demonstrate that murine and human primary acute myeloid leukemia cells are more sensitive to naphthoquinone-induced inhibition of clonogenic proliferation than normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. Overall, our work demonstrates for the first time the potential of naphthoquinones as small-molecule Myb inhibitors that may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of leukemia and other tumors driven by deregulated Myb. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 2905-15. ©2016 AACR.

Xing D, Bakhsh S, Melnyk N, et al.
Frequent NFIB-associated Gene Rearrangement in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Vulva.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2017; 36(3):289-293 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that usually arises in the major and minor salivary glands and other locations containing secretory glands, including the lower female genital tract. Lower female genital tract carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation can be subclassified into 2 distinct groups based on the presence or absence of high-risk HPV. Cervical mixed carcinomas with some adenoid cystic differentiation are high-risk HPV-related but pure adenoid cystic carcinomas of vulvar and cervical origin appear to be unrelated to high-risk HPV. Mechanisms by which normal cells give rise to an HPV-unrelated adenoid cystic carcinoma remain largely unknown. Studies demonstrate that chromosomal translocation involving the genes encoding the transcription factors MYB and NFIB functions as a driving force of adenoid cystic carcinomas development regardless of anatomic site. The current study used fluorescence in situ hybridization with 3 different probes including MYB break-apart probe, NFIB break-apart probe, and MYB-NFIB fusion probe to assess for the presence of gene rearrangements in adenoid cystic carcinomas of the vulva. Six (66.7%) of 9 vulvar adenoid cystic carcinomas demonstrated NFIB rearrangement. Of these 6 cases with a disturbed NFIB, only 2 cases (33.3%) were positive for a MYB rearrangement that was also confirmed by a positive MYB-NFIB fusion pattern. NFIB-associated gene rearrangement is a frequent genetic event in vulvar adenoid cystic carcinomas. Chromosome translocations involving NFIB but with an intact MYB indicate the presence of novel oncogenic mechanisms for the development of adenoid cystic carcinomas of the vulva.

Ho AL, Dunn L, Sherman EJ, et al.
A phase II study of axitinib (AG-013736) in patients with incurable adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Ann Oncol. 2016; 27(10):1902-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recurrent/metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an incurable disease with no standard treatments. The majority of ACCs express the oncogenic transcription factor MYB (also c-myb), often in the context of a MYB gene rearrangement. This phase II trial of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) axitinib (Pfizer) tested the hypothesis that targeting pathways activated by MYB can be therapeutically effective for ACC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a minimax two-stage, phase II trial that enrolled patients with incurable ACC of any primary site. Progressive or symptomatic disease was required. Patients were treated with axitinib 5 mg oral twice daily; dose escalation was allowed. The primary end point was best overall response (BOR). An exploratory analysis correlating biomarkers to drug benefit was conducted, including next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 11 patients.
RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were registered and evaluable for response. Fifteen patients had the axitinib dose increased. Tumor shrinkage was achieved in 22 (66.7%); 3 (9.1%) had confirmed partial responses. Twenty-five (75.8%) patients had stable disease, 10 of whom had disease stability for >6 months. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.7 months (range 0.92-21.8 months). Grade 3 axitinib-related toxicities included hypertension, oral pain and fatigue. A trend toward superior PFS was noted with the MYB/NFIB rearrangement, although this was not statistically significant. NGS revealed three tumors with 4q12 amplification, producing increased copies of axitinib-targeted genes PDGFR/KDR/KIT. Two 4q12 amplified patients achieved stable disease for >6 months, including one with significant tumor reduction and the longest PFS on study (21.8 months).
CONCLUSIONS: Although the primary end point was not met, axitinib exhibited clinical activity with tumor shrinkage achieved in the majority of patients with progressive disease before trial enrollment. Analysis of MYB biomarkers and genomic profiling suggests the hypothesis that 4q12 amplified ACCs are a disease subset that benefit from TKI therapy.

Wysocki PT, Izumchenko E, Meir J, et al.
Adenoid cystic carcinoma: emerging role of translocations and gene fusions.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(40):66239-66254 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 02/01/2020 Related Publications
Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), the second most common salivary gland malignancy, is notorious for poor prognosis, which reflects the propensity of ACC to progress to clinically advanced metastatic disease. Due to high long-term mortality and lack of effective systemic treatment, the slow-growing but aggressive ACC poses a particular challenge in head and neck oncology. Despite the advancements in cancer genomics, up until recently relatively few genetic alterations critical to the ACC development have been recognized. Although the specific chromosomal translocations resulting in MYB-NFIB fusions provide insight into the ACC pathogenesis and represent attractive diagnostic and therapeutic targets, their clinical significance is unclear, and a substantial subset of ACCs do not harbor the MYB-NFIB translocation. Strategies based on detection of newly described genetic events (such as MYB activating super-enhancer translocations and alterations affecting another member of MYB transcription factor family-MYBL1) offer new hope for improved risk assessment, therapeutic intervention and tumor surveillance. However, the impact of these approaches is still limited by an incomplete understanding of the ACC biology, and the manner by which these alterations initiate and drive ACC remains to be delineated. This manuscript summarizes the current status of gene fusions and other driver genetic alterations in ACC pathogenesis and discusses new therapeutic strategies stemming from the current research.

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