Gene Summary

Gene:MTUS1; microtubule associated scaffold protein 1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein which contains a C-terminal domain able to interact with the angiotension II (AT2) receptor and a large coiled-coil region allowing dimerization. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. One of the transcript variants has been shown to encode a mitochondrial protein that acts as a tumor suppressor and partcipates in AT2 signaling pathways. Other variants may encode nuclear or transmembrane proteins but it has not been determined whether they also participate in AT2 signaling pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Transcriptome
  • Messenger RNA
  • rab GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome 8
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Xenograft Models
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Carcinoma
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Up-Regulation
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cell Cycle
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Movement
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Apoptosis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Gene Expression
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • MTUS1
  • Exons
  • Breast Cancer
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Prostate Cancer
  • MicroRNAs
  • ras Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MTUS1 (cancer-related)

Morisaki T, Kubo M, Umebayashi M, et al.
Usefulness of the nCounter Analysis System to Monitor Immune-related Biomarkers in PBMCs During Anti-PD-1 Therapy.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4517-4523 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have dramatically changed the clinical outcomes of advanced tumours. However, biomarkers for monitoring immunological features during immunotherapy remain unclear, especially those in the peripheral blood, which are easily available. This study evaluated the usefulness of nCounter Analysis System in identifying immunological biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during ICI therapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: PBMCs from two patients who responded well to ICI therapy were used, and the expression levels of immune-related mRNA and extracellular proteins were analyzed.
RESULTS: Changes in the expression levels of 55 genes from pre-treatment to on-treatment were bioinformatically similar between the two cases. The expression levels of PD-1 were consistent with those by flow cytometry analysis, a reliable tool for monitoring various markers.
CONCLUSION: The nCounter Analysis System may be a potent tool to simultaneously investigate genes and proteins on PBMCs as biomarkers during immunotherapy using a small amount of sample.

Rodrigues-Ferreira S, Nehlig A, Monchecourt C, et al.
Combinatorial expression of microtubule-associated EB1 and ATIP3 biomarkers improves breast cancer prognosis.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 173(3):573-583 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The identification of molecular biomarkers for classification of breast cancer is needed to better stratify the patients and guide therapeutic decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of MAPRE1 gene encoding microtubule-end binding proteins EB1 as a biomarker in breast cancer and evaluate whether combinatorial expression of MAPRE1 and MTUS1 gene encoding EB1-negative regulator ATIP3 may improve breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
METHODS: Probeset intensities for MAPRE1 and MTUS1 genes were retrieved from Exonhit splice array analyses of 45 benign and 120 malignant breast tumors for diagnostic purposes. Transcriptomic analyses (U133 Affymetrix array) of one exploratory cohort of 150 invasive breast cancer patients and two independent series of 130 and 155 samples were compared with clinical data of the patients for prognostic studies. A tissue microarray from an independent cohort of 212 invasive breast tumors was immunostained with anti-EB1 and anti-ATIP3 antibodies.
RESULTS: We show that MAPRE1 gene is a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in breast cancer. High MAPRE1 levels correlate with tumor malignancy, high histological grade and poor clinical outcome. Combination of high-MAPRE1 and low-MTUS1 levels in tumors is significantly associated with tumor aggressiveness and reduced patient survival. IHC studies of combined EB1/ATIP3 protein expression confirmed these results.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies emphasize the importance of studying combinatorial expression of EB1 and ATIP3 genes and proteins rather than each biomarker alone. A population of highly aggressive breast tumors expressing high-EB1/low-ATIP3 may be considered for the development of new molecular therapies.

Servín-Blanco R, Chávaro-Ortiz RM, Zamora-Alvarado R, et al.
Generation of cancer vaccine immunogens derived from major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules using variable epitope libraries.
Immunol Lett. 2018; 204:47-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although various immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), used for the treatment of advanced cancer, showed remarkably durable tumor regression in a subset of patients, there are important limitations in a large group of non-responders, and the generation of novel immunogens capable of inducing protective cellular immune responses is a priority in cancer immunotherapy field. During the last decades, several types of vaccine immunogens have been used in numerous preclinical studies and clinical trials. However, although immunity to tumor Ags can be elicited by most vaccines tested, their clinical efficacy remains modest. Recently, we have developed an innovative vaccine concept, called Variable Epitope Libraries (VELs), with the purpose to exploit the high antigenic variability of many important pathogens and tumor cells as starting points for the construction of a new class of vaccine immunogens capable of inducing the largest possible repertoire of both B and T cells. In the present study, we decided to generate VEL immunogens derived from both classical and non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The MHC molecules, responsible for antigen presentation and subsequent activation of T lymphocytes, undergo multiple modifications that directly affect their proper function, resulting in immune escape of tumor cells. Two large VELs derived from multi-epitope region of H2-Kd and Qa-2 sequences (46 and 34 amino acids long, respectively), along with their wild type counterparts have been generated as synthetic peptides and tested in an aggressive 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer. Significant inhibition of tumor growth and the reduction of metastatic lesions in the lungs of immunized mice were observed. This study demonstrated for the first time the successful application of VELs carrying combinatorial libraries of epitope variants derived from MHC class I molecules as novel vaccine immunogens.

Lehrer S, Rheinstein PH
Expression of the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Gene Solute Carrier Family 18 Member 1 (
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2018 Sep-Oct; 15(5):387-393 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: One aspect of smoking and lung cancer that has not been closely examined, is that regarding genes that may predispose to tobacco dependence. Smoking and mental illness are tightly linked, apparently the result of smokers using cigarettes to self-medicate for mental problems. The gene for solute carrier family 18 member A1 (vesicular monoamine transporter; SLC18A1) is of particular interest in this regard because of its association with schizophrenia, autism and bipolar illness as well as with cancer. In the current study, the relationship of SLC18A1 expression with smoking and lung cancer was analyzed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The association between smoking, SLC18A1 expression and overall survival in the lung cancer dataset in The Cancer Genome Atlas was evaluated using the Genomic Data Commons Data Portal (, as well as CbioPortal for Cancer Genomics ( and the University of California Santa Cruz Xena browser (
RESULTS: Increased expression of SLC18A1 was found to be associated with a significantly increased survival in patients with adenocarcinoma (p=0.0058), but not those with squamous carcinoma (p=0.96). Lifelong never-smokers had the highest SLC18A1 expression. In the Pan Cancer Atlas, increased expression of SLC18A1 places such a tumor in group C5, among immunologically-quiet tumors.
CONCLUSION: Most never-smokers with lung cancer do not respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). But for unknown reasons, a small proportion do show clinical benefit from the ICI pembrolizumab. Because of the good response of this group, it may be worthwhile assessing their SLC18A1 expression pre-treatment as a marker for potential clinical benefit. If SLC18A1 expression is low, a never-smoker may respond well to ICIs. High levels of expression would indicate a C5 tumor less likely to respond to ICIs. SLC18A1 might complement other biomarkers currently under study in relation to programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death protein ligand 1 inhibition.

Zizzari IG, Napoletano C, Botticelli A, et al.
TK Inhibitor Pazopanib Primes DCs by Downregulation of the β-Catenin Pathway.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2018; 6(6):711-722 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) target angiogenesis by affecting, for example, the VEGF receptors in tumors and have improved outcomes for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have also been proposed for treatment of mRCC with encouraging results. A better understanding of the activity of immune cells in mRCC, the immunomodulatory effects of TKIs, and the characteristics defining patients most likely to benefit from various therapies will help optimize immunotherapeutic approaches. In this study, we investigated the influence of the TKI pazopanib on dendritic cell (DC) performance and immune priming. Pazopanib improved DC differentiation and performance by promoting upregulation of the maturation markers HLA-DR, CD40, and CCR7; decreasing IL10 production and endocytosis; and increasing T-cell proliferation. PD-L1 expression was also downregulated. Our results demonstrate that pazopanib inhibits the Erk/β-catenin pathway, suggesting this pathway might be involved in increased DC activation. Similar results were confirmed in DCs differentiated from mRCC patients during pazopanib treatment. In treated patients pazopanib appeared to enhance a circulating CD4

Baretti M, Le DT
DNA mismatch repair in cancer.
Pharmacol Ther. 2018; 189:45-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microsatellite instability (MSI) refers to the hypermutator phenotype secondary to frequent polymorphism in short repetitive DNA sequences and single nucleotide substitution, as consequence of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. MSI secondary to germline mutation in DNA MMR proteins is the molecular fingerprint of Lynch syndrome (LS), while epigenetic inactivation of these genes is more commonly found in sporadic MSI tumors. MSI occurs at different frequencies across malignancies, although original methods to assess MSI or MMR deficiency have been developed mostly in LS related cancers. Here we will discuss the current methods to detect MSI/MMR deficiency with a focus of new tools which are emerging as highly sensitive detector for MSI across multiple tumor types. Due to high frequencies of non-synonymous mutations, the presence of frameshift-mutated neoantigens, which can trigger a more robust and long-lasting immune response and strong TIL infiltration with tumor eradication, MSI has emerged as an important predictor of sensitivity for immunotherapy-based strategies, as showed by the recent FDA's first histology agnostic-accelerated approval to immune checkpoint inhibitors for refractory, adult and pediatric, MMR deficient (dMMR) or MSI high (MSI-H) tumors. Moreover, it is known that MSI status may predict cancer response/resistance to certain chemotherapies. Here we will describe the complex interplay between the genetic and clinical-pathological features of MSI/dMMR tumors and the cancer immunotherapy, with a focus on the predictive and prognostic role of MMR status for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and providing some suggestions on how to conceive better predictive markers for immunotherapy in the next future.

Ohanna M, Cerezo M, Nottet N, et al.
Pivotal role of NAMPT in the switch of melanoma cells toward an invasive and drug-resistant phenotype.
Genes Dev. 2018; 32(5-6):448-461 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Costantini A, Grynovska M, Lucibello F, et al.
Immunotherapy: a new standard of care in thoracic malignancies? A summary of the European Respiratory Society research seminar of the Thoracic Oncology Assembly.
Eur Respir J. 2018; 51(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
In May 2017, the second European Respiratory Society research seminar of the Thoracic Oncology Assembly entitled "Immunotherapy, a new standard of care in thoracic malignancies?" was held in Paris, France. This seminar provided an opportunity to review the basis of antitumour immunity and to explain how immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) work. The main therapeutic trials that have resulted in marketing authorisations for use of ICIs in lung cancer were reported. A particular focus was on the toxicity of these new molecules in relation to their immune-related adverse events. The need for biological selection, currently based on immunohistochemistry testing to identify the tumour expression of programmed death ligand (PD-L)1, was stressed, as well as the need to harmonise PD-L1 testing and techniques. Finally, sessions were dedicated to the combination of ICIs and radiotherapy and the place of ICIs in nonsmall cell lung cancer with oncogenic addictions. Finally, an important presentation was dedicated to the future of antitumour vaccination and of all ongoing trials in thoracic oncology.

Rizvi H, Sanchez-Vega F, La K, et al.
Molecular Determinants of Response to Anti-Programmed Cell Death (PD)-1 and Anti-Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Blockade in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Profiled With Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing.
J Clin Oncol. 2018; 36(7):633-641 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Purpose Treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is characterized by durable responses and improved survival in a subset of patients. Clinically available tools to optimize use of ICIs and understand the molecular determinants of response are needed. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly routine, but its role in identifying predictors of response to ICIs is not known. Methods Detailed clinical annotation and response data were collected for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with anti-programmed death-1 or anti-programmed death-ligand 1 [anti-programmed cell death (PD)-1] therapy and profiled by targeted NGS (MSK-IMPACT; n = 240). Efficacy was assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1, and durable clinical benefit (DCB) was defined as partial response/stable disease that lasted > 6 months. Tumor mutation burden (TMB), fraction of copy number-altered genome, and gene alterations were compared among patients with DCB and no durable benefit (NDB). Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed for 49 patients to compare quantification of TMB by targeted NGS versus WES. Results Estimates of TMB by targeted NGS correlated well with WES (ρ = 0.86; P < .001). TMB was greater in patients with DCB than with NDB ( P = .006). DCB was more common, and progression-free survival was longer in patients at increasing thresholds above versus below the 50th percentile of TMB (38.6% v 25.1%; P < .001; hazard ratio, 1.38; P = .024). The fraction of copy number-altered genome was highest in those with NDB. Variants in EGFR and STK11 associated with a lack of benefit. TMB and PD-L1 expression were independent variables, and a composite of TMB plus PD-L1 further enriched for benefit to ICIs. Conclusion Targeted NGS accurately estimates TMB and elevated TMB further improved likelihood of benefit to ICIs. TMB did not correlate with PD-L1 expression; both variables had similar predictive capacity. The incorporation of both TMB and PD-L1 expression into multivariable predictive models should result in greater predictive power.

Ferrara R, Mezquita L, Besse B
Progress in the Management of Advanced Thoracic Malignancies in 2017.
J Thorac Oncol. 2018; 13(3):301-322 [PubMed] Related Publications
The treatment paradigm of NSCLC underwent a major revolution during the course of 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) brought remarkable improvements in response and overall survival both in unselected pretreated patients and in untreated patients with programmed death ligand 1 expression of 50% or more. Furthermore, compelling preliminary results were reported for new combinations of anti-programmed cell death 1/programmed death ligand 1 agents with chemotherapy or anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 inhibitors. The success of the ICIs appeared to extend to patients with SCLC, mesothelioma, or thymic tumors. Furthermore, in SCLC, encouraging activity was reported for an experimental target therapy (rovalpituzumab teserine) and a new chemotherapeutic agent (lurbinectedin). For oncogene-addicted NSCLC, next-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) (such as osimertinib or alectinib) have demonstrated increased response rates and progression-free survival compared with first-generation TKIs in patients with both EGFR-mutated and ALK receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK)-rearranged NSCLC. However, because of the lack of mature overall survival data and considering the high efficacy of these drugs in patients with NSCLC previously exposed to first- or second-generation TKIs, definitive conclusions concerning the best treatment sequence cannot yet be drawn. In addition, new oncogenes such as mutant BRAF, tyrosine-protein kinase met gene (MET) and erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 gene (HER2), and ret proto-oncogene (RET) rearrangements have joined the list of potential targetable drivers. In conclusion, the field of thoracic oncology is on the verge of a breakthrough that will open up many promising new therapeutic options for physicians and patients. The characterization of biomarkers predictive of sensitivity or resistance to immunotherapy and the identification of the optimal therapeutic combinations (for ICIs) and treatment sequence (for oncogene-addicted NSCLC) represent the toughest upcoming challenges in the domain of thoracic oncology.

Gettinger S, Choi J, Hastings K, et al.
Impaired HLA Class I Antigen Processing and Presentation as a Mechanism of Acquired Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Lung Cancer.
Cancer Discov. 2017; 7(12):1420-1435 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mechanisms of acquired resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are poorly understood. We leveraged a collection of 14 ICI-resistant lung cancer samples to investigate whether alterations in genes encoding HLA Class I antigen processing and presentation machinery (APM) components or interferon signaling play a role in acquired resistance to PD-1 or PD-L1 antagonistic antibodies. Recurrent mutations or copy-number changes were not detected in our cohort. In one case, we found acquired homozygous loss of

Bozgeyik I, Yumrutas O, Bozgeyik E
MTUS1, a gene encoding angiotensin-II type 2 (AT2) receptor-interacting proteins, in health and disease, with special emphasis on its role in carcinogenesis.
Gene. 2017; 626:54-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of tumor suppressor activity is a frequent event in the formation and progression of tumors and has been listed as an important hallmark of cancers. Microtubule-Associated Scaffold Protein 1 (MTUS1) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene which is reported to be frequently down-regulated in a variety of human cancers including pancreas, colon, bladder, head-and-neck, ovarian, breast cancers, gastric, lung cancers. It is also reported to be implicated in several types of pathologies such as cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, and SLE-like lymphoproliferative diseases. Moreover, MTUS1-encoded proteins are shown to be involved in the regulation of vital cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, DNA repair, inflammation, vascular remodeling and senescence. However, the current knowledge is very limited about the role of this gene in human cancers as well as other type diseases. Besides, there is no literature report which summarizes and criticizes the importance of MTUS1 in the cellular processes, especially in the processes of carcinogenesis. Accordingly, in this comprehensive review, we tried to shed light on the role of tumor suppressor MTUS1/ATIP in health and disease, putting special emphasis on its role in the development and progression of human cancers as well as associated molecular mechanisms and the reasons behind MTUS1/ATIP deficiency, which have been not well documented previously.

Gu Y, Liu S, Zhang X, et al.
Oncogenic miR-19a and miR-19b co-regulate tumor suppressor MTUS1 to promote cell proliferation and migration in lung cancer.
Protein Cell. 2017; 8(6):455-466 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MTUS1 (microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1) has been identified that can function as a tumor suppressor gene in many malignant tumors. However, the function and mechanisms underlying the regulation of MTUS1 are unclear. In the present study, we reported that miR-19a and miR-19b (miR-19a/b) promote proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells by targeting MTUS1. First, MTUS1 was proved to function as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer and was linked to cell proliferation and migration promotion. Second, an inverse correlation between miR-19a/b expression and MTUS1 mRNA/protein expression was noted in human lung cancer tissues. Third, MTUS1 was appraised as a direct target of miR-19a/b by bioinformatics analysis. Fourth, direct MTUS1 regulation by miR-19a/b in lung cancer cells was experimentally affirmed by cell transfection assay and luciferase reporter assay. Finally, miR-19a/b were shown to cooperatively repress MTUS1 expression and synergistically regulate MTUS1 expression to promote lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, our findings have provided the first clues regarding the roles of miR-19a/b, which appear to function as oncomirs in lung cancer by downregulating MTUS1.

Gröschel S, Bommer M, Hutter B, et al.
Integration of genomics and histology revises diagnosis and enables effective therapy of refractory cancer of unknown primary with
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2016; 2(6):a001180 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Identification of the tissue of origin in cancer of unknown primary (CUP) poses a diagnostic challenge and is critical for directing site-specific therapy. Currently, clinical decision-making in patients with CUP primarily relies on histopathology and clinical features. Comprehensive molecular profiling has the potential to contribute to diagnostic categorization and, most importantly, guide CUP therapy through identification of actionable lesions. We here report the case of an advanced-stage malignancy initially mimicking poorly differentiated soft-tissue sarcoma that did not respond to multiagent chemotherapy. Molecular profiling within a clinical whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing program revealed a heterozygous, highly amplified

Kara M, Kaplan M, Bozgeyik I, et al.
MTUS1 tumor suppressor and its miRNA regulators in fibroadenoma and breast cancer.
Gene. 2016; 587(2):173-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is major public health problem predominantly effects female population. Current therapeutic approaches to deal with breast cancer are still lack of effectiveness. Thus, identifying/developing novel strategies to fight against breast cancer is very important. The frequent deletions at 8p21.3-22 chromosomal location nearby D8S254 marker enabled the discovery of a novel tumor suppressor gene, MTUS1. Subsequently, MTUS1 was demonstrated to be less expressed in a variety cancer types including breast cancer. Also, it is obvious that gene expression is widely regulated by miRNAs. Here, we aimed to report differential expression of MTUS1 and its regulatory miRNAs in breast cancer and fibroadenoma tissues. Dynamic analysis of MTUS1 expression levels and its miRNAs regulators were attained by Fluidigm 96×96 Dynamic Array Expression chips and reactions were performed in Fluidigm BioMark™ HD System qPCR. Consequently, MTUS1 mRNA levels were significantly diminished in breast cancer tissues and elevated in fibroadenoma tissues. Also, among MTUS1 targeting miRNAs, miR-183-5p was identified to be overexpressed in breast cancer and down-regulated in fibroadenoma tissues. Also, expression levels of MTUS1 and miR-183-5p were well correlated with clinical parameters. In particular, MTUS1 expression was found to be diminished and miR-183-5p expression was elevated with the advancing stage. In conclusion, as a potential therapeutic target, miR-183-5p can be a chief regulator of MTUS1 and MTUS1-miR-183-5p axis may have significant influence in the pathology of breast cancer.

Mahjabeen I, Kayani MA
Loss of Mitochondrial Tumor Suppressor Genes Expression Is Associated with Unfavorable Clinical Outcome in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Data from Retrospective Study.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146948 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mitochondrial genes play important roles in cellular energy metabolism, free radical generation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of these genes have long been suspected to contribute to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased proliferation and progression of cancer. A family of orthologues of yeast silent information regulator 3 (SIRT3), 4 (SIRT4) and mitochondrial tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1) are important mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes which play an important role in the progression of multiple cancers. However, their role in the development of oxidative stress, enhanced proliferation and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has not yet been studied. In this study we aimed to test the association between reduced mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes' activities and enhancement in tissue oxidative stress and cell proliferation in HNSCC cases. The expression of mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes (SIRT3, SIRT4 and MTUS1), mitochondrial DNA repair gene (OGG1-2a) and a proliferation marker (Ki-67) was studied in a study cohort of 120 HNSCC patients and controls with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) in order to determine the potential prognostic significance of these genes. A statistically significant downregulation of SIRT3 (p<0.001), SIRT4 (p<0.0001), MTUS1 (p<0.002) and OGG1 (p<0.0001) was observed in HNSCC compared to control samples. Ki-67 was also overexpressed (p<0.0001) in HNSCC versus control samples. Additionally, to explore gene-gene relationship, we observed a positive spearmen correlation between SIRT3 versus SIRT4 (r = 0.523***, p<0.0001), SIRT3 versus MTUS1 (r = 0.273***, p<0.001), SIRT3 versus OGG1-2a (r = 0.213*, p<0.03), SIRT4 versus OGG1 (r = 0.338***, p<0.0001) and MTUS1 versus OGG1-2a (r = 0.215*, p<0.03) in HNSCC cases. A negative spearman correlation was observed between OGG1 versus Ki-67 (r = -0.224**, p<0.01) and OGG1-2a versus Ki-67 (r = -0.224**, p<0.01) in HNSCC cases. Here we report that the deregulation of mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes (SIRT3, SIRT4 and MTUS1) in relation to decreased expression of mitochondrial DNA repair gene OGG1-2a and increased proliferation (measured by proliferation marker Ki-67) may be considered important factors in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Ozcan O, Kara M, Yumrutas O, et al.
MTUS1 and its targeting miRNAs in colorectal carcinoma: significant associations.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6637-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Thus, determining miRNA targets of genes that play critical role in the malignant transformation is very important. Here, expression levels of tumor suppressor microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1) and its regulatory miRNAs were reported. Predicted and validated targets of MTUS1 gene was determined by a computational approach. Expressions of MTUS1 and miRNAs were determined by using 96.96 Dynamic Array™ integrated fluidic circuit (Fluidigm). As a result, MTUS1 levels were found to be diminished in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of CRC patients compared to controls. Also, several of MTUS1 targeting miRNAs were found to be upregulated in CRC samples (miR-373-3p, 183-5p, 142-5p, 200c-3p, 19a-3p, -20a-5p, -181a-5p, -184, -181d-5p, -372-3p, 27b-3p, 98-5p, -let-7i-5p, -let-7d-5p, -let-7g-5p, -let-7b-5p, and -let-7c-5p). Of these miRNAs, miR-135b-5p, -373-3p, 183-5p, 142-5p, 200c-3p, 19a-3p showed marked expression levels. In contrast, expression levels of let-7a-5p, 7e-5p, 7f-5p, hsa-miR-125a-5p, and 125b-5p were found to be downregulated in CRC tissues. Accordingly, some of the overexpressed miRNAs especially the miR-135b-5p, -373-3p, 183-5p, 142-5p, 200c-3p, and 19a-3p may play key roles in CRC pathophysiology through MTUS1. In contrast, let-7a-5p, 7e-5p, 7f-5p, miR-125a-5p, and 125b-5p may play important roles in CRC carcinogenesis independent from the MTUS1. In conclusion, MTUS1 targeting miRNAs may play key roles in the development of CRC by downregulating tumor suppressor MTUS1.

Dai X, Liu Z, Zhang S
Over-expression of EPS15 is a favorable prognostic factor in breast cancer.
Mol Biosyst. 2015; 11(11):2978-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a crucial player in terminating growth factor signaling, EPS15 plays important roles in many malignancies including breast cancer. To explore the potential association of EPS15 with the clinical outcome of breast cancer, we conducted gene expression survival analysis using six independent datasets, checked its expression quantitative loci and their associated genes, and explored the networking of these genes with EPS15. Our results show that over-expression of EPS15 is significantly associated with a favorable clinical outcome of breast cancer, especially in tumors harbouring a positive estrogen receptor status. 21 unique SNPs were found to be associated with EPS15 expression. Among the neighboring genes of these SNPs, five (MTUS1, DOCK5, MSRA, SLIT3 and SKAP1) are genetically connected with EPS15 and its physical partners. These genes including EPS15 also show significant concurrent expressions, and four exhibit distinct relevance regarding patient survival. High expressions of EPS15 and MSRA show a distinct combinatorial favorable survival, suggesting the clinical relevance of their co-activation. In summary, over-expression of EPS15 is a potential favorable prognostic marker in breast cancer, which can be used clinically alone or together with other genes such as MSRA to avail therapeutic decision-making.

Zhao T, Ding X, Chang B, et al.
MTUS1/ATIP3a down-regulation is associated with enhanced migration, invasion and poor prognosis in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:203 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Microtubule-associated tumor suppressor gene (MTUS1) has been identified as tumor suppressor gene in many malignant tumors. In this study, we investigated the role of MTUS1 in the development of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) and its functional effect on the migration and invasion of SACC.
METHODS: Archival clinical samples including 49 primary SACC were examined for MTUS1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between MTUS1 with histopathological features and survival. The expression of MTUS1/ATIP (AT2 receptor-interacting protein) isoforms was determined in SACC tissue samples and cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR assays. Then we investigated whether the migration and invasion of SACC were mediated by MTUS1/ATIP3a using in vitro cell migration and invasion assay.
RESULTS: We confirmed that the down-regulation of MTUS1 was a frequent event in SACC, and was correlated with distant metastasis and associated with reduced overall survival and disease free survival. Isoform specific quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that ATIP1, ATIP3a and ATIP3b were the major isoforms of the MTUS1 gene products in SACC, and were significant down-regulation in SACC as compared to matching normal tissues. For functional analyses, we found that SACC-LM cells (SACC cell line with higher migration and invasion ability) possessed a lower expression level of ATIP3a compared to SACC-83 cells (lower migration and invasion ability). Restoration of ATIP3a expression in SACC-LM cells induced anti-proliferative activity and inhibited the migration and invasion ability. Knockdown of ATIP3a promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion ability of SACC-83 cells. Restoration of ATIP3a inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular-regulated kinase) 1/2, the expression of Slug and Vimentin in SACC-LM cells, while knockdown of ATIP3a increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, the expression of Slug and Vimentin in SACC-83 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our studies confirm that MTUS1 plays an important role in the progression of SACC, and may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target for patients with SACC. MTUS1/ATIP3a down-regulation contributes to the proliferation, migration and the invasion abilities of SACC.

Kou Y, Zhao Y, Bao C, Wang Q
Comparison of Gene Expression Profile Between Tumor Tissue and Adjacent Non-tumor Tissue in Patients with Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015; 72(2):571-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are defined as spindle cell and/or epithelioid tumors originated from interstitial Cajal cells or precursors in the digestive tract. This study was conducted to identify genes differing in expression between the gastric tumors and the adjacent non-cancerous mucosas in patients with primary gastric GIST. The gene expression profile was determined by using oligonucleotide-based DNA microarrays and further validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was performed to predict signaling pathways involved in gastric GIST. Our data showed that the expression levels of 957 genes (RAB39B, member RAS oncogene family; VCAN, versican; etc.) were higher and that of 526 genes (CXCL14, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 14; MTUS1, microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1; etc.) were lower in the gastric tumor tissues as compared with normal gastric tissues. Results from KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were enriched into 16 signaling transduction pathways, including Hedeghog and Wnt signaling pathways. Our study may provide basis for identification of novel biomarkers associated with primary gastric GIST pathogenesis and for exploration of underlying mechanisms involved in this gastric sarcoma.

Liu Y, Wang L, Wang ZJ
Analysis of the biological function of ELDF15 using an antisense recombinant expression vector.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(21):9131-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
ELDF15, homologous with AT2 receptor-interaction protein 1 (ATIP1), may play an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. We aimed to understand the biological function of ELDF15 via construction and transfection of a recombinant expression vector containing antisense ELDF15. Recombinant expression vectors were successfully constructed and transfected into K562 cells. A stable transfectant, known as pXJ41-asELDF15, stably produced antisense ELDF15. Compared with K562 and K562-zeo cells, K562- pXJ41-asELDF15 cells showed inhibition of cell proliferation. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression and protein level of ELDF15 decreased significantly in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15. Expression of hemoglobin increased in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15 by benzidine staining. increases NBT reduction activity in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15.Colony forming efficiency in two-layer soft agar was clearly inhibited as assessed by electron microscopy. These results suggest that ELDF15 plays a potential role in cell differentiation, proliferation and carcinogenesis.

Yuan P, Liu D, Deng M, et al.
Identification of differently expressed genes with specific SNP Loci for breast cancer by the integration of SNP and gene expression profiling analyses.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2015; 21(2):469-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to explore the relationship between gene polymorphism and breast cancer, and to screen DEGs (differentially expressed genes) with SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) related to breast cancer. The SNPs of 17 patients and the preprocessed SNP profiling GSE 32258 (38 cases of normal breast cells) were combined to identify their correlation with breast cancer using chi-square test. The gene expression profiling batch8_9 (38 cases of patients and 8 cases of normal tissue) was preprocessed with limma package, and the DEGs were filtered out. Then fisher's method was applied to integrate DEGs and SNPs associated with breast cancer. With NetBox software, TRED (Transcriptional Regulatory Element Database) and UCSC (University of California Santa Cruz) database, genes-associated network and transcriptional regulatory network were constructed using cytoscape software. Further, GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG analyses were performed for genes in the networks by using siggenes. In total, 332 DEGs were identified. There were 160 breast cancer-related SNPs related to 106 genes of gene expression profiling (19 were significant DEGs). Finally, 11co-correlated DEGs were selected. In genes-associated network, 9 significant DEGs were correlated to 23 LINKER genes while, in transcriptional regulatory network, E2F1 had regulatory relationships with 7 DEGs including MTUS1, CD44, CCNB1 and CCND2. KRAS with SNP locus of rs1137282 was involved in 35 KEGG pathways. The genes of MTUS1, CD44, CCNB1, CCND2 and KRAS with specific SNP loci may be used as biomarkers for diagnosis of breast cancer. Besides, E2F1 was recognized as the transcription factor of 7 DEGs including MTUS1, CD44, CCNB1 and CCND2.

Rogler A, Hoja S, Giedl J, et al.
Loss of MTUS1/ATIP expression is associated with adverse outcome in advanced bladder carcinomas: data from a retrospective study.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:214 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Seventy percent of all bladder tumours tend to recur and need intensive surveillance, and a subset of tumours progress to muscle-invasive and metastatic disease. However, it is still difficult to find the adequate treatment for every individual patient as it is a very heterogeneous disease and reliable biomarkers are still missing. In our study we searched for new target genes in the critical chromosomal region 8p and investigated the potential tumour suppressor gene candidate MTUS1/ATIP in bladder cancer.
METHODS: MTUS1 was identified to be the most promising deleted target gene at 8p in aCGH analysis with 19 papillary bladder tumours. A correlation with bladder cancer was further validated using immunohistochemistry of 85 papillary and 236 advanced bladder tumours and in functional experiments. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox-regression addressed overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) as a function of MTUS1/ATIP expression. Bivariate correlations investigated associations between MTUS1/ATIP expression, patient characteristics and histopathology. MTUS1 expression was analysed in cell lines and overexpressed in RT112, where impact on viability, proliferation and migration was measured.
RESULTS: MTUS1 protein expression was lost in almost 50% of all papillary and advanced bladder cancers. Survival, however, was only influenced in advanced carcinomas, where loss of MTUS1 was associated with adverse OS and DSS. In this cohort, there was also a significant correlation of MTUS1 expression and histological subtype: positive expression was detected in all micropapillary tumours and aberrant nuclear staining was detected in a subset of plasmocytoid urothelial carcinomas. MTUS1 was expressed in all investigated bladder cell lines and overexpression in RT112 led to significantly decreased viability.
CONCLUSIONS: MTUS1 is a tumour suppressor gene in cultured bladder cancer cells and in advanced bladder tumours. It might represent one new target gene at chromosome 8p and can be used as an independent prognostic factor for advanced bladder cancer patients. The limitation of the study is the retrospective data analysis. Thus, findings should be validated with a prospective advanced bladder tumour cohort.

Ribeiro IP, Marques F, Caramelo F, et al.
Genetic imbalances detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a cohort of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma-the first step towards clinical personalized medicine.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4687-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral tumors are a growing health problem worldwide; thus, it is mandatory to establish genetic markers in order to improve diagnosis and early detection of tumors, control relapses and, ultimately, delineate individualized therapies. This study was the first to evaluate and discuss the clinical applicability of a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probe panel directed to head and neck cancer. Thirty primary oral squamous cell tumors were analyzed using the P428 MLPA probe panel. We detected genetic imbalances in 26 patients and observed a consistent pattern of distribution of genetic alterations in terms of losses and gains for some chromosomes, particularly for chromosomes 3, 8, and 11. Regarding the latter, some specific genes were highlighted due to frequent losses of genetic material--RARB, FHIT, CSMD1, GATA4, and MTUS1--and others due to gains--MCCC1, MYC, WISP1, PTK2, CCND1, FGF4, FADD, and CTTN. We also verified that the gains of MYC and WISP1 genes seem to suggest higher propensity of tumors localized in the floor of the mouth. This study proved the value of this MLPA probe panel for a first-tier analysis of oral tumors. The probemix was developed to include target regions that have been already shown to be of diagnostic/prognostic relevance for oral tumors. Furthermore, this study emphasized several of those specific genetic targets, suggesting its importance to oral tumor development, to predict patients' outcomes, and also to guide the development of novel molecular therapies.

Huang Y, Ju B, Tian J, et al.
Ovarian cancer stem cell-specific gene expression profiling and targeted drug prescreening.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(3):1235-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells, with unlimited self-renewal potential and other stem cell characteristics, occur in several types of cancer, including ovarian cancer (OvC). Although CSCs can cause tumor initiation, malignant proliferation, relapse and multi-drug resistance, ways to eliminate them remain unknown. In the present study, we compared ovarian cancer stem cell (OVCSC) expression profiles in normal ovarian surface epithelium and ovarian cells from patients with advanced disease to identify key pathways and specific molecular signatures involved in OVC progression and to prescreen candidate small-molecule compounds with anti-OVCSC activity. Comparison of genome-wide expression profiles of OvC stemness groups with non-stemness controls revealed 6495, 1347 and 509 differentially expressed genes in SDC, SP1 and SP2 groups, respectively, with a cut-off of fold-change set at >1.5 and P<0.05. NAB1 and NPIPL1 were commonly upregulated whereas PROS1, GREB1, KLF9 and MTUS1 were commonly downregulated in all 3 groups. Most differentially expressed genes consistently clustered with molecular functions such as protein receptor binding, kinase activity and chemo-repellent activity. These genes regulate cellular components such as centrosome, plasma membrane receptors, and basal lamina, and may participate in biological processes such as cell cycle regulation, chemoresistance and stemness induction. Key Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways such as ECM receptor, ErbB signaling, endocytosis and adherens junction pathways were enriched. Gene co-expression extrapolation screening by the Connectivity Map revealed several small-molecule compounds (such as SC-560, disulfiram, thapsigargin, esculetin and cinchonine) with potential anti-OVCSC properties targeting OVCSC signature genes. We identified several key CSC features and specific regulation networks in OVCSCs and predicted several small molecules with potential anti-OVCSC pharmacological properties, which may aid the development of OVCSC-specific drugs.

Li X, Liu H, Yu T, et al.
Loss of MTUS1 in gastric cancer promotes tumor growth and metastasis.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(2):128-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Though the overall incidence of gastric cancer was decreasing in the developed countries in the past decades, it is still a serious threat to human health throughout the world. The molecular mechanisms underlying development of gastric cancer remains unclear. Though accumulating evidences shed a light on the implications of mitochondrial tumor suppressor (MTUS1) in carcinogenesis, the functional role of MTUS1 in regulation of proliferation and metastasis of gastric cancer cell is still poorly understood. In this study, we showed that the level of MTUS1 expression is relatively low in gastric cancer cell lines compared to normal gastric epithelial cells. By using clinical samples, we found that MTUS1 expression is downregulated in tumor tissues compared to non-cancerous counterpart, and loss of MTUS1 was associated with high incidence of lymph node metastasis and poor patient outcome. Moreover, we demonstrate that MTUS1 has a significant impact on both the proliferative and metastatic potential of gastric cancer cell line, which were further supported by using mice tumor xenograft models. The present data suggested MTUS1 as a potential tumor suppressor in gastric cancer and might lead to a better understanding of gastric carcinogenesis.

Schwarzinger M, Sagaon-Teyssier L, Cabaret O, et al.
Performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis in febrile, neutropenic patients: a multi-state model.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65776 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis expectedly depends on the timing of test results relative to the empirical administration of antifungal therapy during neutropenia, although a dynamic evaluation framework is lacking.
METHODS: We developed a multi-state model describing simultaneously the likelihood of empirical antifungal therapy and the risk of invasive aspergillosis during neutropenia. We evaluated whether the first positive test result with a biomarker is an independent predictor of invasive aspergillosis when both diagnostic information used to treat and risk factors of developing invasive aspergillosis are taken into account over time. We applied the multi-state model to a homogeneous cohort of 185 high-risk patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Patients were prospectively screened for galactomannan antigenemia twice a week for immediate treatment decision; 2,214 serum samples were collected on the same days and blindly assessed for (1->3)- β-D-glucan antigenemia and a quantitative PCR assay targeting a mitochondrial locus.
RESULTS: The usual evaluation framework of biomarker performance was unable to distinguish clinical benefits of β-glucan or PCR assays. The multi-state model evidenced that the risk of invasive aspergillosis is a complex time function of neutropenia duration and risk management. The quantitative PCR assay accelerated the early detection of invasive aspergillosis (P = .010), independently of other diagnostic information used to treat, while β-glucan assay did not (P = .53).
CONCLUSIONS: The performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis is better apprehended by the evaluation of time-varying predictors in a multi-state model. Our results provide strong rationale for prospective studies testing a preemptive antifungal therapy, guided by clinical, radiological, and bi-weekly blood screening with galactomannan antigenemia and a standardized quantitative PCR assay.

Molina A, Velot L, Ghouinem L, et al.
ATIP3, a novel prognostic marker of breast cancer patient survival, limits cancer cell migration and slows metastatic progression by regulating microtubule dynamics.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(9):2905-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis, a fatal complication of breast cancer, does not fully benefit from available therapies. In this study, we investigated whether ATIP3, the major product of 8p22 MTUS1 gene, may be a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for metastatic breast tumors. We show that ATIP3 is a prognostic marker for overall survival among patients with breast cancer. Notably, among metastatic tumors, low ATIP3 levels associate with decreased survival of the patients. By using a well-defined experimental mouse model of cancer metastasis, we show that ATIP3 expression delays the time-course of metastatic progression and limits the number and size of metastases in vivo. In functional studies, ATIP3 silencing increases breast cancer cell migration, whereas ATIP3 expression significantly reduces cell motility and directionality. We report here that ATIP3 is a potent microtubule-stabilizing protein whose depletion increases microtubule dynamics. Our data support the notion that by decreasing microtubule dynamics, ATIP3 controls the ability of microtubule tips to reach the cell cortex during migration, a mechanism that may account for reduced cancer cell motility and metastasis. Of interest, we identify a functional ATIP3 domain that associates with microtubules and recapitulates the effects of ATIP3 on microtubule dynamics, cell proliferation, and migration. Our study is a major step toward the development of new personalized treatments against metastatic breast tumors that have lost ATIP3 expression.

Loo LW, Tiirikainen M, Cheng I, et al.
Integrated analysis of genome-wide copy number alterations and gene expression in microsatellite stable, CpG island methylator phenotype-negative colon cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(5):450-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Microsatellite stable (MSS), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-negative colorectal tumors, the most prevalent molecular subtype of colorectal cancer, are associated with extensive copy number alteration (CNA) events and aneuploidy. We report on the identification of characteristic recurrent CNA (with frequency >25%) events and associated gene expression profiles for a total of 40 paired tumor and adjacent normal colon tissues using genome-wide microarrays. We observed recurrent CNAs, namely gains at 1q, 7p, 7q, 8p12-11, 8q, 12p13, 13q, 20p, 20q, Xp, and Xq and losses at 1p36, 1p31, 1p21, 4p15-12, 4q12-35, 5q21-22, 6q26, 8p, 14q, 15q11-12, 17p, 18p, 18q, 21q21-22, and 22q. Within these genomic regions we identified 356 genes with significant differential expression (P < 0.0001 and ±1.5-fold change) in the tumor compared to adjacent normal tissue. Gene ontology and pathway analyses indicated that many of these genes were involved in functional mechanisms that regulate cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism. An amplicon present in >70% of the tumor samples at 20q11-20q13 contained several cancer-related genes (AHCY, POFUT1, RPN2, TH1L, and PRPF6) that were upregulated and demonstrated a significant linear correlation (P < 0.05) for gene dosage and gene expression. Copy number loss at 8p, a CNA associated with adenocarcinoma and poor prognosis, was observed in >50% of the tumor samples and demonstrated a significant linear correlation for gene dosage and gene expression for two potential tumor suppressor genes, MTUS1 (8p22) and PPP2CB (8p12). The results from our integration analysis illustrate the complex relationship between genomic alterations and gene expression in colon cancer.

Ding X, Zhang N, Cai Y, et al.
Down-regulation of tumor suppressor MTUS1/ATIP is associated with enhanced proliferation, poor differentiation and poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Oncol. 2012; 6(1):73-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Microtubule-associated tumor suppressor gene (MTUS1, also known as mitochondrial tumor suppressor) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in several cancer types. The expression of MTUS1 gene leads to 5 known transcript variants and codes for 5 isoforms of Angiotensin II AT2 receptor interacting protein (ATIP). In this study, we first confirmed that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was a frequent event in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) and the premalignant lesion (leukoplakia). We further demonstrated that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was correlated with poor differentiation and enhanced proliferation (Ki67 proliferation index). Statistical analysis suggests that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was associated with reduced overall survival. Isoform specific quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that ATIP1, ATIP3a and ATIP3b were the major isoforms of the MTUS1 gene products in oral tongue epithelial cells. Significant down-regulations were observed for all 3 ATIP isoforms in OTSCC as compared to matching normal tissues. In vitro functional study showed that the restoration of ATIP1 expression led to G1 arrest, apoptosis and reduction of cell proliferation in OTSCC cell lines. These ATIP1-induced cellular changes were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and up-regulation of p53. Taken together, these data suggest that MTUS1 plays major roles in the progression of OTSCC, and may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target for patients with OTSCC.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. MTUS1, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999