Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: LYVE1 (cancer-related)
Arimoto S, Hasegawa T, Takeda D, et al.Lymphangiogenesis and Lymph Node Metastasis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(11):6157-6162 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIM: Tumor lymphangiogenesis plays a key role in lymph node (LN) metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The purpose of this study was to investigate podoplanin and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1) and their relationship to nodal metastasis and other clinicopathological variables.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Podoplanin and LYVE-1 expression of the primary tumor and normal tissue were investigated by means of a quantitative real-time PCR assay and immunohistochemistry in samples from 33 cases of OSCC.
RESULTS: The mRNA high expression levels of both genes had a statistically significantly higher rate of LN metastasis (p<0.01) and histological grade (p<0.01 for podoplanin, p<0.05 for LYVE-1). High expression of each gene, as shown by immunohistochemistry, had a statistically significant higher rate of LN metastasis (p<0.01 for podoplanin, p<0.05 for LYVE-1).
CONCLUSION: Podoplanin and LYVE-1 were strongly associated with LN metastasis.
Glioma growth is often accompanied by a hypoxic microenvironment favorable for the induction and maintenance of the glioma stem cell (GSC) phenotype. Due to the paucity of cell models of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 mutant (IDH1
Agnihotri NS, Astekar MThe role of novel prognostic markers PROX1 and FOXC2 in carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Exp Ther Oncol. 2018; 12(3):171-184 [PubMed
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objective: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the head and neck regions and accounts for more than 90% of cancers in the oral cavity. The angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and epithelial mesenchymal transition are known to be pivotal for tumor progression and metastasis. In the last decade, much data has been generated concerning the molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and its significance in pathological conditions. The main angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors have been identified as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), forkhead box (FOX) C2 while vascular endothelial growth factor C/D (VEGF-C/D), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), Prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1), LYVE-1, podoplanin, Tie/Angioprotein (Ang) 2 and EphrinB2 respectively. PROX1 is a mammalian homologue of Drosophilia homeobox protein, prospero and important for the embryonic development of many mammalian tissues. It has been suggested that it plays various tissue dependent functional roles, which reflects both oncogenic potential and a tumor suppressive role. The exact role in OSCC remains controversial. FOXC2 is a transcription factor belongs to large family of protein, forkhead box. It has been shown to be involved in cancer angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis through its induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition while its significance in OSCC remains unknown. Based on these data, this article reviews the role of novel prognostic factors PROX1 and FOXC2 in carcinogenesis of OSCC so that they might be considered as an attractive therapeutic target for both tumor associated blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and tumor cells.
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer, and has a high incidence of lymphatic metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is essential for development of lymphatic vessels and lymphatic metastases during carcinogenesis. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) interacts with nuclear receptors and transcription factors to promote tumor proliferation and metastasis. However, the correlation between SRC-1 and VEGFC levels in the lymphatic metastases of thyroid cancer remains unclear. We analyzed 20-paired specimens of thyroid cancer tissue and normal thyroid tissue and found increased levels of SRC-1 and VEGFC proteins in 13/20 and 15/20 thyroid cancer specimens, respectively, when compared with those levels in specimens of normal thyroid tissue. A high level of SRC-1 expression was positively correlated with VEGFC and lymphatic endothelial cell marker LYVE-1 expression. Papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line TPC-1 displayed high levels of SRC-1 and VEGFC expression and was selected for stable knockdown of
Jimenez JJ, DelCanto GM, Popovics P, et al.A new approach to the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia targeting the receptor for growth hormone-releasing hormone.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 181(4):476-485 [PubMed
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Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus and acts on the pituitary gland to stimulate the release of growth hormone (GH). GHRH can also be produced by human cancers, in which it functions as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. We have previously shown that synthetic antagonistic analogues of GHRH are able to successfully suppress the growth of 60 different human cancer cell lines representing over 20 cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of GHRH and its receptors in leukaemias has never been examined. Our study demonstrates the presence of GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) on 3 of 4 human acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cell lines-K-562, THP-1, and KG-1a-and significant inhibition of proliferation of these three cell lines in vitro following incubation with the GHRH antagonist MIA-602. We further show that this inhibition of proliferation is associated with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic genes and inhibition of Akt signalling in leukaemic cells. Treatment with MIA-602 of mice bearing xenografts of these human AML cell lines drastically reduced tumour growth. The expression of GHRH-R was further confirmed in 9 of 9 samples from patients with AML. These findings offer a new therapeutic approach to this malignancy and suggest a possible role of GHRH-R signalling in the pathology of AML.
Wang H, Zhang X, Vidaurre I, et al.Inhibition of experimental small-cell and non-small-cell lung cancers by novel antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 142(11):2394-2404 [PubMed
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We investigated the effects of novel antagonists of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)-MIA602 and MIA690-on three human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) lines (H446, DMS53 and H69) and two non-SCLC (NSCLC) lines (HCC827 and H460). In vitro exposure of cancer cells to these GHRH antagonists significantly inhibited cell viability, increased cell apoptosis, decrease cellular levels of cAMP and reduced cell migration. In vivo, the antagonists strongly inhibited tumor growth in xenografted nude mice models. Subcutaneous administration of MIA602 at the dose of 5 μg/day for 4-8 weeks reduced the growth of HCC827, H460 and H446 tumors by 69.9%, 68.3% and 53.4%, respectively, while MIA690 caused a reduction of 76.8%, 58.3% and 54.9%, respectively. Western blot and qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated a downregulation of expression of the pituitary-type GHRH-R and its splice-variant, cyclinD1/2, cyclin-dependent kinase4/6, p21-activated kinase-1, phosphorylation of activator of transcription 3 and cAMP response element binding protein; and an upregulation of expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin and P27
Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is one of the major causes of cancer‑associated morbidity and mortality in patients with lung cancer following radical pulmonary carcinoma resection. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of collagen and calcium‑binding epidermal growth factor domain‑containing protein 1 (CCBE1) and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1) in tumor tissue with the clinical prognosis of lung cancer. The present study included 40 patients with lung cancer that underwent pulmonary carcinoma resection, including 10 patients with LNM, and 10 control patients who underwent pulmonary bullae resection. CCBE1 and LYVE1 expression was assessed in samples from normal and tumor tissue using polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. CCBE1 expression appeared to be decreased in lung tumor tissue and further downregulated in samples from patients with LNM, and was revealed to be correlated with poor clinical outcome. Conversely, LYVE1 expression appeared to be upregulated in lung cancer tissue. In conclusion, the present results suggested that CCBE1 and LYVE1 may have potential as biomarkers for the identification of lung cancer patients at a high risk of LNM.
Vellinga TT, Kranenburg O, Frenkel N, et al.Lymphangiogenic Gene Expression Is Associated With Lymph Node Recurrence and Poor Prognosis After Partial Hepatectomy for Colorectal Liver Metastasis.
Ann Surg. 2017; 266(5):765-771 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relevance of lymphangiogenic gene expression in primary and liver metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and identify determinants of lymphatic invasion.
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic development promoting vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is associated with poor outcome in primary CRC. For colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM), intrahepatic lymph invasion and lymph node metastasis are poor prognostic factors. Exact biological factors promoting lymphatic involvement remain elusive, just as the association with molecular subtypes of CRC.
METHODS: We designed a lymphangiogenic gene set (VEGFC, Nrp-2, PDPN, LYVE-1, MRC1, CCL-21) and applied it to large datasets of CRC. Gene expression of the lymphangiogenic signature was assessed in resected CRLM specimens by Rt-QPCR. In vitro experiments were performed with colon cancer cell line Colo320 (high Nrp-2 expression) and human dermal microvascular lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs).
RESULTS: Lymphangiogenic gene expression was associated with poor prognosis in both primary and liver metastasis of CRC. CRLM with high expression of consensus molecular subtype-4 identifier genes also exhibited high lymphangiogenic gene expression. Lymph node recurrence following CRLM resection was associated with high expression of VEGFC and Nrp-2. Blocking Nrp-2 significantly reduced invasion of Colo320 cells through an LEC monolayer.
CONCLUSIONS: Lymphangiogenic gene expression is correlated with worse prognosis and consensus molecular subtype-4 in both primary and liver metastatic CRC. VEGFC and Nrp-2 expression may be predictive of lymph node involvement in recurrence after resection of CRLM. Nrp-2, expressed on both tumor and LECs, may have a mechanistic role in lymphatic invasion and is a potential novel target in CRC.
BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (M-LECP) are induced by inflammation and play an important role in adult lymphangiogenesis. However, the mechanisms driving M-LECP differentiation are currently unclear. We previously showed that activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) induces myeloid-lymphatic transition (MLT) of immortalized mouse myeloid cells. Here the goals were to assess the potential of different TLR4 ligands to induce pro-lymphatic reprogramming in human and mouse primary myeloid cells and to identify transcriptional changes regulating this process.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human and mouse myeloid cells were reprogrammed to the lymphatic phenotype by TLR4 ligands including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recombinant high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and paclitaxel. TLR4 induced similar MLT in cells from mice of different strains and immune status. Commonly induced genes were detected by transcriptional profiling in human and mouse myeloid cells from either immunocompetent or immunodeficient mice. Shared trends included: (1) novel expression of lymphatic-specific markers vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) and podoplanin (PDPN) largely absent prior to induction; (2) lack of notable changes in blood vessel-specific markers; (3) transient expression of VEGFR-3, but sustained increase of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and a variety of inflammatory cytokines; (4) dependency of VEGFR-3 upregulation and other LEC genes on NF-κB; and (5) novel expression of lymphatic-specific (e.g., PROX1) and stem/progenitor (e.g., E2F1) transcription factors known for their roles in adult and embryonic vascular formation. M-LECP generated by TLR4 ligands in vitro were functional in vivo as demonstrated by significantly increased lymphatic vessel density and lymphatic metastasis detected in orthotopic breast cancer models.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We established a novel TLR4-dependent protocol for in vitro production of functionally competent M-LECP from primary human or mouse myeloid cells and identified many potential regulators of this process. This information can be further exploited for research and therapeutic purposes.
Poyet C, Thomas L, Benoit TM, et al.Implication of vascular endothelial growth factor A and C in revealing diagnostic lymphangiogenic markers in node-positive bladder cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(13):21871-21883 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several lymphangiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), have been found to drive the development of lymphatic metastasis in bladder cancer (BCa).Here, we have analyzed the gene expression of lymphangiogenic factors in tissue specimens from 12 non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC) and 11 muscle invasive bladder cancers (MIBC), considering tumor and tumor-adjacent normal bladder areas obtained from the same organs. We then compared the results observed in patients with those obtained after treating human primary bladder microvascular endothelial cells (MEC) with either direct stimulation with VEGF-A or VEGF-C or by co-culturing (trans-well assay) MEC with bladder cancer cell lines varying in VEGF-A and VEGF-C production based on tumor grade.The genes of three markers of lymphatic endothelial commitment and development (PDPN, LYVE-1 and SLP-76) were significantly overexpressed in tissues of MIBC patients showing positive lymphovascular invasion (LVI+), lymph node metastasis (Ln+) and tumor progression. Their expression was also significantly enhanced either after direct stimulation of MEC by VEGF-A and VEGF-C or in the trans-well assay with each bladder cancer cell line.SLP-76 showed the highest gene expression. Both VEGF-A and VEGF-C also enhanced the expression of SLP-76 protein in MEC. However, a correlation between increase of SLP-76 gene expression and the ability of MEC to migrate could only be seen after induction by VEGF-C.The significant expression of SLP-76 in LVI+/Ln+ progressive MIBC and its overexpression in MEC after VEGF-A and VEGF-C stimulation suggest the need to develop this regulator of developmental lymphangiogenesis as a diagnostic tool in BCa.
Zhang L, Liu FJExpression of SLP-2 gene and CCBE1 are associated with prognosis of rectal cancer.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(6):1214-1218 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the clinical significance of SLP-2 gene for patients with rectal cancer. To analyze the effect of CCBE1 (Collagen and calcium-binding EGF domain-containing protein 1) on rectal cancer tissue and lymph vessels of para-carcinoma tissue.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 samples of rectal cancer tissues were enrolled in the experimental group, confirmed by pathological examination. 50 samples of para-carcinoma normal tissues were collected as control group. Protein expression of SLP-2 and CCBE1 was examined with immunohistochemical staining. mRNA expression of SLP-2 was examined with RT-PCR. Lymphatic vessel density (LVD) was evaluated with LYVE-1 immunohistochemical staining. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between patient survival data and clinical pathological features of rectal cancer.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining showed that, compared with the control group, a positive expression rate of SLP-2 in the experimental group was significantly higher (68.0% vs. 24.0%, p<0.05), and mRNA of SLP-2 was also significantly increased (p<0.05). Compared with the control group, protein expression of CCBE1 in the experimental group was significantly higher (p<0.05). Moreover, the expression level of SLP-2 was remarkably associated with TNM classification and lymphatic metastasis. Further analysis demonstrated that a positive expression of CCBE1 was associated with lymphatic metastasis, LVD and Ducks classification, and had a negative correlation with survival rate.
CONCLUSIONS: Increased expression of SLP-2 promoted the formation of lymph vessels and exacerbated lymphatic metastasis of rectal cancer via up-regulating CCBE1. As a risk factor related to lymphatic metastasis, CCBE1 could be a novel biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of rectal cancer.
Gao Y, Liu X, Li T, et al.Cross-validation of genes potentially associated with overall survival and drug resistance in ovarian cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(5):3084-3092 [PubMed
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Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among malignancies of the female reproductive system. The 5-year survival rates of ovarian cancer (OC) patients are very poor as a result of recurrent disease and emergence of drug resistance; thus, studies to find predictive markers and factors for drug resistance are ongoing. In the present study, based on the microarrays from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) profiles covering 1648 OC patients, 11 out of 136 genes that were found to be significantly dysregulated in OC were associated with overall survival (OS) in 489 OC patients of the TCGA cohort. Of these genes, CRISP3, LYVE1, OVGP1 and BCHE were identified as independent prognostic factors, with decreased expression of the first three genes predicting shorter OS, and decreased BCHE predicting longer OS. OVGP1, BCHE and further two genes, CKAP2 and CLDN10, were consistently and remarkably associated with OS when the number of patients increased from 489 to 1583, with increased CKAP2 and decreased CLDN10 predicted shorter OS; combining the four genes provided better predictions. Associations among the four genes with OS in subgroups of OC were further verified. Downregulation of OVGP1 was significantly associated with shorter OS in all subgroups of OC patients, including subgroups of 752 patients treated with chemotherapy regimens containing taxol, 763 with both platin and taxol, 1364 with platin, 371 patients with grade 1-2 disease, 968 with grade 3 disease, 1148 with stage III-IV disease, and 439 with TP53 mutations. In addition, CKAP2 expression was significantly associated with shorter OS in 515 OC patients who had low CA125 levels. Furthermore, comprehensive analyses that including RT-qPCR, bioinformatics analysis and clinical data revealed an association of CKAP2, BCHE, CLDN10 and OVGP1 with drug resistance in OC. The genes identified in the present study might be prognostic factors as well as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of OC.
Wu HM, Huang HY, Schally AV, et al.Growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist inhibits the invasiveness of human endometrial cancer cells by down-regulating twist and N-cadherin expression.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(3):4410-4421 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in reproduction. Here, we examined the effect of a GHRH antagonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and the mechanisms of action of the antagonist in endometrial cancer. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GHRH receptor protein. The activity of Twist and N-cadherin was determined by Western blotting. Cell motility was assessed by an invasion and migration assay. GHRH receptor siRNA was applied to knockdown the GHRH receptor in endometrial cancer cells. The GHRH antagonist inhibited cell motility in a dose-dependent manner. The GHRH antagonist inhibited cell motility and suppressed the expression of Twist and N-cadherin, and the suppression was abolished by GHRH receptor siRNA pretreatment. Moreover, the inhibition of Twist and N-cadherin with Twist siRNA and N-cadherin siRNA, respectively, suppressed cell motility. Our study indicates that the GHRH antagonist inhibited the cell motility of endometrial cancer cells through the GHRH receptor via the suppression of Twist and N-cadherin. Our findings represent a new concept in the mechanism of GHRH antagonist-suppressed cell motility in endometrial cancer cells and suggest the possibility of exploring GHRH antagonists as potential therapeutics for the treatment of human endometrial cancer.
Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular cancer in children worldwide. Current treatments mainly involve combinations of chemotherapies, cryotherapies, and laser-based therapies. Severe or late-stage disease may require enucleation or lead to fatality. Recently, RB has been shown to arise from cone precursor cells, which have high MDM2 levels to suppress p53-mediated apoptosis. This finding leads to the hypothesis that restoring apoptosis mechanisms in RBs could specifically kill the cancer cells without affecting other retinal cells. We have previously reported involvement of an extrapituitary signaling pathway of the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in the retina. Here we show that the GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) is highly expressed in RB cells but not in other retinal cells. We induced specific apoptosis with two different GHRH-R antagonists, MIA-602 and MIA-690. Importantly, these GHRH-R antagonists do not trigger apoptosis in other retinal cells such as retinal pigmented epithelial cells. We delineated the gene expression profiles regulated by GHRH-R antagonists and found that cell proliferation genes and apoptotic genes are down- and up-regulated, respectively. Our results reveal the involvement of GHRH-R in survival and proliferation of RB and demonstrate that GHRH-R antagonists can specifically kill the RB cells.
Vascular Endotelial Growth Factors C and D (VEGF-C and VEGF-D) are crucial regulators of lymphangiogenesis, a main event in the metastatic spread of breast cancer tumors. Although inhibition of lymphangiogenic gene expression might be a useful therapeutic strategy to restrict the progression of cancer, the factors involved in the transcriptional repression of these genes are still unknown. We have previously shown that Nuclear Receptor Corepressor 1 (NCoR) and the thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ) inhibit tumor invasion. Here we show that these molecules repress VEGF-C and VEGF-D gene transcription in breast cancer cells, reducing lymphatic vessel density and sentinel lymph node invasion in tumor xenografts. The clinical significance of these results is stressed by the finding that NCoR and TRβ transcripts correlate negatively with those of the lymphangiogenic genes and the lymphatic vessel marker LYVE-1 in human breast tumors. Our results point to the use of NCoR and TRβ as potential biomarkers for diagnosis or prognosis in breast cancer and suggest that further studies of these molecules as potential targets for anti-lymphangiogenic therapy are warranted.
Millions of patients suffer from lymphedema worldwide. Supporting the contractility of lymphatic collectors is an attractive target for pharmacological therapy of lymphedema. However, lymphatics have mostly been studied in animals, while the cellular and molecular characteristics of human lymphatic collectors are largely unknown. We studied epifascial lymphatic collectors of the thigh, which were isolated for autologous transplantations. Our immunohistological studies identify additional markers for LECs (vimentin, CCBE1). We show and confirm differences between initial and collecting lymphatics concerning the markers ESAM1, D2-40 and LYVE-1. Our transmission electron microscopic studies reveal two types of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media of the collectors with dark and light cytoplasm. We observed vasa vasorum in the media of the largest collectors, as well as interstitial Cajal-like cells, which are highly ramified cells with long processes, caveolae, and lacking a basal lamina. They are in close contact with SMCs, which possess multiple caveolae at the contact sites. Immunohistologically we identified such cells with antibodies against vimentin and PDGFRα, but not CD34 and cKIT. With Next Generation Sequencing we searched for highly expressed genes in the media of lymphatic collectors, and found therapeutic targets, suitable for acceleration of lymphatic contractility, such as neuropeptide Y receptors 1, and 5; tachykinin receptors 1, and 2; purinergic receptors P2RX1, and 6, P2RY12, 13, and 14; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors HTR2B, and 3C; and adrenoceptors α2A,B,C. Our studies represent the first comprehensive characterization of human epifascial lymphatic collectors, as a prerequisite for diagnosis and therapy.
Daoud SA, Ismail WM, Abdelhamid MS, et al.Possible Prognostic Role of HER2/Neu in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ and Atypical Ductal Proliferative Lesions of the Breast.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(8):3733-6 [PubMed
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HER2/neu is a well-established prognostic and predictive factor for invasive breast cancer. However, the role of HER2/neu in ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is debated and recent data have suggested that it is mainly linked to in situ local recurrence. Although molecular data suggest that atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and duct carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are related lesions, albeit with vastly different clinical implications, the role of HER2/neu expression in atypical ductal hyperplasia is not well defined either. The aim of this study was to evaluate over expression of HER2/neu in DCIS and cases of ADH in comparison with invasive breast carcinoma. Archival primary breast carcinoma paraffin blocks (n=15), DCIS only (n=10) and ductal epithelial hyperplasia and other breast benign lesions (n=25) were analyzed for HER2/neu immunoexpression. Follow up was available for 40% of the patients. HER2/neu was positive in 80%of both DCIS and invasive carcinoma, and 67% of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) cases. Thus at least a subset of patients with preinvasive breast lesions were positive, which strongly suggests a role for Her2/neu in identifying high-risk patients for malignant transformation. Although these are preliminary data, which need further studies of gene amplification within these patients as well as a larger patient cohort with longer periods of follow up, they support the implementation of routine Her2/neu testing in patients diagnosed as pure DCIS and in florid ADH.
BACKGROUND: Tumor metastasis is driven by malignant cells and stromal cell components of the tumor microenvironment. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for metastasis by altering the tumor microenvironment. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes contribute to specific stages of the metastatic cascade, promoted by cytokines and chemokines secreted by stromal cell components in the tumor microenvironment. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) interacts with its ligand, chemokine ligand 21(CCL21), to mediate metastasis in some cancer cells lines. This study investigated the role of CCL21/CCR7 in promoting EMT and metastasis of cluster of differentiation 133+ (CD133+) pancreatic cancer stem-like cells.
METHODS: Panc-1, AsPC-1, and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells were selected because of their aggressive invasive potentials. CCR7 expression levels were examined in total, CD133+ and CD133- cell fractions by Immunofluorescence analysis and real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The role of CCL21/CCR7 in mediating metastasis and survival of CD133+ pancreatic cancer stem-like cells was detected by Transwell assays and flow cytometry, respectively. EMT and lymph node metastasis related markers (E-cadherin, N- cadherin, LYVE-1) were analyzed by western blot. CCR7 expression levels were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and RT-qPCR in resected tumor tissues, metastatic lymph nodes, normal lymph nodes and adjacent normal tissues from patients with pancreatic carcinoma.
RESULTS: CCR7 expression was significantly increased in CD133+ pancreatic cancer stem-like cells, resected pancreatic cancer tissues, and metastatic lymph nodes, compared with CD133- cancer cells, adjacent normal tissues and normal lymph nodes, respectively. CCL21/CCR7 promoted metastasis and survival of CD133+ pancreatic cancer stem-like cells and regulated CD133+ pancreatic cancer stem-like cells metastasis by modulating EMT and Erk/NF-κB pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a specific role for CCL21/CCR7 in promoting EMT and metastasis in CD133+ pancreatic cancer stem-like cells. Furthermore the data also indicated the potential importance of developing therapeutic strategies targeting cancer stem-like cells and CCL21/CCR7 for reducing metastasis.
Lymphatic metastasis is a poor prognostic factor in ovarian cancer, which correlates to the majority of cancer deaths. Matrix protein (MP) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) exhibits potent antitumor and antiangiogenic activities through inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. In this study, the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of MP were further investigated. Wild-type SKOV3 (WT-SK) cells were successfully transfected with empty vector pcDNA3.1 plasmid, or pcDNA3.1-VEGF-D recombinant plasmid to construct cell lines named EV-SK, and VEGFD-SK, respectively. Inhibition of VEGFD-SK cell migration and invasion was detected by Transwell and wound healing assay. Then, lymphogenous metastatic model of ovarian cancer was established by injecting VEGFD-SK cells subcutaneously into the left hindlimb claw pad of nude mice. The inducted apoptotic effect of MP on VEGFD-SK cells were assessed by flow analysis and Hoechst-33258 staining, respectively, in vitro. The in vivo antitumor and antiangiogenic activities of MP gene were evaluated with lymphogenous metastatic model of ovarian cancer. Tumor volume and lymphatic metastasis rates were measured. Lymphatic vessels were delineated using Evan's blue and LYVE-1 staining. Expression of VEGF-D and MMP-2 were evaluated by immunostaining. Apoptosis of tumor cells was analyzed by Hoechst-33258 staining. Mice bearing VEGFD-SK tumor cells displayed more rapid tumorigenesis, higher lymphogenous metastatic tendency and increased lymphatic vessel density compared with the mice bearing WT-SK or EV-SK cells. However, VEGF-D-enhanced metastasis was evidently reversed by MP. MP significantly reduced the invasion of VEGFD-SK cells, tumor volume, lymphatic metastasis rates and lymphatic vessel density compared with control groups (P<0.05), accompanied with down-expression of VEGF-D and MMP-2 and increased apoptosis. Our data indicate that MP has strong antitumor and antimetastatic abilities, and it may be a promising therapeutic strategy against the lymphatic metastasis of human ovarian cancer.
In this chapter we describe a model of human angiogenesis where artery explants from umbilical cords are embedded in gel matrices and subsequently produce capillary-like structures. The human arterial ring (hAR) assay is an innovative system that enables three-dimensional (3D) and live studies of human angiogenesis. This ex vivo model has the advantage of recapitulating several steps of angiogenesis, including endothelial sprouting, migration, and differentiation into capillaries. Furthermore, it can be exploited for (1) identification of new genes regulating sprouting angiogenesis, (2) screening for pro- or anti-angiogenic drugs, (3) identification of biomarkers to monitor the efficacy of anti-angiogenic regimens, and (4) dynamic analysis of tumor microenvironmental effects on vessel formation.
Epstein‑Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with the development of T cell lymphoma, nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), and EBV‑associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC). This study assessed the expression of the EBV‑associated proteins latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and BamHI‑A rightward frame 1 (BARF1) in NPC and EBVaGC tissue specimens and determined their association with clinicopathological data, microvessel density (MVD) and micro‑lymphatic vessel density (MLVD). This study collected 600 gastric cancer and 75 NPC tissue samples. EBV infection was assessed using in situ hybridization, and LMP1 and BARF1 expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. The levels of MVD and MLVD were assessed using immunostaining of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)‑C, CD34, and lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor 1 (LYVE‑1). Among the 600 gastric cancer cases, 30 were positive for EBV infection, which was shown to be associated with the age of patients (P=0.073), tumor differentiation (P<0.0001), tumor location (P<0.0001) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.0001). In these 30 EBVaGC cases, only one case was weakly positive for LMP1, but 17 cases were BARF1 positive. BARF1 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis of EBVaGC and the level of MLVD. Furthermore, 61 (81%) of 75 NPC patients were EBV positive, among which 38 cases were LMP‑1 positive (62.3%) and LMP1 expression was associated with tumor‑node‑metastasis stage (P=0.011) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.041). MLVD was significantly higher in LMP1‑positive cases than LMP1‑negative cases. There were only 8 (13.3%) cases positive for BARF1 expression. In conclusion, EBV infection exhibits a role in gastric cancer and NPC development; however, expression of EBV‑associated proteins LMP1 and BARF1 have differential functions during tumorigenesis of these two types of cancer.
Vojkovics D, Kellermayer Z, Heidt D, et al.Isolation and Characterization of a Murine Spontaneous High-Grade Follicular Lymphoma with Restricted In Vivo Spreading--a Model for Lymphatic Metastasis Via the Mesentery.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2016; 22(2):421-30 [PubMed
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Spontaneous or induced malignant lymphomas in mice are valuable tools for studying human lymphoproliferative diseases, including the mechanism of migration between peripheral lymphoid organs and positioning within distinct tissue compartments. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a novel spontaneous lymphoma from BALB/c mice showing restricted tissue distribution and metastasis. The lymphoma cells display CD19, B220, MHC II, surface IgG2a/kappa chain with VH7183 rearrangement of the IgH gene, indicating their B-cell origin. Serial intraperitoneal injection of primary tumor into both BALB/c and RAG-1-deficient hosts led to the successful propagation of lymphoma. Despite the cytological characteristics of high-grade follicular B-cell lymphoma, the tumor cells (denoted as Bc-DLFL.1) showed significantly lesser spreading to extraabdominal locations upon intraperitoneal passage compared to splenic and mesenteric lymph node expansion. In mesenteric lymph nodes the high endothelial venules contained only few tumor cells, while the lymphatic vessels were almost completely filled with lymphoma cells. Similarly, the LYVE-1-positive lymphatic capillaries within the mesentery were packed with lymphoma cells. These findings suggest that Bc-DLFL.1 cells likely propagate primarily via the lymphatic circulation within the mesentery, therefore this tumor may offer an in vivo model to investigate the tumor cell migration via the lymphatic circulation from the peritoneal cavity.
Lung adenocarcinoma is one of the most deadly human diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease, particularly RNA splicing, have remained underexplored. Here, we report a triple-level (gene-, transcript-, and exon-level) analysis of lung adenocarcinoma transcriptomes from 77 paired tumor and normal tissues, as well as an analysis pipeline to overcome genetic variability for accurate differentiation between tumor and normal tissues. We report three major results. First, more than 5,000 differentially expressed transcripts/exonic regions occur repeatedly in lung adenocarcinoma patients. These transcripts/exonic regions are enriched in nicotine metabolism and ribosomal functions in addition to the pathways enriched for differentially expressed genes (cell cycle, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, and axon guidance). Second, classification models based on rationally selected transcripts or exonic regions can reach accuracies of 0.93 to 1.00 in differentiating tumor from normal tissues. Of the 28 selected exonic regions, 26 regions correspond to alternative exons located in such regulators as tumor suppressor (GDF10), signal receptor (LYVE1), vascular-specific regulator (RASIP1), ubiquitination mediator (RNF5), and transcriptional repressor (TRIM27). Third, classification systems based on 13 to 14 differentially expressed genes yield accuracies near 100%. Genes selected by both detection methods include C16orf59, DAP3, ETV4, GABARAPL1, PPAR, RADIL, RSPO1, SERTM1, SRPK1, ST6GALNAC6, and TNXB. Our findings imply a multilayered lung adenocarcinoma regulome in which transcript-/exon-level regulation may be dissociated from gene-level regulation. Our described method may be used to identify potentially important genes/transcripts/exonic regions for the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma and to construct accurate tumor vs. normal classification systems for this disease.
PURPOSE: Noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are currently not available. Here, we aimed to identify a set of urine proteins able to distinguish patients with early-stage PDAC from healthy individuals.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Proteomes of 18 urine samples from healthy controls, chronic pancreatitis, and patients with PDAC (six/group) were assayed using GeLC/MS/MS analysis. The selected biomarkers were subsequently validated with ELISA assays using multiple logistic regression applied to a training dataset in a multicenter cohort comprising 488 urine samples.
RESULTS: LYVE-1, REG1A, and TFF1 were selected as candidate biomarkers. When comparing PDAC (n = 192) with healthy (n = 87) urine specimens, the resulting areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC) of the panel were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84-0.94] in the training (70% of the data) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.98) in the validation (30% of the data) datasets. When comparing PDAC stage I-II (n = 71) with healthy urine specimens, the panel achieved AUCs of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84-0.96) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.84-1.00) in the training and validation datasets, respectively. In PDAC stage I-II and healthy samples with matching plasma CA19.9, the panel achieved a higher AUC of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94-0.99) than CA19.9 (AUC = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95, P = 0.005). Adding plasma CA19.9 to the panel increased the AUC from 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94-0.99) to 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97-1.00, P = 0.04), but did not improve the comparison of stage I-IIA PDAC (n = 17) with healthy urine.
CONCLUSIONS: We have established a novel, three-protein biomarker panel that is able to detect patients with early-stage pancreatic cancer in urine specimens.
Li XP, Jing W, Sun JJ, et al.A potential small-molecule synthetic antilymphangiogenic agent norcantharidin inhibits tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis of human colonic adenocarcinomas through blocking VEGF-A,-C,-D/VEGFR-2,-3 "multi-points priming" mechanisms in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:527 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Tumor lymphangiogenesis plays an important role in promoting growth and metastasis of tumors, but no antilymphangiogenic agent is used clinically. Based on the effect of norcantharidin (NCTD) on lymphangiogenesis of human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), we firstly investigated the antilymphangiogenic activity of NCTD as a tumor lymphangiogenic inhibitor for human colonic adenocarcinomas (HCACs).
METHODS: In vivo and in vitro experiments to determine the effects of NCTD on tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis of the in-situ colonic xenografts in nude mice, and lymphatic tube formation of the three-dimensional (3-D) of the co-culture system of HCAC HT-29 cells and LECs were done. Proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, Ki-67, Bcl-2 and cell cycle of LECs and the co-culture system in vitro were respectively determined. Streparidin-peroxidase staining, SABC, western blotting and RT-PCR were respectively used to examine the expression of LYVE-1, D2-40, CK20 (including their LMVD), and VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: NCTD inhibited tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis of the in-situ colonic xenografts in vivo, and these observations were confirmed by facts that lymphatic tube formation, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, S-phase cell cycle, and Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression in vitro, and LYVE-1, D2-40, CK20 expression and their LMVD in vitro and in vivo were inhibited and affected. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 at protein/mRNA levels in the process of lymphatic tube formation in vitro and tumor lymphangiogenesis in vivo was downregulated; NCTD in combination with mF4-31C1 or Sorafenib enhanced these effects.
CONCLUSIONS: NCTD inhibits tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis of HCACs through "multi-points priming" mechanisms i.e. affecting related malignant phenotypes, inhibiting Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression, inducing S-phase cell cycle arrest, and directly or indirectly downregulating VEGF-A,-C,-D/VEGFR-2,-3 signaling pathways. The present finding strongly suggests that NCTD could serve as a potential antilymphangiogenic agent for tumor lymphangiogenesis and is of importance to explore NCTD is used for antitumor metastatic comprehensive therapy for HCACs.
Lymphatic metastasis is a major progression route of gastric cancer. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), as an inflammatory cytokine, is induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and is strongly associated with gastric cancer development and metastasis. The blood and lymphatic systems are similar in their function and gene expression profiles. It has been proposed that IL-8 activates angiogenesis. However, the direct role of IL-8 in lymphangiogenesis in gastric cancer remains unclear. We investigated the effect of IL-8 on the growth of human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). In addition, protein and mRNA expression of selected lymphangiogenesis markers was assessed in these cells. LECs were co-cultured with gastric cancer SGC7901 cells and exposed to various concentrations of IL-8 (0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 ng/ml). The Cell Counting Kit-8 was used to evaluate LEC proliferation (cultured for 1-6 days). Then, protein (immunofluorescence and western blotting) and mRNA [quantitative transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)] levels were measured in samples obtained from the 24-h cultured cells, for lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor-1 (LYVE-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3). The data presented herein demonstrated that IL-8 promotes the proliferation of LECs and enhances the protein and mRNA expression of LYVE-1. Notably, IL-8 inhibited VEGF-C, VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 protein expression as well as VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 mRNA expression. These findings suggest that IL-8 may be a potent inducer of LECs, although this effect does not appear to involve the VEGF-C/VEGF-D and VEGFR-3 signaling pathway.
Da W, Zhu J, Wang L, Sun QCurcumin suppresses lymphatic vessel density in an in vivo human gastric cancer model.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(7):5215-23 [PubMed
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This study aimed to assess the effects of curcumin on lymphatic vessel density (LVD) in an in vivo model of gastric cancer using the gastric cancer cell line, SGC-7901. Gastric tumor-bearing nude mice were treated with saline or 40, 80, or 160 mg kg(-1) day(-1) curcumin for 8 weeks. The results indicated that the tumor volumes were significantly lower in mice treated with 80 and 160 mg kg(-1) day(-1) curcumin as compared with that of the control group (both P < 0.001). In addition, both 80 and 160 mg kg(-1) day(-1) curcumin significantly reduced LVD (both P < 0.01). Although immunohistochemical analysis showed that curcumin did not significantly alter the expression of prospero homeobox 1 (Prox-1), podoplanin, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), 160 mg kg(-1) day(-1) curcumin significantly decreased the expression of Prox-1, podoplanin, and VEGFR-3 levels as detected by Western blot analysis (P ≤ 0.03). Downregulation of lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor 1 (LYVE-1), Prox-1, podoplanin, and VEGFR-3 mRNA expression by curcumin was also detected (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, the apoptosis rates of tumor cells increased with curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner (all P < 0.001). Thus, curcumin may inhibit gastric cancer lymph node metastasis. Our findings provide theoretical evidence and an experimental basis for further analysis of the clinical application of curcumin in the therapy of gastric cancer.
BACKGROUND: Tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis facilitates breast cancer progression by generating new lymphatic vessels that serve as conduits for tumor dissemination to lymph nodes and beyond. Given the recent evidence suggesting the implication of C-C chemokine ligand 21/chemokine receptor 7 (CCL21/CCR7) in lymph node metastasis, the aim of our study was to define the role of this chemokine pair in breast cancer-associated lymphangiogenesis.
METHODS: The expression analysis of CCL21/CCR7 pair and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) markers in breast cancer specimens was performed by means of quantitative real-time PCR. By utilizing CCR7 and CCL21 gene manipulated breast cancer cell implants into orthotopic sites of nude mice, lymphatic vessel formation was assessed through quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. Finally, the lymphangiogenic potential of CCL21/CCR7 was assessed in vitro with primary LECs through separate functional assays, each attempting to mimic different stages of the lymphangiogenic process.
RESULTS: We found that CCR7 mRNA expression in human breast cancer tissues positively correlates with the expression of lymphatic endothelial markers LYVE-1, podoplanin, Prox-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). We demonstrated that the expression of CCL21/CCR7 by breast cancer cells has the ability to promote tumor-induced lymph-vascular recruitment in vivo. In vitro, CCL21/CCR7 chemokine axis regulates the expression and secretion of lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C and thereby promotes proliferation, migration, as well as tube formation of the primary human LECs. Finally, we showed that protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway is the intracellular mechanism of CCR7-mediated VEGF-C secretion by human breast cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal that CCR7 and VEGF-C display a significant crosstalk and suggest a novel role of the CCL21/CCR7 chemokine axis in the promotion of breast cancer-induced lymphangiogenesis.
Higgins J, Brogley M, Palanisamy N, et al.Interaction of the Androgen Receptor, ETV1, and PTEN Pathways in Mouse Prostate Varies with Pathological Stage and Predicts Cancer Progression.
Horm Cancer. 2015; 6(2-3):67-86 [PubMed
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To examine the impact of common somatic mutations in prostate cancer (PCa) on androgen receptor (AR) signaling, mouse models were designed to perturb sequentially the AR, ETV1, and PTEN pathways. Mice with "humanized" AR (hAR) alleles that modified AR transcriptional strength by varying polyglutamine tract (Q-tract) length were crossed with mice expressing a prostate-specific, AR-responsive ETV1 transgene (ETV1(Tg)). While hAR allele did not grossly affect ETV1-induced neoplasia, ETV1 strongly antagonized global AR regulation and repressed critical androgen-induced differentiation and tumor suppressor genes, such as Nkx3-1 and Hoxb13. When Pten was varied to determine its impact on disease progression, mice lacking one Pten allele (Pten(+/-) ) developed more frequent prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Yet, only those with the ETV1 transgene progressed to invasive adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, progression was more frequent with the short Q-tract (stronger) AR, suggesting that the AR, ETV1, and PTEN pathways cooperate in aggressive disease. On the Pten(+/-) background, ETV1 had markedly less effect on AR target genes. However, a strong inflammatory gene expression signature, notably upregulation of Cxcl16, was induced by ETV1. Comparison of mouse and human patient data stratified by the presence of E26 transformation-specific ETS fusion genes highlighted additional factors, some not previously associated with prostate cancer but for which targeted therapies are in development for other diseases. In sum, concerted use of these mouse models illuminates the complex interplay of AR, ETV1, and PTEN pathways in pre-cancerous neoplasia and early tumorigenesis, disease stages difficult to analyze in man.
Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer; the treatment of advanced and recurrent forms remains a challenge. It has recently been reported that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor is involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma. Therefore, we investigated the effects of our new GHRH antagonists on a human melanoma cancer cell line. Antiproliferative effects of GHRH antagonists, MIA-602, MIA-606 and MIA-690, on the human melanoma cell line, A-375, were studied in vitro using the MTS assay. The effect of MIA-690 (5 μg/day 28 d) was further evaluated in vivo in nude mice bearing xenografts of A-375. Subcellular localization of p27 was detected with Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. MIA-690 inhibited the proliferation of A-375 cells in a dose-dependent manner (33% at 10 μM, and 19.2% at 5 μM, P < 0 .05 vs. control), and suppressed the growth of xenografted tumors by 70.45% (P < 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle effects following the administration of MIA-690 revealed a decrease in the number of cells in G2/M phase (from 19.7% to 12.9%, P < 0.001). Additionally, Western blot and immunofluorescent studies showed that exposure of A-375 cells to MIA-690 triggered the nuclear accumulation of p27. MIA-690 inhibited tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, and increased the translocation of p27 into the nucleus thus inhibiting progression of the cell cycle. Our findings indicate that patients with malignant melanoma could benefit from treatment regimens, which combine existing chemotherapy agents and novel GHRH-antagonists.