Gene Summary

Gene:KRT8; keratin 8
Aliases: K8, KO, CK8, CK-8, CYK8, K2C8, CARD2
Summary:This gene is a member of the type II keratin family clustered on the long arm of chromosome 12. Type I and type II keratins heteropolymerize to form intermediate-sized filaments in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. The product of this gene typically dimerizes with keratin 18 to form an intermediate filament in simple single-layered epithelial cells. This protein plays a role in maintaining cellular structural integrity and also functions in signal transduction and cellular differentiation. Mutations in this gene cause cryptogenic cirrhosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:keratin, type II cytoskeletal 8
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KRT8 (cancer-related)

Nam KJ, Park H, Ko ES, et al.
Radiomics signature on 3T dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancers: Preliminary results for correlation with Oncotype DX recurrence scores.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(23):e15871 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To evaluate the ability of a radiomics signature based on 3T dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to distinguish between low and non-low Oncotype DX (OD) risk groups in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive invasive breast cancers.Between May 2011 and March 2016, 67 women with ER-positive invasive breast cancer who performed preoperative 3T MRI and OD assay were included. We divided the patients into low (OD recurrence score [RS] <18) and non-low risk (RS ≥18) groups. Extracted radiomics features included 8 morphological, 76 histogram-based, and 72 higher-order texture features. A radiomics signature (Rad-score) was generated using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between clinicopathologic factors, MRI findings, and the Rad-score with OD risk groups, and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were used to assess classification performance of the Rad-score.The Rad-score was constructed for each tumor by extracting 10 (6.3%) from 158 radiomics features. A higher Rad-score (odds ratio [OR], 65.209; P <.001), Ki-67 expression (OR, 17.462; P = .007), and high p53 (OR = 8.449; P = .077) were associated with non-low OD risk. The Rad-score classified low and non-low OD risk with an AUC of 0.759.The Rad-score showed the potential for discrimination between low and non-low OD risk groups in patients with ER-positive invasive breast cancers.

Rashid M, van der Horst M, Mentzel T, et al.
ALPK1 hotspot mutation as a driver of human spiradenoma and spiradenocarcinoma.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2213 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spiradenoma and cylindroma are distinctive skin adnexal tumors with sweat gland differentiation and potential for malignant transformation and aggressive behaviour. We present the genomic analysis of 75 samples from 57 representative patients including 15 cylindromas, 17 spiradenomas, 2 cylindroma-spiradenoma hybrid tumors, and 24 low- and high-grade spiradenocarcinoma cases, together with morphologically benign precursor regions of these cancers. We reveal somatic or germline alterations of the CYLD gene in 15/15 cylindromas and 5/17 spiradenomas, yet only 2/24 spiradenocarcinomas. Notably, we find a recurrent missense mutation in the kinase domain of the ALPK1 gene in spiradenomas and spiradenocarcinomas, which is mutually exclusive from mutation of CYLD and can activate the NF-κB pathway in reporter assays. In addition, we show that high-grade spiradenocarcinomas carry loss-of-function TP53 mutations, while cylindromas may have disruptive mutations in DNMT3A. Thus, we reveal the genomic landscape of adnexal tumors and therapeutic targets.

Yang MH, Lee JH, Ko JH, et al.
Brassinin Represses Invasive Potential of Lung Carcinoma Cells through Deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Cascade.
Molecules. 2019; 24(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenomenon that facilitates epithelial cells to acquire invasive potential to induce the initiation the metastatic spread of tumor cells. Here, we determined if brassinin (BSN) can affect the EMT process and deciphered its anti-cancer effects. BSN attenuated the levels of EMT linked genes and suppressed transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-mediated regulation of diverse mesenchymal markers. Additionally, BSN did increase the expression of various epithelial marker proteins in lung cancer cells. TGF-β-induced morphological changes and induction of invasive ability of tumor cells was also found to be abrogated by BSN treatment. Finally, BSN not only suppressed constitutive, but also inducible phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation in tumor cells.

Ferreira MA, Gamazon ER, Al-Ejeh F, et al.
Genome-wide association and transcriptome studies identify target genes and risk loci for breast cancer.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1741 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.

Chen D, An X, Ouyang X, et al.
In Vivo Pharmacology Models for Cancer Target Research.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1953:183-211 [PubMed] Related Publications
Experimental animal tumor models have been broadly used to evaluate anticancer drugs in the preclinical setting. They have also been widely applied for drug target discovery and validation, which usually follows four experimental strategies: first, assess the roles of putative drug targets using in vivo tumorigenicity and tumor growth kinetics assays of transplanted tumors, engineered through gain-of-function (GOF) by overexpressing transgene or knock-in (KI) or loss-of-function by gene silencing using knockdown (KD) or knockout (KO) or mutation via mutagenesis procedures; second, similarly genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM), through either germline or somatic cell procedures, are used to test the roles of potential targets in spontaneous tumorigenicity assays; third, patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), which most closely resemble patient genetics and histopathology, are used in tumor inhibition assays for evaluating target-/pathway-specific inhibitors, including large and small molecules, thus assessing the drug target; and fourth, the targets can be assessed in population-based trials, mouse clinical trials (MCT), so that the validation can be generally meaningful as performed in human clinical trials. This chapter outlines the commonly used protocols in cancer drug target research: the first four sections describe four sets of different, specific pharmacology protocols used in the respective cancer modeling stages, with the last section summarizing the common protocols applicable to all four pharmacology modeling steps.

Sherman-Samis M, Onallah H, Holth A, et al.
SOX2 and SOX9 are markers of clinically aggressive disease in metastatic high-grade serous carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(3):651-660 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the expression, biological role and clinical relevance of cancer stem cell markers in high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC).
METHODS: mRNA expression by qRT-PCR of NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, SOX4, SOX9, LIN28A and LIN28B was analyzed in 134 HGSC specimens (84 effusions, 50 surgical specimens). Nanog, OCT3/4, SOX2 and SOX9 protein expression by immunohistochemistry was analyzed in 52 HGSC effusions. Nanog protein expression in exosomes from 80 HGSC effusions was studied by Western Blotting. OVCAR3 cells underwent CRISPR/Cas9 Nanog knockout (KO), and the effect of Nanog KO on migration, invasion, proliferation and proteolytic activity was analyzed in OVCAR3 and OVCAR8 cells.
RESULTS: OCT4 mRNA was overexpressed in effusions compared to solid specimens (p = 0.046), whereas SOX9 was overexpressed in the ovarian tumors compared to effusions and solid metastases (p = 0.003). Higher SOX2 and SOX9 expression was associated with primary (intrinsic) chemoresistance (p = 0.009 and p = 0.02, respectively). Higher SOX9 levels were associated with shorter overall survival in univariate (p = 0.04) and multivariate (p = 0.049) analysis. OCT3/4, SOX2 and SOX9 proteins were found in HGSC cells, whereas Nanog was detected only in exosomes. Higher SOX2 protein expression was associated with shorter overall survival in univariate analysis (p = 0.049). OVCAR cells exposed to OVCAR3 NANOG KO exosomes had reduced migration, invasion and MMP9 activity.
CONCLUSIONS: SOX2 and SOX9 mRNA levels in HGSC effusions may be markers of clinically aggressive disease. Nanog is secreted in HGSC exosomes in effusions and modulates tumor-promoting cellular processes in vitro.

Fan JJ, Hsu WH, Hung HH, et al.
Reduction in MnSOD promotes the migration and invasion of squamous carcinoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(5):1639-1650 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis is maintained at a higher level in cancer cells, which promotes tumorigenesis. Oxidative stress induced by anticancer drugs may further increase ROS to promote apoptosis, but can also enhance the metastasis of cancer cells. The effects of ROS homeostasis on cancer cells remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the effect of a reduction in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) on the migration and invasion of A431 cells was investigated. Our previous micro‑assay data revealed that the mRNA expression of MnSOD was higher in the invasive A431‑III cell line compared with that in the parental A431 cell line (A431‑P). In the present study, high protein levels of MnSOD and H2O2 production were observed in A431‑III cells; however, catalase protein levels were significantly lower in A431‑III cells compared with those in the A431‑P cell line. The knockdown of MnSOD increased H2O2 levels, enzyme activity, the mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase‑1, ‑2 and ‑9, and the migratory and invasive abilities of the cells. Inducing a reduction in H2O2 using diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and N‑acetyl‑l‑cysteine decreased the migratory abilities of the cell lines, and DPI attenuated the migratory ability that had been increased by MnSOD small interfering RNA knockdown. Luteolin (Lu) and quercetin (Qu) increased the expression of catalase and reduced H2O2 levels, but without an observed change in the protein levels of MnSOD. Taken together, these data suggest that reduced MnSOD may induce ROS imbalance in cells and promote the metastatic ability of cancer cells. Lu and Qu may attenuate these processes and may be promising potential anticancer agents.

Abdelaziz M, Watanabe Y, Kato M
PMEPA1/TMEPAI knockout impairs tumour growth and lung metastasis in MDA-MB-231 cells without changing monolayer culture cell growth.
J Biochem. 2019; 165(5):411-414 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate transmembrane protein androgen-induced 1 (PMEPA1)/transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein (TMEPAI), a direct target and a negative regulator of transforming growth factor beta signalling, has an oncogenic role in many cancers. We observed that knockout (KO) of PMEPA1 in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 using a CRISPR-Cas9 system resulted in reduction of in vivo tumour growth and lung metastasis but not of in vitro monolayer growth capacity of these KO cell lines. This phenomenon was associated with PMEPA1 KO-mediated downregulation of the key proangiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor alpha (VEGFA) and interleukin-8 (IL8) that are essential for in vivo but not in vitro growing cells and are also substantial for initiation of lung metastasis.

Ko YC, Hu CY, Liu ZH, et al.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Internal tandem duplication of FLT3 juxtamembrane domain (FLT3-ITD)-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) leads to poor clinical outcomes after chemotherapy. We aimed to establish a cytarabine-resistant line from

Qiu J, Du Z, Wang Y, et al.
Weighted gene co-expression network analysis reveals modules and hub genes associated with the development of breast cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(6):e14345 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study aimed to identify modules associated with breast cancer (BC) development by constructing a gene co-expression network, and mining hub genes that may serve as markers of invasive breast cancer (IBC).We downloaded 2 gene expression datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and used weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to dynamically study the changes of co-expression genes in normal breast tissues, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) tissues, and IBC tissues. Modules that highly correlated with BC development were carried out functional enrichment analysis for annotation, visualization, and integration discovery. The hub genes detected by WGCNA were also confirmed using the Oncomine dataset.We detected 17 transcriptional modules in total and 4 - namely tan, greenyellow, turquoise, and brown - were highly correlated with BC development. The functions of these 4 modules mainly concerned cell migration (tan module, P = 3.03 × 10), the cell cycle (greenyellow module, P = 3.08 × 10), cell-cell adhesion (turquoise module, P = .002), and the extracellular exosome (brown module, P = 1.38 × 10). WGCNA also mined the hub genes, which were highly correlated with the genes in the same module and with BC development. The Oncomine database confirmed that the expressions levels of 6 hub genes were significantly higher in BC tissues than in normal tissues, with fold changes larger than 2 (all P < .05). Apart from the 2 well-known genes EPCAM and MELK, during the development of BC, KRT8, KRT19, KPNA2, and ECT2 also play key roles, and may be used as new targets for the detection or treatment of BC.In summary, our study demonstrated that hub genes such as EPCAM and MELK are highly correlated with breast cancer development. However, KRT8, KRT19, KPNA2, and ECT2 may also have potential as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of IBC.

Penrose HM, Cable C, Heller S, et al.
Loss of Forkhead Box O3 Facilitates Inflammatory Colon Cancer: Transcriptome Profiling of the Immune Landscape and Novel Targets.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019; 7(2):391-408 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diminished forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) function drives inflammation and cancer growth; however, mechanisms fostering these pathobiologies are unclear. Here, we aimed to identify in colon loss of FOXO3-dependent cellular and molecular changes that facilitate inflammation-mediated tumor growth.
METHODS: FOXO3 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were used in the AOM/DSS model of inflammation-mediated colon cancer. Bioinformatics were used for profiling of mRNA sequencing data from human and mouse colon and tumors; specific targets were validated in human colon cancer cells (shFOXO3).
RESULTS: In mice, FOXO3 deficiency led to significantly elevated colonic tumor burden (incidence and size) compared with WT (P < .05). In FOXO3 KO colon, activated molecular pathways overlapped with those associated with mouse and human colonic inflammation and cancer, especially human colonic tumors with inflammatory microsatellite instability (false discovery rate < 0.05). FOXO3 KO colon, similar to tumors, had increased neutrophils, macrophages, B cells, T cells, and decreased natural killer cells (false discovery rate < 0.05). Moreover, in KO colon differentially expressed transcripts were linked to activation of inflammatory nuclear factor kappa B, tumorigenic cMyc, and bacterial Toll-like receptor signaling. Among differentially expressed transcripts, we validated altered expression of integrin subunit alpha 2 (ITGA2), ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 12, and ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 5 in mouse WT and FOXO3 KO colon and tumors (P < .05). Similarly, their altered expression was found in human inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer tissues and linked to poor patient survival. Ultimately, in human colon cancer cells, FOXO3 knockdown (shFOXO3) led to significantly increased ITGA2, and silencing ITGA2 (siRNA) alone diminished cell growth.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified the loss of FOXO3-mediated immune landscape, pathways, and transcripts that could serve as biomarkers and new targets for inflammatory colon cancer treatment.

Kim TM, Ko YH, Ha SJ, Lee HH
Impact of in vitro driven expression signatures of CD133 stem cell marker and tumor stroma on clinical outcomes in gastric cancers.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):119 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The CD133 transmembrane protein is a well-recognized stem cell marker that has been used to isolate putative cancer stem cell populations from gastric cancers (GCs). However, the molecular features or biomarkers underlying CD133 are largely unknown in GCs.
METHODS: We performed gene expression profiling of CD133+ and CD133- cells sorted by flow cytometry from three GC cell lines to identify the CD133 expression signatures of GC. The CD133 expression signatures were investigated across publicly available expression profiles of multiple tumor types including GC and also for their relationship with patient survival.
RESULTS: The CD133 signature genes defined as 177 upregulated genes and 129 downregulated genes in CD133+ cells compared to CD133- cells were enriched with genes involving the cell cycle and cytoskeleton, implying that cancer stem cells with unlimited self-renewal play cancer-initiating roles. The CD133 expression signatures in GC expression profiles were positively correlated with those of brain tumors expressing CD133 and human embryonic stem cells, emphasizing the transcriptional similarities across stem cell-related expression signatures. We also found that these stem cell expression signatures were inversely correlated with those representing tumor infiltrating immune and stromal cells. Additionally, high CD133 expression signatures were found in intestinal subtypes and low tumor stage GCs as well as in those with microsatellite instabilities and high mutation burdens. As examined across 20 additional tumor types, both the expression signatures representing CD133 and stromal cells were unfavorable prognostic features; however, their impact were variable across tumor types.
CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptional activities of CD133 and those of stromal cells representing the activity of stem cells and level of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, respectively, may be inversely correlated with each other across multiple tumor types including GC. This relationship may be a confounding factor and should therefore be considered when evaluating the clinical relevance of stem cell-related markers.

Yahata T, Mizoguchi M, Kimura A, et al.
Programmed cell death ligand 1 disruption by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-genome editing promotes antitumor immunity and suppresses ovarian cancer progression.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(4):1279-1292 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells suppresses anti-tumor immunity and has an unfavorable prognostic impact in ovarian cancer patients. We herein report the pathophysiological and therapeutic impacts of PD-L1 disruption in ovarian cancer. PD-L1 was genetically disrupted in the murine ovarian cancer cell line ID8 using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated genome editing. PD-L1 knockout (KO) and control ovarian cancer cells were intraperitoneally inoculated into syngeneic mice, and survival and tumor dissemination were evaluated. Survival times were significantly longer in the PD-L1-KO ID8-inoculated groups than in their control groups, and its therapeutic benefit was enhanced in combination with the cisplatin treatment. Tumor weights and ascites volumes were significantly lower in the PD-L1-KO ID8 groups than in their control groups. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses showed that intratumoral CD4

Chu CW, Ko HJ, Chou CH, et al.
Thioridazine Enhances P62-Mediated Autophagy and Apoptosis Through Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Glioma Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Thioridazine (THD) is a common phenothiazine antipsychotic drug reported to suppress growth in several types of cancer cells. We previously showed that THD acts as an antiglioblastoma and anticancer stem-like cell agent. However, the signaling pathway underlying autophagy and apoptosis induction remains unclear. THD treatment significantly induced autophagy with upregulated AMPK activity and engendered cell death with increased sub-G1 in glioblastoma multiform (GBM) cell lines. Notably, through whole gene expression screening with THD treatment, frizzled (Fzd) proteins, a family of G-protein-coupled receptors, were found, suggesting the participation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. After THD treatment, Fzd-1 and GSK3β-S9 phosphorylation (inactivated form) was reduced to promote β-catenin degradation, which attenuated P62 inhibition. The autophagy marker LC3-II markedly increased when P62 was released from β-catenin inhibition. Additionally, the P62-dependent caspase-8 activation that induced P53-independent apoptosis was confirmed by inhibiting T-cell factor/β-catenin and autophagy flux. Moreover, treatment with THD combined with temozolomide (TMZ) engendered increased LC3-II expression and caspase-3 activity, indicating promising drug synergism. In conclusion, THD induces autophagy in GBM cells by not only upregulating AMPK activity, but also enhancing P62-mediated autophagy and apoptosis through Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Therefore, THD is a potential alternative therapeutic agent for drug repositioning in GBM.

Lin CL, Tsai ML, Lin CY, et al.
HDAC1 and HDAC2 Double Knockout Triggers Cell Apoptosis in Advanced Thyroid Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) and squamous thyroid carcinoma (STC) are both rare and advanced thyroid malignancies with a very poor prognosis and an average median survival time of 5 months and less than 20% of affected patients are alive 1 year after diagnosis. The clinical management of both ATC and STC is very similar because they are not particularly responsive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This inspired us to explore a novel and effective clinically approved therapy for ATC treatment. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) drugs are recently FDA-approved drug for malignancies, especially for blood cell cancers. Therefore, we investigated whether an HDACi drug acts as an effective anticancer drug for advanced thyroid cancers. Cell viability analysis of panobinostat treatment demonstrated a significant IC50 of 0.075 µM on SW579 STC cells. In addition, panobinostat exposure activated histone acetylation and triggered cell death mainly through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-related protein activation. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to knock out

Wu YF, Ou CC, Chien PJ, et al.
Chidamide-induced ROS accumulation and miR-129-3p-dependent cell cycle arrest in non-small lung cancer cells.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 56:94-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic therapy is a promising popular treatment modality for various cancers. Histone modification and miRNA should not be underestimated in lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate whether chidamide, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), which inhibits telomerase activity and induces cell cycle arrest, influences ROS and miRNA production in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.
METHODS: H1355 and A549 were treated with chidamide. The analysis of DNA content was measured by FACSCalibur equipped with a 488 nm laser. H1355 cells were transfected with miR-129-3p mimic by Lipofectamine2000. Telomerase activity was performed on the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Detection of thymidylate synthase (TS), p21, p53, pRB, and β-actin, were performed by western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Our data showed that expression of TS, p21, and pRB were altered in the presence of chidamide by PCR and western blot. Using BrdU-incorporation analysis, we found that chidamide induced G1 arrest through the regulation of the TS gene by miR-129-3p. Chidamide was shown to suppress telomerase activity in the TRAP assay and reduced the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) by PCR and q-PCR in H1355 and A549 cells. Chidamide increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by flow cytometry. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, attenuated chidamide-induced telomerase activity inhibition.
CONCLUSION: Chidamide repressed telomerase activity through ROS accumulation and cell cycle arrest by miR-129-3p upregulation in both H1355 and A549 cells. This is the first study to demonstrate that chidamide induces miR-129-3p upregulation and ROS accumulation, leading to cell cycle arrest.

Baechler SA, Factor VM, Dalla Rosa I, et al.
The mitochondrial type IB topoisomerase drives mitochondrial translation and carcinogenesis.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mitochondrial topoisomerase IB (TOP1MT) is a nuclear-encoded topoisomerase, exclusively localized to mitochondria, which resolves topological stress generated during mtDNA replication and transcription. Here, we report that TOP1MT is overexpressed in cancer tissues and demonstrate that TOP1MT deficiency attenuates tumor growth in human and mouse models of colon and liver cancer. Due to their mitochondrial dysfunction, TOP1MT-KO cells become addicted to glycolysis, which limits synthetic building blocks and energy supply required for the proliferation of cancer cells in a nutrient-deprived tumor microenvironment. Mechanistically, we show that TOP1MT associates with mitoribosomal subunits, ensuring optimal mitochondrial translation and assembly of oxidative phosphorylation complexes that are critical for sustaining tumor growth. The TOP1MT genomic signature profile, based on Top1mt-KO liver cancers, is correlated with enhanced survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Our results highlight the importance of TOP1MT for tumor development, providing a potential rationale to develop TOP1MT-targeted drugs as anticancer therapies.

Han Z, Kang D, Joo Y, et al.
TGF-β downregulation-induced cancer cell death is finely regulated by the SAPK signaling cascade.
Exp Mol Med. 2018; 50(12):162 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling is increasingly recognized as a key driver in cancer. In progressive cancer tissues, TGF-β promotes tumor formation, and its increased expression often correlates with cancer malignancy. In this study, we utilized adenoviruses expressing short hairpin RNAs against TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 to investigate the role of TGF-β downregulation in cancer cell death. We found that the downregulation of TGF-β increased the phosphorylation of several SAPKs, such as p38 and JNK. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also increased by TGF-β downregulation, which triggered Akt inactivation and NOX4 increase-derived ROS in a cancer cell-type-specific manner. We also revealed the possibility of substantial gene fluctuation in response to TGF-β downregulation related to SAPKs. The expression levels of Trx and GSTM1, which encode inhibitory proteins that bind to ASK1, were reduced, likely a result of the altered translocation of Smad complex proteins rather than from ROS production. Instead, both ROS and ROS-mediated ER stress were responsible for the decrease in interactions between ASK1 and Trx or GSTM1. Through these pathways, ASK1 was activated and induced cytotoxic tumor cell death via p38/JNK activation and (or) induction of ER stress.

Pessolano E, Belvedere R, Bizzarro V, et al.
Annexin A1 May Induce Pancreatic Cancer Progression as a Key Player of Extracellular Vesicles Effects as Evidenced in the In Vitro MIA PaCa-2 Model System.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic Cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies worldwide. As annexin A1 (ANXA1) is implicated in the establishment of tumour metastasis, the role of the protein in PC progression as a component of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been investigated. EVs were isolated from wild type (WT) and ANXA1 knock-out (KO) PC cells and then characterised by multiple approaches including Western blotting, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Dynamic Light Scattering. The effects of ANXA1 on tumour aggressiveness were investigated by Wound-Healing and invasion assays and microscopic analysis of the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). The role of ANXA1 on angiogenesis was also examined in endothelial cells, using similar approaches. We found that WT cells released more EVs enriched in exosomes than those from cells lacking ANXA1. Notably, ANXA1 KO cells recovered their metastatic potential only when treated by WT EVs as they underwent EMT and a significant increase of motility. Similarly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) migrated and invaded more rapidly when treated by WT EVs whereas ANXA1 KO EVs weakly induced angiogenesis. This study suggests that EVs-related ANXA1 is able to promote cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis, confirming the relevance of this protein in PC progression.

Barkeer S, Chugh S, Karmakar S, et al.
Novel role of O-glycosyltransferases GALNT3 and B3GNT3 in the self-renewal of pancreatic cancer stem cells.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1157 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glycosylation plays a critical role in the aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer (PC). Emerging evidences indicate significant involvement of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in PC aggressiveness. However, the importance of glycosylation in pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) is yet to be addressed. Hence, we evaluated the potential role of glycosylation in maintenance of stemness of PCSCs.
METHODS: Effect of glycosylation specific inhibitors on growth and PCSCs of PC cells was assessed by MTT assay and Side Population (SP) analysis. Isolated PCSCs/SP were characterized using molecular and functional assays. Expression of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) was analyzed in PCSCs by western blotting. Effect of tunicamycin on PCSCs was analyzed by tumorsphere, clonogenicity, migration assay and immunoblotting for CSCs markers. The differential expression of glycogenes in PCSCs compared to non-CSCs were determined by RT-qPCR, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Co-expression of GALNT3 and B3GNT3 with CD44v6 was assessed in progression stages of Kras
RESULTS: Inhibition of glycosylation decreased growth and CSCs/SP in PC cells. PCSCs overexpressed CSC markers (CD44v6, ESA, SOX2, SOX9 and ABCG2), exhibited global expressional variation of TACAs and showed higher self-renewal potential. Specifically, N-glycosylation inhibition, significantly decreased tumorsphere formation, migration, and clonogenicity of PCSCs, as well as hypo-glycosylated CD44v6 and ESA. Of note, glycosyltransferases (GFs), GALNT3 and B3GNT3, were significantly overexpressed in PCSCs and co-expressed with CD44v6 at advanced PDAC stages in KC and KPC tumors. Further, GALNT3 and B3GNT3 knockdown led to a decrease in the expression of cell surface markers (CD44v6 and ESA) and self-renewal markers (SOX2 and OCT3/4) in PCSCs. Interestingly, CD44v6 was modified with sialyl Lewis a in PCSCs. Finally, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated GALNT3 KO significantly decreased self-renewal, clonogenicity, and migratory capacity in PCSCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, for the first time, our study showed the importance of glycosylation in mediating growth, stemness, and maintenance of PCSCs. These results indicate that elevated GALNT3 and B3GNT3 expression in PCSCs regulate stemness through modulating CSC markers.

Yuza K, Nakajima M, Nagahashi M, et al.
Different Roles of Sphingosine Kinase 1 and 2 in Pancreatic Cancer Progression.
J Surg Res. 2018; 232:186-194 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is a disease with poor prognosis, and development of new treatments is necessary. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid mediator produced by sphingosine kinases (SphK1 and SphK2), plays a critical role in progression of many types of cancer. However, little is known about the role of sphingosine kinases in pancreatic cancer. This study investigated the roles of sphingosine kinases in pancreatic cancer progression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: S1P levels in pancreatic cancer and noncancerous pancreatic tissue were measured in 10 patients. We generated PAN02 murine pancreatic cancer cell lines with a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system genes 9 (Cas9)-mediated deletion of SphK1 or SphK2 and assessed cell growth and migration. In an animal model, we assessed the survival of mice injected with PAN02 cells intraperitoneally.
RESULTS: S1P levels in the pancreatic cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in noncancerous tissue. SphK1 knockout (KO) cells showed greater proliferation and migration than wild type (WT) cells, and SphK2 KO cells showed less proliferation and migration than WT cells. Animal experiments showed that the survival of mice injected with SphK1 KO cells was significantly shorter than those injected with WT cells, and the survival of mice injected with SphK2 KO cells was longer than those injected with WT cells. Surprisingly, cytotoxic assay using gemcitabine showed that SphK1 KO cells survived less than WT cells, and SphK2 KO cells survived more than WT cells.
CONCLUSIONS: S1P produced by SphK1 and SphK2 may have different functions in pancreatic cancer cells. Targeting both SphK1 and SphK2 may be a potential strategy for pancreatic cancer treatment.

Hung WY, Chang JH, Cheng Y, et al.
Leukocyte Cell-Derived Chemotaxin 2 Retards Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Progression Through Antagonizing MET and EGFR Activities.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(1):337-355 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy is a clinical option for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring activating EGFR mutations or for cancer with wild-type (WT) EGFR when chemotherapy has failed. MET receptor activation or MET gene amplification was reported to be a major mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy in NSCLC cells. Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) is a multifunctional cytokine that was shown to suppress metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma via inhibiting MET activity. Until now, the biological function responsible for LECT2's action in human NSCLC remains unclear.
METHODS: LECT2-knockout (KO) mice and NOD/SCID/IL2rgnull (NSG) mice were respectively used to investigate the effects of LECT2 on the tumorigenicity and metastasis of murine (Lewis lung carcinoma, LLC) and human (HCC827) lung cancer cells. The effect of LECT2 on in vitro cell proliferation was evaluated, using MTS and colony formation assays. The effect of LECT2 on cell motility was evaluated using transwell migration and invasion assays. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect secreted LECT2 in plasma and media. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot assays were used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of LECT2 in NSCLC cells.
RESULTS: Compared to WT mice, mice with LECT2 deletion exhibited enhanced growth and metastasis of LLC cells, and survival times decreased in LLC-implanted mice. Overexpression of LECT2 in orthotopic human HCC827 xenografts in NSG mice resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. In vitro, overexpression of LECT2 or treatment with a recombinant LECT2 protein impaired the colony-forming ability and motility of NSCLC cells (HCC827 and PC9) harboring high levels of activated EGFR and MET. Mechanistic investigations found that LECT2 bound to MET and EGFR to antagonize their activation and further suppress their common downstream pathways: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
CONCLUSION: EGFR-MET signaling is critical for aggressive behaviors of NSCLC and is recognized as a therapeutic target for NSCLC especially for patients with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that LECT2 functions as a suppressor of the progression of NSCLC by targeting EGFR-MET signaling.

Lee M, Ko H, Yun M
Cancer Metabolism as a Mechanism of Treatment Resistance and Potential Therapeutic Target in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Yonsei Med J. 2018; 59(10):1143-1149 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Various molecular targeted therapies and diagnostic modalities have been developed for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, HCC still remains a difficult malignancy to cure. Recently, the focus has shifted to cancer metabolism for the diagnosis and treatment of various cancers, including HCC. In addition to conventional diagnostics, the measurement of enhanced tumor cell metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) for increased glycolysis or C-11 acetate for fatty acid synthesis by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is well established for clinical management of HCC. Unlike tumors displaying the Warburg effect, HCCs vary substantially in terms of 18F-FDG uptake, which considerably reduces the sensitivity for tumor detection. Accordingly, C-11 acetate has been proposed as a complementary radiotracer for detecting tumors that are not identified by 18F-FDG. In addition to HCC diagnosis, since the degree of 18F-FDG uptake converted to standardized uptake value (SUV) correlates well with tumor aggressiveness, 18F-FDG PET/CT scans can predict patient outcomes such as treatment response and survival with an inverse relationship between SUV and survival. The loss of tumor suppressor genes or activation of oncogenes plays an important role in promoting HCC development, and might be involved in the "metabolic reprogramming" of cancer cells. Mutations in various genes such as

Kim SH, Cha MK, Kang CI, et al.
Pathogenic significance of hemorrhagic pneumonia in hematologic malignancy patients with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia: clinical and microbiological analysis.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019; 38(2):285-295 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hemorrhagic pneumonia (HP) is known as the clinical manifestation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection, while catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) is the common clinical presentation of S. maltophilia bacteremia (SMB). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk factors for mortality in hematologic malignancy patients with SMB and to analyze clinical and microbiological characteristics of HP associated with SMB and CRBSI. SMB cases of patients with a hematologic malignancy were collected from 2006 through 2016. The overall 30-day mortality rate and mortality risk factors were assessed. The expression of major virulence-associated genes from S. maltophilia isolates, which included genes encoding type-1 fimbriae (smf-1), proteases (StmPr1 and StmPr2), and esterase (Smlt3773), from the blood of patients with HP and CRBSI was investigated. The phenotypic and genotypic traits were also compared. A total of 118 cases of SMB were included. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 61.0%. A multivariable analysis showed that HP was the most important risk factor for mortality (adjusted OR = 106.41; 95% CI = 5.18-2184.55). Although no statistical significance was observed in microbiological analysis, isolates from HP have a trend toward a higher protease activity (93.8% vs. 73.3%, P = 0.172). Clinical analysis showed that thrombocytopenia (P = 0.037) and prolonged neutropenia (P = 0.043) were significant factors associated with HP. Our data, which includes hematologic malignancy patients with SMB, suggest that HP is the significant risk factor for mortality and that the unique characteristics of patients and microbes contribute to the pathogenesis.

Wahiduzzaman M, Karnan S, Ota A, et al.
Establishment and characterization of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated NF2
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(1):180-193 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a highly refractory tumor, is currently incurable due to the lack of an early diagnosis method and medication, both of which are urgently needed to improve the survival and/or quality of life of patients. NF2 is a tumor suppressor gene and is frequently mutated in MPM. Using a CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated an NF2-knockout human mesothelial cell line, MeT-5A (NF2-KO). In NF2-KO cell clones, cell growth, clonogenic activity, migration activity, and invasion activity significantly increased compared with those in NF2-WT cell clones. Complementary DNA microarray analysis clearly revealed the differences in global gene expression profile between NF2-WT and NF2-KO cell clones. Quantitative PCR analysis and western blot analysis showed that the upregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) was concomitant with the increases in phosphorylation levels of JNK, c-Jun, and retinoblastoma (Rb) in NF2-KO cell clones. These increases were all abrogated by the exogenous expression of NF2 in the NF2-KO clone. In addition, the disruption of FGFR2 in the NF2-KO cell clone suppressed cell proliferation as well as the phosphorylation levels of JNK, c-Jun, and Rb. Notably, FGFR2 was found to be highly expressed in NF2-negative human mesothelioma tissues (11/12 cases, 91.7%) but less expressed in NF2-positive tissues. Collectively, these findings suggest that NF2 deficiency might play a role in the tumorigenesis of human mesothelium through mediating FGFR2 expression; FGFR2 would be a candidate molecule to develop therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for targeting MPM with NF2 loss.

Lin W, Yip YL, Jia L, et al.
Establishment and characterization of new tumor xenografts and cancer cell lines from EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4663 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The lack of representative nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) models has seriously hampered research on EBV carcinogenesis and preclinical studies in NPC. Here we report the successful growth of five NPC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) from fifty-eight attempts of transplantation of NPC specimens into NOD/SCID mice. The take rates for primary and recurrent NPC are 4.9% and 17.6%, respectively. Successful establishment of a new EBV-positive NPC cell line, NPC43, is achieved directly from patient NPC tissues by including Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases inhibitor (Y-27632) in culture medium. Spontaneous lytic reactivation of EBV can be observed in NPC43 upon withdrawal of Y-27632. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) reveals a close similarity in mutational profiles of these NPC PDXs with their corresponding patient NPC. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) further delineates the genomic landscape and sequences of EBV genomes in these newly established NPC models, which supports their potential use in future studies of NPC.

Park PG, Park E, Hyun HS, et al.
Cutaneous Skeletal Hypophosphatemia Syndrome in Association with a Mosaic
Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2018; 48(5):665-669 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent molecular genetic studies have revealed that Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome (SFMS), which presents as sebaceous nevi, is a mosaic RASopathy caused by postzygotic somatic activating mutations in

Yang H, Hong D, Cho SY, et al.
RhoGAP domain-containing fusions and PPAPDC1A fusions are recurrent and prognostic in diffuse gastric cancer.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4439 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We conducted an RNA sequencing study to identify novel gene fusions in 80 discovery dataset tumors collected from young patients with diffuse gastric cancer (DGC). Twenty-five in-frame fusions are associated with DGC, three of which (CLDN18-ARHGAP26, CTNND1-ARHGAP26, and ANXA2-MYO9A) are recurrent in 384 DGCs based on RT-PCR. All three fusions contain a RhoGAP domain in their 3' partner genes. Patients with one of these three fusions have a significantly worse prognosis than those without. Ectopic expression of CLDN18-ARHGAP26 promotes the migration and invasion capacities of DGC cells. Parallel targeted RNA sequencing analysis additionally identifies TACC2-PPAPDC1A as a recurrent and poor prognostic in-frame fusion. Overall, PPAPDC1A fusions and in-frame fusions containing a RhoGAP domain clearly define the aggressive subset (7.5%) of DGCs, and their prognostic impact is greater than, and independent of, chromosomal instability and CDH1 mutations. Our study may provide novel genomic insights guiding future strategies for managing DGCs.

Oh TI, Jung HJ, Lee YM, et al.
Zerumbone, a Tropical Ginger Sesquiterpene of
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Zerumbone (ZER), an active constituent of the Zingiberaceae family, has been shown to exhibit several biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer; however, it has not been studied for anti-melanogenic properties. In the present study, we demonstrate that ZER and

Ko CJ, Myung P, Leffell DJ, Bourdon JC
Cutaneous immunohistochemical staining pattern of p53β isoforms.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(12):1120-1122 [PubMed] Related Publications
p53 is considered the guardian of the genome and as such has numerous functions. The

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