Gene Summary

Gene:ITGA1; integrin subunit alpha 1
Aliases: VLA1, CD49a
Summary:This gene encodes the alpha 1 subunit of integrin receptors. This protein heterodimerizes with the beta 1 subunit to form a cell-surface receptor for collagen and laminin. The heterodimeric receptor is involved in cell-cell adhesion and may play a role in inflammation and fibrosis. The alpha 1 subunit contains an inserted (I) von Willebrand factor type I domain which is thought to be involved in collagen binding. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:integrin alpha-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019

Cancer Overview

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Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: ITGA1 (cancer-related)

Ding L, Shunkwiler LB, Harper NW, et al.
Deletion of Cdkn1b in ACI rats leads to increased proliferation and pregnancy-associated changes in the mammary gland due to perturbed systemic endocrine environment.
PLoS Genet. 2019; 15(3):e1008002 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mammary epithelial progenitors are the normal cell-of-origin of breast cancer. We previously defined a population of p27+ quiescent hormone-responsive progenitor cells in the normal human breast whose frequency associates with breast cancer risk. Here, we describe that deletion of the Cdkn1b gene encoding the p27 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in the estrogen-induced mammary tumor-susceptible ACI rat strain leads to a decrease in the relative frequencies of Cd49b+ mammary luminal epithelial progenitors and pregnancy-related differentiation. We show by comprehensive gene expression profiling of purified progenitor and differentiated mammary epithelial cell populations that p27 deletion has the most pronounced effects on luminal progenitors. Cdkn1b-/- females have decreased fertility, but rats that are able to get pregnant had normal litter size and were able to nurse their pups implying that loss of p27 in ACI rats does not completely abrogate ovarian function and lactation. Reciprocal mammary gland transplantation experiments indicate that the p27-loss-induced changes in mammary epithelial cells are not only caused by alterations in their intrinsic properties, but are likely due to altered hormonal signaling triggered by the perturbed systemic endocrine environment observed in Cdkn1b-/- females. We also observed a decrease in the frequency of mammary epithelial cells positive for progesterone receptor (Pr) and FoxA1, known direct transcriptional targets of the estrogen receptor (Erα), and an increase in phospho-Stat5 positive cells commonly induced by prolactin (Prl). Characterization of genome-wide Pr chromatin binding revealed distinct binding patterns in mammary epithelial cells of Cdkn1b+/+ and Cdkn1b-/- females and enrichment in genes with known roles in Notch, ErbB, leptin, and Erα signaling and regulation of G1-S transition. Our data support a role for p27 in regulating the pool size of hormone-responsive luminal progenitors that could impact breast cancer risk.

Boudjadi S, Carrier JC, Beaulieu JF
Identification of Response Elements on Promoters Using Site-Directed Mutagenesis and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation.
Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1765:43-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proximal promoters are located upstream of the transcription start sites of genes, and they contain regulatory sequences on which bind different transcription factors for promoting colorectal cancer progression. Here we describe the comprehensive methodology used previously for the identification and functional characterization of MYC-responsive elements in the integrin α1 subunit (ITGA1) gene using a combination of in silico analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation.

Shah F, Goossens E, Atallah NM, et al.
APE1/Ref-1 knockdown in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma - characterizing gene expression changes and identifying novel pathways using single-cell RNA sequencing.
Mol Oncol. 2017; 11(12):1711-1732 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1 or APE1) is a multifunctional protein that regulates numerous transcription factors associated with cancer-related pathways. Because APE1 is essential for cell viability, generation of APE1-knockout cell lines and determining a comprehensive list of genes regulated by APE1 has not been possible. To circumvent this challenge, we utilized single-cell RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in relation to APE1 protein levels within the cell. Using a straightforward yet novel statistical design, we identified 2837 genes whose expression is significantly changed following APE1 knockdown. Using this gene expression profile, we identified multiple new pathways not previously linked to APE1, including the EIF2 signaling and mechanistic target of Rapamycin pathways and a number of mitochondrial-related pathways. We demonstrate that APE1 has an effect on modifying gene expression up to a threshold of APE1 expression, demonstrating that it is not necessary to completely knockout APE1 in cells to accurately study APE1 function. We validated the findings using a selection of the DEGs along with siRNA knockdown and qRT-PCR. Testing additional patient-derived pancreatic cancer cells reveals particular genes (ITGA1, TNFAIP2, COMMD7, RAB3D) that respond to APE1 knockdown similarly across all the cell lines. Furthermore, we verified that the redox function of APE1 was responsible for driving gene expression of mitochondrial genes such as PRDX5 and genes that are important for proliferation such as SIPA1 and RAB3D by treating with APE1 redox-specific inhibitor, APX3330. Our study identifies several novel genes and pathways affected by APE1, as well as tumor subtype specificity. These findings will allow for hypothesis-driven approaches to generate combination therapies using, for example, APE1 inhibitor APX3330 with other approved FDA drugs in an innovative manner for pancreatic and other cancer treatments.

Gharibi A, La Kim S, Molnar J, et al.
ITGA1 is a pre-malignant biomarker that promotes therapy resistance and metastatic potential in pancreatic cancer.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):10060 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has single-digit 5-year survival rates at <7%. There is a dire need to improve pre-malignant detection methods and identify new therapeutic targets for abrogating PDAC progression. To this end, we mined our previously published pseudopodium-enriched (PDE) protein/phosphoprotein datasets to identify novel PDAC-specific biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets. We discovered that integrin alpha 1 (ITGA1) is frequently upregulated in pancreatic cancers and associated precursor lesions. Expression of ITGA1-specific collagens within the pancreatic cancer microenvironment significantly correlates with indicators of poor patient prognosis, and depleting ITGA1 from PDAC cells revealed that it is required for collagen-induced tumorigenic potential. Notably, collagen/ITGA1 signaling promotes the survival of ALDH1-positive stem-like cells and cooperates with TGFβ to drive gemcitabine resistance. Finally, we report that ITGA1 is required for TGFβ/collagen-induced EMT and metastasis. Our data suggest that ITGA1 is a new diagnostic biomarker and target that can be leveraged to improve patient outcomes.

Gao Y, Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes F, Bald T, et al.
Tumor immunoevasion by the conversion of effector NK cells into type 1 innate lymphoid cells.
Nat Immunol. 2017; 18(9):1004-1015 [PubMed] Related Publications
Avoiding destruction by immune cells is a hallmark of cancer, yet how tumors ultimately evade control by natural killer (NK) cells remains incompletely defined. Using global transcriptomic and flow-cytometry analyses and genetically engineered mouse models, we identified the cytokine-TGF-β-signaling-dependent conversion of NK cells (CD49a

Liu X, Tian H, Li H, et al.
Derivate Isocorydine (d-ICD) Suppresses Migration and Invasion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell by Downregulating ITGA1 Expression.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In our previous studies, we found that isocorydine (ICD) could be a potential antitumor agent in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Derivate isocorydine (d-ICD), a more effective antitumor agent, has been demonstrated to inhibit proliferation and drug resistance in HCC. In order to investigate the potential role of d-ICD on HCC cell migration and its possible mechanism, wound healing assay, trans-well invasion assay, western blot analysis, and qRT-PCR were performed to study the migration and invasion ability of HCC cells as well as relevant molecular alteration following d-ICD treatment. Results indicated that the migration and invasion ability of HCC cells were suppressed when cultured with d-ICD. Meanwhile, the expression level of

Ju JA, Godet I, Ye IC, et al.
Hypoxia Selectively Enhances Integrin α
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(6):723-734 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer mortality. Previous studies have implicated hypoxia-induced changes in the composition and stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the metastatic process. Therefore, the contribution of potential ECM-binding receptors in this process was explored. Using a bioinformatics approach, the expression of all integrin receptor subunits, in two independent breast cancer patient datasets, were analyzed to determine whether integrin status correlates with a validated hypoxia-inducible gene signature. Subsequently, a large panel of breast cancer cell lines was used to validate that hypoxia induces the expression of integrins that bind to collagen (ITGA1, ITGA11, ITGB1) and fibronectin (ITGA5, ITGB1). Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1 and HIF-2) are directly required for ITGA5 induction under hypoxic conditions, which leads to enhanced migration and invasion of single cells within a multicellular 3D tumor spheroid but did not affect migration in a 2D microenvironment. ITGB1 expression requires HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α, for hypoxic induction in breast cancer cells. ITGA5 (α

Mao D, Lei S, Ma J, et al.
[Effect of jianpi-jiedu formula on tumor angiogenesis-relevant genes expression in colorectal cancer].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2016; 41(12):1297-1304 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the jianpi-jiedu formula (JPJD) on the expression of angiogenesis-relevant genes in colon cancer.
 Methods: Crude extract was obtained from JPJD by water extract method. The effect of JPJD crude extract on colon cancer cell proliferation capacity was determined by MTT assays. The IC50 value was calculated by GraphPad Prism5 software. Affymetrix gene expression profiling chip was used to detect significant differences in expressions of genes after JPJD intervention, and pathway enrichment analysis was performed to analyze the differentially expressed genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software was applied to analyze differentially expressed genes relevant to tumor angiogenesis based on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and then the network diagram was built. Western blot was used to verify the protein levels of key genes related to tumor angiogenesis.
 Results: JPJD crud extract inhibited the proliferation capacity in colon cancer cells. The IC50 values in 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment were 13.060, 9.646 and 8.448 mg/mL, respectively. The results of chip showed that 218 genes significantly upgraded, and 252 genes significantly downgraded after JPJD treatment. Most of the genes were related to the function of biosynthesis, metabolism, cell apoptosis, antigen extraction, angiogenesis and so on. There were 12 differentially expressed angiogenesis genes. IPA software analysis showed that the JPJD downregulated expression of sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 (SMPD3), VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), integrin subunit alpha 1 (ITGA1), cathepsin B (CTSB), and cathepsin S (CTSS) genes, while upregulated expressions of GAB2 and plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor (PLAUR) genes in the colorectal cancer cell. Western blot results demonstrated that JPJD obviously downregulated expressions of phospho-mTOR (P-mTOR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), and VEGF proteins, while obviously upregulated the level of phospho-P53 (P-P53) protein.
 Conclusion: JPJD may inhibit colorectal tumor angiogenesis through regulation of the mTOR-HIF-1α-VEGF signal pathway.

Liu Y, Zhang J, Yu W, et al.
Dapper homolog 1 alpha suppresses metastasis ability of gastric cancer through inhibiting planar cell polarity pathway.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(49):81423-81434 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dapper homolog 1 alpha (DACT1α) is a member of DACT family and an important regulator in the planar cell polarity pathway. We aim to clarify its functional role in metastasis ability of gastric cancer. DACT1α was silenced in all gastric cancer cell lines (8/8), but expressed in normal gastric tissue. Ectopic expression of DACT1α in silenced gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, BGC823 and MGC803) by stable transfection significantly suppressed cancer cell spreading (P < 0.05), migration (P < 0.01) and invasion (P < 0.01). These effects were associated with downregulation of planar cell polarity pathway related genes involved in cell proliferation (PDGFB, VEGFA), adhesion (ITGA1, ITGA2, ITGA3, ITGB3) and migration/invasion (PLAU, MMP9, MCAM, Dvl-2 and JNK). DACT1α promoter methylation was detected in 205 gastric cancers and 20 normal controls by direct bisulfite genomic sequencing. DACT1α methylation was detected in 29.3% (60/205) of gastric cancer patients, but not in normal tissues. DACT1α methylation was associated with poor survival of gastric cancer patients. In conclusion, DACT1α plays a pivotal role as a potential tumor suppressor in migration and invasion of gastric cancer. DACT1α methylation may serve as a biomarker for the prognosis of gastric cancer.

Kim SY, Shin DY, Kim SM, et al.
Aberrant DNA methylation-induced gene inactivation is associated with the diagnosis and/or therapy of T-cell leukemias.
Leuk Res. 2016; 47:116-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is known to play an important role in the development of many tumors, and aberrant DNA hypermethylation was recently identified in hematologic malignancies, where it is thought to hold relevance in leukemogenesis. Here, we report that there are differences in the DNA methylation patterns seen in normal peripheral blood and two T-cell leukemia cell lines. We identify nine genes (CLEC4E, CR1, DBC1, EPO, HAL-DOA, IGF2, IL12B, ITGA1, and LMX1B) that are significantly hypermethylated in T-cell leukemias cell lines, and suggest that aberrant hypermethylation of these normally unmethylated genes may induce their transcriptional and expressional silencing. Furthermore, we observed that the expression levels of DNMT1 and DNMT3a were significantly decreased by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC), which is a demethylation agent known to deplete DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in leukemia cancer cells and restore the expression levels of their target genes in Jurkat cells. This result suggests that the overexpression of DNMTs could contribute to the development of T-cell leukemias by inducing hypermethylation of the target genes. Together, our results show that aberrant hypermethylation is an important molecular mechanism in the progression of T-cell leukemias, and thus could prove useful as a prognostic and/or diagnostic marker. Moreover, 5-Aza-dC might be a promising candidate for the treatment of T-cell leukemia.

Dadi S, Chhangawala S, Whitlock BM, et al.
Cancer Immunosurveillance by Tissue-Resident Innate Lymphoid Cells and Innate-like T Cells.
Cell. 2016; 164(3):365-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignancy can be suppressed by the immune system in a process termed immunosurveillance. However, to what extent immunosurveillance occurs in spontaneous cancers and the composition of participating cell types remains obscure. Here, we show that cell transformation triggers a tissue-resident lymphocyte response in oncogene-induced murine cancer models. Non-circulating cytotoxic lymphocytes, derived from innate, T cell receptor (TCR)αβ, and TCRγδ lineages, expand in early tumors. Characterized by high expression of NK1.1, CD49a, and CD103, these cells share a gene-expression signature distinct from those of conventional NK cells, T cells, and invariant NKT cells. Generation of these lymphocytes is dependent on the cytokine IL-15, but not the transcription factor Nfil3 that is required for the differentiation of tumor-infiltrating NK cells, and IL-15 deficiency, but not Nfil3 deficiency, results in accelerated tumor growth. These findings reveal a tumor-elicited immunosurveillance mechanism that engages unconventional type-1-like innate lymphoid cells and type 1 innate-like T cells.

Wan J, Wen D, Dong L, et al.
Establishment of monoclonal HCC cell lines with organ site-specific tropisms.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:678 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Organ site-specific metastasis is an ominous feature for most poor-prognostic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Cancer cell lines and animal models are indispensable for investigating the molecular mechanisms of organ specific tropism. However, till now, little is known about the drivers in HCC metastatic tropism, and also no effective way has been developed to block the process of tropistic metastasis.
METHODS: In this study, we established several monoclonal HCC cell lines from HCCLM3-RFP together with their xenograft models, and then analyzed their metastatic potentials and tropisms using in-vitro and in-vivo assays, and finally elucidated the driving forces of HCC tropistic metastases.
RESULTS: Six monoclonal cell lines with different organ site-specific tropism were established successfully. SPARC, VCAM1 and ANGPTL4 were found positively correlated with the potentials of lung metastasis, while ITGA1 had a positive relation to lymph node metastasis of enterocoelia.
CONCLUSIONS: By our powerful platforms, HCC metastatic tropisms in clinic could be easily mimicked and recapitulated for exploring the bilateral interactions between tumor and its microenvironment, elucidating the drivers of HCC metastatic tropisms, and testing anti-cancer effects of newly developed agent in pre-clinical stage.

Boudjadi S, Carrier JC, Groulx JF, Beaulieu JF
Integrin α1β1 expression is controlled by c-MYC in colorectal cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(13):1671-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The α1β1 collagen receptor is only present in a few epithelial cell types. In the intestine, it is specifically expressed in proliferating crypt cells. This integrin has been reported to be involved in various cancers where it mediates the downstream activation of the Ras/ERK proliferative pathway. We have recently shown that integrin α1β1 is present in two-thirds of colon adenocarcinomas, but the mechanism by which ITGA1 expression is regulated is not known. DNA methylation, involved in ITGA1 repression during megakaryocyte differentiation, is not the mechanism of ITGA1 regulation in colorectal cancer cells. Our in silico analysis of the ITGA1 promoter revealed two response elements for MYC, an oncogenic factor known to regulate cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration. In situ, the expressions of both MYC and ITGA1 are localized in the lower crypt of the normal colon and correlate in 72% of the 65 analyzed colorectal cancers. MYC pharmacological inhibition or downregulation of expression with short hairpin RNA in HT29, T84 and SW480 cells resulted in reduced ITGA1 expression at both the transcript and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that MYC was bound to the chromatin region of the ITGA1 proximal promoter, whereas MYC overexpression enhanced ITGA1 promoter activity that was reduced with MAD co-transfection or by the disruption of the response elements. We concluded that MYC is a key regulating factor for the control of ITGA1 expression.

Januchowski R, Zawierucha P, Ruciński M, Zabel M
Microarray-based detection and expression analysis of extracellular matrix proteins in drug‑resistant ovarian cancer cell lines.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(5):1981-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Multiple drug resistance (MDR) development leads to resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. Microarray methods can provide information regarding new candidate genes that can play a role in resistance to cytostatic drugs. Extracellular matrix (ECM) can influence drug resistance by inhibiting the penetration of the drug into cancer tissue as well as increased apoptosis resistance. In the present study, we report changes in the ECM and related gene expression pattern in methotrexate-, cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, vincristine-, topotecan- and paclitaxel-resistant variants of the W1 ovarian cancer cell line. The resistant variants of the W1 cell line were generated by stepwise selection of cells with an increasing concentration of the indicated drugs. Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Genome U219 Array Strips were used for hybridizations. Independent t-tests were used to determinate the statistical significance of results. Genes whose expression levels were higher than the assumed threshold (upregulated, >5-fold and downregulated, <5-fold) were visualized using the scatter plot method, selected and listed in the tables. Among the investigated genes, expression of 24 genes increased, expression of 14 genes decreased and expression of three genes increased or decreased depending on the cell line. Among the increased genes, expression of 10 increased very significantly, >20-fold. These genes were: ITGB1BP3, COL3A1, COL5A2, COL15A1, TGFBI, DCN, LUM, MATN2, POSTN and EGFL6. The expression of seven genes decreased very significantly: ITGA1, COL1A2, LAMA2, GPC3, KRT23, VIT and HMCN1. The expression pattern of ECM and related genes provided the preliminary view into the role of ECM components in cytostatic drug resistance of cancer cells. The exact role of the investigated genes in drug resistance requires further investigation.

Rosenberg EE, Prudnikova TY, Zabarovsky ER, et al.
D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase cell type specifically affects angiogenesis pathway in different prostate cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(4):3237-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase (GLCE) is involved in breast and lung carcinogenesis as a potential tumor suppressor gene, acting through inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and invasion/metastasis pathways. However, in prostate tumors, increased GLCE expression is associated with advanced disease, suggesting versatile effects of GLCE in different cancers. To investigate further the potential cancer-promoting effect of GLCE in prostate cancer, GLCE was ectopically re-expressed in morphologically different LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Transcriptional profiles of normal PNT2 prostate cells, LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells, and GLCE-expressing LNCaP and PC3 cells were determined. Comparative analysis revealed the genes whose expression was changed in prostate cancer cells compared with normal PNT2 cells, and those differently expressed between the cancer cell lines (ACTA2, IL6, SERPINE1, TAGLN, SEMA3A, and CDH2). GLCE re-expression influenced mainly angiogenesis-involved genes (ANGPT1, SERPINE1, IGF1, PDGFB, TNF, IL8, TEK, IFNA1, and IFNB1) but in a cell type-specific manner (from basic deregulation of angiogenesis in LNCaP cells to significant activation in PC3 cells). Invasion/metastasis pathway was also affected (MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, S100A4, ITGA1, ITGB3, ERBB2, and FAS). The obtained results suggest activation of angiogenesis as a main molecular mechanism of pro-oncogenic effect of GLCE in prostate cancer. GLCE up-regulation plus expression pattern of a panel of six genes, discriminating morphologically different prostate cancer cell sub-types, is suggested as a potential marker of aggressive prostate cancer.

Yim DH, Zhang YW, Eom SY, et al.
ITGA1 polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with gastric cancer risk in a Korean population.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(35):5870-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate the association between the genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of the ITGA1 gene and the risk of gastric cancer.
METHODS: The study subjects were 477 age- and sex-matched case-control pairs. Genotyping was performed for 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ITGA1. The associations between gastric cancer and these SNPs and haplotypes were analyzed with multivariate conditional logistic regression models. Multiple testing corrections were carried out following methodology for controlling the false discovery rate. Gene-based association tests were performed using the versatile gene-based association study (VEGAS) method.
RESULTS: In the codominant model, the ORs for SNPs rs2432143 (1.517; 95%CI: 1.144-2.011) and rs2447867 (1.258; 95%CI: 1.051-1.505) were statistically significant. In the dominant model, polymorphisms of rs1862610 and rs2447867 were found to be significant risk factors, with ORs of 1.337 (95%CI: 1.029-1.737) and 1.412 (95%CI: 1.061-1.881), respectively. In the recessive model, only the rs2432143 polymorphism was significant (OR = 1.559, 95%CI: 1.150-2.114). The C-C type of ITGA1 haplotype block 2 was a significant protective factor against gastric cancer in the both codominant model (OR = 0.602, 95%CI: 0.212-0.709, P = 0.021) and the dominant model (OR = 0.653, 95%CI: 0.483-0.884). The ITGA1 gene showed a significant gene-based association with gastric cancer in the VEGAS test. In the dominant model, the A-T type of ITGA1 haplotype block 2 was a significant risk factor (OR = 1.341, 95%CI: 1.034-1.741). SNP rs2447867 might be related to the severity of gastric epithelial injury due to inflammation and, thus, to the risk of developing gastric cancer.
CONCLUSION: ITGA1 gene SNPs rs1862610, rs24321 43, and rs2447867 and the ITGA1 haplotype block that includes SNPs rs1862610 and rs2432143 were significantly associated with gastric cancer.

Oguri T, Mitsuma A, Inada-Inoue M, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms associated with oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013; 51(6):475-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacogenomic associations between severe oxaliplatininduced chronic peripheral neurotoxicity (OXCPN) (Grade 2 lasting for > 7 days or Grade 3) and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 genes (TAC1, FOXC1, ITGA1, ACYP2, DLEU7, BTG4, CAMK2N1, and FARS2) were reported by the genomewide association study (GWAS) in Korean patients. The present study was designed to explore reliable predictors of OXCPN and thereby improve the management of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: We retrospectively investigated pharmacogenomic characteristics of OXCPN in 70 Japanese patients with CRC who received oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy and updated the results of our previous analysis of ERCC1 (C118T, rs11615 and C8092A, rs3212986) and GSTP1 (Ile105Val, rs1695) polymorphisms.
RESULTS: Univariate analysis suggested potential associations of severe OXCPN with rs843748 in ACYP2 and rs17140129 in FARS2, as well as with the absence of diabetes mellitus (DM) (p = 0.056, 0.072, and 0.029, respectively). There was no association between severe OXCPN and any of the 7 other SNPs. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that an increased risk of severe OXCPN was related to rs17140129 and the absence of DM (p = 0.034 and 0.030, respectively). On updated analysis, polymorphisms of ERCC1 (C118T, rs11615) and rs10486003 in TAC1 were associated with time to the onset of Grade 1 OXCPN (p = 0.024 and 0.049, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Severe OXCPN is significantly related to rs17140129, found in the GWAS of Korean patients, in Japanese patients. Patients without DM are more likely to have OXCPN. The association between ERCC1 polymorphism and time to the onset of OXCPN was significant on updated analysis.

Park KS, Kim KK, Piao ZH, et al.
Olfactomedin 4 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of mouse melanoma cells through downregulation of integrin and MMP genes.
Mol Cells. 2012; 34(6):555-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) is highly expressed in gastrointestinal cancers and has an anti-apoptotic function. The roles of OLFM4 in tumor growth and metastasis and how it functions in these processes remain elusive. We investigated the function of OLFM4 in tumor growth and metastasis using B16F10 mouse melanoma cells as an experimental system. Our results showed that OLFM4 had no positive effect on cell viability or cell cycle progression in B16F10 cells. However, it significantly suppressed the tumorigenicity of B16F10 cells, i.e., intradermal primary tumor growth and lung metastasis. OLFM4 also suppressed the migration and invasion of B16F10 cells in vitro. For further insight into the mechanisms underlying OLFM4-mediated suppression of tumor progression, we examined the effect of OLFM4 on the expression of integrin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), both of which are involved in tumor progression. Overexpression of OLFM4 clearly reduced the expression levels of integrin α1, integrin α4, integrin α5, integrin α6, and MMP9. Moreover, forced expression of MMP9 attenuated the inhibitory activity of OLFM4 on migration and invasiveness. Our findings provide the experimental evidence that OLFM4 may function as a tumor suppressor and an anti-metastatic gene during tumor progression.

Won HH, Lee J, Park JO, et al.
Polymorphic markers associated with severe oxaliplatin-induced, chronic peripheral neuropathy in colon cancer patients.
Cancer. 2012; 118(11):2828-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To identify potential genetic markers for severe oxaliplatin-induced chronic peripheral neuropathy (OXCPN), the authors performed a genome-wide association analysis of patients with colon cancer who received oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.
METHODS: This was a prospective study in which DNA was purified in peripheral blood from patients with colon cancer who received oxaliplatin. The primary endpoint was the development of severe (grade 2 lasting for >7 days or grade 3) OXCPN. For the discovery set, genotyping was done for 96 patients who received adjuvant fluorouracil and oxaliplatin using the a genome-wide human single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. An association between polymorphisms and severe OXCPN was investigated. At the same time, 247 patients who received oxaliplatin-based, first-line chemotherapy for advanced disease were enrolled as a validation set.
RESULTS: Among the 32 genotyped candidate SNPs selected from the discovery set, 9 SNPs in 8 genes (tachykinin, precursor 1[TAC1]; forkhead box C1 [FOXC1]; integrin, alpha 1 [ITGA1]; acylphosphatase 2, muscle type [ACYP2]; deleted in lymphocytic leukemia, 7 [DLEU7]; B-cell translocation gene 4 [BTG4]; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1 [CAMK2N1]; and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase 2 [FARS2]) had nominal replication (P < .05). The most significant association was observed at reference SNP number (rs)10486003 in TAC1 (P = 4.84 × 10(-7)) in combined data from 2 sets. Five SNPs (rs10486003, rs2338, rs830884, rs843748, and rs797519) were significant in a multiple regression analysis (P < .05). Overall prediction accuracy calculated by the regression model was 72.8% (95% confidence interval, 65.8%-79.9%) in the model development and 75.9% (95% confidence interval, 66.9%-84.9%) in the model evaluation.
CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicated that a genome-wide pharmacogenomic approach is useful for identifying novel polymorphism predictors of severe OXCPN that may be used in personalized chemotherapy.

Qu J, Yan R, Chen J, et al.
HMGN5: a potential oncogene in gliomas.
J Neurooncol. 2011; 104(3):729-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in the central nervous system and a leading cause of tumor-related death. High-mobility group nucleosome binding domain 5 (HMGN5/NSBP1), which is highly expressed in breast cancer and in hormone-induced mouse uterine adenocarcinoma, acts as a potential oncogene in gliomas. In this study, the role of HMGN5 in the proliferation of human glioma cells was investigated by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). The decrease in HMGN5 expression in human glioma U251 and U87 cells caused cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and a delay in cell proliferation, as well as resulting in more apoptosis and an inhibition of clonogenic growth in soft agar in U251 cells; these results suggest that HMGN5 is required for tumorigenesis in vitro. Furthermore, HMGN5 was highly expressed in both high-grade and low-grade glioma tissue samples compared with normal brain tissues. Collectively, our data suggest that HMGN5 may play a critical role in the development of gliomas.

Ratzinger S, Grässel S, Dowejko A, et al.
Induction of type XVI collagen expression facilitates proliferation of oral cancer cells.
Matrix Biol. 2011; 30(2):118-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Type XVI collagen belongs to the family of fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices (FACIT). Recently, high affinity to integrin alpha1beta1 has been shown allowing cells expressing those integrins to attach and spread on recombinant type XVI collagen. Here, we show that type XVI collagen is overexpressed in dysplastic areas of mucosal epithelium from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Induction of its expression in OSCC cell lines (COLXVI cells) leads to an increased expression of Kindlin-1. Moreover, we demonstrate a significantly increased Kindlin-1/beta1-integrin interaction. Additionally, we detected a higher number of activated beta1-integrins in COLXVI cells and found a neo-expression of alpha1 integrin subunit on these cells. FACS analysis revealed a significantly higher amount of COLXVI cells in S-phase and G2/M-phase 6h after synchronisation leading to a markedly higher proliferation activity. Blocking beta1-integrins with a specific antibody resulted in reduced proliferation of COLXVI cells. In summary, we demonstrate that overexpression of type XVI collagen in aberrant oral keratinocytes leads to Kindlin-1 induction, increased Kindlin-1/beta1-integrin interaction, integrin activation and subsequently to a proliferative cellular phenotype.

Gaud G, Iochmann S, Guillon-Munos A, et al.
TFPI-2 silencing increases tumour progression and promotes metalloproteinase 1 and 3 induction through tumour-stromal cell interactions.
J Cell Mol Med. 2011; 15(2):196-208 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) is a potent inhibitor of plasmin which activates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. Its secretion in the tumour microenvironment makes TFPI-2 a potential inhibitor of tumour invasion and metastasis. As demonstrated in aggressive cancers, TFPI-2 is frequently down-regulated in cancer cells, but the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of tumour progression remained unclear. We showed in this study that stable TFPI-2 down-regulation in the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-H460 non-small cell lung cancer cell line using specific micro interfering micro-interfering RNA promoted tumour progression in a nude mice orthotopic model that resulted in an increase in cell invasion. Moreover, TFPI-2 down-regulation enhanced cell adhesion to collagen IV and laminin via an increase in α(1) integrin on cell surface, and increased MMP expression (mainly MMP-1 and -3) contributing to cancer cell invasion through basement membrane components. This study also reveals for the first time that pulmonary fibroblasts incubated with conditioned media from TFPI-2 silencing cancer cells exhibited increased expression of MMPs, particularly MMP-1, -3 and -7, that are likely involved in lung cancer cell invasion through the surrounding stromal tissue, thus enhancing formation of metastases.

Lindberg K, Ström A, Lock JG, et al.
Expression of estrogen receptor beta increases integrin alpha1 and integrin beta1 levels and enhances adhesion of breast cancer cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2010; 222(1):156-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen effects on mammary gland development and differentiation are mediated by two receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta). Estrogen-bound ERalpha induces proliferation of mammary epithelial and cancer cells, while ERbeta is important for maintenance of the differentiated epithelium and inhibits proliferation in different cell systems. In addition, the normal breast contains higher ERbeta levels compared to the early stage breast cancers, suggesting that loss of ERbeta could be important in cancer development. Analysis of ERbeta-/- mice has consistently revealed reduced expression of cell adhesion proteins. As such, ERbeta is a candidate modulator of epithelial homeostasis and metastasis. Consequently, the aim of this study was to analyze estrogenic effects on adhesion of breast cancer cells expressing ERalpha and ERbeta. As ERbeta is widely found in breast cancer but not in cell lines, we used ERalpha positive T47-D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells to generate cells with inducible ERbeta expression. Furthermore, the colon cancer cell lines SW480 and HT-29 were also used. Integrin alpha1 mRNA and protein levels increased following ERbeta expression. Integrin beta1-the unique partner for integrin alpha1-increased only at the protein level. ERbeta expression enhanced the formation of vinculin containing focal complexes and actin filaments, indicating a more adhesive potential. This was confirmed by adhesion assays where ERbeta increased adhesion to different extracellular matrix proteins, mostly laminin. In addition, ERbeta expression was associated to less cell migration. These results indicate that ERbeta affects integrin expression and clustering and consequently modulates adhesion and migration of breast cancer cells.

Castelnuovo M, Monticone M, Massone S, et al.
Rolly protein (ROLP)-Epb4.1/3: a potential protein-protein interaction relevant for the maintenance of cell adhesion.
Int J Mol Sci. 2009; 10(5):2054-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We recently described Rolly Protein (ROLP), a small protein synthesized by substrate-adherent cells in a broad range of tissues. In a first set of experiments performed taking advantage of bone forming tibial cartilage as an experimental model we showed that ROLP transcription is associated to cells in an active proliferation state, whereas its downregulation is observed when cell proliferation decreases. Taking advantage of siRNA technology we also documented the expression modulation of some apoptosis-related genes in ROLP-silenced cells. In this work we search for the possible molecular interactors of ROLP by using both the antibody array approach as well as the co-immunoprecipitation approach. Results suggest the occurrence of an interaction of ROLP with Erythrocyte membrane Protein Band 4.1/3 (Epb4.1/3), an oncosuppressor downregulated in tumor development and in metastatic tissues; in addition we report experimental results that keep in line also with a potential interaction of ROLP with other PDZ-containing proteins. We also present experimental evidences supporting a role played by ROLP in cell adhesion thus supporting the existence of a biologically relevant link between ROLP and Epb4.1/3. We here suggest that ROLP might exert its biological role cooperating with Epb4.1/3, a protein that is involved in biological pathways that are often inhibited in tumor metastasis. Given the role of Epb4.1/3 in contrasting cancerogenesis we think that its cooperation with ROLP might be relevant in cancer studies and deserves further investigation.

Tanaka N, Fukuzawa M
MYCN downregulates integrin alpha1 to promote invasion of human neuroblastoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2008; 33(4):815-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor thought to arise through improper differentiation of neural crest cells. MYCN amplification is a prognostic factor that indicates a highly malignant disease and poor patient prognosis. Integrins are important regulators of neuroblastoma attachment and migration and participate in many aspects of metastasis. However, the role of integrins in neuroblastoma metastasis, the leading cause of death from this disease, remains less well understood. Screening of neuroblastoma cell lines for integrin mRNA expression showed that integrin alpha1 expression was higher in lines such as SK-N-SH and NB69 that do not have MYCN amplification than in cell lines such as IMR32, NB1, NB9 and NB19 that have MYCN amplification. A knockdown of MYCN in NB1 and NB19 cells resulted in increased expression of integrin alpha1, which correlated with enhanced attachment to the extracellular matrix and reduced migratory activity. In contrast, the overexpression of MYCN in SK-N-SH and NB69 cells resulted in decreased expression of integrin alpha1, which correlated with reduced attachment to the extracellular matrix and enhanced migratory activity. These results show that MYCN may limit cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix and promote cell migration by downregulating integrin alpha1.

Vuoristo M, Vihinen P, Vlaykova T, et al.
Increased gene expression levels of collagen receptor integrins are associated with decreased survival parameters in patients with advanced melanoma.
Melanoma Res. 2007; 17(4):215-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of collagen receptor integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 has been associated with progression and metastatic potential of malignant melanoma. Integrin alpha2beta1 was originally characterized as a melanoma progression antigen. We have used real-time quantitative PCR to study the mRNA expression levels of three collagen receptor integrin chains, that is alpha1, alpha2 and alpha11 in metastases from 26 patients with melanoma. Interestingly, we find that survival after initiation of chemoimmunotherapy was significantly decreased in all patients whose tumours expressed high mRNA levels of alpha1 integrin, alpha2 integrin or alpha11 integrin when compared with lower tumour expression levels (P<0.05, log rank test). Moreover, those patients with high mRNA levels of all studied integrins had a significantly shorter survival from the appearance of the first metastasis than the patients with low levels of integrins (P<0.05). Furthermore, a high mRNA expression level of integrin alpha2 was found to be associated with poorer overall survival. High alpha2 mRNA levels (n=6) were associated with median survival of 35 months and low alpha2 mRNA levels (n=20), with median survival of 53 months (P=0.033). We conclude that collagen receptor integrins are important in the progression and prognosis of metastatic melanoma, and their measurements might be used as predictive markers when assessing disease progression.

Varma RR, Hector SM, Clark K, et al.
Gene expression profiling of a clonal isolate of oxaliplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780/C10.
Oncol Rep. 2005; 14(4):925-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
The efficacy of platinum drugs in the treatment of cancer is often restricted by the acquisition of tumor cell resistance subsequent to treatment. To better understand mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, a clonal subline (A2780/C10B) isolated from an oxaliplatin-resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell line (A2780/C10) was developed, as reported previously. This cell line is 18-fold resistant to oxaliplatin and shows a 3-fold cross resistance to cisplatin. Here, we report on the gene expression analysis using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 oligonucleotide arrays of cells in log phase growth from both the parental cell line and drug-resistant variant. Probe level analysis was perfomed using the model based expression index (dChip) and robust multichip average (RMA) methods. Genes that were differentially expressed between the two groups were identified using the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) method with a minimum false discovery rate <1%. We identified 43 genes that were overexpressed, and 39 underexpressed in the drug-resistant cell line. Collagen VI (COL6A3) was overexpressed 62-fold and the most highly up-regulated gene. This finding is consistent with other published data based on serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) profiling of cisplatin-resistant and sensitive ovarian carcinoma cells. Among the significant functional groups of overexpressed genes in our study were extracellular matrix genes (9 of 43) and those involved in signal transduction (7 of 43). Extracellular matrix genes included two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3 and MMP12). Integrin alpha 1 (ITGA1) and WNT5A were also overexpressed. Genes that encode for extracellular matrix proteins were also among those found down-regulated in the resistant cell line. Several genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle and growth were found to be underexpressed, including the suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), necdin (NDN), and glypicans (GPC3 and GPC4). The mRNA levels of six differentially expressed genes (COL6A3, MMP12, MMP3, WNT5A, NID, and HMGB2) were validated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. The identification of these genes should aid in a better understanding of the pathways resulting in platinum drug resistance.

Bhat KP, Pezzuto JM
Resveratrol exhibits cytostatic and antiestrogenic properties with human endometrial adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) cells.
Cancer Res. 2001; 61(16):6137-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene (resveratrol), a polyphenolic compound found in the human diet, was reported recently to serve as an estrogen agonist with cultured MCF-7 cells transfected with estrogen response element-luciferase reporter plasmids. As currently shown, treatment of cultured human endometrial adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) cells with resveratrol (concentrations as high as 10 microM) did not significantly increase the levels of an estrogen-inducible marker enzyme, alkaline phosphatase. To the contrary, when alkaline phosphatase was induced by treatment with 1 nM of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), resveratrol exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in activity (IC(50) = 2.3 microM). Furthermore, when Ishikawa cells were treated with resveratrol as a single agent, estrogen-inducible progesterone receptor (PR) was not enhanced, and PR expression induced by treatment with E(2) was inhibited by resveratrol in a dose-dependent fashion at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, resveratrol mediated suppression of a functional activity of PR as demonstrated by down-regulation of alpha(1)-integrin expression induced by E(2) plus progesterone. With transient transfection experiments conducted with Ishikawa cells, antiestrogenic effects were confirmed by dose-dependent inhibition of E(2)-induced estrogen response element-luciferase transcriptional activity. Because resveratrol antagonized estrogenic effects in Ishikawa cells, competitive binding analyses were performed to examine the potential of displacing [(3)H]E(2) from human estrogen receptor (ER). Resveratrol showed no discernable activity with ER-alpha, but with ER-beta, E(2) was displaced with an IC(50) of 125 microM. However, mRNA and protein expression of ER-alpha but not ER-beta were suppressed by resveratrol in Ishikawa cells, in the concentration range of 5-15 microM. In addition, in the presence or absence of E(2), resveratrol inhibited Ishikawa cell proliferation in a time-dependent manner with cells accumulating in the S phase of the cycle < or =48 h. This effect was reversible. Analysis of some critical cell cycle proteins revealed a specific increase in expression of cyclins A and E but a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase 2. These data suggest resveratrol exerts an antiproliferative effect in Ishikawa cells, and the effect may be mediated by both estrogen-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

Damjanovich L, Fülöp B, Adány R, Nemes Z
Integrin expression on normal and neoplastic human breast epithelium.
Acta Chir Hung. 1997; 36(1-4):69-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Integrin adhesion receptor expression of different benign and malignant breast tumours was examined by means of immunohistochemical techniques. A panel of seven different anti-alpha and two different anti-beta subunit antibodies was used. Normal breast epithelium displayed a well characterized and constant pattern of integrin expression consisting of strong alpha 1,2,3,6 and alpha v, and a relatively weaker beta 1 and beta 3 staining. No staining for alpha 4 or alpha 5 could be detected on the epithelial cells. Benign fibroadenomas did not show changes in their receptor expression compared to normal tissues. In the cases of different types of breast cancer, there was a significant downregulation of all subunits. The staining pattern was distinct if there could a basement membrane like structure be detected around the invading tumour nodules. When laminin and collagen type IV surrounded the tumour cells, those cells in contact with the extracellular matrix components still displayed strong positivity for the integrin subunits. Other cells inside the tumour cell nests or not surrounded by basement membrane did not express integrins. The positively staining cells might be more differentiated owing to the effect the basement membrane. Myoepithelial labeling of the integrin expressing cells gave negative results. The observed integrin expression heterogeneity renders the histologic picture difficult to interpret with regard to clinical behavior of the tumour.

Roussel E, Gingras MC, Grimm EA, et al.
Predominance of a type 2 intratumoural immune response in fresh tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from human gliomas.
Clin Exp Immunol. 1996; 105(2):344-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increasing evidence suggests the existence of polarized human T cell responses described as Th1-type (promoting cell-mediated immunity) and Th2-type (promoting humoral immunity), characterized by a dominant production of either interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or IL-4, respectively. Little is known about the intratumoural activation of infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in human gliomas. Therefore, we assessed fresh TIL at cellular and molecular levels to find out if they were activated and polarized into a type 1 or 2 immune response. Flow cytometry analysis of TIL revealed that the major subset was made of T lymphocytes. Double labelling with alpha-CD3 and adhesion/ activation markers revealed T cell subsets expressing CD49a, CD49b, CD54, and CD15, some of which were almost absent in autologous T peripheral blood lymphocytes (T-PBL). Furthermore, the proportions of T-TIL expressing CD56, CD65, or CD25 were several-fold higher than in T-PBL. Intratumoural functional activation of TIL was tested by semiquantitative assessment in relative units (RU) of lymphokine gene activation with mRNA reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All TIL populations except one significantly expressed IL-4 1 to 2 logs of RU above healthy PBL baseline. Similarly, all patients expressed granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in a range comparable to IL-4. However, most TIL populations did not express IFN-gamma, IL-2, and tumour necrosis factor-beta (TNF-beta) at higher levels than healthy normal PBL. The increase proportion of T cells expressing activation markers and the consistent detection of significant IL-4 and GM-CSF lymphokine gene activation in TIL populations suggested a predominant type 2 intratumoural immune response that does not promote cell-mediated tumouricidal activity and may contribute to the inefficiency of the antiglioma immune response.

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