The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group I. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FANCI is implicated in: - cell cycle
- DNA binding
- DNA repair
- plasma membrane
- positive regulation of protein ubiquitination
- protein binding
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP [Hide]
Ramanagoudr-Bhojappa R, Carrington B, Ramaswami M, et al. Multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of 19 Fanconi anemia pathway genes in zebrafish revealed their roles in growth, sexual development and fertility. PLoS Genet. 2018; 14(12):e1007821 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a genomic instability syndrome resulting in aplastic anemia, developmental abnormalities, and predisposition to hematological and other solid organ malignancies. Mutations in genes that encode proteins of the FA pathway fail to orchestrate the repair of DNA damage caused by DNA interstrand crosslinks. Zebrafish harbor homologs for nearly all known FA genes. We used multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis to generate loss-of-function mutants for 17 FA genes: fanca, fancb, fancc, fancd1/brca2, fancd2, fance, fancf, fancg, fanci, fancj/brip1, fancl, fancm, fancn/palb2, fanco/rad51c, fancp/slx4, fancq/ercc4, fanct/ube2t, and two genes encoding FA-associated proteins: faap100 and faap24. We selected two indel mutations predicted to cause premature truncations for all but two of the genes, and a total of 36 mutant lines were generated for 19 genes. Generating two independent mutant lines for each gene was important to validate their phenotypic consequences. RT-PCR from homozygous mutant fish confirmed the presence of transcripts with indels in all genes. Interestingly, 4 of the indel mutations led to aberrant splicing, which may produce a different protein than predicted from the genomic sequence. Analysis of RNA is thus critical in proper evaluation of the consequences of the mutations introduced in zebrafish genome. We used fluorescent reporter assay, and western blots to confirm loss-of-function for several mutants. Additionally, we developed a DEB treatment assay by evaluating morphological changes in embryos and confirmed that homozygous mutants from all the FA genes that could be tested (11/17), displayed hypersensitivity and thus were indeed null alleles. Our multiplexing strategy helped us to evaluate 11 multiple gene knockout combinations without additional breeding. Homozygous zebrafish for all 19 single and 11 multi-gene knockouts were adult viable, indicating FA genes in zebrafish are generally not essential for early development. None of the mutant fish displayed gross developmental abnormalities except for fancp-/- fish, which were significantly smaller in length than their wildtype clutch mates. Complete female-to-male sex reversal was observed in knockouts for 12/17 FA genes, while partial sex reversal was seen for the other five gene knockouts. All adult females were fertile, and among the adult males, all were fertile except for the fancd1 mutants and one of the fancj mutants. We report here generation and characterization of zebrafish knockout mutants for 17 FA disease-causing genes, providing an integral resource for understanding the pathophysiology associated with the disrupted FA pathway.
Defects in DNA repair can cause various genetic diseases with severe pathological phenotypes. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disease characterized by bone marrow failure, developmental abnormalities, and increased cancer risk that is caused by defective repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Here, we identify the deubiquitylating enzyme USP48 as synthetic viable for FA-gene deficiencies by performing genome-wide loss-of-function screens across a panel of human haploid isogenic FA-defective cells (FANCA, FANCC, FANCG, FANCI, FANCD2). Thus, as compared to FA-defective cells alone, FA-deficient cells additionally lacking USP48 are less sensitive to genotoxic stress induced by ICL agents and display enhanced, BRCA1-dependent, clearance of DNA damage. Consequently, USP48 inactivation reduces chromosomal instability of FA-defective cells. Our results highlight a role for USP48 in controlling DNA repair and suggest it as a potential target that could be therapeutically exploited for FA.
Nalepa G, Clapp DW Fanconi anaemia and cancer: an intricate relationship. Nat Rev Cancer. 2018; 18(3):168-185 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a genetic disorder that is characterized by bone marrow failure (BMF), developmental abnormalities and predisposition to cancer. Together with other proteins involved in DNA repair processes and cell division, the FA proteins maintain genome homeostasis, and germline mutation of any one of the genes that encode FA proteins causes FA. Monoallelic inactivation of some FA genes, such as FA complementation group D1 (FANCD1; also known as the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2), leads to adult-onset cancer predisposition but does not cause FA, and somatic mutations in FA genes occur in cancers in the general population. Carcinogenesis resulting from a dysregulated FA pathway is multifaceted, as FA proteins monitor multiple complementary genome-surveillance checkpoints throughout interphase, where monoubiquitylation of the FANCD2-FANCI heterodimer by the FA core complex promotes recruitment of DNA repair effectors to chromatin lesions to resolve DNA damage and mitosis. In this Review, we discuss how the FA pathway safeguards genome integrity throughout the cell cycle and show how studies of FA have revealed opportunities to develop rational therapeutics for this genetic disease and for malignancies that acquire somatic mutations within the FA pathway.
Maintenance of genome integrity via repair of DNA damage is a key biological process required to suppress diseases, including Fanconi anemia (FA). We generated loss-of-function human haploid cells for FA complementation group C (FANCC), a gene encoding a component of the FA core complex, and used genome-wide CRISPR libraries as well as insertional mutagenesis to identify synthetic viable (genetic suppressor) interactions for FA. Here we show that loss of the BLM helicase complex suppresses FANCC phenotypes and we confirm this interaction in cells deficient for FA complementation group I and D2 (FANCI and FANCD2) that function as part of the FA I-D2 complex, indicating that this interaction is not limited to the FA core complex, hence demonstrating that systematic genome-wide screening approaches can be used to reveal genetic viable interactions for DNA repair defects.
Proteins disabled in the cancer-prone disorder Fanconi anemia (FA) ensure the maintenance of chromosomal stability during DNA replication. FA proteins regulate replication dynamics, coordinate replication-coupled repair of interstrand DNA cross-links, and mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription. Here we show that FANCI and FANCD2 associate with splicing factor 3B1 (SF3B1), a key spliceosomal protein of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U2 snRNP). FANCI is in close proximity to SF3B1 in the nucleoplasm of interphase and mitotic cells. Furthermore, we find that DNA replication stress induces the release of SF3B1 from nuclear speckles in a manner that depends on FANCI and on the activity of the checkpoint kinase ATR. In chromatin, both FANCD2 and FANCI associate with SF3B1, prevent accumulation of postcatalytic intron lariats, and contribute to the timely eviction of splicing factors. We propose that FANCD2 and FANCI contribute to the organization of functional domains in chromatin, ensuring the coordination of DNA replication and cotranscriptional processes.
Chandrasekharappa SC, Chinn SB, Donovan FX, et al. Assessing the spectrum of germline variation in Fanconi anemia genes among patients with head and neck carcinoma before age 50. Cancer. 2017; 123(20):3943-3954 [PubMed] Free Access to Full ArticleRelated Publications
Ishiai M, Sato K, Tomida J, et al. Activation of the FA pathway mediated by phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Mutat Res. 2017; 803-805:89-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a devastating hereditary condition that impacts genome integrity, leading to clinical features such as skeletal and visceral organ malformations, attrition of bone marrow stem cells, and carcinogenesis. At least 21 proteins, when absent or defective, have been implicated in this disorder, and they together constitute the FA pathway, which functions in detection and repair of, and tolerance to, endogenous DNA damage. The damage primarily handled by the FA pathway has been assumed to be related to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). The FA pathway is activated upon ICL damage, and a hallmark of this activation is the mono-ubiquitination events of the key FANCD2-FANCI protein complex. Recent data have revealed unexpectedly complex details in the regulation of FA pathway activation by ICLs. In this short review, we summarize the knowledge accumulated over the years regarding how the FA pathway is activated via protein modifications.
Tan W, Deans AJ A defined role for multiple Fanconi anemia gene products in DNA-damage-associated ubiquitination. Exp Hematol. 2017; 50:27-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited blood disorder that causes bone marrow failure and high predisposition to cancers. The FA pathway guards the cell's genome stability by orchestrating the repair of interstrand cross-linking during the S phase of the cell cycle, preventing the chromosomal instability that is a key event in bone marrow failure syndrome. Central to the FA pathway is loss of monoubiquitinated forms of the Fanconi proteins FANCI and FANCD2, a process that is normally mediated by a "core complex" of seven other Fanconi proteins. Each protein, when mutated, can cause FA. The FA core-complex-catalyzed reaction is critical for signaling DNA cross-link damage such as that induced by chemotherapies. Here, we present a perspective on the current understanding of FANCI and FANCD2 monoubiquitination-mediated DNA repair. Our recent biochemical reconstitution of the monoubiquitination (and deubiquitination) reactions creates a paradigm for understanding FA. Further biochemical analysis will create new opportunities to address the leukemic phenotype of FA patients.
Swuec P, Costa A DNA replication and inter-strand crosslink repair: Symmetric activation of dimeric nanomachines? Biophys Chem. 2017; 225:15-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eukaryotic DNA replication initiation and the Fanconi anemia pathway of interstrand crosslink repair both revolve around the recruitment of a set of DNA-processing factors onto a dimeric protein complex, which functions as a loading platform (MCM and FANCI-FANCD2 respectively). Here we compare and contrast the two systems, identifying a set of unresolved mechanistic questions. How is the dimeric loading platform assembled on the DNA? How can equivalent covalent modification of both factors in a dimer be achieved? Are multicomponent DNA-interacting machines built symmetrically around their dimeric loading platform? Recent biochemical reconstitution studies are starting to shed light on these issues.
van Twest S, Murphy VJ, Hodson C, et al. Mechanism of Ubiquitination and Deubiquitination in the Fanconi Anemia Pathway. Mol Cell. 2017; 65(2):247-259 [PubMed] Related Publications
Monoubiquitination and deubiquitination of FANCD2:FANCI heterodimer is central to DNA repair in a pathway that is defective in the cancer predisposition syndrome Fanconi anemia (FA). The "FA core complex" contains the RING-E3 ligase FANCL and seven other essential proteins that are mutated in various FA subtypes. Here, we purified recombinant FA core complex to reveal the function of these other proteins. The complex contains two spatially separate FANCL molecules that are dimerized by FANCB and FAAP100. FANCC and FANCE act as substrate receptors and restrict monoubiquitination to the FANCD2:FANCI heterodimer in only a DNA-bound form. FANCA and FANCG are dispensable for maximal in vitro ubiquitination. Finally, we show that the reversal of this reaction by the USP1:UAF1 deubiquitinase only occurs when DNA is disengaged. Our work reveals the mechanistic basis for temporal and spatial control of FANCD2:FANCI monoubiquitination that is critical for chemotherapy responses and prevention of Fanconi anemia.
Renaudin X, Koch Lerner L, Menck CF, Rosselli F The ubiquitin family meets the Fanconi anemia proteins. Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res. 2016 Jul-Sep; 769:36-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a hereditary disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, developmental defects, predisposition to cancer and chromosomal abnormalities. FA is caused by biallelic mutations that inactivate genes encoding proteins involved in replication stress-associated DNA damage responses. The 20 FANC proteins identified to date constitute the FANC pathway. A key event in this pathway involves the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2-FANCI heterodimer by the collective action of at least 10 different proteins assembled in the FANC core complex. The FANC core complex-mediated monoubiquitination of FANCD2-FANCI is essential to assemble the heterodimer in subnuclear, chromatin-associated, foci and to regulate the process of DNA repair as well as the rescue of stalled replication forks. Several recent works have demonstrated that the activity of the FANC pathway is linked to several other protein post-translational modifications from the ubiquitin-like family, including SUMO and NEDD8. These modifications are related to DNA damage responses but may also affect other cellular functions potentially related to the clinical phenotypes of the syndrome. This review summarizes the interplay between the ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins and the FANC proteins that constitute a major pathway for the surveillance of the genomic integrity and addresses the implications of their interactions in maintaining genome stability.
The Fanconi anaemia (FA) pathway is important for the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICL). The FANCD2-FANCI complex is central to the pathway, and localizes to ICLs dependent on its monoubiquitination. It has remained elusive whether the complex is recruited before or after the critical monoubiquitination. Here, we report the first structural insight into the human FANCD2-FANCI complex by obtaining the cryo-EM structure. The complex contains an inner cavity, large enough to accommodate a double-stranded DNA helix, as well as a protruding Tower domain. Disease-causing mutations in the Tower domain are observed in several FA patients. Our work reveals that recruitment of the complex to a stalled replication fork serves as the trigger for the activating monoubiquitination event. Taken together, our results uncover the mechanism of how the FANCD2-FANCI complex activates the FA pathway, and explains the underlying molecular defect in FA patients with mutations in the Tower domain.
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a chromosome instability syndrome and the 20 identified FA proteins are organized into two main arms which are thought to function at distinct steps in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). These two arms include the upstream FA pathway, which culminates in the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI, and downstream breast cancer (BRCA)-associated proteins that interact in protein complexes. How, and whether, these two groups of FA proteins are integrated is unclear. Here, we show that FANCD2 and PALB2, as indicators of the upstream and downstream arms, respectively, colocalize independently of each other in response to DNA damage induced by mitomycin C (MMC). We also show that ubiquitin chains are induced by MMC and colocalize with both FANCD2 and PALB2. Our finding that the RNF8 E3 ligase has a role in recruiting FANCD2 and PALB2 also provides support for the hypothesis that the two branches of the FA-BRCA pathway are coordinated by ubiquitin signaling. Interestingly, we find that the RNF8 partner, MDC1, as well as the ubiquitin-binding protein, RAP80, specifically recruit PALB2, while a different ubiquitin-binding protein, FAAP20, functions only in the recruitment of FANCD2. Thus, FANCD2 and PALB2 are not recruited in a single linear pathway, rather we define how their localization is coordinated and integrated by a network of ubiquitin-related proteins. We propose that such regulation may enable upstream and downstream FA proteins to act at distinct steps in the repair of ICLs.
Akt is a critical mediator of the oncogenic PI3K pathway, and its activation is regulated by kinases and phosphatases acting in opposition. We report here the existence of a novel protein complex that is composed minimally of Akt, PHLPP1, PHLPP2, FANCI, FANCD2, USP1 and UAF1. Our studies show that depletion of FANCI, but not FANCD2 or USP1, results in increased phosphorylation and activation of Akt. This activation is due to a reduction in the interaction between PHLPP1 and Akt in the absence of FANCI. In response to DNA damage or growth factor treatment, the interactions between Akt, PHLPP1 and FANCI are reduced consistent with the known phosphorylation of Akt in response to these stimuli. Furthermore, depletion of FANCI results in reduced apoptosis after DNA damage in accord with its role as a negative regular of Akt. Our findings describe an unexpected function for FANCI in the regulation of Akt and define a previously unrecognized intersection between the PI3K-Akt and FA pathways.
Savage SA, Ballew BJ, Giri N, et al. Novel FANCI mutations in Fanconi anemia with VACTERL association. Am J Med Genet A. 2016; 170A(2):386-391 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome caused by mutations in DNA repair genes; some of these patients may have features of the VACTERL association. Autosomal recessive mutations in FANCI are a rare cause of FA. We identified FANCI mutations by next generation sequencing in three patients in our FA cohort among several whose mutated gene was unknown. Four of the six mutations are novel and all mutations are likely deleterious to protein function. There are now 16 reported cases of FA due to FANCI of whom 7 have at least 3 features of the VACTERL association (44%). This suggests that the VACTERL association in patients with FA may be seen in patients with FANCI mutations more often than previously recognized.