Gene Summary

Gene:CMBL; carboxymethylenebutenolidase homolog
Aliases: JS-1
Summary:CMBL (EC is a cysteine hydrolase of the dienelactone hydrolase family that is highly expressed in liver cytosol. CMBL preferentially cleaves cyclic esters, and it activates medoxomil-ester prodrugs in which the medoxomil moiety is linked to an oxygen atom (Ishizuka et al., 2010 [PubMed 20177059]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:carboxymethylenebutenolidase homolog
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
CMBL is implicated in:
- cytosol
- hydrolase activity
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: CMBL (cancer-related)

Zhang C, Gu L, Li X, Wang J
Silencing of
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Pei Y, Yao Q, Li Y, et al.
microRNA-211 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration/invasion in human osteosarcoma via targeting EZRIN.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: In recent years, microRNA-211 (miR211) has been considered as a tumor suppressor in multiple malignancies. However, the function of miR211 in human osteosarcoma has not been explored intensively so far. In this study, the relationship between miR211 and EZRIN was analyzed in human osteosarcoma.
Methods: The expression levels of miR211 and EZRIN were measured in both human osteosarcoma cells and tissues. The direct regulatory relationship between miR211 and EZRIN was evaluated using dual-luciferase assay. The effect of miR211 and EZRIN overexpression on cell proliferation, migration/invasion, and apoptosis was detected.
Results: The expression of miR211 was obviously lower in osteosarcoma tissues than paracancerous tissues. EZRIN was identified as the direct target of miR211, and up-regulation of miR211 increased the percentage of cell apoptosis, and suppressed cell proliferation as well as cell migration/invasion via directly regulating EZRIN.
Conclusions: Our study indicated that miR211 has an important role in the development and progress of osteosarcoma, and it might become a novel target in the diagnosis and treatment of human osteosarcoma.

Liu M, Gong C, Xu R, et al.
MicroRNA-5195-3p enhances the chemosensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer to paclitaxel by downregulating EIF4A2.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Chemotherapy based on paclitaxel (PTX) is the standard treatment for a range of cancers, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), but the increasing development of resistance has reduced/has negatively impacted its clinical utility. A previous study demonstrated that miR-5195-3p could suppress lung cancer cell growth. This study was designed to investigate whether miR-5195-3p attenuates chemoresistance to PTX by regulating target genes in TNBC cells.
Methods: The study used both PTX-resistant tumor tissues and PTX-resistant TNBC cell lines. The expression of miR-5195-3p was determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Cell viability, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were analyzed using CCK-8 and flow cytometry assays. The target genes of miR-5195-3p were predicted with bioinformatics analysis and confirmed using the luciferase reporter assay.
Results: MiR-5195-3p expression was lower in PTX-resistant tumor tissues and PTX-resistant TNBC cell lines. Upregulation of miR-5195-3p enhanced the sensitivity of PTX-resistant TNBC cells to PTX treatment. EIF4A2 was confirmed as a potential target of miR-5195-3p. EIF4A2 knockdown imitated the effects of miR-5195-3p on chemosensitivity, while restoration of EIF4A2 rescued them.
Conclusion: These data demonstrate that miR-5195-3p might be a potential therapeutic target to reverse chemoresistance in TNBC through its targeting of EIF4A2.

Chai L, Yang G
MiR-216a-5p targets TCTN1 to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: MiR-216a-5p has been reported to be associated with several tumors, including prostate cancer and melanoma. However, its expression level and potential role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain uncertain.
Results: Here, we found that miR-216a-5p expression was significantly down-regulated in clinical ESCC tissues and cells. Functional assays were performed to evaluate the biological effects of miR-216a-5p on cell proliferation and cell apoptosis by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry in ESCC cell lines, EC9706 and TE-9. The results showed that miR-216a-5p overexpression repressed cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. Through bioinformatics prediction and luciferase reporter assay, we revealed that miR-216a-5p could directly target tectonic family member 1 (TCTN1). Moreover, TCTN1 was obviously suppressed by miR-216a-5p overexpression. In addition, TCTN1 expression was significantly increased and inversely correlated with the levels of miR-216a-5p in ESCC tissues. More importantly, down-regulation of TCTN1 imitated, while restoration of TCTN reversed the effects of miR-216a-5p on cell proliferation and apoptosis. At the molecular level, we further found that TCTN1 overexpression reversed the effects of miR-216a-5p transfection on the expression of PCNA, Bcl-2 and Bad.
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that miR-216a-5p might serve as a tumor suppressor in ESCC cells through negatively regulating TCTN1 expression, indicating the possibility that miR-216a-5p and TCTN1 might be attractive targets for ESCC therapeutic intervention.

Ou J, Guan D, Yang Y
Non-contact co-culture with human vascular endothelial cells promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of cervical cancer SiHa cells by activating the NOTCH1/LOX/SNAIL pathway.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of the cervical cancer cell line SiHa by studying the Notch1/lysyl oxidase (LOX)/SNAIL1 pathway.
Methods: Monocultures of SiHa cells, SiHa cells containing a control sequence, and
Results: Compared with monocultured SiHa cells, co-cultured SiHa cells showed a significant increase in their invasiveness and expression levels of vimentin, as well as of NOTCH 1, LOX, and SNAIL1, whereas their expression of E-cadherin was significantly reduced and protein activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were increased. Compared with SiHa, mono- and co-cultured
Conclusion: Co-culture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells promoted the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of SiHa cells by activating the NOTCH1/LOX/SNAIL1 pathway in SiHa cells, which enhanced their invasive and metastatic capacities. The results of this study may provide a new perspective on cervical cancer metastasis and a theoretical basis for clinical treatment.

Bao Y, Wang L, Shi L, et al.
Transcriptome profiling revealed multiple genes and ECM-receptor interaction pathways that may be associated with breast cancer.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Exploration of the genes with abnormal expression during the development of breast cancer is essential to provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved. Transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of invasive ductal carcinoma and paracancerous tissues from the same patient were performed to identify the key genes and signaling pathways related to breast cancer development.
Methods: Samples of breast tumor tissue and paracancerous breast tissue were obtained from 6 patients. Sequencing used the Illumina HiSeq platform. All. Only perfectly matched clean reads were mapped to the reference genome database, further analyzed and annotated based on the reference genome information. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the DESeq R package (1.10.1) and DEGSeq R package (1.12.0). Using KOBAS software to execute the KEGG bioinformatics analyses, enriched signaling pathways of DEGs involved in the occurrence of breast cancer were determined. Subsequently, quantitative real time PCR was used to verify the accuracy of the expression profile of key DEGs from the RNA-seq result and to explore the expression patterns of novel cancer-related genes on 8 different clinical individuals.
Results: The transcriptomic sequencing results showed 937 DEGs, including 487 upregulated and 450 downregulated genes in the breast cancer specimens. Further quantitative gene expression analysis was performed and captured 252 DEGs (201 downregulated and 51 upregulated) that showed the same differential expression pattern in all libraries. Finally, 6 upregulated DEGs (CST2, DRP2, CLEC5A, SCD, KIAA1211, DTL) and 6 downregulated DEGs (STAC2, BTNL9, CA4, CD300LG, GPIHBP1 and PIGR), were confirmed in a quantitative real time PCR comparison of breast cancer and paracancerous breast tissues from 8 clinical specimens. KEGG analysis revealed various pathway changes, including 20 upregulated and 21 downregulated gene enrichment pathways. The extracellular matrix-receptor (ECM-receptor) interaction pathway was the most enriched pathway: all genes in this pathway were DEGs, including the THBS family, collagen and fibronectin. These DEGs and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway may perform important roles in breast cancer.
Conclusion: Several potential breast cancer-related genes and pathways were captured, including 7 novel upregulated genes and 76 novel downregulated genes that were not found in other studies. These genes are related to cell proliferation, movement and adhesion. They may be important for research into breast cancer mechanisms, particularly CST2 and CA4. A key signaling pathway, the ECM-receptor interaction signal pathway, was also identified as possibly involved in the development of breast cancer.

Lu G, Zhang Y
MicroRNA-340-5p suppresses non-small cell lung cancer cell growth and metastasis by targeting ZNF503.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play crucial roles in cancer cell processes, including proliferation, metastasis and cell cycle progression. We aimed to identify miRNAs that could act as suppressors of cell growth and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Methods: Fifteen paired NSCLC tissue samples and pericarcinomatous normal tissues were collected and preserved in liquid nitrogen. The expression levels of miR-340-5p and ZNF503 mRNA were detected using a qPCR assay. The transfection of plasmids was conducted using Lipofectamine 3000 according to the manufacturer's protocol. Cell proliferation was determined using a CCK-8 assay. The protein levels of endothelial-mesenchymal transition markers were measured using a western blot assay. Cell invasive ability was evaluated using a transwell assay. TargetScan was used to predict targets of miR-340. A dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to confirm a potential direct interaction between miR-340-5p and ZNF503.
Results: The expression level of miR-340-5p was frequently found to be lower in NSCLC tissues than in matched pericarcinomatous normal tissues. Overexpression of miR-340-5p significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion NCI-H1650 (a NSCLC cell line), while inhibition of miR-340-5p stimulated cell growth. Using TargetScan, we predicted that ZNF503 could be a target of miR-340-5p. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that the forced expression of ZNF503 could partially abrogate the miR-340-5p-mediated decrease in NCI-H1650 cell viability and invasion, suggesting that miR-340-5p suppressed cell growth and invasion in a ZNF503-dependent manner.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that miR-340-5p inhibits NCI-H1650 cell proliferation and invasion by directly targeting ZNF503 and that miR-340-5p can serve as a potential therapeutic target for treating NSCLC.

Fu Y, Lin L, Xia L
MiR-107 function as a tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer by targeting transferrin receptor 1.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: While microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play a critical role in the progression of colorectal cancer, the role of miR-107 remains unknown. We evaluated its role and explored the underlying mechanism.
Materials & methods: MTT, wound-healing, transwell migration and transwell invasion assays were performed to evaluate the role of miR-107 in SW629 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Real time-PCR and dual-luciferase reporter gene, TFR1 overexpression and western blotting assays were used to explore the underlying mechanism.
Results: MiR-107 is downregulated in colorectal cancer tissues and several human colorectal cancer cell lines. Low miR-107 expression often indicates a poor survival rate for colorectal cancer patients. MiR-107 suppresses the proliferation, migration and invasion of SW620 cells by negatively regulating transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1).
Conclusion: MiR-107 suppresses the metastasis of colorectal cancer and could be a potential therapy target in colorectal cancer patients.

Byun Y, Choi YC, Jeong Y, et al.
MiR-200c downregulates HIF-1α and inhibits migration of lung cancer cells.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor with a pivotal role in physiological and pathological responses to hypoxia. While HIF-1α is known to be involved in hypoxia-induced upregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression, HIF-1α is also targeted by miRNAs. In this study, miRNAs targeting HIF-1α were identified and their effects on its expression and downstream target genes under hypoxic conditions were investigated. Cell migration under the same conditions was also assessed.
Methods: microRNAs that target
Results: Several of the 19 screened miRNAs considerably decreased the luciferase activity. Transfection with miR-200c had substantial impact on the expression level and transcription activity of HIF-1α. The mRNA level of HIF-1α downstream genes decreased in response to miR-200c overexpression. MiR-200c inhibited cell migration in normoxia and, to a greater extent, in hypoxia. These effects were partly reversed by HIF-1α expression under hypoxic conditions.
Conclusion: miR-200c negatively affects hypoxia-induced responses by downregulating HIF-1α, a key regulator of hypoxia. Therefore, overexpression of miR-200c might have therapeutic potential as an anticancer agent that inhibits tumor hypoxia.

Kong Q, Liang C, Jin Y, et al.
The lncRNA MIR4435-2HG is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes cancer cell proliferation by upregulating miRNA-487a.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Given the high mortality rate and unclear pathogenesis for liver cancer, investigation of its molecular mechanisms is essential. We focused on the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MIR4435-2HG, which was recently reported to be oncogenic in lung cancer and the microRNA miRNA-487a, which has been reported to be oncogenic in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our aim was to determine if the former has a role in HCC, and to further validate the role of the latter.
Methods: Samples from 64 patients with HCC were taken at The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University. Cell transfection and PCR were applied.
Results: We found that MIR4435-2HG and miRNA-487a were upregulated in tumor tissues compared to adjacent healthy tissues from HCC patients. The expression of MIR4435-2HG was significantly affected by tumor size but not by tumor metastasis. Correlation analysis showed that MIR4435-2HG and miRNA-487a were positively correlated in both the tumor tissues and adjacent healthy tissues from HCC patients. Overexpression of MIR4435-2HG led to upregulation of miRNA-487a in the cells of HCC cell lines, while overexpression of miRNA-487a did not significantly affect MIR4435-2HG. Overexpression of MIR4435-2HG and miRNA-487a promoted the proliferation of cells of HCC cell lines, and miRNA-487a knockdown partially attenuated the enhancing effects of MIR4435-2HG overexpression on cancer cell proliferation.
Conclusion: MIR4435-2HG is upregulated in HCC and promotes cancer cell proliferation possibly by upregulating miRNA-487a.

Su H, Zou D, Sun Y, Dai Y
Hypoxia-associated circDENND2A promotes glioma aggressiveness by sponging miR-625-5p.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: As a newfound type of non-coding RNA, circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in various physiological and pathological processes via regulation of gene expression. Increasing evidence shows that aberrantly expressed circRNAs play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of many tumors. However, the functions of different circRNAs in gliomas remain elusive.
Methods: The levels of circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs were quantified by qPCR. The interaction between circDENND2A and miR-625-5p was determined by luciferase reporter and pull-down assays. The migratory and invasive capabilities of glioma cells were examined by wound healing and Transwell assays. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the HIF1α level in glioma tissues.
Results: We predicted circDENND2A (has_circ_0002142) to be a hypoxia-responsive circRNA in glioma via a bioinformatic analysis. We found that hypoxia induced the expression of circDENND2A, which promoted migration and invasion of glioma cells. To understand the behaviors of circDENND2A in glioma, we studied the putative miRNAs targeted by circDENND2A and identified circDENND2A as an efficient sponge of miR-625-5p in glioma cells. Phenotype experiments verified that circDENND2A was required for the hypoxia-induced migration and invasion of glioma cells and that this occurred by sponging of miR-625-5p. Notably, glioma tissues overexpressing HIF1α exhibited a high expression of circDENND2A as well as a low expression of miR-625-5p. circDENND2A was negatively correlated with miR-625-5p.
Conclusion: circDENND2A is required for the hypoxia-induced malignancy of glioma cells and functions by sponging miR-625-5p.

Yang Y, Bao Y, Yang GK, et al.
MiR-214 sensitizes human colon cancer cells to 5-FU by targeting Hsp27.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overcoming chemorestistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) could offer a new treatment option for highly malignant colon cancer. In our study, differential microRNA expression profiling revealed that miR-214 is downregulated in 5-FU-resistant colon cancer cells compared to normal cells. In vitro, miR-214 could sensitize non-resistant colon cancer cells and 5-FU-resistant colon cancer cellsto 5-FU. Functionally, miR-214 inhibited cell clone formation and cell growth and enhanced 5-FU-inducing cell apoptosis and caspase-3 levels. MiR-214 targeted heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27), as confirmed via dual luciferase reporter assays and western blots. Hsp27 also sensitized HT-29 and LoVo to 5-FU by enhancing cell apoptosis. Overexpression of Hsp27 could block miR-214 with an effect on the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to 5-FU. In conclusion, miR-214 sensitizes colon cancer cells to 5-FU by targeting Hsp27, indicating a significant role for this miRNA in colon cancer chemotherapy.

Chen L, Hu W, Li G, et al.
Inhibition of miR-9-5p suppresses prostate cancer progress by targeting StarD13.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: This study aims to investigate the effects of inhibiting microRNA-9-5p (miR-9-5p) on the expression of StAR-related lipid transfer domain containing 13 (StarD13) and the progress of prostate cancer.
Methods: The mRNA expression levels of miR-9-5p and StarD13 were determined in several prostate cancer cell lines. We chose DU145 and PC-3 cells for further research. The CCK8 assay was used to measure the cell viability. The cell invasion and wound-healing assays were respectively applied to evaluate invasion and migration. The expression of E-cadherin (E-cad), N-cadherin (N-cad) and vimentin were measured via western blot. DU145 and PC-3 cells overexpressing StarD13 were generated to investigate the variation in proliferation, invasion and migration. A luciferase reporter assay was used to identify the target of miR-9-5p.
Results: Our results show that miR-9-5p was highly expressed and StarD13 was suppressed in prostate cancer cells. MiR-9-5p inhibition repressed the cells' viability, invasion and migration. It also increased the expression of E-cad and decreased that of N-cad and vimentin. StarD13 overexpression gave the same results as silencing of miR-9-5p: suppression of cell proliferation, invasion and migration. The bioinformatics analysis predicted StarD13 as a target gene of miR-9-5p. Quantitative RT-PCR, western blot analysis and the dual-luciferase reporter assay were employed to confirm the prediction.
Conclusion: Our results show that miR-9-5p plays a powerful role in the growth, invasion, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of prostate cancer cells by regulating StarD13. A therapeutic agent inhibiting miR-9-5p could act as a tumor suppressor for prostate cancer.

Li W, Cao J, Liu J, et al.
Downregulation of CDKL1 suppresses neuroblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 1 (CDKL1) is a member of the cell division control protein 2-related serine-threonine protein kinase family. It is known to occur in various malignant tumors, but its role in neuroblastoma (NB) remains unclear.
Methods: We constructed a CDKL1-silenced NB cell strain (SH-SY5Y) and used real-time PCR and western blotting to confirm the silencing. Functional analyses were performed using the MTT, colony-formation, FACS, wound-healing and transwell invasion assays.
Results: The expression of CDKL1 was significantly upregulated in NB tissue as compared to the adjacent normal tissue. CDKL1 knockdown significantly suppressed cell viability and colony formation ability. It also induced cell cycle G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis, and suppressed the migration and invasion ability of SH-SY5Y cells. CDKL1 knockdown decreased the CDK4, cyclin D1 and vimentin expression levels, and increased the caspase-3, PARP and E-cadherin expression levels in SH-SY5Y cells.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that CDKL1 plays an important role in NB cell proliferation, migration and invasion. It might serve as a potential target for NB therapy.

Gong ZH, Zhou F, Shi C, et al.
miRNA-221 promotes cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma progression by targeting PTEN.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is a common type of skin malignancy. MicroRNA-221 (miRNA-221) is a critical non-coding RNA in tumor initiation and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms of miRNA-221 in the development of CSCC remain unknown. This study investigated the expression of miRNA-221 in CSCC and its potential tumor biological functions.
Methods: MTT assay, colony assay, PCR, and Western blot were adopted.
Results: In this study, miRNA-221 expression was significantly higher in CSCC tissues and cell lines than in normal tissues and cells (
Conclusions: Taken together, the obtained results indicated that miR-221 plays an oncogenic function in CSCC by targeting PTEN and further suggest that miR-221 may be a potential target for CSCC diagnosis and treatment.

Shi B, Ma C, Liu G, Guo Y
MiR-106a directly targets LIMK1 to inhibit proliferation and EMT of oral carcinoma cells.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:1 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) expression levels are closely associated with microRNA (miRNA) processing. Higher levels of LIMK1 are reported during the progression of many cancers. Our study explored the interaction between LIMK1 and miR-106a in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Methods: Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to detect the levels of LIMK1 and miR-106a in OSCC tissues and cell lines. The rates of cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were assessed to determine the biological functions of miR-106a and LIMK1 in OSCC cells. The mRNA and protein levels of LIMK1 were measured using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. Luciferase assays were performed to validate LIMK1 as an miR-106a target in OSCC cells.
Results: We found that the level of miR-106a significantly decreased and the expression of LIMK1 significantly increased in OSCC tissues and cell lines. There was a close association between these changes. Knockdown of LIMK1 significantly inhibited the proliferation and EMT of OSCC cells. The bioinformatics analysis predicted that LIMK1 is a potential target gene of miR-106a and the luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-106a could directly target LIMK1. Introduction of miR-106a to OSCC cells had similar effects to LIMK1 silencing. Overexpression of LIMK1 in OSCC cells partially reversed the inhibitory effects of the miR-106a mimic.
Conclusion: MiR-106a inhibited the cell proliferation and EMT of OSCC cells by directly decreasing LIMK1 expression.

Zhang Z, Han Y, Sun G, et al.
MicroRNA-325-3p inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma by down-regulation of aquaporin 5.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is acknowledged as the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, previous studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) widely participate in regulation of various cellular processes, such as viral replication. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of aquaporin 5 (AQP5) and miR-325-3p in the proliferation and apoptosis of HBV-related HCC cells.
Methods: AQP5 and miR-325-3p expression in both normal and HBV-HCC tissues or cells (both Huh7-1.3 and HepG2.2.15) was detected using qRT-PCR. AQP5 expression was knocked down in HBV-related Huh7-1.3 and HepG2.2.15 cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology. Down-regulation was confirmed using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Effects of AQP5 down-regulation on the proliferation and apoptosis were assessed. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay, Western blot and qRT-PCR were employed to evaluate the effect of miR-325-3p on the luciferase activity and expression of AQP5. Moreover, miR-325-3p mimic-induced changes in cellular proliferation and apoptosis were detected through CCK-8 assay, BrdU assay, flow cytometry analysis and ELISA.
Results: In this study, the expression of AQP5 was up-regulated in human HBV-HCC tissue, Huh7-1.3 and HepG2.2.15 cells. Knockdown of AQP5 significantly inhibited the proliferation and promoted apoptosis of HBV-HCC cells. Next, miR-325-3p was obviously down-regulated in HBV-HCC. In concordance with this, MiR-325-3p directly targeted AQP5, and reduced both mRNA and protein levels of AQP5, which promoted cell proliferation and suppressed cell apoptosis in HCC cells. Overexpression of miR-325-3p dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis.
Conclusions: Our findings clearly demonstrated that introduction of miR-325-3p inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of Huh7-1.3 and HepG2.2.15 cells by directly decreasing AQP5 expression, and that silencing AQP5 expression was essential for the pro-apoptotic effect of miR-325-3p overexpression on Huh7-1.3 and HepG2.2.15 cells. It is beneficial to gain insight into the mechanism of HBV infection and pathophysiology of HBV-related HCC.

Ma Q
MiR-219-5p suppresses cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by targeting CCNA2.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: We investigated the potential regulatory role of miR-219-5p in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and looked at the underlying mechanisms in ESCC.
Methods: Real-time PCR was used to determine the levels of miR-219-5p in ESCC tissues and cell lines. The effects of miR-219-5p and cyclin A2 (CCNA2) on cell proliferation and cell cycle progression were evaluated using MTT, colony formation and flow cytometry assays with ESCC cell lines EC9706 and TE-9. Bioinformatics techniques and the luciferase reporter assay were applied to validate CCNA2 as the miR-219-5p target in ESCC cells. The mRNA and protein levels of CCNA2 were measured using real-time PCR and western blotting.
Results: MiR-219-5p expression was significantly lower in ESCC tissues and cells than in healthy tissues. Upregulation of miR-219-5p repressed cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. CCNA2 was identified and confirmed as a direct downstream target of miR-219-5p and its expression negatively correlated with miR-219-5p profiles in ESCC tissues. Knockdown of CCNA2 potentiated the effects of miR-219-5p on cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution.
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that miR-219-5p might function as a tumor suppressor by directly targeting CCNA2 expression. It could serve as a new therapeutic target for ESCC.

Xu C, Zheng J
siRNA against TSG101 reduces proliferation and induces G0/G1 arrest in renal cell carcinoma - involvement of c-myc, cyclin E1, and CDK2.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: The tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) is closely associated with various tumor types, but its role in the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still unknown. This study used RNA interference to silence the expression of TSG101 in RCC cell lines and explore the role of TSG101 in RCC.
Methods: Immunohistochemistry and western blot were performed to detect the expression of TSG101 in 15 paired renal tumor samples. A small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting TSG101 was transfected into A498 and 786-O cell lines. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and colony formation assay were used to observe the changes in cell proliferation after transfection. Flow cytometry was used to detect the effect on the cell cycle. Western blot was conducted to study the changes of related functional proteins.
Results: The expression of TSG101 was higher in RCC tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. The CCK-8 assay showed that the proliferation and colony formation of the A498 and 786-O cell lines were attenuated after suppression of TSG101. Flow cytometry showed that silencing of TSG101 induced G0/G1 arrest. The western blot results revealed that the levels of cell cycle-related proteins (c-myc, cyclin E1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)) were markedly decreased in the siRNA groups.
Conclusions: TSG101 promotes proliferation of RCC cells. This positive effect on tumor growth involves activation of c-myc and cyclin E1/CDK2 and their effect on cell cycle distribution.

Xie L, Chen Y, Chen J, et al.
Anti-tumor effects and mechanism of GA-13315, a novel gibberellin derivative, in human lung adenocarcinoma: an in vitro and in vivo study.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: To investigate the anti-tumor effects and the mechanism of the compound 13-chlorine-3, 15-dioxy-gibberellic acid methyl ester (GA-13315) in lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Methods: The antiproliferative effect of GA-13313 on the A549 cell line was determined by MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. A xenograft model of A549 was established to evaluate the anti-tumor effect and histopathological examination was performed to assess the toxicity of GA-13315. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining in tissues and flow cytometry in cells; activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis; protein levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), caspase-4, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153) were determined by western blotting. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured by the JC-1 fluorescence probe.
Results: Our results showed that GA-13315 exhibited potent, dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferative activity, and the IC50 values were 37.43 ± 2.73, 28.08 ± 7.76 and 19.29 ± 7.61 μM at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The xenograft experiment revealed that tumor weight and volume were significantly decreased after GA-13315 3 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg (
Conclusions: This study suggests that GA-13315 can be considered as a promising chemotherapeutic agent with anticancer activity in treatment of lung cancer in future.

Huang H, Li T, Chen M, et al.
Identification and validation of NOLC1 as a potential target for enhancing sensitivity in multidrug resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adjuvant chemotherapy has become the frequently adopted standard therapeutic approach for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle contributing to the failure of chemotherapy. This study aimed to identify genes associated with MDR development that predict tumor response to chemotherapy in NSCLC. In the present study, a multidrug-resistant NSCLC cell sub-line, A549/MDR, was established from the A549/DDP cell line and characterized. The resistance index (RI) of this subline was calculated according to the IC50 of A549/MDR relative to the parental A549/DDP cells. The gene expression profiles of A549/DDP and A549/MDR were obtained using an oligonucleotide microarray (Agilent SureHyb microarray chip). The microarray results were validated by qRT-PCR and selected genes were analyzed by in vitro loss-of-function experiments. Gene expression profiling identified 921 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) according to the selection criteria, in which 541 genes were upregulated and 380 genes were downregulated in A549/MDR compared with A549/DDP cells. We found that these DEGs are involved in diverse biological processes, including ribonucleoprotein complex, drug metabolism, the Hippo signaling pathway and transcriptional misregulation. NOLC1, as one of the identified DEGs, was confirmed to be overexpressed in A549/MDR cells and its knockdown significantly enhanced the drug sensitivity of A549/MDR cells in response to multidrug treatment. Furthermore, knockdown of NOLC1 downregulated the expression levels of drug resistance-associated molecules (LRP and MDR1) in A549/MDR cells. These findings provide a new and comprehensive expression profile of MDR in NSCLC cells. Identification and validation of NOLC1 might be a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of MDR of NSCLC patients.

Zhang X, Zhang L, Tan X, et al.
Systematic analysis of genes involved in oral cancer metastasis to lymph nodes.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral cancer remains a deadly disease worldwide. Lymph node metastasis and invasion is one of the causes of death from oral cancer. Elucidating the mechanism of oral cancer lymph node metastasis and identifying critical regulatory genes are important for the treatment of this disease. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (gene signature) and pathways that contribute to oral cancer metastasis to lymph nodes. The GSE70604-associated study compared gene profiles in lymph nodes with metastasis of oral cancer to those of normal lymph nodes. The GSE2280-associated study compared gene profiles in primary tumor of oral cancer with lymph node metastasis to those in tumors without lymph node metastasis. There are 28 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showing consistent changes in both datasets in overlapping analysis. GO biological process and KEGG pathway analysis of these 28 DEGs identified the gene signature CCND1, JUN and SPP1, which are categorized as key regulatory genes involved in the focal adhesion pathway. Silencing expression of CCND1, JUN and SPP1 in the human oral cancer cell line OECM-1 confirmed that those genes play essential roles in oral cancer cell invasion. Analysis of clinical samples of oral cancer found a strong correlation of these genes with short survival, especially JUN expression associated with metastasis. Our study identified a unique gene signature - CCND1, JUN and SPP1 - which may be involved in oral cancer lymph node metastasis.

Hajalirezay Yazdi S, Paryan M, Mohammadi-Yeganeh S
An integrated approach of bioinformatic prediction and in vitro analysis identified that miR-34a targets
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women, and
Methods: Bioinformatic approaches were used to find a miRNA that simultaneously targets both
Results: By applying bioinformatic software and programs, miRNAs that target the 3'-UTR of both
Conclusions: These findings may indicate that miR-34a is an oncogenic miRNA, downregulated in the distinct breast cancer subtypes. It also targets

Fei M, Guan J, Xue T, et al.
Hypoxia promotes the migration and invasion of human hepatocarcinoma cells through the HIF-1α-IL-8-Akt axis.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The 5-year survival rate remains low despite considerable research into treatments of HCC, including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Many mechanisms within HCC still require investigation, including the influence of hypoxia, which has a crucial role in many cancers and is associated with metastasis. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is known to regulate the expression of many chemokines, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), which is associated with tumor metastasis. Although many studies have reported that HIF-1α is associated with HCC migration and invasion, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown.
Methods: The expression level of HIF-1α was determined in HCC cells. The correlation of IL-8 and HIF-1α expressions was assessed via knockdown of HIF-1α. HCC cells were also used to assess the influence of HIF-1α on HCC cell migration and invasion. LY294002, an inhibitor of the Akt pathway, was used to confirm the associated signaling pathways.
Results: We observed a significant attenuation of cell migration and invasion after silencing of HIF-1α. Exogenously expressing IL-8 restored migration and invasion. Akt was found to be involved in this process.
Conclusion: Hypoxia promotes HCC cell migration and invasion through the HIF-1α-IL-8-Akt axis.

Wang Y, Xu H, Zhu B, et al.
Systematic identification of the key candidate genes in breast cancer stroma.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Tumor microenvironment, in particular the stroma, plays an important role in breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Investigation of the molecular characteristics of breast cancer stroma may reveal targets for future study.
Methods: The transcriptome profiles of breast cancer stroma and normal breast stroma were compared to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The method was analysis of GSE26910 and GSE10797 datasets. Common DEGs were identified and then analyses of enriched pathways and hub genes were performed.
Results: A total of 146 DEGs were common to GSE26910 and GSE10797. The enriched pathways were associated with "extracellular matrix (ECM) organization", "ECM-receptor interaction" and "focal adhesion". Network analysis identified six key genes, including
Conclusions: We found that several conserved tumor stromal genes might regulate breast cancer invasion through ECM remodeling. The clinical outcome analyses of

Abbaszadegan MR, Riahi A, Forghanifard MM, Moghbeli M
WNT and NOTCH signaling pathways as activators for epidermal growth factor receptor in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common histological type of esophageal cancer, with a poor prognosis. Deregulation of WNT and NOTCH signaling pathways is important in ESCC progression, which can be due to either malfunction of their components or crosstalk with other pathways. Therefore, identification of new crosstalk between such pathways may be effective to introduce new strategies for targeted therapy of cancer. A correlation study was performed to assess the probable interaction between growth factor receptors and WNT/NOTCH pathways via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Musashi1 (MSI1), respectively.
Methods: Levels of MSI1/EGFR mRNA expression in tumor tissues from 48 ESCC patients were compared to their corresponding normal tissues using real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Results: There was a significant correlation between EGFR and MSI1 expression (
Conclusion: This study confirms a direct correlation between MSI1 and EGFR and may support the important role of MSI1 in activation of EGFR through NOTCH/WNT pathways in ESCC.

Wu W, Nie L, Zhang L, Li Y
The notch pathway promotes NF-κB activation through Asb2 in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Oncogenic Notch1 is known to activate the NF-κB pathway in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and to up-regulate the transcription of Asb2α, a specificity factor for an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that plays an important role in hematopoietic differentiation. Therefore, we hypothesize that Notch1 might regulate the NF-κB pathway through Asb2α.
Methods: The study involved down-regulation of Notch1 in T-ALL cell lines (CCRF-CEM cells and MOLT-4 cells) through treatment with gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) as well as the modulation of Asb2 in CCRF-CEM cells and MOLT-4 cells through transduction with lentivirus carrying
Results: Here, we demonstrated for the first time that Notch1 can activate the transcription of Asb2α, which then stimulates activation of NF-κB in T-ALL cells. Asb2α exerts its effects by inducing degradation and dissociation of IκBα from NF-κB in T-ALL cells. Moreover, specific suppression of Asb2α expression can promote apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of T-ALL cells.
Conclusion: Notch1 modulates the NF-κB pathway through Asb2α, indicating that Asb2α inhibition is a promising option for targeted therapy against T-ALL.

Chen L, Wu L, Zhu L, Zhao Y
Overview of the structure-based non-genomic effects of the nuclear receptor RXRα.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nuclear receptor RXRα (retinoid X receptor-α) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple genes. Its non-genomic function is largely related to its structure, polymeric forms and modification. Previous research revealed that some non-genomic activity of RXRα occurs via formation of heterodimers with Nur77. RXRα-Nur77 heterodimers translocate from the nucleus to the mitochondria in response to certain apoptotic stimuli and this activity correlates with cell apoptosis. More recent studies revealed a significant role for truncated RXRα (tRXRα), which interacts with the p85α subunit of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, leading to enhanced activation of AKT and promoting cell growth in vitro and in animals. We recently reported on a series of NSAID sulindac analogs that can bind to tRXRα through a unique binding mechanism. We also identified one analog, K-80003, which can inhibit cancer cell growth by inducing tRXRα to form a tetramer, thus disrupting p85α-tRXRα interaction. This review analyzes the non-genomic effects of RXRα in normal and tumor cells, and discusses the functional differences based on RXRα protein structure (structure source: the RCSB Protein Data Bank).

Liu S, Yue J, Du W, et al.
LAMP3 plays an oncogenic role in osteosarcoma cells partially by inhibiting TP53.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a common malignant tumor that predominantly occurs in adolescents. Its most common metastasis is to the lungs. As shown in our earlier study, lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 3 (LAMP3) is highly upregulated in metastatic OS. However, its role in the regulation of OS cell viability and apoptosis remains unknown.
Methods: We knocked down and overexpressed
Results: Knockdown of
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that

Nikitakis NG, Gkouveris I, Aseervatham J, et al.
DSPP-MMP20 gene silencing downregulates cancer stem cell markers in human oral cancer cells.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Recent findings indicate that dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 20 interact in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of DSPP/MMP20 gene silencing on oral cancer stem cell (OCSC) markers.
Methods: The expression of well-established OCSC markers: ABCG2; ALDH1; CD133; CD44; BMI1; LGR4, and Podoplanin in DSPP/MMP20-silenced OSCC cell line, OSC2, and controls were assayed by western blot (WB), and flow cytometry techniques. The sensitivity of OSC2 cells to cisplatin following DSPP/MMP20 silencing was also determined.
Results: DSPP/MMP20 silencing resulted in downregulation of OCSC markers, more profoundly ABCG2 (84%) and CD44 (81%), following double silencing. Furthermore, while treatment of parent (pre-silenced) OSC2 cells with cisplatin resulted in upregulation of OCSC markers, DSPP/MMP20-silenced OSC2 cells similarly treated resulted in profound downregulation of OCSC markers (72 to 94% at 50 μM of cisplatin), and a marked reduction in the proportion of ABCG2 and ALDH1 positive cells (~ 1%).
Conclusions: We conclude that the downregulation of OCSC markers may signal a reduction in OCSC population following MMP20/DSPP silencing in OSCC cells, while also increasing their sensitivity to cisplatin. Thus, our findings suggest a potential role for DSPP and MMP20 in sustaining OCSC population in OSCCs, possibly, through mechanism(s) that alter OCSC sensitivity to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin.

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