|Gene:||CISD1; CDGSH iron sulfur domain 1|
|Aliases: || ZCD1, MDS029, C10orf70, mitoNEET |
|Summary:||This gene encodes a protein with a CDGSH iron-sulfur domain and has been shown to bind a redox-active [2Fe-2S] cluster. The encoded protein has been localized to the outer membrane of mitochondria and is thought to play a role in regulation of oxidation. Genes encoding similar proteins are located on chromosomes 4 and 17, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]|
|Databases:||OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Protein:||CDGSH iron-sulfur domain-containing protein 1|
|Source:||NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019|
What does this gene/protein do?
Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CISD1 (cancer-related)
Chen XY, Ren HH, Wang D, et al.Isoliquiritigenin Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Apoptosis by Inhibiting mitoNEET in a Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Manner in A375 Human Melanoma Cells.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019; 2019:9817576 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mitochondrial protein mitoNEET is a type of iron-sulfur protein localized to the outer membrane of mitochondria and is involved in a variety of human pathologies including cystic fibrosis, diabetes, muscle atrophy, and neurodegeneration. In the current study, we found that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), one of the components of the root of
Meram AT, Chen J, Patel S, et al.Hydrogen Sulfide Is Increased in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Compared to Adjacent Benign Oral Mucosae.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(7):3843-3852 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Hydrogen sulfide (H
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Punch biopsies of OSCC and benign mucosae from 15 patients were analyzed by HPLC, western blotting, and tissue microarray analyses.
Lipper CH, Karmi O, Sohn YS, et al.Structure of the human monomeric NEET protein MiNT and its role in regulating iron and reactive oxygen species in cancer cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(2):272-277 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The NEET family is a relatively new class of three related [2Fe-2S] proteins (CISD1-3), important in human health and disease. While there has been growing interest in the homodimeric gene products of CISD1 (mitoNEET) and CISD2 (NAF-1), the importance of the inner mitochondrial CISD3 protein has only recently been recognized in cancer. The CISD3 gene encodes for a monomeric protein that contains two [2Fe-2S] CDGSH motifs, which we term mitochondrial inner NEET protein (MiNT). It folds with a pseudosymmetrical fold that provides a hydrophobic motif on one side and a relatively hydrophilic surface on the diametrically opposed surface. Interestingly, as shown by molecular dynamics simulation, the protein displays distinct asymmetrical backbone motions, unlike its homodimeric counterparts that face the cytosolic side of the outer mitochondrial membrane/endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, like its counterparts, our biological studies indicate that knockdown of MiNT leads to increased accumulation of mitochondrial labile iron, as well as increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen production. Taken together, our study suggests that the MiNT protein functions in the same pathway as its homodimeric counterparts (mitoNEET and NAF-1), and could be a key player in this pathway within the mitochondria. As such, it represents a target for anticancer or antidiabetic drug development.
Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is executed by distinct protein assembly systems. Mammals have two systems, the mitochondrial Fe-S cluster assembly system (ISC) and the cytosolic assembly system (CIA), that are connected by an unknown mechanism. The human members of the NEET family of 2Fe-2S proteins, nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1) and mitoNEET (mNT), are located at the interface between the mitochondria and the cytosol. These proteins have been implicated in cancer cell proliferation, and they can transfer their 2Fe-2S clusters to a standard apo-acceptor protein. Here we report the first physiological 2Fe-2S cluster acceptor for both NEET proteins as human Anamorsin (also known as cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor-1; CIAPIN-1). Anamorsin is an electron transfer protein containing two iron-sulfur cluster-binding sites that is required for cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly. We show, using UV-Vis spectroscopy, that both NAF-1 and mNT can transfer their 2Fe-2S clusters to apo-Anamorsin with second order rate constants similar to those of other known human 2Fe-2S transfer proteins. A direct protein-protein interaction of the NEET proteins with apo-Anamorsin was detected using biolayer interferometry. Furthermore, electrospray mass spectrometry of holo-Anamorsin prepared by cluster transfer shows that it receives both of its 2Fe-2S clusters from the NEETs. We propose that mNT and NAF-1 can provide parallel routes connecting the mitochondrial ISC system and the CIA. 2Fe-2S clusters assembled in the mitochondria are received by NEET proteins and when needed transferred to Anamorsin, activating the CIA.
Identification of novel drug targets and chemotherapeutic agents is a high priority in the fight against cancer. Here, we report that MAD-28, a designed cluvenone (CLV) derivative, binds to and destabilizes two members of a unique class of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 2Fe-2S proteins, mitoNEET (mNT) and nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1), recently implicated in cancer cell proliferation. Docking analysis of MAD-28 to mNT/NAF-1 revealed that in contrast to CLV, which formed a hydrogen bond network that stabilized the 2Fe-2S clusters of these proteins, MAD-28 broke the coordinative bond between the His ligand and the cluster's Fe of mNT/NAF-1. Analysis of MAD-28 performed with control (Michigan Cancer Foundation; MCF-10A) and malignant (M.D. Anderson-metastatic breast; MDA-MB-231 or MCF-7) human epithelial breast cells revealed that MAD-28 had a high specificity in the selective killing of cancer cells, without any apparent effects on normal breast cells. MAD-28 was found to target the mitochondria of cancer cells and displayed a surprising similarity in its effects to the effects of mNT/NAF-1 shRNA suppression in cancer cells, causing a decrease in respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as an increase in mitochondrial iron content and glycolysis. As expected, if the NEET proteins are targets of MAD-28, cancer cells with suppressed levels of NAF-1 or mNT were less susceptible to the drug. Taken together, our results suggest that NEET proteins are a novel class of drug targets in the chemotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer, and that MAD-28 can now be used as a template for rational drug design for NEET Fe-S cluster-destabilizing anticancer drugs.
Life requires orchestrated control of cell proliferation, cell maintenance, and cell death. Involved in these decisions are protein complexes that assimilate a variety of inputs that report on the status of the cell and lead to an output response. Among the proteins involved in this response are nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1 (NAF-1)- and Bcl-2. NAF-1 is a homodimeric member of the novel Fe-S protein NEET family, which binds two 2Fe-2S clusters. NAF-1 is an important partner for Bcl-2 at the endoplasmic reticulum to functionally antagonize Beclin 1-dependent autophagy [Chang NC, Nguyen M, Germain M, Shore GC (2010) EMBO J 29(3):606-618]. We used an integrated approach involving peptide array, deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS), and functional studies aided by the power of sufficient constraints from direct coupling analysis (DCA) to determine the dominant docked conformation of the NAF-1-Bcl-2 complex. NAF-1 binds to both the pro- and antiapoptotic regions (BH3 and BH4) of Bcl-2, as demonstrated by a nested protein fragment analysis in a peptide array and DXMS analysis. A combination of the solution studies together with a new application of DCA to the eukaryotic proteins NAF-1 and Bcl-2 provided sufficient constraints at amino acid resolution to predict the interaction surfaces and orientation of the protein-protein interactions involved in the docked structure. The specific integrated approach described in this paper provides the first structural information, to our knowledge, for future targeting of the NAF-1-Bcl-2 complex in the regulation of apoptosis/autophagy in cancer biology.
Sohn YS, Tamir S, Song L, et al.NAF-1 and mitoNEET are central to human breast cancer proliferation by maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and promoting tumor growth.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(36):14676-81 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mitochondria are emerging as important players in the transformation process of cells, maintaining the biosynthetic and energetic capacities of cancer cells and serving as one of the primary sites of apoptosis and autophagy regulation. Although several avenues of cancer therapy have focused on mitochondria, progress in developing mitochondria-targeting anticancer drugs nonetheless has been slow, owing to the limited number of known mitochondrial target proteins that link metabolism with autophagy or cell death. Recent studies have demonstrated that two members of the newly discovered family of NEET proteins, NAF-1 (CISD2) and mitoNEET (mNT; CISD1), could play such a role in cancer cells. NAF-1 was shown to be a key player in regulating autophagy, and mNT was proposed to mediate iron and reactive oxygen homeostasis in mitochondria. Here we show that the protein levels of NAF-1 and mNT are elevated in human epithelial breast cancer cells, and that suppressing the level of these proteins using shRNA results in significantly reduced cell proliferation and tumor growth, decreased mitochondrial performance, uncontrolled accumulation of iron and reactive oxygen in mitochondria, and activation of autophagy. Our findings highlight NEET proteins as promising mitochondrial targets for cancer therapy.
Here, we set out to test the novel hypothesis that increased mitochondrial biogenesis in epithelial cancer cells would "fuel" enhanced tumor growth. For this purpose, we generated MDA-MB-231 cells (a triple-negative human breast cancer cell line) overexpressing PGC-1α and MitoNEET, which are established molecules that drive mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Interestingly, both PGC-1α and MitoNEET increased the abundance of OXPHOS protein complexes, conferred autophagy resistance under conditions of starvation and increased tumor growth by up to ~3-fold. However, this increase in tumor growth was independent of neo-angiogenesis, as assessed by immunostaining and quantitation of vessel density using CD31 antibodies. Quantitatively similar increases in tumor growth were also observed by overexpression of PGC-1β and POLRMT in MDA-MB-231 cells, which are also responsible for mediating increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, we propose that increased mitochondrial "power" in epithelial cancer cells oncogenically promotes tumor growth by conferring autophagy resistance. As such, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, mitoNEET and POLRMT should all be considered as tumor promoters or "metabolic oncogenes." Our results are consistent with numerous previous clinical studies showing that metformin (a weak mitochondrial "poison") prevents the onset of nearly all types of human cancers in diabetic patients. Therefore, metformin (a complex I inhibitor) and other mitochondrial inhibitors should be developed as novel anticancer therapies, targeting mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells.