Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CHFR (cancer-related)
Aberrant promoter methylation plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, its role in treatment responses is unclear, especially for metastatic disease. Here, we investigated the association between promoter methylation and treatment outcomes of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in 102 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Promoter methylation was examined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction for three loci (CHFR, WRN, and SULF2) associated with chemotherapy response and five CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-specific markers (CACNA1G, IGF2, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1). Association between CHFR methylation and in vitro sensitivity to irinotecan was also evaluated. Promoter methylation of CHFR, WRN, and SULF2 was identified in 16 (15.7%), 24 (23.5%), and 33 (32.4%) patients, respectively. CIMP status was positive in 22 (21.6%) patients. CHFR methylation was associated with a significantly longer time to progression (TTP) (median: 8.77 vs. 4.43 months, P = .019), with trends favoring higher overall survival (OS) (median: 22.83 vs. 20.17 months, P = .300) and response rates (31.3% vs. 17.4%, P = .300). For patients with unmethylated CHFR, TTP (median: 5.60 vs. 3.53, P = .020) and OS (median: 20.57 vs. 9.23, P = .006) were significantly different according to CIMP status. Colorectal cancer cell lines with CHFR methylation demonstrated increased sensitivity to irinotecan. Both CHFR overexpression and combination with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed irinotecan sensitivity in CHFR-methylated cell lines, whereas CHFR knockdown in unmethylated cells restored sensitivity to irinotecan. These data suggest that CHFR methylation may be associated with favorable treatment outcomes of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Paclitaxel is widely used as a first-line chemotherapeutic drug for patients with ovarian cancer and other solid cancers, but drug resistance occurs frequently, resulting in ovarian cancer still presenting as the highest lethality among all gynecological tumors. Here, using DIGE quantitative proteomics, we identified UBC13 as down-regulated in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells, and it was further revealed by immunohistochemical staining that UBC13 low-expression was associated with poorer prognosis and shorter survival of the patients. Through gene function experiments, we found that paclitaxel exposure induced UBC13 down-regulation, and the enforced change in UBC13 expression altered the sensitivity to paclitaxel. Meanwhile, the reduction of UBC13 increased DNMT1 levels by attenuating its ubiquitination, and the up-regulated DNMT1 enhanced the CHFR promoter DNA methylation levels, leading to a reduction of CHFR expression, and an increased in the levels of Aurora A. Our findings revealed a novel function for UBC13 in regulating paclitaxel sensitivity through a DNMT1-CHFR-Aurora A pathway in ovarian cancer cells. UBC13 could potentially be employed as a therapeutic molecular drug for reversing paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer patients.
Laco J, Kovarikova H, Chmelarova M, et al.Analysis of DNA methylation and microRNA expression in NUT (nuclear protein in testis) midline carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(1):113-123 [PubMed
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The aim of this study was a detailed clinicopathological investigation of sinonasal NUT midline carcinoma (NMC), including analysis of DNA methylation and microRNA (miRNA) expression. Three (5%) cases of NMC were detected among 56 sinonasal carcinomas using immunohistochemical screening and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The series comprised 2 males and 1 female, aged 46, 60, and 65 years. Two tumors arose in the nasal cavity and one in the maxillary sinus. The neoplasms were staged pT1, pT3, and pT4a (all cN0M0). All patients were treated by radical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy. Two patients died 3 and 8 months after operation, but one patient (pT1 stage; R0 resection) experienced no evidence of disease at 108 months. Microscopically, all tumors consisted of infiltrating nests of polygonal cells with vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and basophilic cytoplasm. Abrupt keratinization was present in only one case. Immunohistochemically, there was a diffuse expression of cytokeratin (CK) cocktail, CK7, p40, p63, and SMARCB1/INI1. All NMCs tested negative for EBV and HPV infection. Two NMCs showed methylation of RASSF1 gene. All other genes (APC, ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CADM1, CASP8, CD44, CDH13, CDKN1B, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CHFR, DAPK1, ESR1, FHIT, GSTP1, HIC1, KLLN, MLH1a, MLH1b, RARB, TIMP3, and VHL) were unmethylated. All NMCs showed upregulation of miR-9 and downregulation of miR-99a and miR-145 and two cases featured also upregulation of miR-21, miR-143, and miR-484. In summary, we described three cases of sinonasal NMCs with novel findings on DNA methylation and miRNA expression, which might be important for new therapeutic strategies in the future.
BACKGROUND: Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps are distinguished from hyperplastic colonic polyps subjectively by their endoscopic appearance and histological morphology. However, hyperplastic and sessile serrated polyps can have overlapping morphological features resulting in sessile serrated polyps diagnosed as hyperplastic. While sessile serrated polyps can progress into colon cancer, hyperplastic polyps have virtually no risk for colon cancer. Objective measures, differentiating these types of polyps would improve cancer prevention and treatment outcome.
METHODS: RNA-seq training data set and Affimetrix, Illumina testing data sets were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). RNA-seq single-end reads were filtered with FastX toolkit. Read mapping to the human genome, gene abundance estimation, and differential expression analysis were performed with Tophat-Cufflinks pipeline. Background correction, normalization, and probe summarization steps for Affimetrix arrays were performed using the robust multi-array method (RMA). For Illumina arrays, log
RESULTS: The classifier trained on RNA-seq data and tested on two independent microarray data sets resulted in zero and three errors. The classifier was further tested using quantitative real-time PCR expression levels of 45 blinded independent formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens and was highly accurate. Pathway analyses have shown that sessile serrated polyps are distinguished from hyperplastic polyps and normal controls by: up-regulation of pathways implicated in proliferation, inflammation, cell-cell adhesion and down-regulation of serine threonine kinase signaling pathway; differential co-expression of pathways regulating cell division, protein trafficking and kinase activities.
CONCLUSIONS: Most of the differentially expressed pathways are known as hallmarks of cancer and likely to explain why sessile serrated polyps are more prone to neoplastic transformation than hyperplastic. The new molecular classifier includes 13 genes and may facilitate objective differentiation between two polyps.
Zhou JD, Zhang TJ, Li XX, et al.Methylation-independent CHFR expression is a potential biomarker affecting prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.
J Cell Physiol. 2018; 233(6):4707-4714 [PubMed
] Related Publications
CHFR acts as a tumor suppressor gene, which is frequently inactivated caused by its promoter hypermethylation in various solid tumors. Although a recent study showed that CHFR hypermethylation was a frequent event in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and correlated with adverse clinical outcome, herein, we found that CHFR methylation was a rare event in patients with myeloid malignancies (including AML, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes), but its expression may serve as an independent prognostic biomarker in AML. CHFR expression was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR, whereas CHFR methylation was detected by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing PCR. In AML patients, lower CHFR expression was associated with lower complete remission (CR) rate, and CHFR expression was significantly increased in CR after chemotherapy. Moreover, patients with lower CHFR expression showed shorter overall survival and leukemia-free survival, and multivariate analysis confirmed that lower CHFR expression was an independent risk factor in AML. Importantly, the prognostic value of CHFR expression was validated using the published Gene Expression Omnibus datasets. Notably, CHFR promoter was nearly unmethylated in patients with myeloid malignancies. Our findings revealed that lower CHFR expression was independently associated with unfavorable prognosis in AML. Moreover, aberrant CHFR promoter methylation was a rare event in myeloid malignances.
Background: Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)] represents a unique pathway for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), characterized by lack of chromosomal instability and a low rate of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations, which have both been correlated with taxane resistance. Similarly, small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA), a rare tumor, also has a low rate of APC mutations. This phase II study evaluated taxane sensitivity in SBA and CIMP-high CRC.
Patients and methods: The primary objective was Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 response rate. Eligibility included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0/1, refractory disease, and SBA or CIMP-high metastatic CRC. Nab-paclitaxel was initially administered at a dose of 260 mg/m2 every 3 weeks but was reduced to 220 mg/m2 owing to toxicity.
Results: A total of 21 patients with CIMP-high CRC and 13 with SBA were enrolled from November 2012 to October 2014. The efficacy-assessable population (patients who received at least three doses of the treatment) comprised 15 CIMP-high CRC patients and 10 SBA patients. Common grade 3 or 4 toxicities were fatigue (12%), neutropenia (9%), febrile neutropenia (9%), dehydration (6%), and thrombocytopenia (6%). No responses were seen in the CIMP-high CRC cohort and two partial responses were seen in the SBA cohort. Median progression-free survival was significantly greater in the SBA cohort than in the CIMP-high CRC cohort (3.2 months compared with 2.1 months, P = 0.03). Neither APC mutation status nor CHFR methylation status correlated with efficacy in the CIMP-high CRC cohort. In vivo testing of paclitaxel in an SBA patient-derived xenograft validated the activity of taxanes in this disease type.
Conclusion: Although preclinical studies suggested taxane sensitivity was associated with chromosomal stability and wild-type APC, we found that nab-paclitaxel was inactive in CIMP-high metastatic CRC. Nab-paclitaxel may represent a novel therapeutic option for SBA.
MicroRNA 26a (miR-26a) reduces cell viability in several cancers, indicating that miR-26a could be used as a therapeutic option in patients. We demonstrate that miR-26a not only inhibits G1-S cell cycle transition and promotes apoptosis, as previously described, but also regulates multiple cell cycle checkpoints. We show that sustained miR-26a over-expression in both breast cancer (BC) cell lines and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) induces oversized cells containing either a single-large nucleus or two nuclei, indicating defects in mitosis and cytokinesis. Additionally, we demonstrate that miR-26a induces aneuploidy and centrosome defects and enhances tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, it acts by targeting G1-S transition genes as well as genes involved in mitosis and cytokinesis such as CHFR, LARP1 and YWHAE. Importantly, we show that only the re-expression of CHFR in miR-26a over-expressing cells partially rescues normal mitosis and impairs the tumorigenesis exerted by miR-26a, indicating that CHFR represents an important miR-26a target in the regulation of such phenotypes. We propose that miR-26a delivery might not be a viable therapeutic strategy due to the potential deleterious oncogenic activity of this miRNA.
Laco J, Chmelařová M, Vošmiková H, et al.SMARCB1/INI1-deficient sinonasal carcinoma shows methylation of RASSF1 gene: A clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study of a recently described entity.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(2):133-142 [PubMed
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The aim of the study was detailed clinicopathological investigation of SMARCB1/INI1-deficient sinonasal carcinomas, including molecular genetic analysis of mutational status and DNA methylation of selected protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes by means of next generation sequencing (NGS) and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). A total of 4/56 (7%) cases of SMARCB1/INI1-deficient carcinomas were detected among 56 sinonasal carcinomas diagnosed over a 19year period using immunohistochemical screening. The series comprised 3 males and 1 female, aged 27-76 years (median 64 years). All tumors arose in the nasal cavity. Three neoplasms were diagnosed in advanced stage pT4. During the follow-up period (range 14-111 months (median 72 months)), three tumors recurred locally, but none of the patients developed regional or distant metastases. Ultimately, two patients died due to the tumor. Microscopically, all tumors consisted of infiltrating nests of polygonal basaloid cells with a variable component of rhabdoid cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, there was almost diffuse expression of cytokeratins (CK), p16, p40 and p63 in all cases, while expression of CK5/6, CK7 and vimentin was only focal or absent. The detection of NUT gave negative results. In three cases, the absence of SMARCB1/INI1 expression was due to deletion of SMARCB1/INI1 gene. Methylation of SMARCB1/INI1 gene was not found. One tumor harbored HPV18 E6/E7 mRNA. All 12 genes (BRAF, BRCA1, BRCA2, KIT, EGFR, KRAS, NRAS, PDGFRA, PIK3CA, PTEN, RET, and ROS1) tested for mutations using NGS were wild-type. Regarding DNA methylation, all four SMARCB1/INI1-deficient tumors showed methylation of RASSF1 gene by means of MS-MLPA. There was a statistically significant difference in RASSF1 gene methylation between SMARCB1/INI1-deficient and SMARCB1/INI1-positive tumors (p=0.0095). All other examined genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CADM1, CASP8, CD44, CDKN1B, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CHFR, DAPK1, ESR1, FHIT, GSTP1, HIC1, KLLN, MLH1a, MLH1b, RARB, and VLH) were unmethylated. In summary, we described four cases of SMARCB1/INI1-deficient sinonasal carcinoma with detailed clinicopathological data indicating that these tumors can be regarded as a distinct entity with aggressive behaviour. For the first time, we performed analysis of DNA methylation in SMARCB1/INI1-deficient sinonasal carcinomas, reporting on significantly higher methylation of RASSF1 gene in this neoplasm.
Costales M, López-Hernández A, García-Inclán C, et al.Gene Methylation Profiling in Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016; 155(5):808-815 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To identify epigenetic events in intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma (ITAC) and sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) and to evaluate their relation to clinicopathologic features and follow-up data.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study.
SETTING: Academic research hospital.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The methylation status of 23 genes in 50 ITACs and 32 SNSCCs was analyzed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and its relation to clinicopathologic features and follow-up data.
RESULTS: Gene methylation was observed in 50% of all tumors. Recurrent methylated genes in SNSCC were RASSF1 and CDH13 (for both, 6 of 32 cases), CHFR (4 of 32 cases), and TIMP3 (2 of 32 cases). None of these genes showed significant correlation to clinicopathologic features or overall survival. In ITAC, recurrent methylated genes were CDH13 (18 of 50 cases), ESR1 (13 of 50 cases), APC (7 of 50 cases), TIMP3 (5 of 50 cases), CASP8 (3 of 50 cases), and HIC1 and RASSF1 (for both, 2 of 50 cases). Papillary and colonic ITAC subtypes carried a mean of 1.26 gene methylations per tumor versus 0.63 in solid and mucinous subtypes. Methylation of TIMP3 was associated with a significantly worse survival in ITAC patients.
CONCLUSION: ITAC carries a higher number and a different profile of gene methylations as compared with SNSCC. Gene methylation plays a greater role in papillary and colonic ITAC subtypes, which may indicate a different tumorigenic pathway for these ITAC subtypes. These findings could be used as prognosticators and may have implications for future individualized therapies based on epigenetic changes.
Eyvani H, Moghaddaskho F, Kabuli M, et al.Arsenic trioxide induces cell cycle arrest and alters DNA methylation patterns of cell cycle regulatory genes in colorectal cancer cells.
Life Sci. 2016; 167:67-77 [PubMed
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AIMS: Cell cycle dysregulation is important in tumorigenesis. Transcriptional silencing of cell cycle regulatory genes, due to DNA methylation, is a common epigenetic event in malignancies. As
MAIN METHODS: The methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and/or restriction enzyme-based methods were used to study the promoter methylation patterns of 24 cell cycle regulatory genes in CRC cell lines. Gene expression level and cell cycle distribution were determined by Real-time PCR and flow cytometric analyses, respectively.
KEY FINDINGS: Our methylation analysis indicated that only promoters of RBL1 (p107), CHFR and p16 genes were aberrantly methylated in three cell lines. As
SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that demethylation and alteration in the expression level of the cell cycle-related genes may be possible mechanisms in As
Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 90 % of esophageal cancer cases. Genetic and epigenetic changes have been found to accumulate during the development of various cancers, including esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC). Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are two major risk factors for ESCC, and both tobacco and alcohol were found to induce methylation changes in ESCC. Growing evidence demonstrates that aberrant epigenetic changes play important roles in the multiple-step processes of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. DNA methylation may occur in the key components of cancer-related signaling pathways. Aberrant DNA methylation affects genes involved in cell cycle, DNA damage repair, Wnt, TGF-β, and NF-κB signaling pathways, including P16, MGMT, SFRP2, DACH1, and ZNF382. Certain genes methylated in precursor lesions of the esophagus demonstrate that DNA methylation may serve as esophageal cancer early detection marker, such as methylation of HIN1, TFPI-2, DACH1, and SOX17. CHFR methylation is a late stage event in ESCC and is a sensitive marker for taxanes in human ESCC. FHIT methylation is associated with poor prognosis in ESCC. Aberrant DNA methylation changes may serve as diagnostic, prognostic, and chemo-sensitive markers. Characterization of the DNA methylome in ESCC will help to better understand its mechanisms and develop improved therapies.
Sepulveda JL, Gutierrez-Pajares JL, Luna A, et al.High-definition CpG methylation of novel genes in gastric carcinogenesis identified by next-generation sequencing.
Mod Pathol. 2016; 29(2):182-93 [PubMed
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Gastric cancers are the most frequent gastric malignancy and usually arise in the sequence of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis. CpG methylation is a central mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation affecting cancer-related genes, and occurs early in gastric carcinogenesis. DNA samples from non-metaplastic gastric mucosa with variable levels of gastritis (non-metaplastic mucosa), intestinal metaplasia, or gastric cancer were screened with methylation arrays for CpG methylation of cancer-related genes and 30 gene targets were further characterized by high-definition bisulfite next-generation sequencing. In addition, data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed for correlation of methylation with gene expression. Overall, 13 genes had significantly increased CpG methylation in gastric cancer vs non-metaplastic mucosa (BRINP1, CDH11, CHFR, EPHA5, EPHA7, FGF2, FLI1, GALR1, HS3ST2, PDGFRA, SEZ6L, SGCE, and SNRPN). Further, most of these genes had corresponding reduced expression levels in gastric cancer compared with intestinal metaplasia, including novel hypermethylated genes in gastric cancer (FLI1, GALR1, SGCE, and SNRPN), suggesting that they may regulate neoplastic transformation from non-malignant intestinal metaplasia to cancer. Our data suggest a tumor-suppressor role for FLI1 in gastric cancer, consistent with recently reported data in breast cancer. For the genes with strongest methylation/expression correlation, namely FLI1, the expression was lowest in microsatellite-unstable tumors compared with other gastric cancer molecular subtypes. Importantly, reduced expression of hypermethylated BRINP1 and SGCE was significantly associated with favorable survival in gastric cancer. In summary, we report novel methylation gene targets that may have functional roles in discrete stages of gastric carcinogenesis and may serve as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer.
Kishino T, Niwa T, Yamashita S, et al.Integrated analysis of DNA methylation and mutations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Carcinog. 2016; 55(12):2077-2088 [PubMed
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The recent development of next-generation sequencing technology for extensive mutation analysis, and beadarray technology for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis has made it possible to obtain integrated pictures of genetic and epigenetic alterations, using the same cancer samples. In this study, we aimed to characterize such a picture in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). Base substitutions of 55 cancer-related genes and copy number alterations (CNAs) of 28 cancer-related genes were analyzed by targeted sequencing. Forty-four of 57 ESCCs (77%) had 64 non-synonymous somatic mutations, and 24 ESCCs (42%) had 35 CNAs. A genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using an Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array showed that the CpG island methylator phenotype was unlikely to be present in ESCCs, a different situation from gastric and colon cancers. Regarding individual pathways affected in ESCCs, the WNT pathway was activated potentially by aberrant methylation of its negative regulators, such as SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP4, SFRP5, SOX17, and WIF1 (33%). The p53 pathway was inactivated by TP53 mutations (70%), and potentially by aberrant methylation of its downstream genes. The cell cycle was deregulated by mutations of CDKN2A (9%), deletions of CDKN2A and RB1 (32%), and by aberrant methylation of CDKN2A and CHFR (9%). In conclusion, ESCCs had unique methylation profiles different from gastric and colon cancers. The genes involved in the WNT pathway were affected mainly by epigenetic alterations, and those involved in the p53 pathway and cell cycle regulation were affected mainly by genetic alterations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Luzón-Toro B, Bleda M, Navarro E, et al.Identification of epistatic interactions through genome-wide association studies in sporadic medullary and juvenile papillary thyroid carcinomas.
BMC Med Genomics. 2015; 8:83 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms leading to sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (sMTC) and juvenile papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), two rare tumours of the thyroid gland, remain poorly understood. Genetic studies on thyroid carcinomas have been conducted, although just a few loci have been systematically associated. Given the difficulties to obtain single-loci associations, this work expands its scope to the study of epistatic interactions that could help to understand the genetic architecture of complex diseases and explain new heritable components of genetic risk.
METHODS: We carried out the first screening for epistasis by Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) in genome-wide association study (GWAS) on sMTC and juvenile PTC, to identify the potential simultaneous involvement of pairs of variants in the disease.
RESULTS: We have identified two significant epistatic gene interactions in sMTC (CHFR-AC016582.2 and C8orf37-RNU1-55P) and three in juvenile PTC (RP11-648k4.2-DIO1, RP11-648k4.2-DMGDH and RP11-648k4.2-LOXL1). Interestingly, each interacting gene pair included a non-coding RNA, providing thus support to the relevance that these elements are increasingly gaining to explain carcinoma development and progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the genetic basis of thyroid carcinoma susceptibility in two different case scenarios such as sMTC and juvenile PTC.
Gao L, Liu F, Zhang H, et al.CHFR hypermethylation, a frequent event in acute myeloid leukemia, is independently associated with an adverse outcome.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(2):158-68 [PubMed
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The CpG island of the promoter region of the checkpoint with fork-head associated and ring finger gene (CHFR), a mitotic checkpoint gene with tumor-suppressor functions, is hypermethylated in various human cancers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of aberrant CHFR promoter methylation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients in an attempt to improve prognostication. CHFR promoter methylation levels were analyzed in 358 newly diagnosed AML cases and 30 healthy donors by the use of quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we analyzed possible association between CHFR hypermethylation and hematological characteristics, chromosome abnormalities, genetic mutations, and survival. Hypermethylation of the CHFR promoter was observed in 24% (85 of 358) AML patients, but not in healthy individuals. CHFR hypermethylation correlated significantly with SRSF2 and DNMT3A mutations. Patients with hypermethylation exhibited lower overall survival and shorter relapse-free survival than nonmethylated cases. In multivariate analysis, CHFR hypermethylation was an independent factor predicting poor overall survival but not relapse-free survival. In conclusion, hypermethylation of the CHFR promoter, frequent in AML, is associated with adverse outcome, and can thus be used for risk stratification.
Guo M, Alumkal J, Drachova T, et al.CHFR methylation strongly correlates with methylation of DNA damage repair and apoptotic pathway genes in non-small cell lung cancer.
Discov Med. 2015; 19(104):151-8 [PubMed
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DNA methylation occurs commonly in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We sought to determine the frequency and relationship of methylation of key genes involved in the pathways of mitotic checkpoint control, DNA damage repair, apoptosis, and growth factor signaling in these patients. We analyzed the DNA methylation status of eight genes (CHFR, FANCF, MGMT, p16, DAPK, ASC or TMS-1, RAR-B, and CRBP1) using nested methylation-specific PCR (MSP) on over 314 paraffin-embedded, human non-small cell lung cancer samples. We determined the methylation frequency of each gene in addition to the association of the methylation of each gene with other members of the panel. Methylation was a common event in these samples. Our methylation analysis showed frequencies of methylation of 10% for CHFR, 14% for FANCF, 30% for MGMT, 29% for p16, 17% for DAPK, 33% for ASC, 38% for RAR-B, and 7% for CRBP1. There was a strong correlation between methylation of the mitotic G2-M checkpoint gene, CHFR, and methylation of other genes in our panel involved in DNA damage repair (FANCF and MGMT) and apoptosis (DAPK and ASC) but not with other genes in our panel, including p16 (the G1-S checkpoint gene), CRBP1, or RAR-B. In addition, MGMT methylation strongly correlated with the pro-apoptotic gene, ASC. There are distinct associations of methylated genes in non-small cell lung cancer involving DNA damage repair, apoptosis, and the G2-M mitotic checkpoint control. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these methylation patterns have implications for prognosis in addition to prediction of response to chemotherapeutic agents commonly used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, such as radiotherapy and platinum- or taxane-based chemotherapy.
Song A, Ye J, Zhang K, et al.Aberrant expression of the CHFR prophase checkpoint gene in human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(5):536-43 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Checkpoint with FHA and Ring Finger (CHFR) is a checkpoint protein that reportedly initiates a cell cycle delay in response to microtubule stress during prophase in mitosis, which has become an interesting target for understanding cancer pathogenesis. Recently, aberrant methylation of the CHFR gene associated with gene silencing has been reported in several cancers. In the present study, we examined the expression of CHFR in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that the expression level of CHFR mRNA and protein was reduced in B-NHL tissue samples and B cell lines. Furthermore, CHFR methylation was detected in 39 of 122 B-NHL patients, which was not found in noncancerous reactive hyperplasia of lymph node (RH) tissues. CHFR methylation correlated with the reduced expression of CHFR, high International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores and later pathologic Ann Arbor stages of B-NHL. Treatment with demethylation reagent, 5-Aza-dC, could eliminate the hypermethylation of CHFR, enhance CHFR expression and cell apoptosis and inhibit the cell proliferation of Raji cells, which could be induced by high expression of CHFR in Raji cells. Our results indicated that aberrant methylation of CHFR may be associated with the pathogenesis, progression for B-NHL, which might be a novel molecular marker as prognosis and treatment for B-NHL.
BACKGROUND: CHFR expression has previously been established as a powerful predictor for response to taxane based first-line chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. It is currently unknown however, if reduced CHFR expression correlates with certain molecular subtypes of lung cancer.
PURPOSE: In order to determine which patients may benefit from CHFR biomarker testing we conducted the present study to characterize clinical and molecular characteristics of patients with reduced vs. high CHFR expression.
APPROACH: We utilized the extensive molecular and clinical data of the most recent adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. CHFR expression, analyzed by RNA-seq, was classified as high vs. low based on the median CHFR expression level and correlated with the presence or absence of lung cancer specific mutations (EGFR, KRAS, ALK, MET, ERBB2, TP53, STK11, ROS1, RET, NF1, Pik3CA for adenocarcinomas and FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, TP53, STK11, EGFR for squamous cell carcinomas).
RESULTS: Reduced CHFR expression was associated with EGFR exon19/21 mutations in adenocarcinoma OR 0.23 (95%CI: 0.06-0.88) and male gender in squamous cell carcinoma (OR 0.46 (95%CI 0.23-0.92), p = 0.02).
Silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) by DNA promoter hypermethylation is an early event in carcinogenesis and a potential target for personalized cancer treatment. In head and neck cancer, little is known about the role of promoter hypermethylation in survival. Using methylation specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) we investigated the role of promoter hypermethylation of 24 well-described genes (some of which are classic TSGs), which are frequently methylated in different cancer types, in 166 HPV-negative early oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), and 51 HPV-negative early oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) in relation to clinicopathological features and survival. Early OSCC showed frequent promoter hypermethylation in RARB (31% of cases), CHFR (20%), CDH13 (13%), DAPK1 (12%), and APC (10%). More hypermethylation (≥ 2 genes) independently correlated with improved disease specific survival (hazard ratio 0.17, P = 0.014) in early OSCC and could therefore be used as prognostic biomarker. Early OPSCCs showed more hypermethylation of CDH13 (58%), TP73 (14%), and total hypermethylated genes. Hypermethylation of two or more genes has a significantly different effect on survival in OPSCC compared with OSCC, with a trend toward worse instead of better survival. This could have a biological explanation, which deserves further investigation and could possibly lead to more stratified treatment in the future.
Banno K, Yanokura M, Iida M, et al.Carcinogenic mechanisms of endometrial cancer: involvement of genetics and epigenetics.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2014; 40(8):1957-67 [PubMed
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Endometrial cancer is increasing worldwide and the number of patients with this disease is likely to continue to grow, including younger patients. Many endometrial cancers show estrogen-dependent proliferation, but the carcinogenic mechanisms are unknown or not completely explained beyond mutations of single oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Possible carcinogenic mechanisms include imbalance between endometrial proliferation by unopposed estrogen and the mismatch repair (MMR) system; hypermethylation of the MMR gene hMLH1; mutation of PTEN, β-catenin and K-ras genes in type I endometrial cancer and of HER-2/neu and p53 genes in type II endometrial cancer; hypermethylation of SPRY2, RASSF1A, RSK4, CHFR and CDH1; and methylation of tumor suppressor microRNAs, including miR-124, miR-126, miR-137, miR-491, miR-129-2 and miR-152. Thus, it is likely that the carcinogenic mechanisms of endometrial cancer involve both genetic and epigenetic changes. Mutations and methylation of MMR genes induce various oncogenic changes that cause carcinogenesis, and both MMR mutation in germ cells and methylation patterns may be inherited over generations and cause familial tumorigenesis. Determination of the detailed carcinogenic mechanisms will be useful for prevention and diagnosis of endometrial cancer, risk assessment, and development of new treatment strategies targeting MMR genes.
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) in a proportion of tumors. HPV-positive OPSCC is considered a distinct molecular entity with a prognostic advantage compared to HPV-negative cases. Silencing of cancer-related genes by DNA promoter hypermethylation may play an important role in the development of OPSCC. Hence, we examined promoter methylation status in 24 common tumor suppressor genes in a group of 200 OPSCCs to determine differentially methylated genes in HPV-positive versus HPV-negative primary OPSCC. Methylation status was correlated with HPV status, clinical features, and patient survival using multivariate methods. Additionally, methylation status of 16 cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) was compared with HPV-positive OPSCC. Using methylation-specific probe amplification, HPV-positive OPSCC showed a significantly higher cumulative methylation index (CMI) compared to HPV-negative OPSCC (P=0.008). For the genes CDH13, DAPK1, and RARB, both HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC showed promoter hypermethylation in at least 20% of the tumors. HPV status was found to be an independent predictor of promoter hypermethylation of CADM1 (P < 0.001), CHFR (P = 0.027), and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). CADM1 and CHFR showed similar methylation patterns in OPSCC and cervical SCC, but TIMP3 showed no methylation in cervical SCC in contrast to OPSCC. Methylation status of neither individual gene nor CMI was associated with survival. These results suggest that HPV-positive tumors are to a greater extent driven by promotor hypermethylation in these tumor suppressor genes. Especially CADM1 and TIMP3 are significantly more frequently hypermethylated in HPV-positive OPSCC and CHFR in HPV-negative tumors.
BACKGROUND: Total mesorectal excision (TME) remains commonplace for T1-2 rectal cancer owing to fear of undertreating a small proportion of patients with node-positive disease. Molecular stratification may predict cancer progression. It could be used to select patients for organ-preserving surgery if specific biomarkers were validated.
METHODS: Gene methylation was quantified using bisulphite pyrosequencing in 133 unirradiated rectal cancer TME specimens. KRAS mutation and microsatellite instability status were also defined. Molecular parameters were correlated with histopathological indices of disease progression. Predictive models for nodal metastasis, lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and distant metastasis were constructed using a multilevel reverse logistic regression model.
RESULTS: Methylation of the retinoic acid receptor β gene, RARB, and that of the checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger gene, CHFR, was associated with tumour stage (RARB: 51·9 per cent for T1-2 versus 33·9 per cent for T3-4, P < 0·001; CHFR: 5·5 per cent for T1-2 versus 12·6 per cent for T3-4, P = 0·005). Gene methylation associated with nodal metastasis included RARB (47·1 per cent for N- versus 31·7 per cent for N+; P = 0·008), chemokine ligand 12, CXCL12 (12·3 per cent for N- versus 8·9 per cent for N+; P = 0·021), and death-associated protein kinase 1, DAPK1 (19·3 per cent for N- versus 12·3 per cent for N+; P = 0·022). RARB methylation was also associated with LVI (45·1 per cent for LVI- versus 31·7 per cent for LVI+; P = 0·038). Predictive models for nodal metastasis and LVI achieved sensitivities of 91·1 and 85·0 per cent, and specificities of 55·3 and 45·3 per cent, respectively.
CONCLUSION: This methylation biomarker panel provides a step towards accurate discrimination of indolent and aggressive rectal cancer subtypes. This could offer an improvement over the current standard of care, whereby fit patients are offered radical surgery.
Sacristan R, Gonzalez C, Fernández-Gómez JM, et al.Molecular classification of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (pTa low-grade, pT1 low-grade, and pT1 high-grade subgroups) using methylation of tumor-suppressor genes.
J Mol Diagn. 2014; 16(5):564-572 [PubMed
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The role of epigenetics in distinguishing pathological and clinical subgroups in bladder cancer is not fully characterized. We evaluated whether methylation of tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) would classify non-muscle-invasive (NMI) bladder cancer subgroups and predict outcome. A retrospective design included the following paraffin-embedded primary NMI tumor types (n = 251): pTa low grade (LG) (n = 79), pT1LG (n = 81), and pT1 high grade (HG) (n = 91). Methylation of 25 TSGs was measured using methylation-specific, multiplex, ligation-dependent probe amplification. The TSGs most frequently methylated in the overall series were STK11 (96.8%), MGMT2 (64.5%), RARB (63.0%), and GATA5 (63.0%). TSG methylation correlated to clinicopathological variables in each subgroup and in the overall NMI series. Methylation of RARB, CD44, PAX5A, GSTP1, IGSF4 (CADM1), PYCARD, CDH13, TP53, and GATA5 classified pTa versus pT1 tumors whereas RARB, CD44, GSTP1, IGSF4, CHFR, PYCARD, TP53, STK11, and GATA5 distinguished LG versus HG tumors. Multivariate analyses indicated that PAX5A, WT1, and BRCA1 methylation independently predicted recurrence in pTaLG, PAX6, ATM, CHFR, and RB1 in pT1LG disease; PYCARD, in pT1HG disease; and PAX5A and RB1, in the overall series. Methylation of TSGs provided a molecular classification of NMI disease according to clinicopathological factors. Furthermore, TSG methylation predicted recurrence in NMI subgroups.
Cleven AH, Derks S, Draht MX, et al.CHFR promoter methylation indicates poor prognosis in stage II microsatellite stable colorectal cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(12):3261-71 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Data on the prognostic significance of promoter CpG island methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC) are conflicting, possibly due to associations between methylation and other factors affecting survival such as genetic alterations and use of adjuvant therapy. Here, we examine the prognostic impact of promoter methylation in patients with CRC treated with surgery alone in the context of microsatellite instability (MSI), BRAF and KRAS mutations.
EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: One hundred and seventy-three CRCs were analyzed for promoter methylation of 19 tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes, the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), MSI, the exon 15 V600E BRAF mutation and KRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations.
RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering based on methylation status of 19 genes revealed three subgroups: cluster 1 [CL1, 57% (98/173) of CRCs], cluster 2 [CL2, 25% (43/173) of CRCs], and cluster 3 [CL3, 18% (32/173) of CRCs]. CL3 had the highest methylation index (0.25, 0.49, and 0.69, respectively, P = <0.01) and was strongly associated with CIMP (P < 0.01). Subgroup analysis for tumor stage, MSI, and BRAF status showed no statistically significant differences in survival between CL1, CL2, and CL3 nor between CIMP and non-CIMP CRCs. Analyzing genes separately revealed that CHFR promoter methylation was associated with a poor prognosis in stage II, microsatellite stability (MSS), BRAF wild-type (WT) CRCs: multivariate Cox proportional HR = 3.89 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.58-9.60, P < 0.01; n = 66] and HR = 2.11 (95% CI, 0.95-4.69, P = 0.068, n = 136) in a second independent population-based study.
CONCLUSIONS: CHFR promoter CpG island methylation, which is associated with MSI, also occurs frequently in MSS CRCs and is a promising prognostic marker in stage II, MSS, BRAF WT CRCs.
BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma (GC) has one of the highest mortality rates of cancer diseases and has a high incidence rate in China. Palliative chemotherapy is the main treatment for advanced gastric cancer. It is necessary to compare the effectiveness and toxicities of different regimens. This study explores the possibility of methylation of DNA damage repair genes serving as a prognostic and chemo-sensitive marker in human gastric cancer.
METHODS: The methylation status of five DNA damage repair genes (CHFR, FANCF, MGMT, MLH1, and RASSF1A) was detected by nested methylation-specific PCR in 102 paraffin-embedded gastric cancer samples. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to evaluate the association of methylation status and clinic-pathological factors. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models were employed to analyze the association of methylation status and chemo-sensitivity.
RESULTS: The results indicate that CHFR, MLH1, RASSF1A, MGMT, and FANCF were methylated in 34.3% (35/102), 21.6% (22/102), 12.7% (13/102), 9.8% (10/102), and 0% (0/102) of samples, respectively. No association was found between methylation of CHFR, MLH1, RASSF1A, MGMT, or FANCF with gender, age, tumor size, tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. In docetaxel-treated gastric cancer patients, resistance to docetaxel was found in CHFR unmethylated patients by Cox proportional hazards model (HR 0.243, 95% CI, 0.069-0.859, p = 0.028), and overall survival is longer in the CHFR methylated group compared with the CHFR unmethylated group (log-rank, p = 0.036). In oxaliplatin-treated gastric cancer patients, resistance to oxaliplatin was found in MLH1 methylated patients (HR 2.988, 95% CI, 1.064-8.394, p = 0.038), and overall survival was longer in the MLH1 unmethylated group compared with the MLH1 methylated group (log-rank, p = 0.046).
CONCLUSIONS: CHFR is frequently methylated in human gastric cancer, and CHFR methylation may serve as a docetaxel-sensitive marker. MLH1 methylation was related to oxaliplatin resistance in gastric cancer patients.
Yoda Y, Takeshima H, Niwa T, et al.Integrated analysis of cancer-related pathways affected by genetic and epigenetic alterations in gastric cancer.
Gastric Cancer. 2015; 18(1):65-76 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The profiles of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer-related pathways are considered to be useful for selection of patients likely to respond to specific drugs, including molecular-targeted and epigenetic drugs. In this study, we aimed to characterize such profiles in gastric cancers (GCs).
METHODS: Genetic alterations of 55 cancer-related genes were analyzed by a benchtop next-generation sequencer. DNA methylation statuses were analyzed by a bead array with 485,512 probes.
RESULTS: The WNT pathway was activated by mutations of CTNNB1 in 2 GCs and potentially by aberrant methylation of its negative regulators, such as DKK3, NKD1, and SFRP1, in 49 GCs. The AKT/mTOR pathway was activated by mutations of PIK3CA and PTPN11 in 4 GCs. The MAPK pathway was activated by mutations and gene amplifications of ERBB2, FLT3, and KRAS in 11 GCs. Cell-cycle regulation was affected by aberrant methylation of CDKN2A and CHFR in 13 GCs. Mismatch repair was affected by a mutation of MLH1 in 1 GC and by aberrant methylation of MLH1 in 2 GCs. The p53 pathway was inactivated by mutations of TP53 in 19 GCs and potentially by aberrant methylation of its downstream genes in 38 GCs. Cell adhesion was affected by mutations of CDH1 in 2 GCs.
CONCLUSIONS: Genes involved in cancer-related pathways were more frequently affected by epigenetic alterations than by genetic alterations. The profiles of genetic and epigenetic alterations are expected to be useful for selection of the patients who are likely to benefit from specific drugs.
López F, Sampedro T, Llorente JL, et al.Utility of MS-MLPA in DNA methylation profiling in primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol. 2014; 50(4):291-7 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVES: Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) assay is a method that has rarely been exploited in DNA methylation profiling of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methylation of the gene was investigated by MS-MLPA in a well-characterized series of 53 LSCC and 30 samples of healthy mucosa. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation was confirmed using bisulfite pyrosequencing, and methylation-specific.
RESULTS: Promoter hypermethylation was observed in 36 of the 53 patients (68%). CDKN2B (28%), APC (17%), RARβ (15%), DAPK1 (11%) and CHFR (11%) were most frequently hypermethylated. Aberrant methylation of CHFR was mainly a late-stage event. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite pyrosequencing confirmed aberrant methylation for CDKN2B, APC and DAPK1.
CONCLUSION: Promoter methylation profiling of LSCC using MS-MLPA identified CDKN2B, DAPK1, RARβ, APC, and CHFR as frequent epigenetic events. The clinical implications of these genes as biomarkers are highly relevant as attractive targets for cancer therapy, given the reversible nature of epigenetic gene silencing.
Novel insights in the biology of cancer have switched the paradigm of a "one-size-fits-all" cancer treatment to an individualized biology-driven treatment approach. In recent years, a diversity of biomarkers and targeted therapies has been discovered. Although these examples accentuate the promise of personalized cancer treatment, for most cancers and cancer subgroups no biomarkers and effective targeted therapy are available. The great majority of patients still receive unselected standard therapies with no use of their individual molecular characteristics. Better knowledge about the underlying tumor biology will lead the way toward personalized cancer treatment. In this review, we summarize the evidence for a promising cancer biomarker: checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger domains (CHFR). CHFR is a mitotic checkpoint and tumor suppressor gene, which is inactivated in a diverse group of solid malignancies, mostly by promoter CpG island methylation. CHFR inactivation has shown to be an indicator of poor prognosis and sensitivity to taxane-based chemotherapy. Here we summarize the current knowledge of altered CHFR expression in cancer, the impact on tumor biology and implications for personalized cancer treatment.
BACKGROUND: Although non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) generally has a good long-term prognosis, up to 80% of patients will nevertheless experience local recurrence after the primary tumor resection. The search for markers capable of accurately identifying patients at high risk of recurrence is ongoing. We retrospectively evaluated the methylation status of a panel of 24 tumor suppressor genes (TIMP3, APC, CDKN2A, MLH1, ATM, RARB, CDKN2B, HIC1, CHFR, BRCA1, CASP8, CDKN1B, PTEN, BRCA2, CD44, RASSF1, DAPK1, FHIT, VHL, ESR1, TP73, IGSF4, GSTP1 and CDH13) in primary lesions to obtain information about their role in predicting local recurrence in NMIBC.
METHODS: Formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from 74 patients operated on for bladder cancer were analyzed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA): 36 patients had relapsed and 38 were disease-free at the 5-year follow up. Methylation status was considered as a dichotomous variable and genes showing methylation ≥20% were defined as "positive".
RESULTS: Methylation frequencies were higher in non recurring than recurring tumors. A statistically significant difference was observed for HIC1 (P = 0.03), GSTP1 (P = 0.02) and RASSF1 (P = 0.03). The combination of the three genes showed 78% sensitivity and 66% specificity in identifying recurrent patients, with an overall accuracy of 72%.
CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data suggest a potential role of HIC1, GSTP1 and RASSF1 in predicting local recurrence in NMIBC. Such information could help clinicians to identify patients at high risk of recurrence who require close monitoring during follow up.
Chow JP, Man WY, Mao M, et al.PARP1 is overexpressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its inhibition enhances radiotherapy.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2013; 12(11):2517-28 [PubMed
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare but highly invasive cancer. As options of agents for effective combination chemoradiotherapy for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma are limited, novel therapeutic approaches are desperately needed. The ubiquitin ligase CHFR is known to target PARP1 for degradation and is epigenetically inactivated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We present evidence that PARP1 protein is indeed overexpressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in comparison with immortalized normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Tissue microarray analysis also indicated that PARP1 protein is significantly elevated in primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues, with strong correlation with all stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma development. We found that the PARP inhibitor AZD2281 (olaparib) increased DNA damage, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells challenged with ionizing radiation or temozolomide. Isobologram analysis confirmed that the cytotoxicity triggered by AZD2281 and DNA-damaging agents was synergistic. Finally, AZD2281 also enhanced the tumor-inhibitory effects of ionizing radiation in animal xenograft models. These observations implicate that PARP1 overexpression is an early event in nasopharyngeal carcinoma development and provide a molecular basis of using PARP inhibitors to potentiate treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radio- and chemotherapy.