Gene Summary

Gene:NUTM1; NUT midline carcinoma family member 1
Aliases: NUT, FAM22H, C15orf55
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:NUT family member 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
NUTM1 is implicated in:
- cytoplasm
- nucleus
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Mutation
  • Chromosome 15
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Head and Neck Cancers
  • Transcriptome
  • Adolescents
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Biopsy
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Chloride Channels
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Leukaemia
  • Phenotype
  • DNA Methylation
  • Gene Fusion
  • Mediastinal Neoplasms
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Soft Tissue Cancers
  • NUT
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • FISH
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Young Adult
  • Carcinoma
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer
  • Cell Nucleus
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Databases, Nucleic Acid
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NUTM1 (cancer-related)

Eckel HE, Bradley PJ
Future Perspectives in Hypopharyngeal Cancer Care.
Adv Otorhinolaryngol. 2019; 83:167-175 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances in minimal access surgery have shown promise in the treatment of limited hypopharyngeal lesions. In spite of their functionally excellent results in individual patients, it currently remains unlikely that these approaches will gain a more major universal impact on hypopharyngeal cancer care. In advanced stage hypopharyngeal cancer, the use of the traditional radical surgery, such as laryngo-pharyngectomy, is no longer accepted by many patients. In recent years, most would rather opt for less mutilating treatment, preferring a non-surgical option. Patients, families and medical practitioners frequently ignore or misunderstand the associated mortality and morbidity consequence of such an approach. Although synergy between chemotherapy and radiotherapy enhances the efficacy of the treatment, chemo-radiation as currently used achieves a tumour response in < 80%, with relapses of the tumour during the follow-up period, indicating that surgery is the only effective treatment option as salvage. Advances in molecular research have improved our understanding of oncogenesis, tumour spread and the mechanisms of metastases. Innovative strategies have become available that manipulating tumours or the host to favour conditions receptive for disease eradication. These advances have gone through pre-clinical testing and are currently being used in early clinical trials using approaches such as replacement of defective genes, suicide gene therapy, and immunologic gene therapy. Precision oncology may eventually be able to predict which patients are more likely to respond to specific cancer therapies based on increasingly accurate, high-resolution biomarkers based on molecular diagnostics of individual tumours. Currently concentrating cancer treatment at specialised head and neck cancer institutions is likely to contribute faster and more sustained results at improving patient outcomes for hypopharyngeal cancer care than any individual innovation in surgery, radiation oncology or systemic treatment. Preventative work should continue by governments with the elimination of the preventable risk factors (abusive use of alcohol, tobacco and betel nut chewing) may reduce the incidence of the disease.

Elkhatib SK, Neilsen BK, Sleightholm RL, et al.
A 47-year-old woman with nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma masquerading as a sinus infection: a case report and review of the literature.
J Med Case Rep. 2019; 13(1):57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma is a rare, highly metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma that typically arises in midline structures and is characterized by having a fusion involving the nuclear protein in testis, NUT, gene. Nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma has been identified in patients of all ages and is often initially misdiagnosed due to the rapid timeline of symptom onset.
CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report the case of a 47-year-old Caucasian woman with a nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma that was initially mistaken for a sinus infection. After symptom progression while on an aggressive antibiotic regimen, the source of her symptoms was correctly identified as a sella mass. Comprehensive analysis of the tumor was performed, and standard cytogenetic analysis identified a translocation of 15q and 19p. Further testing identified a NUT-BRD4 fusion and confirmed the diagnosis of nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma. Despite definitive diagnosis and surgical, radiation, and, ultimately, systemic therapy, she progressed rapidly, developing widespread metastases, and ultimately died from the disease 5 months after diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on this and other previous reports, aggressive therapy should be initiated once nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma is diagnosed and close surveillance employed in an attempt to prevent and/or recognize metastases as early as possible. Aggressive therapy has shown little efficacy such that the average overall survival for patients with nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma is very short, often less than 6 months. Thus, early enrollment into clinical trials testing novel therapies for the treatment of nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma should be considered. Finally, additional reports of nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma are needed to fully characterize this rare and highly aggressive cancer.

Nigam K, Sanyal S, Gupta S, et al.
Alteration of the Risk of Oral Pre-Cancer and Cancer in North India Population by CYP1A1 Polymorphism Genotypes and Haplotype
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(2):345-354 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate any association between CYP1A1 (T6235C and C4887A, A4889G) gene polymorphisms and the risk of oral pre-cancer and cancer. Methods: In the present study, 250 patients with oral pre-cancer and/or cancer and 250 healthy controls were genotyped for CYP1A1 T6235C, C4887A and A4889G polymorphisms by the PCR-RFLP method. Results: None of the CYP1A1 polymorphisms were associated with the risk of either oral cancer or pre cancer. Nor were any links with clinical parameters of oral cancer found. However, among the consumers of areca nut/pan masala the TC, CA and AG genotypes respectively for the CYP1A1 T6235C,C4887Aand A4889G polymorphisms were significantly more frequent in controls compared to cases (p values for cases vs. controls of 0.0032, 0.0019 and 0.0009, respectively). Similarly, compared to the haplotype TCA, TAG constituted by CYP1A1 T6235C and C4887A and A4889G was more common in controls (6.88%) than in cases (4.07%). Conclusion: Our results suggest that genotypes regarding CYP1A1 polymorphisms may modulate the risk of oral cancer and pre-cancer among the areca nut/pan masala consumers. The haplotype may also exert an influence in our north Indian population.

Li JF, Dai YT, Lilljebjörn H, et al.
Transcriptional landscape of B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on an international study of 1,223 cases.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(50):E11711-E11720 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) can be classified into known major genetic subtypes, while a substantial proportion of BCP ALL remains poorly characterized in relation to its underlying genomic abnormalities. We therefore initiated a large-scale international study to reanalyze and delineate the transcriptome landscape of 1,223 BCP ALL cases using RNA sequencing. Fourteen BCP ALL gene expression subgroups (G1 to G14) were identified. Apart from extending eight previously described subgroups (G1 to G8 associated with

Arimizu K, Hirano G, Makiyama C, et al.
NUT carcinoma of the nasal cavity that responded to a chemotherapy regimen for Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors: a case report.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1134 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) carcinoma (NC) is a rare epithelial malignancy characterized by rearrangement of the NUT gene on chromosome 15. If NC is not suspected, it is often diagnosed as other malignancies. We present the case of NC of the nasal cavity that responded to a chemotherapy regimen for Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT).
CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old male presented with epistaxis and pain in the left eye. The patient had a tumor in the left nasal cavity at initial visit and it was biopsied. Firstly, the man was diagnosed with ESFT based on a histopathological examination. The tumor markedly responded to standard cytotoxic chemotherapy for ESFT with distant metastasis. After the start of therapy, a chromosomal analysis revealed an atypical translocation in ESFT and additional immunostaining was positive for anti-NUT antibody. Ultimately, the patient was definitively diagnosed with NC. He received multidisciplinary therapy and symptoms were temporarily relieved. However, he died 9 months after the diagnosis of NC.
CONCLUSIONS: When a pathologically undifferentiated tumor is evident along the midline of the body, NC must be included in the differential diagnosis, and immunohistochemical staining or genetic testing/chromosomal analysis needs to be performed.

Amisaki M, Tsuchiya H, Sakabe T, et al.
Identification of genes involved in the regulation of TERT in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(2):550-560 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promotes immortalization by protecting telomeres in cancer cells. Mutation of the TERT promoter is one of the most common genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), indicating that TERT upregulation is a critical event in hepatocarcinogenesis. Regulators of TERT transcription are, therefore, predicted to be plausible targets for HCC treatment. We undertook a genome-wide shRNA library screen and identified C15orf55 and C7orf43 as regulators of TERT expression in HepG2 cells. Promoter assays showed that C15orf55- and C7orf43-responsive sites exist between base pairs -58 and +36 and -169 and -59 in the TERT promoter, respectively. C15orf55 upregulates TERT expression by binding to two GC motifs in the SP1 binding site of the TERT promoter. C7orf43 upregulates TERT expression through Yes-associated protein 1. The expression levels of C15orf55 and C7orf43 also correlated with that of TERT, and were significantly increased in both HCC tissues and their adjacent non-tumor tissues, compared to normal liver tissues from non-HCC patients. Analysis of 377 HCC patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset showed that overall survival of patients with low levels of C15orf55 and C7orf43 expression in tumor tissues was better compared with patients with high levels of C15orf55 and/or high C7orf43 expression. These results indicate that C15orf55 and C7orf43 are involved in the incidence and progression of HCC by upregulating TERT. In conclusion, we identified C15orf55 and C7orf43 as positive regulators of TERT expression in HCC tissues. These genes are promising targets for HCC treatment.

Yang WH, Wang SJ, Chang YS, et al.
Association of Resistin Gene Polymorphisms with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression and Development.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:9531315 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for over 90% of malignant neoplasms of the mouth. In Taiwan, OSCC is the fourth most common male cancer and the fourth leading cause of male cancer death. Resistin (

French CA
NUT Carcinoma: Clinicopathologic features, pathogenesis, and treatment.
Pathol Int. 2018; 68(11):583-595 [PubMed] Related Publications
NUT carcinoma (NC) is a rare, aggressive subtype of squamous cell carcinoma defined by rearrangement of the NUTM1 (aka NUT) gene. NC is driven by NUT-fusion oncoproteins resulting from chromosomal translocation, most commonly BRD4-NUT. This is a nearly uniformly lethal cancer affecting patients of all ages, but predominantly teens and young adults. The cell of origin is unknown, but NC most commonly arises within the thorax and head and neck. NC typically consists of sheets of monomorphic primitive round cells that can exhibit focal abrupt squamous differentiation. Diagnosis of NC is easy, and can be established by positive NUT nuclear immunohistochemical staining. Though characterization of the NUTM1-fusion gene is desirable by molecular analysis, it is not required for the diagnosis. The increasingly widespread availability of the NUT diagnostic test is leading to increasing diagnoses of this vastly underdiagnosed disease. The NUT midline carcinoma registry ( serves as a central repository that has provided the main source of clinical and outcomes data for NC. Currently there is no effective therapy for NC, however small molecules directly targeting the BRD4 portion of BRD4-NUT, termed BET bromodomain inhibitors, have shown activity.

Tamura R, Nakaoka H, Yoshihara K, et al.
Novel MXD4-NUTM1 fusion transcript identified in primary ovarian undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(11):557-563 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary ovarian sarcomas are extremely rare tumors, and their genomic and transcriptomic alterations remain to be elucidated. We performed whole exome sequencing of primary tumor and matched normal blood samples derived from one patient with ovarian undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma. We identified 8 nonsynonymous somatic mutations, and all mutations were missense or nonsense changes. Next, we performed RNA sequencing of the tumor sample and identified two in-frame fusion transcripts: MXD4-NUTM1 and ARL6-POT1. Most NUTM1 exons were retained in the MXD4-NUTM1 fusion transcript, and we confirmed an increase in NUTM1 mRNA and protein expression in tumor tissue. Further genomic and transcriptomic analyses might lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies based on the molecular characteristics of ovarian undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma.

Hung YP, Sholl LM
Diagnostic and Predictive Immunohistochemistry for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2018; 25(6):374-386 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) accounts for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, with most patients diagnosed at advanced stages and managed increasingly with targeted therapies and immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss diagnostic and predictive immunohistochemical markers in NSCLC, one of the most common tumors encountered in surgical pathology. We highlight 2 emerging diagnostic markers: nuclear protein in testis (NUT) for NUT carcinoma; SMARCA4 for SMARCA4-deficient thoracic tumors. Given their highly aggressive behavior, proper recognition facilitates optimal management. For patients with advanced NSCLCs, we discuss the utility and limitations of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the "must-test" predictive biomarkers: anaplastic lymphoma kinase, ROS1, programmed cell death protein 1, and epidermal growth factor receptor. IHC using mutant-specific BRAF V600E, RET, pan-TRK, and LKB1 antibodies can be orthogonal tools for screening or confirmation of molecular events. ERBB2 and MET alterations include both activating mutations and gene amplifications, detection of which relies on molecular methods with a minimal role for IHC in NSCLC. IHC sits at the intersection of an integrated surgical pathology and molecular diagnostic practice, serves as a powerful functional surrogate for molecular testing, and is an indispensable tool of precision medicine in the care of lung cancer patients.

Reddy R, Woods TR, Allan RW, et al.
NUT (Nuclear Protein in Testis) Carcinoma: A Report of Two Cases With Different Histopathologic Features.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2019; 27(2):225-229 [PubMed] Related Publications
NUT (nuclear protein in testis) carcinoma (NC) is an aggressive carcinoma characterized by rearrangements of the NUT gene on chromosome 15q14. Histologically, it is a poorly differentiated carcinoma composed of monotonous, medium-sized, round cells with scant amphophilic or eosinophilic cytoplasm. Foci of abrupt keratinization are often seen. In this report, we compare the morphology of 2 cases of NC. The first case shows characteristic features of uniform, round epithelioid cells admixed with foci of abrupt keratinization. The second case demonstrates nests of epithelioid-polygonal cells that appear to be loosely cribriform within a mucoid stroma. Although considered rare, the actual incidence of NC may be underestimated, as it is likely that many go undiagnosed because the morphology deviates from what is typical. Our report demonstrates that NC should always be considered in any case of an undifferentiated carcinoma and should not be excluded if typical histologic and immunohistochemical features of squamous differentiation are lacking.

Shiota H, Elya JE, Alekseyenko AA, et al.
"Z4" Complex Member Fusions in NUT Carcinoma: Implications for a Novel Oncogenic Mechanism.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(12):1826-1833 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) carcinoma (NC) is a rare, distinctly aggressive subtype of squamous carcinoma defined by the presence of

Liao S, Maertens O, Cichowski K, Elledge SJ
Genetic modifiers of the BRD4-NUT dependency of NUT midline carcinoma uncovers a synergism between BETis and CDK4/6is.
Genes Dev. 2018; 32(17-18):1188-1200 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain inhibitors (BETis) show efficacy on NUT midline carcinoma (NMC). However, not all NMC patients respond, and responders eventually develop resistance and relapse. Using CRISPR and ORF expression screens, we systematically examined the ability of cancer drivers to mediate resistance of NMC to BETis and uncovered six general classes/pathways mediating resistance. Among these, we showed that RRAS2 attenuated the effect of JQ1 in part by sustaining ERK pathway function during BRD4 inhibition. Furthermore, overexpression of Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), mediated BETi resistance in NMC cells through restoration of the E2F and MYC gene expression program. Finally, we found that expression of cyclin D1 or an oncogenic cyclin D3 mutant or RB1 loss protected NMC cells from BETi-induced cell cycle arrest. Consistent with these findings, cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors showed synergistic effects with BETis on NMC in vitro as well as in vivo, thereby establishing a potential two-drug therapy for NMC.

Schaefer IM, Dal Cin P, Landry LM, et al.
CIC-NUTM1 fusion: A case which expands the spectrum of NUT-rearranged epithelioid malignancies.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(9):446-451 [PubMed] Related Publications
NUT carcinoma (NC) shows very aggressive clinical behavior, occurs predominantly in the thorax and head and neck region of children and adults, and is defined by the presence of NUT (aka NUTM1) rearrangement, mostly BRD4-NUTM1 fusion resulting from t(15;19)(q13; p13.1). So-called "NUT variants" harbor alternate fusions between NUTM1 and BRD3, NSD3, ZNF532, or unknown partners. Rare cases of pediatric tumors with CIC-NUTM1 fusion were recently reported in somatic soft tissue, brain, and kidney. However, such cases have not been identified in adult patients and the presence of a fusion between CIC, characteristic of CIC-rearranged sarcoma, and NUTM1-a defining feature of NC-poses a diagnostic challenge. We herein report a case of malignant epithelioid neoplasm with myoepithelial features harboring CIC-NUTM1 fusion arising in soft tissue of the head in a 60-year-old man. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong expression of NUT, but only weak ETV4 staining and negativity for keratins, EMA, p40, CD99, and WT1. SMARCB1 expression was retained. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and targeted next-generation sequencing identified a CIC-NUTM1 fusion resulting from t(15;19)(q14;q13.2). In light of morphologic features that overlap with those of NC from typical anatomical sites we have seen previously, the tumor was best classified as falling within the NC spectrum rather than CIC-associated sarcoma. This case highlights the emerging diagnostic challenges generated by newly detected gene fusions of unknown clinical and biologic significance. Careful integration of cytogenetic, molecular, and immunohistochemical findings with morphologic appearances in the diagnostic workup of undifferentiated neoplasms is essential.

Agaimy A, Fonseca I, Martins C, et al.
NUT Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands: Clinicopathologic and Molecular Analysis of 3 Cases and a Survey of NUT Expression in Salivary Gland Carcinomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(7):877-884 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
NUT carcinoma (NC) represents a rare subset of highly aggressive poorly differentiated carcinomas characterized by rearrangement of the NUT (aka NUTM1, nuclear protein in testis) gene, most commonly fused to BRD4. Originally described as a mediastinal/thymic malignancy, NC has been reported at a variety of anatomic regions including the upper and lower aerodigestive tract. To date, only 7 NC cases of probable salivary gland origin have been reported. We herein describe 3 new cases (all affecting the parotid gland) in 2 women (39- and 55-y old) and 1 man (35-y old). Histologic examination showed poorly differentiated neoplasms composed of poorly cohesive small-sized to medium-sized cells with variable squamoid cell component that was focal and abrupt. Immunohistochemistry showed uniform expression of p63 and distinctive punctate expression of the NUT antigen in the tumor cell nuclei. Review of the reported salivary gland NC cases (total, 10) showed a male:female ratio of 1.5:1 and an age range of 12 to 55 years (median, 29 y). Site of the primary tumor was the parotid (7), sublingual (2), and submandibular (1) glands. All presented as rapidly growing masses treated by surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy/chemotherapy. Initial nodal status was positive in 8/10. At last follow-up (1 to 24 mo; median, 5 mo), 7/10 patients died of disease at a median of 5.5 months (1 to 24 mo) and only 2 were disease free at 7 and 14 months. Of 9 cases with genetic data, the fusion partner was BRD4 (n=7), non-BRD4/3 (n=1), or undetermined (n=1). None of 306 carcinomas spanning the spectrum of salivary carcinoma types screened by NUT immunohistochemistry was positive. This is the first small series on salivary NC highlighting the importance to include this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated salivary gland carcinomas and in cases of presumable poorly differentiated carcinoma of unknown origin.

Lindemann A, Takahashi H, Patel AA, et al.
Targeting the DNA Damage Response in OSCC with TP53 Mutations.
J Dent Res. 2018; 97(6):635-644 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer worldwide and in the United States. OSCC remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with head and neck cancers. Tobacco and alcohol consumption alone or with chewing betel nut are potential risk factors contributing to the high prevalence of OSCC. Multimodality therapies, including surgery, chemotherapy, biologic therapy, and radiotherapy, particularly intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), are the current treatments for OSCC patients. Despite recent advances in these treatment modalities, the overall survival remains poor over the past years. Recent data from whole-exome sequencing reveal that TP53 is commonly mutated in human papillomavirus-negative OSCC patients. Furthermore, these data stressed the importance of the TP53 gene in suppressing the development and progression of OSCC. Clinically, TP53 mutations are largely associated with poor survival and tumor resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in OSCC patients, which makes the TP53 mutation status a potentially useful molecular marker prognostic and predictive of clinical response in these patients. Several forms of DNA damage have been shown to activate p53, including those generated by ionizing radiation and chemotherapy. The DNA damage stabilizes p53 in part via the DNA damage signaling pathway that involves sensor kinases, including ATM and ATR and effector kinases, such as Chk1/2 and Wee1, which leads to posttranscriptional regulation of a variety of genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and senescence. Here, we discuss the link of TP53 mutations with treatment outcome and survival in OSCC patients. We also provide evidence that small-molecule inhibitors of critical proteins that regulate DNA damage repair and replication stress during the cell cycle progression, as well as other molecules that restore wild-type p53 activity to mutant p53, can be exploited as novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of OSCC patients bearing p53 mutant tumors.

Chuerduangphui J, Ekalaksananan T, Chaiyarit P, et al.
Effects of arecoline on proliferation of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by dysregulating c-Myc and miR-22, directly targeting oncostatin M.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0192009 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Arecoline, the major alkaloid of areca nut, is known to induce oral carcinogenesis, however, its mechanism is still needed to elucidate. This study investigated the effects of arecoline on cell viability and cell-cycle progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells as well as a relevant cellular gene expression. The results showed that a low concentration of arecoline (0.025 μg/ml) increased OSCC cell viability, proportion of cells in G2/M phase and cell proliferation. Simultaneously, it induced IL-6, STAT3 and c-Myc expression. Interestingly, c-myc promoter activity was also induced by arecoline. MiR-22 expression in arecoline-treated OSCC cells was suppressed and comparable to an upregulated c-Myc expression. In arecoline-treated OSCC cells, oncostatin M (OSM) expression was significantly upregulated and inversely correlated with miR-22 expression. Likewise, OSM expression and its post-transcriptional activity were significantly decreased in miR-22-transfected OSCC and 293FT cells. This result demonstrated that miR-22 directly targeted OSM. Interestingly, miR-22 played an important role as a tumor suppresser on suppressing cell proliferation, migration and cell-cycle progression of OSCC cells. This result suggested the effect of arecoline to promote cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression of OSCC cells might be involved in induction of c-Myc expression and reduction of miR-22 resulting in OSM upregulation.

Chen PH, Mahmood Q, Mariottini GL, et al.
Adverse Health Effects of Betel Quid and the Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancers.
Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017:3904098 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Global reports estimate 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers. BQ chewing has been demonstrated not only to be a risk factor for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) but also to cause other cancers and adverse health effects. Herein, we summarized the international comparison data to aid in the understanding of the close relationship between the prevalence of BQ chewing, the occurrence of oral and pharyngeal cancers, and adverse health effects. Potential biomarkers of BQ carcinogens, such as areca nut, alkaloids, and 3-methylnitrosaminopropionitrile (MNPN), are closely associated with human health toxicology. Molecular mechanisms or pathways involving autophagy, hypoxia, COX-2, NF-

Dickson BC, Sung YS, Rosenblum MK, et al.
NUTM1 Gene Fusions Characterize a Subset of Undifferentiated Soft Tissue and Visceral Tumors.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(5):636-645 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
NUT midline carcinoma is an aggressive tumor that occurs mainly in the head and neck and, less frequently, the mediastinum and lung. Following identification of an index case of a NUTM1 fusion positive undifferentiated soft tissue tumor, we interrogated additional cases of primary undifferentiated soft tissue and visceral tumors for NUTM1 abnormalities. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and results validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes. Six patients were identified: mean age of 42 years (range, 3 to 71 y); equal sex distribution; and, tumors involved the extremity soft tissues (N=2), kidney (N=2), stomach, and brain. On systemic work-up at presentation all patients lacked a distant primary tumor. Morphologically, the tumors were heterogenous, with undifferentiated round-epithelioid-rhabdoid cells arranged in solid sheets, nests, and cords. Mitotic activity was generally brisk. Four cases expressed pancytokeratin, but in only 2 cases was this diffuse. Next-generation sequencing demonstrated the following fusions: BRD4-NUTM1 (3 cases), BRD3-NUTM1, MXD1-NUTM1, and BCORL1-NUTM1. Independent testing by fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of NUTM1 and partner gene rearrangement. This study establishes that NUT-associated tumors transgress the midline and account for a subset of primitive neoplasms occurring in soft tissue and viscera. Tumors harboring NUTM1 gene fusions are presumably underrecognized, and the extent to which they account for undifferentiated mesenchymal, neuroendocrine, and/or epithelial neoplasms is unclear. Moreover, the relationship, if any, between NUT-associated tumors in soft tissue and/or viscera, and conventional NUT carcinoma, remains to be elucidated.

Laco J, Kovarikova H, Chmelarova M, et al.
Analysis of DNA methylation and microRNA expression in NUT (nuclear protein in testis) midline carcinoma of the sinonasal tract: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(1):113-123 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was a detailed clinicopathological investigation of sinonasal NUT midline carcinoma (NMC), including analysis of DNA methylation and microRNA (miRNA) expression. Three (5%) cases of NMC were detected among 56 sinonasal carcinomas using immunohistochemical screening and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The series comprised 2 males and 1 female, aged 46, 60, and 65 years. Two tumors arose in the nasal cavity and one in the maxillary sinus. The neoplasms were staged pT1, pT3, and pT4a (all cN0M0). All patients were treated by radical resection with adjuvant radiotherapy. Two patients died 3 and 8 months after operation, but one patient (pT1 stage; R0 resection) experienced no evidence of disease at 108 months. Microscopically, all tumors consisted of infiltrating nests of polygonal cells with vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and basophilic cytoplasm. Abrupt keratinization was present in only one case. Immunohistochemically, there was a diffuse expression of cytokeratin (CK) cocktail, CK7, p40, p63, and SMARCB1/INI1. All NMCs tested negative for EBV and HPV infection. Two NMCs showed methylation of RASSF1 gene. All other genes (APC, ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CADM1, CASP8, CD44, CDH13, CDKN1B, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CHFR, DAPK1, ESR1, FHIT, GSTP1, HIC1, KLLN, MLH1a, MLH1b, RARB, TIMP3, and VHL) were unmethylated. All NMCs showed upregulation of miR-9 and downregulation of miR-99a and miR-145 and two cases featured also upregulation of miR-21, miR-143, and miR-484. In summary, we described three cases of sinonasal NMCs with novel findings on DNA methylation and miRNA expression, which might be important for new therapeutic strategies in the future.

Glei M, Fischer S, Lamberty J, et al.
Chemopreventive Potential of
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(1):83-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Due to their unique composition of health-promoting compounds, the consumption of hazelnuts may contribute to the prevention of colon cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Since hazelnuts are often consumed roasted, the impact of different roasting conditions (RC1=140.6°C/25 min, RC2=155.1°C/20 min and RC3=180.4°C/21 min) on chemopreventive effects of in vitro fermented hazelnuts was analyzed in LT97 colon adenoma cells.
RESULTS: FS (2.5%) of raw and roasted hazelnuts reduced H
CONCLUSION: These results indicate a chemopreventive potential of in vitro fermented hazelnuts which is largely unaffected by the roasting process.

Stathis A, Bertoni F
BET Proteins as Targets for Anticancer Treatment.
Cancer Discov. 2018; 8(1):24-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins are epigenetic readers that regulate gene expression and are involved in cancer pathogenesis. Over the last years, several BET inhibitors have been developed and clinically tested. Results from the first clinical trials show limited single-agent activity in a small subset of patients with hematologic malignancies and in NUT carcinoma. Adverse events have been observed and may limit treatment compliance. Here, we review the preclinical rationale for targeting BET proteins in cancer and the preliminary results from clinical trials, and outline future directions for the use of BET inhibitors as antitumor agents.

Glei M, Ludwig D, Lamberty J, et al.
Chemopreventive Potential of Raw and Roasted Pistachios Regarding Colon Carcinogenesis.
Nutrients. 2017; 9(12) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
Pistachios are rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds such as B vitamins, γ-tocopherol, polyphenols and dietary fiber, which could contribute to the reduction of colon cancer risk in terms of chemoprevention (Fischer, S.; Glei, M. Health-Potential of Nuts. Ernaehrungs Umsch. Int. 2013, 60, 206-215.). Since pistachios are often consumed roasted, the present study aims at investigating the influence of different roasting conditions (RC) on potential chemopreventive effects of pistachios in colon adenoma cells such as growth and apoptosis, genotoxic- and anti-genotoxic effects and modulation of gene expression of detoxifying enzymes (

Khowal S, Naqvi SH, Monga S, et al.
Assessment of cellular and serum proteome from tongue squamous cell carcinoma patient lacking addictive proclivities for tobacco, betel nut, and alcohol: Case study.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(7):5186-5221 [PubMed] Related Publications
The intriguing molecular pathways involved in oral carcinogenesis are still ambiguous. The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) ranks as the most common type constituting more than 90% of the globally diagnosed oral cancers cases. The elevation in the OSCC incidence rate during past 10 years has an alarming impression on human healthcare. The major challenges associated with OSCC include delayed diagnosis, high metastatic rates, and low 5-year survival rates. The present work foundations on reverse genetic strategy and involves the identification of genes showing expressional variability in an OSCC case lacking addictive proclivities for tobacco, betel nut, and/or alcohol, major etiologies. The expression modulations in the identified genes were analyzed in 16 patients comprising oral pre-cancer and cancer histo-pathologies. The genes SCCA1 and KRT1 were found to down regulate while DNAJC13, GIPC2, MRPL17, IG-Vreg, SSFA2, and UPF0415 upregulated in the oral pre-cancer and cancer pathologies, implicating the genes as crucial players in oral carcinogenesis.

Karakuş E, Poyraz A, Oğuz Erdogan AS, et al.
NUT Midline Carcinoma of the Lung in a Six-Year-Old Child.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2017; 36(6):472-474 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) midline carcinoma is genetically defined by rearrangement of NUT or by immunohistochemical expression of NUT.
FINDINGS: A 6-year old child had a NUT midline carcinoma of the lung. Despite aggressive therapy, the child died.
CONCLUSION: NUT carcinoma, which can be diagnosed immunohistochemically, remains an aggressive tumor.

Castelló A, Fernández de Larrea N, Martín V, et al.
High adherence to the Western, Prudent, and Mediterranean dietary patterns and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma: MCC-Spain study.
Gastric Cancer. 2018; 21(3):372-382 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The influence of dietary habits on the development of gastric adenocarcinoma is not clear. The objective of the present study was to explore the association of three previously identified dietary patterns with gastric adenocarcinoma by sex, age, cancer site, and morphology.
METHODS: MCC-Spain is a multicase-control study that included 295 incident cases of gastric adenocarcinoma and 3040 controls. The association of the Western, Prudent, and Mediterranean dietary patterns-derived in another Spanish case-control study-with gastric adenocarcinoma was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models with random province-specific intercepts and considering a possible interaction with sex and age. Risk according to tumor site (cardia, non-cardia) and morphology (intestinal/diffuse) was evaluated using multinomial regression models.
RESULTS: A high adherence to the Western pattern increased gastric adenocarcinoma risk [odds ratio
CONCLUSION: Decreasing the consumption of fatty and sugary products and of red and processed meat in favor of an increase in the intake of fruits, vegetables, legumes, olive oil, nuts, and fish might prevent gastric adenocarcinoma.

Hernandez BY, Bordallo RA, Green MD, Haddock RL
Cancer in Guam and Hawaii: A comparison of two U.S. Island populations.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2017; 50(Pt B):199-206 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer disparities within and across populations provide insight into the influence of lifestyle, environment, and genetic factors on cancer risk.
METHODS: Guam cancer incidence and mortality were compared to that of Hawaii using data from their respective population-based, central cancer registries.
RESULTS: In 2009-2013, overall cancer incidence was substantially lower in Guam than in Hawaii for both sexes while overall cancer mortality was higher for Guam males. Cervical cancer incidence and prostate cancer mortality were higher in Guam. Both incidence and mortality were higher among Guam men for cancers of the lung & bronchus, liver & intrahepatic bile duct, and nasopharynx; Chamorro men were disproportionately affected by these cancers. Filipinos and Whites in Guam had lower overall cancer incidence compared to Filipinos and Whites in Hawaii. Although breast cancer incidence was significantly lower in Guam compared to Hawaii, women in Guam presented at younger ages and with rarer disease histologies such as inflammatory carcinoma were more prevalent. Guam patients were also diagnosed at younger ages for cancers of bladder, pancreas, colon & rectum, liver & intrahepatic bile duct, lung & bronchus, stomach, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and leukemia.
CONCLUSION: Smoking, infectious agents, and betel nut chewing appear to be important contributors to the burden of cancer in Guam. Earlier onset of cancer in Guam suggests earlier age of exposure to key risk factors and/or a more aggressive pathogenesis. Contrasting cancer patterns within Guam and between Guam and Hawaii underscore the potential influence of genes, lifestyle, and environmental factors on cancer development and progression.

Chang PY, Kuo TM, Chen PK, et al.
Arecoline N-Oxide Upregulates Caspase-8 Expression in Oral Hyperplastic Lesions of Mice.
J Agric Food Chem. 2017; 65(47):10197-10205 [PubMed] Related Publications
Areca nut is strongly associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) occurrence. Arecoline N-oxide (ANO), a metabolite of the areca alkaloid arecoline, exhibits an oral fibrotic effect in NOD/SCID mice. Caspase-8, a cysteine protease encoded by the CASP8 gene, is a central mediator in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway via death receptors. Deregulation of caspase-8 in OSCC has been reported. This study investigates the regulation of caspase-8 in ANO-induced oral squamous epithelial hyperplasia that represents the initial highly proliferative stage of oral carcinogenesis. CASP8 somatic mutations were identified from whole-exome sequencing of OSCC samples. Immunohistochemical staining showed upregulation of caspase-8 in ANO-induced hyperplasia of both NOD-SCID and C57BL/6 mice. Levels of expression of CASP8, APAF-1, BAX, and BAD increased in ANO-treated DOK cells. Co-localization of increased caspase-8 and PCNA levels was detected in ANO-induced hyperplastic lesions, whereas no co-localization among γ-H2A.X, caspase-3, and upregulated caspase-8 was observed. The findings indicate that upregulation of caspase-8 is involved in cell proliferation rather than apoptosis during the initial stage of ANO-mediated oral tumorigenesis.

Minato H, Kobayashi E, Nakada S, et al.
Sinonasal NUT carcinoma: clinicopathological and cytogenetic analysis with autopsy findings.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 71:157-165 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) carcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm with an undifferentiated morphology. Its diagnosis is often difficult, especially as the sinonasal tract gives rise to many tumors with undifferentiated morphologies. Not many cases of sinonasal NUT carcinomas have been reported, and its clinicopathological features have not been sufficiently clarified. In this study, we performed a clinicopathological study of 4 patients with sinonasal NUT carcinoma, including wide-ranging immunohistochemical tests and cytogenetic analyses using fluorescence in situ hybridization and DNA sequencing. Autopsy findings were obtained from 2 patients. Patients' ages ranged from 9 months to 66 years (median, 37 years). Three cases involved the nasal cavity; of these, 2 also involved the ethmoid sinus. One case only involved the frontal sinus. Histologically, all cases revealed undifferentiated small round cell morphology and necrosis with indistinct cell borders, vesicular chromatin, and distinct nucleoli. All patients received chemoradiotherapy; 3 died of disease 10 to 15 months after their diagnoses, while one was lost to follow-up. The 2 autopsied patients showed multiorgan metastases; interestingly, one showed cartilaginous differentiation in a metastatic lesion. Immunohistochemically, all cases were diffusely positive for NUT, p63, and Myc, and were focal for p40. The cells variably expressed epithelial markers, and CD34 was positive in one patient. Cytogenetically, all showed BRD4-NUT fusion genes, but one had a different breakpoint in each exon. Finally, a literature review indicated that sinonasal NUT carcinoma tends to involve frontal and ethmoidal sinuses more frequently than other sinonasal cancers.

Cavalieri S, Stathis A, Fabbri A, et al.
Uncommon somatic mutations in metastatic NUT midline carcinoma.
Tumori. 2017; 103(Suppl. 1):e5-e8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION:: NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare and aggressive epithelial cancer arising from median organs. It is driven by chromosomal translocation t(15;19) involving the rearrangement of NUT (nuclear protein in testis) and BRD4 (bromodomain 4) genes leading to fusion oncoprotein BRD4-NUT.
CASE PRESENTATION:: We report the case of a woman who was previously treated with induction chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and adjuvant trastuzumab for HER-2 positive invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. After 6 months of follow-up a lung nodule appeared. A biopsy showed an adenocarcinoma fetal type/lung blastoma, so a left inferior lobectomy was performed: NMC harboring BRD4-NUT rearrangement was diagnosed. After 9 months of follow-up, bone and soft tissue metastases occurred, so the patient was given radiotherapy. Next-generation sequencing technology identified somatic mutations in deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), mixed lineage leukemia protein 3 (MLL3), and splicing factor 3B subunit 1 (SF3B1) genes in NMC cells from both primitive cancer and metastases. The patient was treated with the experimental BRD4 inhibitor for 10 months, until the disease progressed to the lung and bone. After spinal cord compression, the patient was offered palliative radiotherapy to bone and eventually died aged 39 years.
CONCLUSIONS:: To the best of our knowledge, our case is the first DCC, MLL3, and SF3B1 mutated NUT midline carcinoma reported in the literature. If these mutations were confirmed to play a role in this neoplasm, clinical trials analyzing targeted therapies should be considered, eg. colorectal cancer-like chemotherapies for DCC mutations, hypomethylating agents for MLL3 mutations or SF3B1 inhibitors in case of specific somatic mutations.

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