Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: BCL10 (cancer-related)
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is a significant cancer-related cause of death in women worldwide. The most used chemotherapeutic regimen is based on carboplatin (CBDCA). However, CBDCA resistance is the main obstacle to a better prognosis. An in vitro drug-resistant cell model would help in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying this drug-resistance phenomenon. The aim of this study was to characterize cellular and molecular changes of induced CBDCA-resistant ovarian cancer cell line A2780.
METHODS: The cell selection strategy used in this study was a dose-per-pulse method using a concentration of 100 μM for 2 h. Once 20 cycles of exposure to the drug were completed, the cell cultures showed a resistant phenotype. Then, the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 was grown with 100 μM of CBDCA (CBDCA-resistant cells) or without CBDCA (parental cells). After, a drug sensitivity assay, morphological analyses, cell death assays and a RNA-seq analysis were performed in CBDCA-resistant A2780 cells.
RESULTS: Microscopy on both parental and CBDCA-resistant A2780 cells showed similar characteristics in morphology and F-actin distribution within cells. In cell-death assays, parental A2780 cells showed a significant increase in phosphatidylserine translocation and caspase-3/7 cleavage compared to CBDCA-resistant A2780 cells (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively). Cell viability in parental A2780 cells was significantly decreased compared to CBDCA-resistant A2780 cells (P < 0.0005). The RNA-seq analysis showed 156 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated mainly to molecular functions.
CONCLUSION: CBDCA-resistant A2780 ovarian cancer cells is a reliable model of CBDCA resistance that shows several DEGs involved in molecular functions such as transmembrane activity, protein binding to cell surface receptor and catalytic activity. Also, we found that the Wnt/β-catenin and integrin signaling pathway are the main metabolic pathway dysregulated in CBDCA-resistant A2780 cells.
Zhao Y, Cao J, Melamed A, et al.Losartan treatment enhances chemotherapy efficacy and reduces ascites in ovarian cancer models by normalizing the tumor stroma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(6):2210-2219 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In ovarian cancer patients, tumor fibrosis and angiotensin-driven fibrogenic signaling have been shown to inversely correlate with survival. We sought to enhance drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy by remodeling the dense extracellular matrix in two orthotopic human ovarian carcinoma xenograft models. We hypothesized that targeting the angiotensin signaling axis with losartan, an approved angiotensin system inhibitor, could reduce extracellular matrix content and the associated "solid stress," leading to better anticancer therapeutic effect. We report here four translatable findings: (
Magnoli F, Bernasconi B, Vivian L, et al.Primary extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: Many sites, many entities? Clinico-pathological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic study of 106 cases.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 228-229:28-40 [PubMed
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We analyzed the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features of 106 extranodal (EN) diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) from stomach (34 cases), intestine (10), cervico-cephalic region (11), central nervous system (13), testes (21), skin (8), and miscellaneous sites (9). Hans' algorithm and the immunohistochemical double expressor score (DES) for MYC and BCL2 were applied to all cases. A subset of fifty-eight cases were analyzed with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific break apart probes for BCL6, MYC, BCL2, CCND1, BCL10 and MALT1 genes. Clinical records were available for all patients. The immunohistochemical study showed that, in our series of EN-DLBCLs, the Hans' subgroup and the DES differed significantly according to the site of origin. At FISH analysis, BCL6 and BCL2 were the most commonly rearranged genes in non-GC and in GC cases, respectively. Gastrointestinal lymphomas displayed the highest rate of gene rearrangements, often with MYC involvement. One testicular DLBCL showed BCL2/MYC double hit. At survival analysis, cerebral and testicular origin was associated with poor prognosis. In addition, Hans' subgroup and other immunohistochemical markers influenced patients' outcome. In conclusion, our data suggest that immunophenotypic, genetic and survival characteristics of EN-DLBCL are related to the specific primary site of the disease.
Leclerc J, Garandeau D, Pandiani C, et al.Lysosomal acid ceramidase ASAH1 controls the transition between invasive and proliferative phenotype in melanoma cells.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(8):1282-1295 [PubMed
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Phenotypic plasticity and subsequent generation of intratumoral heterogeneity underly key traits in malignant melanoma such as drug resistance and metastasis. Melanoma plasticity promotes a switch between proliferative and invasive phenotypes characterized by different transcriptional programs of which MITF is a critical regulator. Here, we show that the acid ceramidase ASAH1, which controls sphingolipid metabolism, acted as a rheostat of the phenotypic switch in melanoma cells. Low ASAH1 expression was associated with an invasive behavior mediated by activation of the integrin alphavbeta5-FAK signaling cascade. In line with that, human melanoma biopsies revealed heterogeneous staining of ASAH1 and low ASAH1 expression at the melanoma invasive front. We also identified ASAH1 as a new target of MITF, thereby involving MITF in the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism. Together, our findings provide new cues to the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic plasticity of melanoma cells and identify new anti-metastatic targets.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and although new therapeutic approaches have been recently evaluated, overall patient survival is still poor. Thus, new effective and selective clinical treatments are urgently needed. An analysis of data from large-scale, high-throughput drug screening cell line projects identified Bosutinib, a Src/Abl inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, as a candidate drug to treat HNSCC. Using a panel of HNSCC-derived cell lines, we found that treatment with Bosutinib reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of sensitive cell lines. The drug rapidly inhibited Src and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) phosphorylation, and sensitivity to Bosutinib was correlated with the activation status of EGFR. Similar findings were observed in in vivo xenograft assays using HNSCC derived cells. Moreover, in the presence of mutations in
B cell receptor (BCR) signalling has emerged as a therapeutic target in B cell lymphomas, but inhibiting this pathway in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has benefited only a subset of patients
Hyeon J, Lee B, Shin SH, et al.Targeted deep sequencing of gastric marginal zone lymphoma identified alterations of TRAF3 and TNFAIP3 that were mutually exclusive for MALT1 rearrangement.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(9):1418-1428 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Gastric extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is a distinct entity in that Helicobacter pylori infection plays the most important causative role in the development of the disease. To investigate the genomic alteration in gastric marginal zone lymphoma that was resistant to the H. pylori eradication therapy, we analyzed 19 cases of the gastric marginal zone lymphoma using fluorescence in situ hybridization for MALT1, BCL10 rearrangement, and targeted sequencing using an Illumina platform. Major genetic alterations affected genes involved in nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway activation and included MALT1 rearrangement (39%), and somatic mutations of TRAF3 (21%), TNFAIP3 (16%), and NOTCH1 (16%). In the MALT1 rearrangement-negative group, disruptive somatic mutations of TRAF3 were the most common alterations (4/12, 33%), followed by somatic mutations of TNFAIP3 (3/12, 25%), and NOTCH1 (3/12, 25%). The present study confirms that genes involved in activation of NF-κB-signaling pathways are a major driver in oncogenesis of H. pylori eradication-resistant gastric marginal zone lymphoma and revealed that TRAF3 mutation is a major contributor in MALT1 rearrangement-negative gastric marginal zone lymphoma.
Bidaux G, Gordienko D, Shapovalov G, et al.4TM-TRPM8 channels are new gatekeepers of the ER-mitochondria Ca
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018; 1865(7):981-994 [PubMed
] Related Publications
García-Pérez J, Lope V, Pérez-Gómez B, et al.Risk of breast cancer and residential proximity to industrial installations: New findings from a multicase-control study (MCC-Spain).
Environ Pollut. 2018; 237:559-568 [PubMed
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Breast cancer is the most frequent tumor in women worldwide, although well-established risk factors account for 53%-55% of cases. Therefore, other risk factors, including environmental exposures, may explain the remaining variation. Our objective was to assess the relationship between risk of breast cancer and residential proximity to industries, according to categories of industrial groups and specific pollutants released, in the context of a population-based multicase-control study of incident cancer carried out in Spain (MCC-Spain). Using the current residence of cases and controls, this study was restricted to small administrative divisions, including both breast cancer cases (452) and controls (1511) in the 10 geographical areas recruiting breast cancer cases. Distances were calculated from the respective woman's residences to the 116 industries located in the study area. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance (between 1 km and 3 km) to industrial plants, adjusting for matching variables and other confounders. Excess risk (OR; 95%CI) of breast cancer was found near industries overall (1.30; 1.00-1.69 at 3 km), particularly organic chemical industry (2.12; 1.20-3.76 at 2.5 km), food/beverage sector (1.87; 1.26-2.78 at 3 km), ceramic (4.71; 1.62-13.66 at 1.5 km), surface treatment with organic solvents (2.00; 1.23-3.24 at 3 km), and surface treatment of plastic and metals (1.51; 1.06-2.14 at 3 km). By pollutants, the excess risk (OR; 95%CI) was detected near industries releasing pesticides (2.09; 1.14-3.82 at 2 km), and dichloromethane (2.09; 1.28-3.40 at 3 km). Our results suggest a possible increased risk of breast cancer in women living near specific industrial plants and support the need for more detailed exposure assessment of certain agents released by these plants.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to interactions between regulatory elements that modulate gene transcription may explain some of the uncharacterized variation for complex traits. We explored this hypothesis among 856 adult survivors of pediatric cancer exposed to curative treatments that adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD). To restrict our search to interactions among SNPs in regulatory elements, our analysis considered 75523 SNPs mapped to putative promoter or enhancer regions. In anticipation that power to detect higher order epistasis would be low using an exhaustive search and a Bonferroni-corrected threshold for genome-wide significance (e.g., P < 5.6 × 10
Twa DDW, Mottok A, Savage KJ, Steidl CThe pathobiology of primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Implications for novel therapies.
Blood Rev. 2018; 32(3):249-255 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Primary testicular lymphomas (PTL) are the most prevalent type of testicular cancer arising in men over the age of 60. PTL accounts for approximately 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas and most present with localized disease but despite this, outcome is poor. The majority of cases represent an extranodal manifestation of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), known as primary testicular DLBCL (PT-DLBCL). Gene expression profiling has established that over 75% of PT-DLBCLs resemble the activated B-cell-like (ABC) or non-germinal center subtype of nodal DLBCL. In distilling the specific mutational landscape and immunophenotypic profiles, immune-escape and sustained signalling emerge as prominent features of PT-DLBCL. These include genomic alterations arising within the core components of antigen presentation (CIITA, B2M, and HLA loci) and structural rearrangements of programmed death ligands 1 (CD274) and 2 (PDCD1LG2). Enrichment for somatic mutations within NF-κB pathway genes (MYD88, CD79B, NFKBIZ, BCL10, and MALT1) also feature prominently in PT-DLBCL. Taken together, the unique molecular and clinical characteristics of PT-DLBCL have informed on aspects of the distinct disease biology of this organotypic lymphoma that may guide rational therapeutic strategies.
The angiotensin II receptor AGTR1, which mediates vasoconstrictive and inflammatory signaling in vascular disease, is overexpressed aberrantly in some breast cancers. In this study, we established the significance of an AGTR1-responsive NFκB signaling pathway in this breast cancer subset. We documented that AGTR1 overexpression occurred in the luminal A and B subtypes of breast cancer, was mutually exclusive of HER2 expression, and correlated with aggressive features that include increased lymph node metastasis, reduced responsiveness to neoadjuvant therapy, and reduced overall survival. Mechanistically, AGTR1 overexpression directed both ligand-independent and ligand-dependent activation of NFκB, mediated by a signaling pathway that requires the triad of CARMA3, Bcl10, and MALT1 (CBM signalosome). Activation of this pathway drove cancer cell-intrinsic responses that include proliferation, migration, and invasion. In addition, CBM-dependent activation of NFκB elicited cancer cell-extrinsic effects, impacting endothelial cells of the tumor microenvironment to promote tumor angiogenesis. CBM/NFκB signaling in AGTR1
Zhan D, Zhang Y, Xiao P, et al.Whole exome sequencing identifies novel mutations of epigenetic regulators in chemorefractory pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2018; 65:20-24 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Genomic alterations underlying chemotherapy resistance remains poorly characterized in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify gene mutations associated with chemo-resistance in 44 pediatric AML patients. We identified previously unreported mutations involving epigenetic regulators such as KDM5C, SRIT6, CHD4, and PRPF6 in pediatric AML patients. Despite low prevalence in general pediatric AML, mutations involving epigenetic regulators including splicing factors, were collectively enriched as a group in primary chemo-resistance AML patients. In addition, clonal evolution analysis of secondary chemo-resistance AML patients reveals dominant clone at diagnosis could survive several course of intensified chemotherapy. And gain of new mutations in genes such as MVP, TCF3, SS18, and BCL10, may contribute to chemo-resistance at relapse. These results provide novel insights into the genetic basis of treatment failure in pediatric AML.
First-line antibiotic treatment for eradicating Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is effective in HP-positive low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma), but its role in HP-negative cases is uncertain. In this exploratory retrospective study, we assessed the outcome and potential predictive biomarkers for 25 patients with HP-negative localized gastric MALToma who received first-line HP eradication (HPE) therapy. An HP-negative status was defined as negative results on histology, rapid urease test,
Fernández de Larrea-Baz N, Pérez-Gómez B, Michel A, et al.Helicobacter pylori serological biomarkers of gastric cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2017; 50(Pt A):76-84 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the main risk factors for non-cardia gastric cancer. However, only a minority of infected persons develop the disease. This study aims at identifying H. pylori related serological biomarkers of risk for gastric cancer.
METHODS: Incident gastric cancer cases and population controls (age, sex and region frequency-matched) from the MCC-Spain multicase-control Study were included. Seroreactivities against 16H. pylori proteins were determined using multiplex serology. Infection was defined as seropositivity against≥4 proteins. Relation of serological results to non-cardia and cardia gastric cancer was assessed using multivariable mixed logistic regression and principal components analysis.
RESULTS: Seroprevalence was 88% among 2071 controls, 95% among 202 non-cardia gastric cancer cases (OR=1.9 (95% CI: 1.0-3.6)) and 85% among 62 cardia cancer cases (OR=0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-1.1)). In infected subjects, seropositivity for UreA, HP231, NapA and Cagδ was associated with lower non-cardia gastric cancer risk, while seropositivity for CagA and VacA was associated with higher risk. Seropositivity for CagA and seronegativity for Cagδ maintained the association after additional adjustment by serostatus of significant proteins. We identified two antibody reactivity patterns: the "virulent-pattern", related to a threefold higher risk of non-cardia gastric cancer and the "non-virulent pattern", related to a 60% decreased risk (4th vs. first quartile).
CONCLUSIONS: In our population, people seropositive for H. pylori were characterized by two patterns of antibody reactivity against H. pylori proteins: 1) Combined high seroreactivity against several proteins, associated with a lower non-cardia gastric cancer risk, and 2) High seroreactivity against CagA and VacA, associated with an increased risk.
Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of many cancers. Currently, there are four intrinsic molecular subtypes in breast cancer (BC): Luminal A, B, Her2-positive, and triple negative (TNBC). Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project has revealed that Luminal subtypes have higher levels of genome-wide methylation that may be a result of Estrogen/Estrogen receptor α (E2/ERα) signaling pathway activation. In this study, we analyze promoter CpG-island (CGIs) of the
Gastrointestinal epithelium is the unique route for nutrients and for many pharmaceuticals to enter the body. The present study aimed to analyze precisely whether co-culture of two colon cancer cell lines, mucus-producing cells HT29-MTX and enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, ameliorate differentiation into an in vitro intestinal barrier model and the signaling pathways involved. Differentiated Caco-2 cells gene datasets were compared first to intestinal or cancer phenotypes and second to signaling pathway gene datasets. Experimental validations were performed in real-time experiments, immunochemistry, and gene expression analyses on Caco-2 versus co-cultures of Caco-2 and HT29-MTX (10%) cells. Partial maintenance of cancer-cell phenotype in differentiated Caco-2 cells was confirmed and fatty acids merged as potential regulators of cancer signaling pathways. HT29-MTX cells induced morphological changes in Caco-2 cells, slightly increased their proliferation rate and profoundly modified gene transcription of phenotype markers, fatty acid receptors, intracellular transporters, and lipid droplet components as well as functional responses to oleic acid. In vitro, enterocyte phenotype was rescued partially by co-culture of cancer cells with goblet cells and completed through oleic acid interaction with signaling pathways dysregulated in cancer cells.
Curigliano G, Criscitiello CMaximizing the Clinical Benefit of Anthracyclines in Addition to Taxanes in the Adjuvant Treatment of Early Breast Cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35(23):2600-2603 [PubMed
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The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice. A healthy 56-year-old postmenopausal woman discovered a palpable mass at the one o'clock position of the left breast. After an initial biopsy confirmed breast cancer, she underwent mastectomy and axillary node dissection for a left-sided breast cancer that measured 3.5 cm. There was extensive lymphovascular invasion. Pathology review indicated a poorly differentiated, grade 3 invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ (largest focus, 3.5 cm). The margins were negative. Two of the 11 axillary lymph nodes contained metastatic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical studies previously obtained on the core biopsy indicated that the tumor was positive for estrogen receptor expression (50%), negative for progesterone receptor expression, and had a Ki-67 score of 60%. There was no amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/ neu gene. Staging scans were negative for metastatic disease. Our multidisciplinary tumor board recommended adjuvant chemotherapy, postmastectomy radiation therapy, and endocrine therapy. A 52-year-old postmenopausal woman presented with a palpable mass of the right breast. An initial core biopsy confirmed carcinoma in the breast. She underwent quadrantectomy and axillary node dissection. The final pathology report disclosed a moderately differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma (diameter, 2.5 cm). The margins were negative. None of the three sentinel lymph nodes contained metastatic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor was positive for estrogen receptor expression (90%) and for progesterone receptor expression (40%) and had a Ki-67 score of 20%. There was no amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/ neu gene. Staging scans were negative for metastatic disease. A genomic assay was obtained and suggested an intermediate to high risk of recurrence. Her past medical history was notable for hypertension and moderately overweight status (body mass index, 39 kg/m
Melanoma is well known for its propensity for lethal metastasis and resistance to most current therapies. Tumor progression and drug resistance depend to a large extent on the interplay between tumor cells and the surrounding matrix. We previously identified Tetraspanin 8 (Tspan8) as a critical mediator of melanoma invasion, whose expression is absent in healthy skin. The present study investigated whether Tspan8 may influence cell-matrix anchorage and regulate downstream molecular pathways leading to an aggressive behavior. Using silencing and ectopic expression strategies, we showed that Tspan8-mediated invasion of melanoma cells resulted from defects in cell-matrix anchorage by interacting with β1 integrins and by interfering with their clustering, without affecting their surface or global expression levels. These effects were associated with impaired phosphorylation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and its downstream target Akt-S473, but not FAK. Specific blockade of Akt or ILK activity strongly affected cell-matrix adhesion. Moreover, expression of a dominant-negative form of ILK reduced β1 integrin clustering and cell-matrix adhesion. Finally, we observed a tumor-promoting effect of Tspan8 in vivo and a mutually exclusive expression pattern between Tspan8 and phosphorylated ILK in melanoma xenografts and human melanocytic lesions. Altogether, the in vitro, in vivo and in situ data highlight a novel regulatory role for Tspan8 in melanoma progression by modulating cell-matrix interactions through β1 integrin-ILK axis and establish Tspan8 as a negative regulator of ILK activity. These findings emphasize the importance of targeting Tspan8 as a means of switching from low- to firm-adhesive states, mandatory to prevent tumor dissemination.
Sepulveda AR, Hamilton SR, Allegra CJ, et al.Molecular Biomarkers for the Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer: Guideline From the American Society for Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, Association for Molecular Pathology, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35(13):1453-1486 [PubMed
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Purpose Molecular testing of colorectal cancers (CRCs) to improve patient care and outcomes of targeted and conventional therapies has been the center of many recent studies, including clinical trials. Evidence-based recommendations for the molecular testing of CRC tissues to guide epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) -targeted therapies and conventional chemotherapy regimens are warranted in clinical practice. The purpose of this guideline is to develop evidence-based recommendations to help establish standard molecular biomarker testing for CRC through a systematic review of the literature. Methods The American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), College of American Pathologists (CAP), Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP), and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened an Expert Panel to develop an evidence-based guideline to help establish standard molecular biomarker testing, guide targeted therapies, and advance personalized care for patients with CRC. A comprehensive literature search that included over 4,000 articles was conducted to gather data to inform this guideline. Results Twenty-one guideline statements (eight recommendations, 10 expert consensus opinions and three no recommendations) were established. Recommendations Evidence supports mutational testing for genes in the EGFR signaling pathway, since they provide clinically actionable information as negative predictors of benefit to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapies for targeted therapy of CRC. Mutations in several of the biomarkers have clear prognostic value. Laboratory approaches to operationalize molecular testing for predictive and prognostic molecular biomarkers involve selection of assays, type of specimens to be tested, timing of ordering of tests and turnaround time for testing results. Additional information is available at: www.asco.org/CRC-markers-guideline and www.asco.org/guidelineswiki.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important in cancer development and progression. The impact of diet on lncRNA expression is largely unknown. Sulforaphane (SFN), obtained from vegetables like broccoli, can prevent and suppress cancer formation. Here we tested the hypothesis that SFN attenuates the expression of cancer-associated lncRNAs. We analyzed whole-genome RNA-sequencing data of normal human prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cells treated with 15 μM SFN or dimethylsulfoxide. SFN significantly altered expression of ~100 lncRNAs in each cell type and normalized the expression of some lncRNAs that were differentially expressed in cancer cells. SFN-mediated alterations in lncRNA expression correlated with genes that regulate cell cycle, signal transduction and metabolism. LINC01116 was functionally investigated because it was overexpressed in several cancers, and was transcriptionally repressed after SFN treatment. Knockdown of LINC01116 with siRNA decreased proliferation of prostate cancer cells and significantly up-regulated several genes including GAPDH (regulates glycolysis), MAP1LC3B2 (autophagy) and H2AFY (chromatin structure). A four-fold decrease in the ability of the cancer cells to form colonies was found when the LINC01116 gene was disrupted through a CRISPR/CAS9 method, further supporting an oncogenic function for LINC01116 in PC-3 cells. We identified a novel isoform of LINC01116 and bioinformatically investigated the possibility that LINC01116 could interact with target genes via ssRNA:dsDNA triplexes. Our data reveal that chemicals from the diet can influence the expression of functionally important lncRNAs, and suggest a novel mechanism by which SFN may prevent and suppress prostate cancer.
Cloughesy T, Finocchiaro G, Belda-Iniesta C, et al.Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Phase II Study of Onartuzumab Plus Bevacizumab Versus Placebo Plus Bevacizumab in Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma: Efficacy, Safety, and Hepatocyte Growth Factor and O
J Clin Oncol. 2017; 35(3):343-351 [PubMed
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Purpose Bevacizumab regimens are approved for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in many countries. Aberrant mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) expression has been reported in glioblastoma and may contribute to bevacizumab resistance. The phase II study GO27819 investigated the monovalent MET inhibitor onartuzumab plus bevacizumab (Ona + Bev) versus placebo plus bevacizumab (Pla + Bev) in recurrent glioblastoma. Methods At first recurrence after chemoradiation, bevacizumab-naïve patients with glioblastoma were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive Ona (15 mg/kg, once every 3 weeks) + Bev (15 mg/kg, once every 3 weeks) or Pla + Bev until disease progression. The primary end point was progression-free survival by response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria. Secondary end points were overall survival, objective response rate, duration of response, and safety. Exploratory biomarker analyses correlated efficacy with expression levels of MET ligand hepatocyte growth factor, O
Dai B, Grau M, Juilland M, et al.B-cell receptor-driven MALT1 activity regulates MYC signaling in mantle cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2017; 129(3):333-346 [PubMed
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a mature B-cell lymphoma characterized by poor clinical outcome. Recent studies revealed the importance of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in maintaining MCL survival. However, it remains unclear which role MALT1, an essential component of the CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 complex that links BCR signaling to the NF-κB pathway, plays in the biology of MCL. Here we show that a subset of MCLs is addicted to MALT1, as its inhibition by either RNA or pharmacologic interference induced cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Gene expression profiling following MALT1 inhibition demonstrated that MALT1 controls an MYC-driven gene expression network predominantly through increasing MYC protein stability. Thus, our analyses identify a previously unappreciated regulatory mechanism of MYC expression. Investigating primary mouse splenocytes, we could demonstrate that MALT1-induced MYC regulation is not restricted to MCL, but represents a common mechanism. MYC itself is pivotal for MCL survival because its downregulation and pharmacologic inhibition induced cytotoxicity in all MCL models. Collectively, these results provide a strong mechanistic rationale to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of targeting the MALT1-MYC axis in MCL patients.
Criscitiello C, Curigliano G, Burstein HJ, et al.Breast conservation following neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer in the modern era: Are we losing the opportunity?
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2016; 42(12):1780-1786 [PubMed
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The main rationale for neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer is to provide effective systemic treatment while surgically down-staging the cancer. This down-staging was initially to convert inoperable patients to operable and later to increase rates of breast conservation in patients initially deemed mastectomy only candidates. Unexpectedly, in recent neoadjuvant trials lower rates of breast conservation have been observed than in past decades, despite remarkable advances in systemic therapies, which have increased pathologic complete response rates. These results point to factors aside from response and eligibility for breast conservation that may lead surgeons and/or patients to recommend and choose mastectomy. Here, we aim to examine the surgical benefits offered by the modern era neoadjuvant therapy and explore factors that have contributed to this decrease in breast conservation rates. If the main benefit of neoadjuvant therapy is to increase the opportunity for breast conservation, then our review suggests that to optimize less invasive surgical approaches, we will need to address both surgeon and patient-level variables and biases that may be limiting our ability to identify patients appropriate for less aggressive options. As an oncology community, we must be aware of the surgical overtreatment of breast cancer, especially in a time where systemic therapies have remarkably improved outcomes and responses.
PURPOSE: Elevated lipogenesis regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), a transcription factor playing a central role in lipid metabolism, is a novel characteristic of glioblastoma (GBM). The aim of this study was to identify effective approaches to suppress GBM growth by inhibition of SREBP-1. As SREBP activation is negatively regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cholesterol, we sought to determine whether suppression of sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT), a key enzyme converting ER cholesterol to cholesterol esters (CE) to store in lipid droplets (LDs), effectively suppressed SREBP-1 and blocked GBM growth.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The presence of LDs in glioma patient tumor tissues was analyzed using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and electronic microscopy. Western blotting and real-time PCR were performed to analyze protein levels and gene expression of GBM cells, respectively. Intracranial GBM xenografts were used to determine the effects of genetically silencing SOAT1 and SREBP-1 on tumor growth.
RESULTS: Our study unraveled that cholesterol esterification and LD formation are signature of GBM, and human patients with glioma possess elevated LDs that correlate with GBM progression and poor survival. We revealed that SOAT1 is highly expressed in GBM and functions as a key player in controlling the cholesterol esterification and storage in GBM. Targeting SOAT1 suppresses GBM growth and prolongs survival in xenograft models via inhibition of SREBP-1-regulated lipid synthesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Cholesterol esterification and storage in LDs are novel characteristics of GBM, and inhibiting SOAT1 to block cholesterol esterification is a promising therapeutic strategy to treat GBM by suppressing SREBP-1. Clin Cancer Res; 22(21); 5337-48. ©2016 AACR.
Caba O, Irigoyen A, Jimenez-Luna C, et al.Identification of gene expression profiling associated with erlotinib-related skin toxicity in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016; 311:113-116 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor that showed activity against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The drug's most frequently reported side effect as a result of EGFR inhibition is skin rash (SR), a symptom which has been associated with a better therapeutic response to the drug. Gene expression profiling can be used as a tool to predict which patients will develop this important cutaneous manifestation. The aim of the present study was to identify which genes may influence the appearance of SR in PDAC patients. The study included 34 PDAC patients treated with erlotinib: 21 patients developed any grade of SR, while 13 patients did not (controls). Before administering any chemotherapy regimen and the development of SR, we collected RNA from peripheral blood samples of all patients and studied the differential gene expression pattern using the Illumina microarray platform HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip. Seven genes (FAM46C, IFITM3, GMPR, DENND6B, SELENBP1, NOL10, and SIAH2), involved in different pathways including regulatory, migratory, and signalling processes, were downregulated in PDAC patients with SR. Our results suggest the existence of a gene expression profiling significantly correlated with erlotinib-induced SR in PDAC that could be used as prognostic indicator in this patients.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal B-cell malignancy characterized by an accumulation of clonal plasma cells (PC) in the bone marrow (BM) leading to bone destruction and BM failure. Despite recent advances in pharmacological therapy, MM remains a largely incurable pathology. Therefore, novel effective and less toxic agents are urgently necessary. In the last few years, pomegranate has been studied for its potential therapeutic properties including treatment and prevention of cancer. Pomegranate juice (PGJ) contains a number of potential active compounds including organic acids, vitamins, sugars, and phenolic components that are all responsible of the pro-apoptotic effects observed in tumor cell line. The aim of present investigation is to assess the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic potential of the PGJ in human multiple myeloma cell lines. Our data demonstrate the anti-proliferative potential of PGJ in MM cells; its ability to induce G0/G1 cell cycle block and its anti-angiogenic effects. Interestingly, sequential combination of bortezomib/PGJ improved the cytotoxic effect of the proteosome inhibitor. We investigated the effect of PGJ on angiogenesis and cell migration/invasion. Interestingly, we observed an inhibitory effect on the tube formation, microvessel outgrowth aorting ring and decreased cell migration and invasion as showed by wound-healing and transwell assays, respectively. Analysis of angiogenic genes expression in endothelial cells confirmed the anti-angiogenic properties of pomegranate. Therefore, PGJ administration could represent a good tool in order to identify novel therapeutic strategies for MM treatment, exploiting its anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects. Finally, the present research supports the evidence that PGJ could play a key role of a future therapeutic approach for treatment of MM in order to optimize the pharmacological effect of bortezomib, especially as adjuvant after treatment.
Metastatic dissemination is the most frequent cause of death of sporadic colorectal cancer (sCRC) patients. Genomic abnormalities which are potentially characteristic of such advanced stages of the disease are complex and so far, they have been poorly described and only partially understood. We evaluated the molecular heterogeneity of sCRC tumors based on simultaneous assessment of the overall GEP of both coding mRNA and non-coding RNA genes in primary sCRC tumor samples from 23 consecutive patients and their paired liver metastases. Liver metastases from the sCRC patients analyzed, systematically showed deregulated transcripts of those genes identified as also deregulated in their paired primary colorectal carcinomas. However, some transcripts were found to be specifically deregulated in liver metastases (vs. non-tumoral colorectal tissues) while expressed at normal levels in their primary tumors, reflecting either an increased genomic instability of metastatic cells or theiradaption to the liver microenvironment. Newly deregulated metastatic transcripts included overexpression of APOA1, HRG, UGT2B4, RBP4 and ADH4 mRNAS and the miR-3180-3p, miR-3197, miR-3178, miR-4793 and miR-4440 miRNAs, together with decreased expression of the IGKV1-39, IGKC, IGKV1-27, FABP4 and MYLK mRNAS and the miR-363, miR-1, miR-143, miR-27b and miR-28-5p miRNAs. Canonical pathways found to be specifically deregulated in liver metastatic samples included multiple genes related with intercellular adhesion and the metastatic processes (e.g., IGF1R, PIK3CA, PTEN and EGFR), endocytosis (e.g., the PDGFRA, SMAD2, ERBB3, PML and FGFR2), and the cell cycle (e.g., SMAD2, CCND2, E2F5 and MYC). Our results also highlighted the activation of genes associated with the TGFβ signaling pathway, -e.g. RHOA, SMAD2, SMAD4, SMAD5, SMAD6, BMPR1A, SMAD7 and MYC-, which thereby emerge as candidate genes to play an important role in CRC tumor metastasis.
The pathogenesis of ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue-type (OAML) is still poorly understood. We analyzed 63 cases of such lymphomas for non-synonymous mutations in 24 candidate genes by amplicon sequencing. We validated frequent mutations in the NF-κB regulators MYD88, TNFAIP3 and TNIP1 in OAML, but also identified recurrent mutations in several additional components of the NF-κB pathway, including BCL10 and NFKBIA. Overall, 60% of cases had mutations in at least one component of NF-κB signaling, pointing to a central role of its genetic deregulation in OAML pathogenesis. Mutations in NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 were each found in 8% of cases, indicating a pathogenetic function of these factors in OAML. KMT2D was identified as the first epigenetic regulator with mutations in OAML, being mutated in 22% of cases. Mutations in MYD88 were associated with an inferior disease-free survival. Overall, we identified here highly recurrent genetic lesions in components of the NF-κB pathway, of NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 as well as KMT2D in OAML and thereby provide major novel insights into the pathogenesis of this B cell malignancy.
Dysregulated lipid metabolism is a characteristic of malignancies. Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), a transcription factor playing a central role in lipid metabolism, is highly activated in malignancies. Here, we unraveled a link between miR-29 and the SCAP (SREBP cleavage-activating protein)/SREBP-1 pathway in glioblastoma (GBM) growth. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling enhances miR-29 expression in GBM cells via upregulation of SCAP/SREBP-1, and SREBP-1 activates miR-29 expression via binding to specific sites in its promoter. In turn, miR-29 inhibits SCAP and SREBP-1 expression by interacting with their 3' UTRs. miR-29 transfection suppressed lipid synthesis and GBM cell growth, which were rescued by the addition of fatty acids or N-terminal SREBP-1 expression. Xenograft studies showed that miR-29 mimics significantly inhibit GBM growth and prolong the survival of GBM-bearing mice. Our study reveals a previously unrecognized negative feedback loop in SCAP/SREBP-1 signaling mediated by miR-29 and suggests that miR-29 treatment may represent an effective means to target GBM.