Research IndicatorsGraph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ASPSCR1 (cancer-related)
RATIONALE: Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a very rare soft tissue sarcoma. ASPS often occurs in deep soft tissues of the lower extremities, and develops into metastatic diseases. Chemotherapy is considered to be ineffective in patients with ASPS, which constitutes a very important clinical challenge. The strategy for ASPS treatment still requires clarification in order to improve survival outcome. Patients concerns: A 19-year-old female patient presented with a 5-year history of painless lump in the left knee and 4-day cough. Her previous medical history was unremarkable. Menstruation and family history were also normal in this patient, whose physical examination and laboratory test results showed no abnormalities.
DIAGNOSIS: ASPS was confirmed by clinical manifestations, radiological data and pathological diagnosis of the biopsy of left knee.
INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: This patient received circulating tumor DNA detection and only a mutation of the SMARCA4 gene was detected. The patient received sunitinib treatment (37.5 mg once daily) for 15 months and showed partial regression of lung metastatic lesions and stabilization of brain metastases. She achieved 15 months of progression free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Sunitinib is effective for the treatment of advanced ASPS with lung and brain metastases. The current patient had long-term progression free survival under sunitinib administration.
BACKGROUND: Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare variety of a kidney neoplasm. We report a case of bilateral Xp11.2 translocation RCC occurring metachronously and discuss this very rare entity with reference to the literature.
CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 56-year-old woman who presented with a right renal tumor. The patient had undergone left radical nephrectomy 7 years previously, which resulted in a histopathological diagnosis of clear cell RCC. Open right partial nephrectomy was performed under the presumptive diagnosis of recurrence of clear cell RCC. The present right renal tumor was pathologically diagnosed Xp11.2 translocation RCC. More than 70% of the tumor cells in the present right tumor were strongly positive for transcription factor E3 (TFE3) expression by immunohistochemical analysis with an anti-TFE3 antibody. A break-apart of the TFE3 genes in the bilateral tumors was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Real time-polymerase chain reaction analysis for the alveolar soft part sarcoma locus-TFE3 fusion gene was performed, which gave a positive result in the bilateral tumors. Pathological comparison of each of the tumors might lead to a final diagnosis of Xp11.2 translocation RCC occurring metachronously.
CONCLUSIONS: We present the bilateral Xp11.2 translocation RCC. A combination of immunohistochemical, cytogenetic and molecular biological approaches allowed the final diagnosis of such a rare RCC.
The acquisition of invasive properties preceding tumor metastasis is critical for cancer progression. This phenomenon may result from mutagenic disruption of typical cell function, but recent evidence suggests that cancer cells frequently co-opt normal developmental programs to facilitate invasion as well. The signaling cascades that have been implicated present an obstacle to identifying effective therapeutic targets because of their complex nature and modulatory capacity through crosstalk with other pathways. Substantial efforts have been made to study invasive behavior during organogenesis in several organisms, but another model found in
Xie C, Chen B, Wu B, et al.LncRNA TUG1 promotes cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis in osteosarcoma by regulating miR-212-3p/FOXA1 axis.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 97:1645-1653 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: LncRNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) was reported to act as a possible oncogene in osteosarcoma (OS) development. However, the underlying molecular basis of TUG1 involved in the progression of OS remains to be thoroughly investigated.
METHODS: The expressions of TUG1 and miR-212-3p in OS tissues and cells were examined by RT-qPCR. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, protein levels of BCL2, Bax, and forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) were detected by colony formation assay, MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis, caspase-3 activity assay, and western blot. Luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay, and RT-qPCR were used to explore the interaction between TUG1, FOXA1 and miR-212-3p. Tumor xenograft mouse model was used to confirm the biological role of TUG in OS in vivo.
RESULTS: Elevated TUG1 and FOXA1 expression and reduced miR-212-3p expression were observed in OS tissues and cells. TUG1 knockdown suppressed OS cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. TUG1 functioned as a ceRNA of miR-212-3p and suppressed miR-212-3p expression. miR-212-3p inhibition reversed the effect of TUG1 knockdown on OS cell proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, FOXA1 was identified as a target of miR-212-3p and TUG1 functioned as a ceRNA to upregulate FOXA1 by sponging miR-212-3p in OS cells. FOXA1 up-regulation abolished the effects of miR-212-3p on OS cell proliferation and apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: TUG1 promoted OS cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis by regulating the miR-212-3p/FOXA1 axis. Therefore, TUG1/miR-212-3p/FOXA1 axis may be a promising therapeutic target in OS treatment.
Wang XT, Xia QY, Ye SB, et al.RNA sequencing of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers reveals novel gene fusions and distinctive clinicopathologic correlations.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(9):1346-1360 [PubMed
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Both Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas and the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms are characterized by a variety of gene fusions involving TFE3. It has been known that tumors with different gene fusions may have different clinicopathologic features; however, further in-depth investigations of subtyping Xp11 translocation-associated cancers are needed in order to explore more meaningful clinicopathologic correlations. A total of 22 unusual cases of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers were selected for the current study; 20 cases were further analyzed by RNA sequencing to explore their TFE3 gene fusion partners. RNA sequencing identified 17 of 20 cases (85%) with TFE3-associated gene fusions, including 4 ASPSCR1/ASPL-TFE3, 3 PRCC-TFE3, 3 SFPQ/PSF-TFE3, 1 NONO-TFE3, 4 MED15-TFE3, 1 MATR3-TFE3, and 1 FUBP1-TFE3. The results have been verified by fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The remaining 2 cases with specific pathologic features highly suggestive of MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma were identified by fusion FISH assay. We provide the detailed morphologic and immunophenotypic description of the MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas, which frequently demonstrate extensively cystic architecture, similar to multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential, and expressed cathepsin K and melanotic biomarker Melan A. This is the first time to correlate the MED15-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma with specific clinicopathologic features. We also report the first case of the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasm with MED15-TFE3 gene fusion. Additional novel TFE3 gene fusion partners, MATR3 and FUBP1, were identified. Cases with ASPSCR1-TFE3, SFPQ-TFE3, PRCC-TFE3, and NONO-TFE3 gene fusion showed a wide variability in morphologic features, including invasive tubulopapillary pattern simulating collecting duct carcinoma, extensive calcification and ossification, and overlapping and high columnar cells with nuclear grooves mimicking tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Furthermore, we respectively evaluated the ability of TFE3 immunohistochemistry, TFE3 FISH, RT-PCR, and RNA sequencing to subclassify Xp11 translocation-associated cancers. In summary, our study expands the list of TFE3 gene fusion partners and the clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation-associated cancers, and highlights the importance of subtyping Xp11 translocation-associated cancers combining morphology, immunohistochemistry, and multiple molecular techniques.
Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) are transcripts that cross-regulate each other at the post-transcriptional level by competing for shared microRNA response elements (MREs). These have been implicated in various biological processes impacting cell-fate decisions and diseases including cancer. There are several studies that predict possible ceRNA pairs by adopting various machine-learning and mathematical approaches; however, there is no method that enables us to gauge as well as compare the propensity of the ceRNA of a gene and precisely envisages which among a pair exerts a stronger pull on the shared miRNA pool. In this study, we developed a method that uses the 'tug of war of genes' concept to predict and quantify ceRNA potential of a gene for the shared miRNA pool in cancers based on a score represented by SoCeR (score of competing endogenous RNA). The method was executed on the RNA-Seq transcriptional profiles of genes and miRNA available at TCGA along with CLIP-supported miRNA-target sites to predict ceRNA in 32 cancer types which were validated with already reported cases. The proposed method can be used to determine the sequestering capability of the gene of interest as well as in ranking the probable ceRNA candidates of a gene. Finally, we developed standalone applications (SoCeR tool) to aid researchers in easier implementation of the method in analysing different data sets or diseases.
Schöffski P, Wozniak A, Kasper B, et al.Activity and safety of crizotinib in patients with alveolar soft part sarcoma with rearrangement of TFE3: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) phase II trial 90101 'CREATE'.
Ann Oncol. 2018; 29(3):758-765 [PubMed
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Background: Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is an orphan malignancy associated with a rearrangement of transcription factor E3 (TFE3), leading to abnormal MET gene expression. We prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of the MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib in patients with advanced or metastatic ASPS.
Patients and methods: Eligible patients with reference pathology-confirmed ASPS received oral crizotinib 250 mg bd. By assessing the presence or absence of a TFE3 rearrangement, patients were attributed to MET+ and MET- sub-cohorts. The primary end point was the objective response rate (ORR) according to local investigator. Secondary end points included duration of response, disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), progression-free rate, overall survival (OS) and safety.
Results: Among 53 consenting patients, all had a centrally confirmed ASPS and 48 were treated. A total of 45 were eligible, treated and assessable. Among 40 MET+ patients, 1 achieved a confirmed partial response (PR) that lasted 215 days and 35 had stable disease (SD) as best response (ORR: 2.5%, 95% CI 0.6% to 80.6%). Further efficacy end points in MET+ cases were DCR: 90.0% (95% CI 76.3% to 97.2%), 1-year PFS rate: 37.5% (95% CI 22.9% to 52.1%) and 1-year OS rate: 97.4% (95% CI 82.8% to 99.6%). Among 4 MET- patients, 1 achieved a PR that lasted 801 days and 3 had SD (ORR: 25.0%, 95% CI 0.6% to 80.6%) for a DCR of 100% (95% CI 39.8% to 100.0%). The 1-year PFS rate in MET- cases was 50% (95% CI 5.8% to 84.5%) and the 1-year OS rate was 75% (95% CI 12.8% to 96.1%). One patient with unknown MET status due to technical failure achieved SD but stopped treatment due to progression after 17 cycles. The most common crizotinib-related adverse events were nausea [34/48 (70.8%)], vomiting [22/48 (45.8%)], blurred vision [22/48 (45.8%)], diarrhoea (20/48 (41.7%)] and fatigue [19/48 (39.6%)].
Conclusion: According to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) efficacy criteria for soft tissue sarcoma, our study demonstrated that crizotinib has activity in TFE3 rearranged ASPS MET+ patients.
Clinical trial number: EORTC 90101, NCT01524926.
Wang J, Bao A, Wang Q, et al.Sulfation can enhance antitumor activities of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide in vitro and vivo.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 107(Pt A):502-511 [PubMed
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In this study, a sulfated Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide (ASPs) was prepared and its antitumor activity was evaluated in tumor cells and Hepatoma 22 (H22) tumor-bearing mice. In vitro experiments, ASPs significantly inhibited the growth of HepG2 and Hela cells with the IC
Ju X, Sun K, Liu R, et al.Exploring the Histogenesis and Diagnostic Strategy Using Immunoassay and RT-PCR in Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2018; 24(3):593-600 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma, but it's easily misdiagnosed in rare locations. The derivation of ASPS is still uncertain, therefore we conducted this study to explore the histogenesis of ASPS by analyzing stem cell markers (ALDH1, CD29, CD133 and Nestin). Protein TFE3 and fusion gene ASPS-TFE3 were tested in paraffin to explore diagnostic strategy and molecular pathological features. In this study, nine cases of ASPS were immunostained with stem cell surface markers (ALDH1, CD29, CD133 and Nestin) and protein TFE3. Seven cases of ASPS mRNA were successfully extracted from nine paraffin-embedded tissues. The expression of fusion gene ASPL-TFE3 was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The immunohistochemical staining of nine patients showed that CD29 and Nestin were negative in all nine cases (0/9). CD133 was weakly positive in one cases (1/9) and ALDH1 was weakly positive in one cases (1/9). TFE3 was positive in nine cases (9/9). Seven paraffin tissues could be successfully extracted with mRNA in nine cases. The results of Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) showed that ASPL-TFE3 fusion transcripts could be tested in the seven cases (four cases being type 2 and three cases being type 1). The positive rate of CD133 and ALDH1 were less than 1% and the expression of CD29 and Nestin were negative in ASPS. Immunohistochemistry results indicated that the histogenesis of ASPS maybe not derive from mesenchymal stem cells. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that TFE3 protein expression was highly sensitive in ASPS. Furthermore, RT-PCR results showed that fusion gene ASPL-TFE3 (ASPL-TFE3 type 1 and ASPL-TFE3 type 2) was expressed in ASPS, which could provide information for clinical molecular pathological diagnosis and improve the diagnosis rate of rare atypical ASPS.
Lee HJ, Shin DH, Noh GY, et al.Combination of immunohistochemistry, FISH and RT-PCR shows high incidence of Xp11 translocation RCC: comparison of three different diagnostic methods.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(19):30756-30765 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We evaluated the frequency of translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and how well the TFE3 immunoreactivity is concordant with TFE3 gene translocation status proved by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay and RT-PCR. TFE3 and Cathepsin K expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 185 RCC cases, and 48 cases either of more than weak expression of TFE3 or of positivity for Cathepsin K were done for FISH analysis and RT-PCR. All the RT-PCR positive cases were confirmed by cloning and sequencing. Of the 14 cases with strong nuclear TFE3 expression, 12 showed a break-apart signal by FISH. ASPL- and PRCC-TFE3 translocations were detected in 13 and one case, respectively, by RT-PCR. Of 21 cases with weak TFE3 expression, five were translocation-positive by FISH. ASPL-, PRCC-, and PSF-TFE3 translocations were detected by RT-PCR (n=3, 3, and 1, respectively). All 13 TFE3-negative/cathepsin K-positive cases were negative by FISH and two each harbored ASPL- and PRCC-TFE3 translocations that were detected by RT-PCR. A high rate of TFE3 immunoreactivity (8.6%) was confirmed by RT-PCR (13.5%) and FISH (9.7%). Higher translocation rate of RT-PCR means RT-PCR detected translocation in TFE3 weak expression group and only cathepsin K positive group more specifically than FISH. Thus, RT-PCR would complement FISH analysis for detecting translocation RCC with fusion partners.
Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with Xp11 translocation (Xp11 RCC) constitute a distinctive molecular subtype characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the Xp11.2 locus, resulting in gene fusions between the TFE3 transcription factor with a second gene (usually ASPSCR1, PRCC, NONO, or SFPQ). RCCs with Xp11 translocations comprise up to 1% to 4% of adult cases, frequently displaying papillary architecture with epithelioid clear cells. To better understand the biology of this molecularly distinct tumor subtype, we analyze the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of Xp11 RCC compared with normal renal parenchyma using microarray and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We further compare Xp11 RCC with other RCC histologic subtypes using publically available data sets, identifying common and distinctive miRNA signatures along with the associated signaling pathways and biological processes. Overall, Xp11 RCC more closely resembles clear cell rather than papillary RCC. Furthermore, among the most differentially expressed miRNAs specific for Xp11 RCC, we identify miR-148a-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-185-5p, miR-196b-5p, and miR-642a-5p to be up-regulated, whereas miR-133b and miR-658 were down-regulated. Finally, Xp11 RCC is most strongly associated with miRNA expression profiles modulating DNA damage responses, cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and the Hedgehog signaling pathway. In summary, we describe here for the first time the miRNA expression profiles of a molecularly distinct type of renal cancer associated with Xp11.2 translocations involving the TFE3 gene. Our results might help understanding the molecular underpinning of Xp11 RCC, assisting in developing targeted treatments for this disease.
Classe M, Malouf GG, Su X, et al.Incidence, clinicopathological features and fusion transcript landscape of translocation renal cell carcinomas.
Histopathology. 2017; 70(7):1089-1097 [PubMed
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AIMS: Translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) is a rare subtype of kidney tumour characterized by translocations involving the transcription factor TFE3 or TFEB. tRCC was introduced into the World Health Organization classification in 2004, but much is still unknown about the natural history, clinicopathological features and outcomes of the disease. The aim of this study was to describe the landscape of fusion transcript in a large single-institution series of fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH)-confirmed tRCCs and then to compare it to morphological and clinical data.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Paired-end RNA sequencing was performed within a prospective database of the Department of Pathology, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire (Lille, France). The diagnosis of tRCC was confirmed by FISH. Among a total of 1130 identified renal cell carcinomas, 21 cases (1.9%) showed rearrangement of the TFE3 (n = 20) or (TFEB) (n = 1) gene. Median patient age was 31 years (range = 15-47), and the female-to-male ratio was 6:1. Five different TFE3 fusion transcripts were identified; the most frequent TFE3 partners were PRCC (n = 4) and SFPQ (n = 4). The other partners involved were ASPCR1 (n = 1) and MED15 (n = 1) genes as well as a novel TFE3 partner, GRIPAP1.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified a new fusion partner, GRIPAP1. The prognostic role of transcript type could not be determined because our number of cases was too small. Four patients (19%) died of the disease, all of which presented with a lymph node involvement at diagnosis. We confirm that tRCC can be an aggressive tumour, especially those of advanced clinical stage.
Wang XT, Xia QY, Zhou XJ, Rao QXp11 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma and the Mesenchymal Counterparts: An Evolving Concept with Novel Insights on Clinicopathologic Features, Prognosis, Treatment, and Classification.
Crit Rev Oncog. 2017; 22(5-6):481-497 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The TFE3 gene is one of four members of the micropathalima-associated transcription factor family, along with TFEB, TFEC, and MiTF, located on chromosome Xp11.2. The site is notable for its involvement in translocation in Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the mesenchymal counterparts, including Xp11 neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation/TFE3 rearrangement-associated perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa)/ melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer/melanotic Xp11 neoplasm, and alveolar soft-part sarcoma. By morphologic, immunohistochemical, genetic, and prognostic similarities, alveolar soft-part sarcoma with the ASPSCR1-TFE3 gene fusion has a closer relationship with Xp11 neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation/TFE3 rearrangement-associated PEComa/melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer/melanotic Xp11 neoplasm. These Xp11 translocation mesenchymal neoplasms may represent a distinct entity, which overlaps with Xp11 translocation RCC and broadens the spectrum of Xp11 translocation-associated neoplasms. The impact of individual fusion variants on specific clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation RCC has only recently been described. This review provides insight into the clinicopathologic features, prognosis, treatment, and classification of Xp11 translocation RCC and its mesenchymal counterparts, emphasizing the impact of individual fusion variants on specific clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation RCC and the relationships among these Xp11 translocation-associated neoplasms.
Schoolmeester JK, Carlson J, Keeney GL, et al.Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma of the Female Genital Tract: A Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Cytogenetic Study of 10 Cases With Emphasis on its Distinction From Morphologic Mimics.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2017; 41(5):622-632 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a morphologically distinctive neoplasm of unknown differentiation that bears a characteristic gene fusion involving ASPSCR1 and TFE3. ASPS can occur in the female genital tract, but is rare. Eleven cases with an initial diagnosis of ASPS at female genital tract sites were evaluated for their morphologic features and immunoprofile using a panel of antibodies (TFE3, HMB45, melan-A, smooth muscle actin, desmin, and h-Caldesmon). In addition, the presence of TFE3 rearrangement and subsequent ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Ten tumors retained their classification as ASPS based on their morphologic appearance, immunohistochemical profile, and demonstration of ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion. The remaining case was reclassified as conventional-type PEComa due to its pattern of HMB45, melan-A, and desmin positivity as well as absence of TFE3 rearrangement. Sites of the 10 ASPS were uterine corpus (3), cervix (2), uterus not further specified (2), vagina (2), and vulva (1). The age of the patients ranged from 15 to 68 years (mean 34 y, median 32 y). The tumors demonstrated a spectrum of morphologic features, but all had a consistent immunophenotype of strong TFE3 nuclear expression and lack of muscle (smooth muscle actin, desmin, h-Caldesmon) and melanocytic (melan-A, HMB45) markers, except focal positivity for HMB45 in 1. Follow-up was available for 4 patients ranging from 1 to 35 months (mean 15 mo, median 25 mo) and they were alive and had no evidence of recurrence or metastasis at last follow-up. Distinguishing ASPS from its morphologic mimics, particularly PEComa, is important due to increasingly efficacious targeted agents such as MET-selective and VEGF signaling inhibitors in the former and mTOR inhibition therapy in the latter.
BACKGROUND: Xp11.2 translocation/transcription factor E3 (TFE3) rearrangement renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare subtype of RCC with limited clinical and pathological data.
CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present an unusual high-grade Xp11.2 translocation RCC with a rhabdoid feature and SMARCB1 (INI1) inactivation in a 40-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease. The histological examination of the dissected left renal tumor showed an organoid architecture of the eosinophilic or clear neoplastic cells with necrosis and high mitotic activity. In some areas, non-adhesive tumor cells with eccentric nuclei were observed. Immunohistochemically (IHC), the tumor cells are positive for TFE3 and the renal tubular markers (PAX2 and PAX8), and completely negative for SMARCB1, an oncosuppressor protein. Break-apart florescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed TFE3 rearrangement on Xp11.2 and the presence of ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion gene. DNA sequencing revealed a frameshift mutation in exon 4 of SMARCB1 gene.
CONCLUSION: It is important to recognize this rare RCC with both TFE3 rearrangement and SMARCB1 inactivation, as the prognosis and therapeutic strategies, particularly targeted therapies for such tumors, might be different.
ASBTRACT Increased rates of cholesterol and lipid synthesis have long been recognized as important aspects of the metabolic rewiring that occurs during cancerous transformation. Many genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid biogenesis are transcriptional targets of the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). The SREBPs act as a hub for metabolic and proliferation-related signals; their activity is the focus of a tug-of-war between tumor suppressors, who generally inhibit SREBP function, and oncogenes, who often promote, and rely on, SREBP activity. The Hippo pathway plays a central role in coordinating cell proliferation and organ size, whereas p53 is a crucial tumor suppressor that maintains metabolic homeostasis and orchestrates cellular stress responses. Together, the Hippo and p53 signaling pathways cooperate on multiple levels to fine-tune SREPB activity and regulate cholesterol/lipid levels. Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors such as statins are appealing conceptually, but have yet to show an indisputable effect on cancer development. Fortunately, the complex regulation surrounding the Hippo-p53-SREBP network potentially provides a broad interface for additional novel cancer-targeting interventions.
Just PA, Letourneur F, Pouliquen C, et al.Identification by FFPE RNA-Seq of a new recurrent inversion leading to RBM10-TFE3 fusion in renal cell carcinoma with subtle TFE3 break-apart FISH pattern.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(6):541-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Gene fusions involving TFE3 defines the "Xp11.2 translocations" subclass of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) belonging to the MiT family translocation RCC. Four recurrent TFE3 fusion partners were identified to date: PRCC, ASPSCR1, SFPQ, and NONO. Break-apart TFE3 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections is currently the gold standard for identification of TFE3 rearrangements. Herein, we report a case of RCC with a morphological appearance of Xp11.2 translocation, and positive TFE3 immunostaining. By FISH, the spots constituting the split signal were barely spaced, suggestive of a chromosome X inversion rather than a translocation. We performed RNA-seq from FFPE material to test this hypothesis. RNA-seq suggested a fusion of RBM10 gene exon 17 (Xp11.23) with TFE3 gene exon 5 (Xp11.2). RBM10-TFE3 fusion transcript was confirmed using specific RT-PCR. Our work showed that RNA-Seq is a robust technique to detect fusion transcripts from FFPE material. A RBM10-TFE3 fusion was previously described in single case of Xp11.2 RCC. Although rare, RBM10-TFE3 fusion variant (from chromosome X paracentric inversion), therefore, appears to be a recurrent molecular event in Xp11.2 RCCs. RBM10-TFE3 fusion should be added in the list of screened fusion transcripts in targeted molecular diagnostic multiplex RT-PCR. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Price RL, Harkins L, Chiocca EA, et al.Human Cytomegalovirus is Present in Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2017; 25(9):615-619 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is an exquisitely rare sarcoma of unknown histogenesis, with a predilection for adolescents and young adults, characterized by slow progressive clinical course and high frequency of metastases. They are traditionally chemoresistant with very limited treatment options in the metastatic setting. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a DNA β-herpes virus and it is characterized by persistent lifelong and latent infection. There is growing evidence to indicate the presence of HCMV proteins and nucleic acids in glioblastoma, medulloblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and a variety of solid organ malignancies of the breast, prostate, lung, and colon at very high prevalence. Immunotherapy-based clinical trials targeting specific cytomegalovirus proteins are currently in progress in the treatment of glioblastoma. Herein, we evaluated for the presence of HCMV proteins (IE1 and pp65), genes (US28 and UL96), and RNA in a cohort of ASPS. Six confirmed cases of ASPS were retrieved and full thickness sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material were stained for anti-HMCV-IE1 and anti-HCMV-pp65. Any nuclear and/or cytoplasmic staining was considered positive. DNA was purified from 50 µm of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material. One hundred nanogram of DNA was amplified using polymerase chain reaction for primers specific to HCMV-US28 (forward: AGCGTGCCGTGTACGTTAC and reverse: ATAAAGACAAGCACGACC) and HCMV-UL96 (forward: ACAGCTCTTAAAGGACGTGATGCG and reverse: ACCGTGTCCTTCAGCTCGGTTAAA) using Promega Taq polymerase. HCMV in situ hybridization was performed. All 6 cases of ASPS were positive for both HCMV-IE1 and HCMV-pp65. Usable DNA was available in 4 of the 6 cases. HCMV-US28 gene was found in 75% (3/4) of cases and HCMV-UL96 gene was detected in 50% (2/4) of cases. Importantly, all cases tested positive for at least 1 gene. HCMV-encoded RNA was identified in 80% (4/5) of cases. The presence of HCMV DNA, RNA along with HCMV protein indicates that HCMV is present in ASPS and may contribute to its pathogenesis.
Xp11 translocation cancers include Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC), Xp11 translocation perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer. In Xp11 translocation cancers, oncogenic activation of TFE3 is driven by the fusion of TFE3 with a number of different gene partners; however, the impact of individual fusion variant on specific clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation cancers has not been well defined. In this study, we analyze 60 Xp11 translocation cancers by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes to establish their TFE3 fusion gene partner. In 5 cases RNA sequencing was also used to further characterize the fusion transcripts. The 60 Xp11 translocation cancers included 47 Xp11 translocation RCC, 8 Xp11 translocation PEComas, and 5 melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers. A fusion partner was identified in 53/60 (88%) cases, including 18 SFPQ (PSF), 16 PRCC, 12 ASPSCR1 (ASPL), 6 NONO, and 1 DVL2. We provide the first morphologic description of the NONO-TFE3 RCC, which frequently demonstrates subnuclear vacuoles leading to distinctive suprabasal nuclear palisading. Similar subnuclear vacuolization was also characteristic of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC, creating overlapping features with clear cell papillary RCC. We also describe the first RCC with a DVL2-TFE3 gene fusion, in addition to an extrarenal pigmented PEComa with a NONO-TFE3 gene fusion. Furthermore, among neoplasms with the SFPQ-TFE3, NONO-TFE3, DVL2-TFE3, and ASPL-TFE3 gene fusions, the RCCs are almost always PAX8 positive, cathepsin K negative by immunohistochemistry, whereas the mesenchymal counterparts (Xp11 translocation PEComas, melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers, and alveolar soft part sarcoma) are PAX8 negative, cathepsin K positive. These findings support the concept that despite an identical gene fusion, the RCCs are distinct from the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms, perhaps due to the cellular context in which the translocation occurs. We corroborate prior data showing that the PRCC-TFE3 RCCs are the only known Xp11 translocation RCC molecular subtype that are consistently cathepsin K positive. In summary, our data expand further the clinicopathologic features of cancers with specific TFE3 gene fusions and should allow for more meaningful clinicopathologic associations to be drawn.
BACKGROUND: Xp11.2 or TFE3 translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCC) and alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) are characterized by chromosome translocations involving the Xp11.2 breakpoint resulting in transcription factor TFE3 gene fusions. The most common translocations documented in TFE3 RCCs are t(X;1) (p11.2;q21) and t(X;17) (p11.2;q25) which leads to fusion of TFE3 gene on Xp11.2 with PRCC or ASPL respectively. TFE3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been inconsistent over time due to background staining problems in part related to fixation issues. Karyotyping to detect TFE3 gene rearrangement requires typically unavailable fresh tissue. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is generally very challenging due to degradation of RNA in archival material. The study objective was to develop and validate a TFE3 break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay to confirm Xp11 translocation RCCs and ASPS.
METHODS: Representative sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were selected in 40 possible cases. Approximately 60 tumor cells were analyzed in the targeted region. The validation of TFE3 FISH was done with 11 negative and two positive cases. Cut off for a positive result was validated as >7.15 % positive nuclei with any pattern of break-apart signals. FISH evaluation was done blinded of the immunohistochemical or karyotype data.
RESULTS: Three out of forty cases were positive for the TFE3 break-apart signals by FISH. The negative cases were reported as clear cell RCC with papillary features (10), clear cell RCC with sarcomatoid areas (2), Papillary RCC with clear cell areas (9), Chromophobe RCC (2), RCC, unclassified type (3) and renal medullary carcinoma (1). 3 of the negative cases were consultation cases for renal tumor with unknown histology. Seven negative cases were soft tissue tumor suspicious for ASPS.
CONCLUSION: Our study validates the utility of TFE3 break-apart FISH on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections for diagnosis and confirmation of Xp11.2 translocation RCCs and ASPS.
Zhao M, Rao Q, Wu C, et al.Alveolar soft part sarcoma of lung: report of a unique case with emphasis on diagnostic utility of molecular genetic analysis for TFE3 gene rearrangement and immunohistochemistry for TFE3 antigen expression.
Diagn Pathol. 2015; 10:160 [PubMed
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Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare, malignant mesenchymal tumor of distinctive clinical, morphologic, ultrastructural, and cytogenetical characteristics. It typically arises in the extremities of adolescents and young adults, but has also been documented in a number of unusual sites, thus causing diagnostic confusions both clinically and morphologically. The molecular signature of ASPS is a specific der(17)t(X;17)(p11.2;q25) translocation, which results in the fusion of TFE3 transcription factor gene at Xp11.2 with ASPL at 17q25. Recent studies have shown that the ASPL-TFE3 fusion transcript can be identified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis and TFE3 gene rearragement can be detected using a dual-color, break apart fluorescence in situ hybridization assay in paraffin-embedded tissue, and the resultant fusion protein can be detected immunohistochemically with antibody directed to the carboxy terminal portion of TFE3. Herein, we report a unique case of ASPS presenting as an asymptomatic mass in the lung of a 48 year-old woman without evidence of a primary soft tissue tumor elsewhere at the time of initial diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third report of such cases appearing in the English language literature to date. We emphasize the differential diagnoses engendered by ASPS including a series of tumors involving the lung that have nested and alveolar growth patterns, and both clear and eosinophilic cytoplasm, and demonstrate the utility of molecular genetic analysis for TFE3 rearrangement and immunohistochemistry for TFE3 antigen expression for arriving at accurate diagnosis.
TFE3 translocation renal cell carcinoma is a highly aggressive malignancy which often occurs primarily in children and young adults. The pathognomonic molecular lesion in this subtype is a translocation event involving the TFE3 transcription factor at chromosome Xp11.2. Hence, the pathological diagnosis of an Xp11.2 translocation RCC is based upon morphology, TFE3 immunohistochemistry, or genetic analyses. However, due to the false-positive immunoreactivity for TFE3 IHC and expensive for TFE3 break-apart FISH assay, additional molecular markers are necessary to help provide early diagnose and individualization treatment. Owing to recent advances in microarray and RNA-Seq, Pflueger et al. have discovered that TMED6-COG8 is dramatically increased in TFE3 translocation RCCs, compared with clear cell RCCs and papillary RCCs, implying that TMED6-COG8 might be a new molecular tumor marker of TFE3 translocation RCCs. To extend this observation, we firstly validated the TMED6-COG8 expression level by qRT-PCR in RCCs including Xp11.2 translocation RCCs (n=5), clear cell RCCs (n=7) and papillary RCCs (n=5). Then, we also examined the expression level of TMED6-COG8 chimera in Xp11.2 translocation alveolar soft part sarcoma. We found that TMED6-COG8 chimera expression level was higher in Xp11.2 translocation RCCs than in ASPS (P<0.05). What's more, the expression levels of TMED6-COG8 chimera in esophagus cancers (n=32), gastric cancers (n=11), colorectal cancers (n=12), hepatocellular carcinomas (n=10) and non-small-cell lung cancers (n=12) were assessed. Unexpectedly, TMED6-COG8 chimera was decreased in these five human types. Therefore, our observations from this study indicated that TMED6-COG8 chimera might act as a novel diagnostic marker in Xp11.2 translocation RCCs.
Chen X, Yang Y, Gan W, et al.Newly designed break-apart and ASPL-TFE3 dual-fusion FISH assay are useful in diagnosing Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma and ASPL-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma: a STARD-compliant article.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(19):e873 [PubMed
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The diagnosis of Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC), which relies on morphology and immunohistochemistry (IHC), is often either missed in the diagnosis or misdiagnosed. To improve the accuracy of diagnosis of Xp11.2 tRCC and ASPL-TFE3 renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we investigated newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes (diagnostic accuracy study).Based on the genetic characteristics of Xp11.2 tRCC and the ASPL-TFE3 RCC, a new break-apart TFE3 FISH probe and an ASPL-TFE3 dual-fusion FISH probe were designed and applied to 65 patients with RCC who were <45 years old or showed suspicious microscopic features of Xp11.2 tRCC in our hospital. To test the accuracy of the probes, we further performed reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on 8 cases for which frozen tissues were available.Among the 65 cases diagnosed with RCC, TFE3 IHC was positive in 24 cases. Twenty-two cases were confirmed as Xp11.2 tRCC by break-apart TFE3 FISH, and 6 of these cases were further diagnosed as ASPL-TFE3 RCC by ASPL-TFE3 dual-fusion FISH detection. Importantly, reverse transcriptase-PCR showed concordant results with the results of FISH assay in the 8 available frozen cases.The break-apart and ASPL-TFE3 dual-fusion FISH assay can accurately detect the translocation of the TFE3 gene and ASPL-TFE3 fusion gene and can thus serve as a valid complementary method for diagnosing Xp11.2 tRCC and ASPL-TFE3 RCC.
Goldberg JM, Fisher DE, Demetri GD, et al.Biologic Activity of Autologous, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Secreting Alveolar Soft-Part Sarcoma and Clear Cell Sarcoma Vaccines.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(14):3178-86 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS) and clear cell sarcoma (CCS) are rare mesenchymal malignancies driven by chromosomal translocations that activate members of the microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) family. However, in contrast to malignant melanoma, little is known about their immunogenicity. To learn more about the host response to ASPS and CCS, we conducted a phase I clinical trial of vaccination with irradiated, autologous sarcoma cells engineered by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Metastatic tumors from ASPS and CCS patients were resected, processed to single-cell suspensions, transduced with a replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding GM-CSF, and irradiated. Immunizations were administered subcutaneously and intradermally weekly three times and then every other week.
RESULTS: Vaccines were successfully manufactured for 11 of the 12 enrolled patients. Eleven subjects received from three to 13 immunizations. Toxicities were restricted to grade 1-2 skin reactions at inoculation sites. Vaccination elicited local dendritic cell infiltrates and stimulated T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to irradiated, autologous tumor cells. Antibody responses to tissue-type plasminogen activator (tTPA) and angiopoietins-1/2 were detected. Tumor biopsies showed programmed death-1 (PD-1)-positive CD8(+) T cells in association with PD ligand-1 (PD-L1)-expressing sarcoma cells. No tumor regressions were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with irradiated, GM-CSF-secreting autologous sarcoma cell vaccines is feasible, safe, and biologically active. Concurrent targeting of angiogenic cytokines and antagonism of the PD-1-negative regulatory pathway might intensify immune-mediated tumor destruction.
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS), a deadly soft tissue malignancy with a predilection for adolescents and young adults, associates consistently with t(X;17) translocations that generate the fusion gene ASPSCR1-TFE3. We proved the oncogenic capacity of this fusion gene by driving sarcomagenesis in mice from conditional ASPSCR1-TFE3 expression. The completely penetrant tumors were indistinguishable from human ASPS by histology and gene expression. They formed preferentially in the anatomic environment highest in lactate, the cranial vault, expressed high levels of lactate importers, harbored abundant mitochondria, metabolized lactate as a metabolic substrate, and responded to the administration of exogenous lactate with tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. These data demonstrate lactate's role as a driver of alveolar soft part sarcomagenesis.
Despite nearly two decades passing since the discovery of gene fusions involving TFE3 or TFEB in sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the molecular mechanisms underlying the renal-specific tumorigenesis of these genes remain largely unclear. The recently published findings of The Cancer Genome Atlas Network reported that five of the 416 surveyed clear cell RCC tumours (1.2%) harboured SFPQ-TFE3 fusions, providing further evidence for the importance of gene fusions. A total of five TFE3 gene fusions (PRCC-TFE3, ASPSCR1-TFE3, SFPQ-TFE3, NONO-TFE3, and CLTC-TFE3) and one TFEB gene fusion (MALAT1-TFEB) have been identified in RCC tumours and characterized at the mRNA transcript level. A multitude of molecular pathways well-described in carcinogenesis are regulated in part by TFE3 or TFEB proteins, including activation of TGFβ and ETS transcription factors, E-cadherin expression, CD40L-dependent lymphocyte activation, mTORC1 signalling, insulin-dependent metabolism regulation, folliculin signalling, and retinoblastoma-dependent cell cycle arrest. Determining which pathways are most important to RCC oncogenesis will be critical in discovering the most promising therapeutic targets for this disease.
Jabbour MN, Seoud M, Al-Ahmadie H, et al.ASPL-TFE3 translocation in vulvovaginal alveolar soft part sarcoma.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2014; 33(3):263-7 [PubMed
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Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the vulvovaginal region is limited to only 8 reported vaginal cases and 1 vulvar case in the English literature. The histogenesis of the tumor remains intriguing with postulates favoring a myogenic versus nonmyogenic origin. A reciprocal translocation for ASPL-TFE3 gene fusion, frequently detected in ~90% of cases, combined with TFE3 protein immunoexpression are highly sensitive and specific methods for diagnostic confirmation. The current report describes a unique case of vulvovaginal alveolar soft part sarcoma showing the classic morphologic features with documentation of TFE3 protein expression and the ASPL-TFE3 gene rearrangement. Furthermore, a brief review of the literature of vulvar and vaginal alveolar soft part sarcoma cases with the various treatment modalities is outlined.
Kubota D, Yoshida A, Kawai A, Kondo TProteomics identified overexpression of SET oncogene product and possible therapeutic utility of protein phosphatase 2A in alveolar soft part sarcoma.
J Proteome Res. 2014; 13(5):2250-61 [PubMed
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Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is an exceedingly rare sarcoma refractory to standard chemotherapy. Although several molecular targeting drugs have been applied for ASPS, their clinical significance has not yet been established, and novel therapeutic strategies have long been required. The aim of this study was to identify proteins aberrantly regulated in ASPS and to clarify their clinical significance. Protein expression profiling of tumor and nontumor tissues from 12 ASPS patients was performed by 2-D difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We found that the expression of 145 proteins differed significantly. Among them, further investigation was focused on the SET protein, which has multifunctional roles in cancers. Immunohistochemistry confirmed overexpression of SET in all 15 ASPS cases examined. Gene silencing of SET significantly decreased cell proliferation, invasion, and migration against a background of induced apoptosis. SET is known to be an inhibitor of phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting the signal transduction pathway and inducing apoptosis. We found that a PP2A activator, FTY720, decreased cell proliferation through apoptosis. Together, our findings may suggest the possible contribution of SET to the tumor progression and the utility of FTY720 for treatment of ASPS.
PURPOSE: Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a soft tissue sarcoma with poor prognosis, and little molecular evidence exists for its origin, initiation, and progression. The aim of this study was to elucidate candidate molecular pathways involved in tumor pathogenesis.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We employed high-throughput array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and cDNA-Mediated Annealing, Selection, Ligation, and Extension Assay to profile the genomic and expression signatures of primary and metastatic ASPS from 17 tumors derived from 11 patients. We used an integrative bioinformatics approach to elucidate the molecular pathways associated with ASPS progression. FISH was performed to validate the presence of the t(X;17)(p11.2;q25) ASPL-TFE3 fusion and, hence, confirm the aCGH observations.
RESULTS: FISH analysis identified the ASPL-TFE3 fusion in all cases. aCGH revealed a higher number of numerical aberrations in metastatic tumors relative to primaries, but failed to identify consistent alterations in either group. Gene expression analysis highlighted 1,063 genes that were differentially expressed between the two groups. Gene set enrichment analysis identified 16 enriched gene sets (P < 0.1) associated with differentially expressed genes. Notable among these were several stem cell gene expression signatures and pathways related to differentiation. In particular, the paired box transcription factor PAX6 was upregulated in the primary tumors, along with several genes whose mouse orthologs have previously been implicated in Pax6 DNA binding during neural stem cell differentiation.
CONCLUSION: In addition to suggesting a tentative neural line of differentiation for ASPS, these results implicate transcriptional deregulation from fusion genes in the pathogenesis of ASPS.
Ellis CL, Eble JN, Subhawong AP, et al.Clinical heterogeneity of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma: impact of fusion subtype, age, and stage.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(6):875-86 [PubMed
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Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas harbor chromosome translocations involving the Xp11 breakpoint, resulting in gene fusions involving the TFE3 gene. The most common subtypes are the ASPSCR1-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas resulting from t(X;17)(p11;q25) translocation, and the PRCC-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas, resulting from t(X;1)(p11;q21) translocation. A formal clinical comparison of these two subtypes of Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas has not been performed. We report one new genetically confirmed Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma of each type. We also reviewed the literature for all published cases of ASPSCR1-TFE3 and PRCC-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas and contacted all corresponding authors to obtain or update the published follow-up information. Study of two new, unpublished cases, and review of the literature revealed that 8/8 patients who presented with distant metastasis had ASPSCR1-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas, and all but one of these patients either died of disease or had progressive disease. Regional lymph nodes were involved by metastasis in 24 of the 32 ASPSCR1-TFE3 cases in which nodes were resected, compared with 5 of 14 PRCC-TFE3 cases (P=0.02).; however, 11 of 13 evaluable patients with ASPSCR1-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas who presented with N1M0 disease remained disease free. Two PRCC-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas recurred late (at 20 and 30 years, respectively). In multivariate analysis, only older age or advanced stage at presentation (not fusion subtype) predicted death. In conclusion, ASPSCR1-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas are more likely to present at advanced stage (particularly node-positive disease) than are PRCC-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas. Although systemic metastases portend a grim prognosis, regional lymph node involvement does not, at least in short-term follow-up. The tendency for PRCC-TFE3 renal cell carcinomas to recur late warrants long-term follow-up.