Gene Summary

Gene:XRCC2; X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the RecA/Rad51-related protein family that participates in homologous recombination to maintain chromosome stability and repair DNA damage. This gene is involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination and it functionally complements Chinese hamster irs1, a repair-deficient mutant that exhibits hypersensitivity to a number of different DNA-damaging agents. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA repair protein XRCC2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: XRCC2 (cancer-related)

Sullivan I, Salazar J, Majem M, et al.
Pharmacogenetics of the DNA repair pathways in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 353(2):160-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic variants in DNA repair genes may play a role in the effectiveness of platinum-based chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed 17 SNPs in eight genes (ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, XPA, XRCC1 and XRCC2) involved in DNA repair mechanisms and its association with outcome in NSCLC. This prospective study included patients with stages III and IV treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. All patients (n = 161) received cisplatin or carboplatin plus a third-generation drug. Additionally, stage IIIA and IIIB patients (n = 74) received concomitant or sequential radiotherapy. Germline polymorphisms were analyzed using the BioMark system in blood DNA samples. We found that in stage III patients, response was significantly associated with SNPs in ERCC1 and in ERCC3 genes, while radiotherapy-derived toxicity correlated with SNPs in the ERCC2 gene. In stage IV patients, response was associated with a genetic variant in the ERCC4 gene and survival with a SNP in the XRCC1 gene. The complexity of the DNA repair mechanisms along with the heterogeneity in the treatment of lung cancer could explain the role of multiple genes as putative biomarkers of patient outcome.

Ding P, Yang Y, Cheng L, et al.
The relationship between seven common polymorphisms from five DNA repair genes and the risk for breast cancer in northern Chinese women.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e92083 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Converging evidence supports the central role of DNA damage in progression to breast cancer. We therefore in this study aimed to assess the potential interactions of seven common polymorphisms from five DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, XPA and APEX1) in association with breast cancer among Han Chinese women.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a case-control study involving 606 patients diagnosed with sporadic breast cancer and 633 age- and ethnicity-matched cancer-free controls. The polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method was used to determine genotypes. All seven polymorphisms were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls. Differences in the genotypes and alleles of XRCC1 gene rs25487 and XPA gene rs1800975 were statistically significant between patients and controls, even after the Bonferroni correction (P<0.05/7). Accordingly, the risk for breast cancer was remarkably increased for rs25487 (OR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.07-1.51; P = 0.006), but decreased for rs1800975 (OR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.67-0.90; P = 0.001) under an additive model at a Bonferroni corrected alpha of 0.05/7. Allele combination analysis showed higher frequencies of the most common combination C-G-G-C-G-G-G (alleles in order of rs1799782, rs25487, rs3218536, rs861539, rs1800975, rs1760944 and rs1130409) in controls than in patients (PSim = 0.002). In further interaction analysis, two-locus model including rs1800975 and rs25487 was deemed as the overall best model with the maximal testing accuracy of 0.654 and the cross-validation consistency of 10 out of 10 (P = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Our findings provide clear evidence that XRCC1 gene rs25487 and XPA gene rs1800975 might exert both independent and interactive effects on the development of breast cancer among northern Chinese women.

Nakagawa Y, Kajihara A, Takahashi A, et al.
The BRCA2 gene is a potential molecular target during 5-fluorouracil therapy in human oral cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(5):2001-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in clinical cancer therapy. It is commonly used either alone or in combination with other drugs and/or radiation for head and neck, and other types of cancers. 5-FU induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Inhibition of the repair of 5-FU-induced DSBs may improve the therapeutic response in many tumors to this anticancer agent. The aim of the present study was to further our understanding of the pathways which are involved in the repair of 5-FU-induced DSBs. Cell survival after drug treatment was examined with colony forming assays using Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells or Chinese hamster ovary cell lines which are deficient in DSB repair pathways involving the homologous recombination repair-related genes BRCA2 and XRCC2, and the non-homologous end joining repair-related genes DNA-PKcs and Ku80. It was found that BRCA2 was involved in such repair, and may be effectively targeted to inhibit the repair of 5-FU-induced damage. Observations showed that knockdown of BRCA2 using small interference RNA suppression increased the sensitivity to 5-FU of human oral cancer cell lines (SAS and HSC3). These findings suggest that downregulation of BRCA2 may be useful for sensitizing tumor cells during 5-FU chemotherapy.

Paulíková S, Chmelařová M, Petera J, et al.
Hypermethylation of RAD51L3 and XRCC2 genes to predict late toxicity in chemoradiotherapy-treated cervical cancer patients.
Folia Biol (Praha). 2013; 59(6):240-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer affects women worldwide, especially in developing countries. Approximately 500,000 cases of this disease are diagnosed per year. The method of choice in the treatment of advanced cervical cancers (in accordance with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system (FIGO) starting from stage IIB) is combined radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy. This treatment provides good tumour control, but it carries a risk of late complications in the irradiated area in 10-15 % of cases. Methylation is one of the methods of epigenetic control, which has an important role in gene expression. Aberrant methylation of normal CpG islands in promoters of tumour suppressor genes such as RB, p53 or DNA reparation genes ATM, BRCA1,2, and RAD51 gene family causes silencing of their function and cell cycle deregulation, which is one of the efficient ways of neoplastic transformation. The significantly decreased expression of molecules involved in DNA response may cause facilitated radiosensitivity in predisposed individuals. We looked for the relationship between hypermethylation of 18 DNA reparation genes and late toxicity occurrence in cervical cancer patients treated by chemoradiotherapy using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). The cut-off value for the hypermethylation was set at 10 %. We confirmed significant association between promoter hypermethylation in the XRCC2 gene and occurrence of late grade III-IV toxicity in cervical cancer patients (P = 0.0357). This finding could be useful in the late toxicity prediction in radiotherapy-treated patients.

Wang Q, Wang Y, Du L, et al.
shRNA-mediated XRCC2 gene knockdown efficiently sensitizes colon tumor cells to X-ray irradiation in vitro and in vivo.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(2):2157-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colon cancer is one of the most common tumors of the digestive tract. Resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) decreased therapeutic efficiency in these patients' radiotherapy. XRCC2 is the key protein of DNA homologous recombination repair, and its high expression is associated with enhanced resistance to DNA damage induced by IR. Here, we investigated the effect of XRCC2 silencing on colon tumor cells' growth and sensitivity to X-radiation in vitro and in vivo. Colon tumor cells (T84 cell line) were cultivated in vitro and tumors originated from the cell line were propagated as xenografts in nude mice. The suppression of XRCC2 expression was achieved by using vector-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in T84 cells. We found that the knockdown of XRCC2 expression effectively decreased T84 cellular proliferation and colony formation, and led to cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrested in G2/M phase induced by X-radiation in vitro. In addition, tumor xenograft studies suggested that XRCC2 silencing inhibited tumorigenicity after radiation treatment in vivo. Our data suggest that the suppression of XRCC2 expression rendered colon tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo, implying XRCC2 as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of radioresistant human colon cancer.

Zhang Y, Wang H, Peng Y, et al.
The Arg188His polymorphism in the XRCC2 gene and the risk of cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(4):3541-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Arg188His polymorphism in the XRCC2 gene has been suggested as a risk factor for cancer with inconclusive results. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association between the polymorphism with of cancer by meta-analysis. A total of 33 case-control studies from 27 publications were included for data analyses. The results suggested that the Arg188His polymorphism was not associated with increased/decreased risk of cancer in total analysis (Arg/His+His/His vs. Arg/Arg: OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.91-1.06). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, no statistical significant association was found in Europeans. In the subgroup analysis by cancer types, statistical significant association was found in ovarian cancer but not in other cancers. The current meta-analysis indicated that the Arg188His polymorphism in the XRCC2 gene might be a risk factor for ovarian cancer. In the future, more large-scale case-control studies are needed to validate our results.

Fayaz S, Karimmirza M, Tanhaei S, et al.
Increased risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with combined effects of homologous recombination repair gene polymorphisms in an Iranian population.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 14(11):6727-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homologous recombination (HR) repair has a crucial role to play in the prevention of chromosomal instability, and it is clear that defects in some HR repair genes are associated with many cancers. To evaluate the potential effect of some HR repair gene polymorphisms with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), we assessed Rad51 (135G>C), Rad52 (2259C>T), XRCC2 (R188H) and XRCC3 (T241M) polymorphisms in Iranian DTC patients and cancer-free controls. In addition, haplotype analysis and gene combination assessment were carried out. Genotyping of Rad51 (135G>C), Rad52 (2259C>T) and XRCC3 (T241M) polymorphisms was determined by PCR-RFLP and PCR-HRM analysis was carried out to evaluate XRCC2 (R188H) . Separately, Rad51, Rad52 and XRCC2 polymorphisms were not shown to be more significant in patients when compared to controls in crude, sex-adjusted and age-adjusted form. However, results indicated a significant difference in XRCC3 genotypes for patients when compared to controls (p value: 0.035). The GCTG haplotype demonstrated a significant difference (p value: 0.047). When compared to the wild type, the combined variant form of Rad52/XRCC2/XRCC3 revealed an elevated risk of DTC (p value: 0.007). It is recommended that Rad52 2259C>T, XRCC2 R188H and XRCC3 T241M polymorphisms should be simultaneously considered as contributing to a polygenic risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

Szkandera J, Absenger G, Liegl-Atzwanger B, et al.
Common gene variants in RAD51, XRCC2 and XPD are not associated with clinical outcome in soft-tissue sarcoma patients.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2013; 37(6):1003-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA repair mechanisms play a major role in cancer risk and progression. Germline variants in DNA repair genes may result in altered gene function and/or activity, thereby causing inter-individual differences in a patient's tumor recurrence capacity. In genes of the DNA repair pathway the gene variants RAD51 rs1801320 G>C, XRCC2 rs3218536 G>A and XPD rs13181 A>C have been previously related to genetic predisposition and prognosis of various cancer entities. In this study we investigated the association between these polymorphisms and time to recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS) in soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) patients after curative surgery.
METHODS: Two hundred sixty STS patients were included in this retrospective study. Germline DNA was genotyped by 5'-exonuclease (TaqMan) technology. Kaplan Meier curves and multivariate Cox proportional models were calculated for TTR and OS.
RESULTS: A statistically significant association was observed between tumor grade and adjuvant radiotherapy and TTR and between tumor grade and OS. No association was found between RAD51 rs1801320 G>C, XRCC2 rs3218536 G>A and XPD rs13181 A>C and TTR and OS in univariate and multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSION: Our results underline a prognostic effect of tumor grade and adjuvant radiotherapy in STS patients but indicate no association between RAD51 rs1801320 G>C, XRCC2 rs3218536 G>A and XPD rs13181 A>C and clinical outcome in STS patients after curative surgery.

Golmard L, Caux-Moncoutier V, Davy G, et al.
Germline mutation in the RAD51B gene confers predisposition to breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:484 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Most currently known breast cancer predisposition genes play a role in DNA repair by homologous recombination. Recent studies conducted on RAD51 paralogs, involved in the same DNA repair pathway, have identified rare germline mutations conferring breast and/or ovarian cancer predisposition in the RAD51C, RAD51D and XRCC2 genes. The present study analysed the five RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, XRCC3) to estimate their contribution to breast and ovarian cancer predisposition.
METHODS: The study was conducted on 142 unrelated patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer either with early onset or with a breast/ovarian cancer family history. Patients were referred to a French family cancer clinic and had been previously tested negative for a BRCA1/2 mutation. Coding sequences of the five genes were analysed by EMMA (Enhanced Mismatch Mutation Analysis). Detected variants were characterized by Sanger sequencing analysis.
RESULTS: Three splicing mutations and two likely deleterious missense variants were identified: RAD51B c.452 + 3A > G, RAD51C c.706-2A > G, RAD51C c.1026 + 5_1026 + 7del, RAD51B c.475C > T/p.Arg159Cys and XRCC3 c.448C > T/p.Arg150Cys. No RAD51D and XRCC2 gene mutations were detected. These mutations and variants were detected in families with both breast and ovarian cancers, except for the RAD51B c.475C > T/p.Arg159Cys variant that occurred in a family with 3 breast cancer cases.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the first RAD51B mutation in a breast and ovarian cancer family and is the first report of XRCC3 mutation analysis in breast and ovarian cancer. It confirms that RAD51 paralog mutations confer breast and ovarian cancer predisposition and are rare events. In view of the low frequency of RAD51 paralog mutations, international collaboration of family cancer clinics will be required to more accurately estimate their penetrance and establish clinical guidelines in carrier individuals.

Takata K, Reh S, Tomida J, et al.
Human DNA helicase HELQ participates in DNA interstrand crosslink tolerance with ATR and RAD51 paralogs.
Nat Commun. 2013; 4:2338 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mammalian HELQ is a 3'-5' DNA helicase with strand displacement activity. Here we show that HELQ participates in a pathway of resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Genetic disruption of HELQ in human cells enhances cellular sensitivity and chromosome radial formation by the ICL-inducing agent mitomycin C (MMC). A significant fraction of MMC sensitivity is independent of the Fanconi anaemia pathway. Sister chromatid exchange frequency and sensitivity to UV radiation or topoisomerase inhibitors is unaltered. Proteomic analysis reveals that HELQ is associated with the RAD51 paralogs RAD51B/C/D and XRCC2, and with the DNA damage-responsive kinase ATR. After treatment with MMC, reduced phosphorylation of the ATR substrate CHK1 occurs in HELQ-knockout cells, and accumulation of G2/M cells is reduced. The results indicate that HELQ operates in an arm of DNA repair and signalling in response to ICL. Further, the association with RAD51 paralogs suggests HELQ as a candidate ovarian cancer gene.

Pedersen BS, Konstantinopoulos PA, Spillman MA, De S
Copy neutral loss of heterozygosity is more frequent in older ovarian cancer patients.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(9):794-801 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is a common type of genomic alterations in ovarian cancer. Analyzing 74,415 copy neutral LOH events in 513 serous ovarian adenocarcinomas samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas, we report that the frequency of LOH events increases with age. Similar trend is observed for LOH involving chromosome 17, which is frequently implicated in ovarian cancer. The results are consistent when we analyze data from the Boston high-grade serous cancer cohort. We further show that germ line and somatic mutations in BRCA1 (in chromosome 17) and BRCA2 (in chromosome 13) loci are not necessary to establish the pattern. We also report significant age-related changes in expression patterns for several genes in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway, such as BRCA1, RAD50, RAD52, XRCC2, XRCC3, and MRE11A in these patient samples. Furthermore, we develop a metric for pathway-level imbalance, and show that increased imbalance in the HR pathway, i.e., increase in expression of some HR genes and decrease in expression of others, is common and correlates significantly with the frequency of LOH events in the patient samples. Taken together, it is highly likely that aging and deregulation of HR pathway contribute to the increased incidence of copy-neutral LOH in ovarian cancer patients.

Pérez LO, Crivaro A, Barbisan G, et al.
XRCC2 R188H (rs3218536), XRCC3 T241M (rs861539) and R243H (rs77381814) single nucleotide polymorphisms in cervical cancer risk.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2013; 19(3):553-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. Transformation may be induced by several mechanisms, including oncogene activation and genome instability. Individual differences in DNA damage recognition and repair have been hypothesized to influence cervical cancer risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the double strand break gene polymorphisms XRCC2 R188H G>A (rs3218536), XRCC3 T241M C>T (rs861539) and R243H G>A (rs77381814) are associated to cervical cancer in Argentine women. A case control study consisting of 322 samples (205 cases and 117 controls) was carried out. HPV DNA detection was performed by PCR and genotyping of positive samples by EIA (enzyme immunoassay). XRCC2 and 3 polymorphisms were determined by pyrosequencing. The HPV-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of XRCC2 188 GG/AG genotypes was OR = 2.4 (CI = 1.1-4.9, p = 0.02) for cervical cancer. In contrast, there was no increased risk for cervical cancer with XRCC3 241 TT/CC genotypes (OR = 0.48; CI = 0.2-1; p = 0.1) or XRCC3 241 CT/CC (OR = 0.87; CI = 0.52-1.4; p = 0.6). Regarding XRCC3 R243H, the G allele was almost fixed in the population studied. In conclusion, although the sample size was modest, the present data indicate a statistical association between cervical cancer and XRCC2 R188H polymorphism. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Luo KQ, Mu SQ, Wu ZX, et al.
Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and risk of glioma and meningioma.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(1):449-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes have been shown to influence DNA repair processes and to modify cancer susceptibility. Here we conducted a case-control study to assess the role of potential SNPs of DNA repair genes on the risk of glioma and meningioma. We included 297 cases and 458 cancer-free controls. Genotyping of XRCC1 Gln399Arg, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC2 Arg188His, XRCC3 Thr241Met, XRCC4 Ala247Ser, ERCC1 Asn118Asp, ERCC2 Lys751Gln and ERCC5 Asp1558His were performed in a 384-well plate format on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. XRCC1 Arg194Trp (rs1799782) and ERCC2 Asp312Asn rs1799793 did not follow the HWE in control group, and genotype distributions of XRCC1 Gln399Arg rs25487, XRCC2 Arg188His rs3218536 and ERCC2 Asp312Asn rs1799793 were significantly different between cases and controls (P<0.05). We found XRCC1 399G/G, XRCC1 194 T/T and XRCC3 241T/T were associated with a higher risk when compared with the wild-type genotype. For ERCC5 Asp1558His, we found G/G genotype was associated with elevated susceptibility. In conclusion, our study has shown that XRCC1 Gln399Arg, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC3 Thr241Met and ERCC5 Asp1558His are associated with risk of gliomas and meningiomas. This finding could be useful in identifying the susceptibility genes for these cancers.

Pope BJ, Nguyen-Dumont T, Odefrey F, et al.
FAVR (Filtering and Annotation of Variants that are Rare): methods to facilitate the analysis of rare germline genetic variants from massively parallel sequencing datasets.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2013; 14:65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Characterising genetic diversity through the analysis of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) data offers enormous potential to significantly improve our understanding of the genetic basis for observed phenotypes, including predisposition to and progression of complex human disease. Great challenges remain in resolving genetic variants that are genuine from the millions of artefactual signals.
RESULTS: FAVR is a suite of new methods designed to work with commonly used MPS analysis pipelines to assist in the resolution of some of the issues related to the analysis of the vast amount of resulting data, with a focus on relatively rare genetic variants. To the best of our knowledge, no equivalent method has previously been described. The most important and novel aspect of FAVR is the use of signatures in comparator sequence alignment files during variant filtering, and annotation of variants potentially shared between individuals. The FAVR methods use these signatures to facilitate filtering of (i) platform and/or mapping-specific artefacts, (ii) common genetic variants, and, where relevant, (iii) artefacts derived from imbalanced paired-end sequencing, as well as annotation of genetic variants based on evidence of co-occurrence in individuals. We applied conventional variant calling applied to whole-exome sequencing datasets, produced using both SOLiD and TruSeq chemistries, with or without downstream processing by FAVR methods. We demonstrate a 3-fold smaller rare single nucleotide variant shortlist with no detected reduction in sensitivity. This analysis included Sanger sequencing of rare variant signals not evident in dbSNP131, assessment of known variant signal preservation, and comparison of observed and expected rare variant numbers across a range of first cousin pairs. The principles described herein were applied in our recent publication identifying XRCC2 as a new breast cancer risk gene and have been made publically available as a suite of software tools.
CONCLUSIONS: FAVR is a platform-agnostic suite of methods that significantly enhances the analysis of large volumes of sequencing data for the study of rare genetic variants and their influence on phenotypes.

Le Calvez-Kelm F, Oliver J, Damiola F, et al.
RAD51 and breast cancer susceptibility: no evidence for rare variant association in the Breast Cancer Family Registry study.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52374 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although inherited breast cancer has been associated with germline mutations in genes that are functionally involved in the DNA homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway, including BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2 and PALB2, about 70% of breast cancer heritability remains unexplained. Because of their critical functions in maintaining genome integrity and already well-established associations with breast cancer susceptibility, it is likely that additional genes involved in the HRR pathway harbor sequence variants associated with increased risk of breast cancer. RAD51 plays a central biological function in DNA repair and despite the fact that rare, likely dysfunctional variants in three of its five paralogs, RAD51C, RAD51D, and XRCC2, have been associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk, no population-based case-control mutation screening data are available for the RAD51 gene. We thus postulated that RAD51 could harbor rare germline mutations that confer increased risk of breast cancer.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened the coding exons and proximal splice junction regions of the gene for germline sequence variation in 1,330 early-onset breast cancer cases and 1,123 controls from the Breast Cancer Family Registry, using the same population-based sampling and analytical strategy that we developed for assessment of rare sequence variants in ATM and CHEK2. In total, 12 distinct very rare or private variants were characterized in RAD51, with 10 cases (0.75%) and 9 controls (0.80%) carrying such a variant. Variants were either likely neutral missense substitutions (3), silent substitutions (4) or non-coding substitutions (5) that were predicted to have little effect on efficiency of the splicing machinery.
CONCLUSION: Altogether, our data suggest that RAD51 tolerates so little dysfunctional sequence variation that rare variants in the gene contribute little, if anything, to breast cancer susceptibility.

Mohamed FZ, Hussien YM, AlBakry MM, et al.
Role of DNA repair and cell cycle control genes in ovarian cancer susceptibility.
Mol Biol Rep. 2013; 40(5):3757-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the population that are associated with variations in the risks of many different cancer diseases. For ovarian cancer, the known highly penetrant susceptibility genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) are probably responsible for only 40% of the excess familial ovarian cancer risks, suggesting that other susceptibility genes of lower penetrance exist. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of SNPs in three genes, XRCC2 (R188H), ERCC2 (K751Q) and CDKN1B (V109G) which are with moderate risk for ovarian cancer susceptibility in Egyptian women. We further investigated the potential combined effect of these genes variants on ovarian cancer risk. The three genes polymorphisms were characterized in 100 ovarian cancer Egyptian females and 100 healthy women by (RFLP-PCR) method in a case control study. Our results revealed that the frequencies of AC genotypes of ERCC2 (K751Q), and GG genotypes of CDKN1B (V109G) polymorphisms were significantly higher in EOC patients than in normal individual (P = 0.007, 0.02 respectively). The frequencies of AA genotype of XRCC2 (R188H) and CC genotype of ERCC2 (K751Q) were higher in EOC patients than in normal individual but without significance (P = 0.06, 0.38 respectively). Also, no association between any one of the three studied genes polymorphisms and the clinical characteristics of disease. The combination of GA (XRCC2) + AC (ERCC2) + GG (CDKN1B) was significantly associated with increased EOC risk. Also, the combination for GA (XRCC2) + AC (ERCC2) and the combination of AA (XRCC2) + CC (ERCC2) were significantly associated with increased EOC risk. There was significant difference in CA125 values between EOC and control Group (P < 0.001). Our results suggested that, XRCC2, ERCC2 and CDKN1B genes are important candidate genes for susceptibility to EOC. Also, gene-gene interaction between GA (XRCC2) + AC (ERCC2) + GG (CDKN1B) polymorphism may be associated with increased risk of EOCC in Egyptian women.

Hilbers FS, Wijnen JT, Hoogerbrugge N, et al.
Rare variants in XRCC2 as breast cancer susceptibility alleles.
J Med Genet. 2012; 49(10):618-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recently, rare germline variants in XRCC2 were detected in non-BRCA1/2 familial breast cancer cases, and a significant association with breast cancer was reported. However, the breast cancer risk associated with these variants needs further evaluation.
METHODS: The coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of XRCC2 were scanned for mutations in an international cohort of 3548 non-BRCA1/2 familial breast cancer cases and 1435 healthy controls using various mutation scanning methods. Predictions on functional relevance of detected missense variants were obtained from three different prediction algorithms.
RESULTS: The only protein-truncating variant detected was found in a control. Rare non-protein-truncating variants were detected in 20 familial cases (0.6%) and nine healthy controls (0.6%). Although the number of variants predicted to be damaging or neutral differed between prediction algorithms, in all instances these categories were evenly represented among cases and controls.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not confirm an association between XRCC2 variants and breast cancer risk, although a relative risk smaller than two could not be excluded. Variants in XRCC2 are unlikely to explain a substantial proportion of familial breast cancer.

García-Quispes WA, Pastor S, Galofré P, et al.
Influence of DNA-repair gene variants on the micronucleus frequency in thyroid cancer patients.
Mutat Res. 2013; 750(1-2):34-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of different DNA-repair genes (OGG1, XRCC1, XRCC2 and XRCC3) on both the spontaneous and the induced frequency of micronuclei (MN) has been studied in the lymphocytes of a group of 114 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Induction of MN was achieved by treatment of the lymphocytes with 0.5Gy of gamma-radiation. The selected genes are involved in base-excision repair (BER) (OGG1, Ser326Cys; XRCC1, Arg280His and Arg399Gln), and in homologous recombination repair (HRR) (XRCC2, Arg188His and XRCC3, IVS5-14G). Genotyping was carried out by use of the iPLEX (Sequenom) technique. Results indicate that only the OGG1-Ser326Cys polymorphism was able to modulate the MN frequency. This effect was only observed in the spontaneous MN frequency (P=0.016), but not in the MN frequency induced after irradiation. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between spontaneous and induced MN frequency, which would suggest an underlying genetic background.

Yang CH, Chuang LY, Cheng YH, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphism barcoding to evaluate oral cancer risk using odds ratio-based genetic algorithms.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2012; 28(7):362-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancers often involve the synergistic effects of gene-gene interactions, but identifying these interactions remains challenging. Here, we present an odds ratio-based genetic algorithm (OR-GA) that is able to solve the problems associated with the simultaneous analysis of multiple independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with oral cancer. The SNP interactions between four SNPs-namely rs1799782, rs2040639, rs861539, rs2075685, and belonging to four genes (XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, and XRCC4)-were tested in this study, respectively. The GA decomposes the SNPs sets into different SNP combinations with their corresponding genotypes (called SNP barcodes). The GA can effectively identify a specific SNP barcode that has an optimized fitness value and uses this to calculate the difference between the case and control groups. The SNP barcodes with a low fitness value are naturally removed from the population. Using two to four SNPs, the best SNP barcodes with maximum differences in occurrence between the case and control groups were generated by GA algorithm. Subsequently, the OR provides a quantitative measure of the multiple SNP synergies between the oral cancer and control groups by calculating the risk related to the best SNP barcodes and others. When these were compared to their corresponding non-SNP barcodes, the estimated ORs for oral cancer were found to be great than 1 [approx. 1.72-2.23; confidence intervals (CIs): 0.94-5.30, p < 0.03-0.07] for various specific SNP barcodes with two to four SNPs. In conclusion, the proposed OR-GA method successfully generates SNP barcodes, which allow oral cancer risk to be evaluated and in the process the OR-GA method identifies possible SNP-SNP interactions.

Romanowicz-Makowska H, Smolarz B, Zadrozny M, et al.
The association between polymorphisms of the RAD51-G135C, XRCC2-Arg188His and XRCC3-Thr241Met genes and clinico-pathologic features in breast cancer in Poland.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2012; 33(2):145-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: XRCC2 and XRCC3 genes are structurally and functionally related to RAD51 which plays an important role in homologous recombination, the process frequently involved in cancer transformation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present work the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the RAD51 G135C polymorphism, XRCC2 Arg 188His and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism in 790 cases of breast cancer were investigated. The control group consisted of 798 cancer-free blood donors (age +/- 5 years) who were sex and ethnicity-matched. The polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP methods. We also correlated genotypes with the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients.
RESULTS: Our results obtained for the 135G>C polymorphism of the RAD51 gene indicated that both the C/C genotype and the C allele are strongly associated with breast cancer. The Arg/His genotype of XRCC2 (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.48-3.16) and Thr/Met of XRCC3 increased the risk of type I breast cancer occurrence (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.60-3.41). We did not find any association with the RAD51, XRCC2/3 gene polymorphism and estrogen and progesterone receptor status.
CONCLUSION: The results support the hypothesis that the polymorphism of RAD51 and XRCC2/3 gene may be associated with the incidence of sporadic breast cancer in Polish women.

Zhao Y, Deng X, Wang Z, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC3 and risk of colorectal cancer in Chinese population.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(2):665-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The distribution of DNA repair gene XRCC1 and XRCC3 genotypes was used to assess the potential influence of genetic polymorphisms on risk of colorectal cancer, and interactions with other factors.
METHODS: A 1:2 matched case-control study was conducted with 485 cases and 970 controls. XRCC1 and XRCC2 genotype polymorphisms were based upon duplex polymerase-chain-reaction with the confronting-two-pairprimer (PCR-CTPP) method.
RESULTS: The XRCC1 399Cln allele polymorphism was found to be associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk, while an non-significant inversely association was noted for XRCC3 241Thr/Thr genotype. We also found that individuals with the XRCC1 399 Gln and XRCC3 241Met alleles had an elevated risk, while XRCC3241Thr/Thr was proctective.
CONCLUSION: This study is the first to provide evidence of importance of XRCC1 and XRCC3 gene polymorphisms for risk of colorectal cancer in the Chinese population.

Butkiewicz D, Drosik A, Suwiński R, et al.
Influence of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on prognosis in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and platinum-based chemotherapy.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 131(7):E1100-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may modulate not only an individual DNA repair capacity, DNA damage levels and cancer risk but also clinical outcome after DNA damage-inducing anticancer therapy. In this study, we analyzed the association between the XPA -4G>A, XPD Asp312Asn, hOGG1 Ser326Cys, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC2 -4234G>C, XRCC3 -4541A>G and Thr241Met polymorphisms and prognosis in 250 inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with radiotherapy and platinum-based chemotherapy. In univariate model, the XPA-4A and XRCC1 399Gln alleles alone and in combination influenced survival only in stage III group. In multivariate analysis, the XPA-4 GA/AA was associated with poor survival (HR 1.55, p = 0.011 overall and HR 1.72, p = 0.008 in stage III). In chemoradiotherapy group, the XPA-4A carriers were at increased risk of death and progression (HR 1.73, p = 0.013 and HR 1.65, p = 0.016, respectively), especially in stage III (p = 0.008). Moreover, individuals with ≥ 2 XPA/XRCC1 adverse alleles showed a higher risk of death (HR 1.46, p = 0.036 overall; HR 1.85, p = 0.004 in stage III and HR 1.71, p = 0.022 in chemoradiotherapy group) and progression (HR 1.75, p = 0.011 overall and HR 1.93, p = 0.005 in stage III). The XPA-4 GA/AA genotype individually and together with the XRCC1 399Gln was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in our study. Thus, our findings indicate a prognostic potential of the XPA-4G>A in unresected NSCLC treated with radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. The results require validation in an independent population.

Park DJ, Lesueur F, Nguyen-Dumont T, et al.
Rare mutations in XRCC2 increase the risk of breast cancer.
Am J Hum Genet. 2012; 90(4):734-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
An exome-sequencing study of families with multiple breast-cancer-affected individuals identified two families with XRCC2 mutations, one with a protein-truncating mutation and one with a probably deleterious missense mutation. We performed a population-based case-control mutation-screening study that identified six probably pathogenic coding variants in 1,308 cases with early-onset breast cancer and no variants in 1,120 controls (the severity grading was p < 0.02). We also performed additional mutation screening in 689 multiple-case families. We identified ten breast-cancer-affected families with protein-truncating or probably deleterious rare missense variants in XRCC2. Our identification of XRCC2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene thus increases the proportion of breast cancers that are associated with homologous recombination-DNA-repair dysfunction and Fanconi anemia and could therefore benefit from specific targeted treatments such as PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) inhibitors. This study demonstrates the power of massively parallel sequencing for discovering susceptibility genes for common, complex diseases.

Zheng Z, Ng WL, Zhang X, et al.
RNAi-mediated targeting of noncoding and coding sequences in DNA repair gene messages efficiently radiosensitizes human tumor cells.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(5):1221-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human tumor cell death during radiotherapy is caused mainly by ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), which are repaired by either homologous recombination repair (HRR) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Although siRNA-mediated knockdown of DNA DSB repair genes can sensitize tumor cells to IR, this approach is limited by inefficiencies of gene silencing. In this study, we show that combining an artificial miRNA (amiR) engineered to target 3'-untranslated regions of XRCC2 (an HRR factor) or XRCC4 (an NHEJ factor) along with an siRNA to target the gene coding region can improve silencing efficiencies to achieve more robust radiosensitization than a single approach alone. Mechanistically, the combinatorial knockdown decreased targeted gene expression through both a reduction in mRNA stability and a blockade to mRNA translation. Together, our findings establish a general method of gene silencing that is more efficient and particularly suited for suppressing genes that are difficult to downregulate by amiR- or siRNA-based methods alone.

Reeves SG, Meldrum C, Groombridge C, et al.
DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of early onset colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2012; 36(2):183-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA repair plays a pivotal role in maintaining genomic integrity with over 130 genes involved in various repair pathways that include base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, double strand break repair and DNA mismatch repair. Polymorphisms within genes that are involved in these processes have been widely reported to be associated with cancer susceptibility in an extensive range of malignancies that include colorectal cancer (CRC). Lynch syndrome is caused by inherited germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, predominantly in MLH1 and MSH2, that predispose to a variety of epithelial malignancies, most notably CRC. Despite being a relatively well understood hereditary cancer syndrome there remain several questions in relation to genetic influences on disease expression. Since Lynch syndrome is associated with a breakdown in DNA mismatch repair variation in other DNA repair genes may influence disease expression. In this report we have genotyped 424 Australian and Polish Lynch syndrome participants for eight common DNA repair gene polymorphisms to assess any association with the age of CRC onset. The DNA repair gene SNPs included in the study were: BRCA2 (rs11571653), MSH3 (rs26279), Lig4 (rs1805386), OGG1 (rs1052133), XRCC1 (rs25487), XRCC2 (rs3218536 and rs1799793) and XRCC3 (rs861539). Cox multi-variant regression modelling failed to provide any convincing evidence of an effect in any of the polymorphisms analysed. The data suggest that polymorphisms in DNA repair genes do not contribute to cancer risk in a population of CRC patients who are at increased risk of disease as a result in a deficiency of DNA mismatch repair.

Romanowicz-Makowska H, Smolarz B, Zadrozny M, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the homologous recombination repair genes and breast cancer risk in Polish women.
Tohoku J Exp Med. 2011; 224(3):201-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes that can lead to protein haploinsufficiency are generally associated with increased cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate associations between the risk of breast cancer and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes, encoding three key proteins of the homologous recombination repair: RAD51 (the human homologue of the E. coli RecA protein), X-ray repair cross-complementing group (XRCC) 2 and XRCC3. The polymorphisms studied were G135C of the RAD51 gene (c. -98 G>C; rs1801320), Arg188His of the XRCC2 gene (c. 563 G>A; rs3218536), and Thr241Met of the XRCC3 gene (c. 722 C>T; rs861539). Each polymorphism was genotyped by the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment-length polymorphism) method in 700 Polish female patients with sporadic breast cancer and in 708 cancer-free women, who served as controls. In the present study, we showed the association between RAD51 G135C polymorphism and the incidence of breast cancer (p < 0.0001), but found no significant association with XRCC2 Arg188His or XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism. Instead, significant association was identified between XRCC2 Arg188His or XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and breast cancer progression, assessed by the histological grading. However, each of these three polymorphisms was not associated with the tumor size or the lymph node metastases. This study provides evidence that links single nucleotide polymorphisms of RAD51 and XRCC2/3 genes with the risk of breast cancer in Polish women. In conclusion, RAD51 G135C, XRCC2 Arg188His and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphisms may be regarded as predictive factors of sporadic breast cancer in female population.

Yin M, Liao Z, Huang YJ, et al.
Polymorphisms of homologous recombination genes and clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(5):e20055 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is the major mechanism to maintain genomic stability in response to irradiation. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in DSB repair genes may affect clinical outcomes among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy. We genotyped six potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (i.e., RAD51 -135G>C/rs1801320 and -172G>T/rs1801321, XRCC2 4234G>C/rs3218384 and R188H/rs3218536 G>A, XRCC3 T241M/rs861539 and NBN E185Q/rs1805794) and estimated their associations with overall survival (OS) and radiation pneumonitis (RP) in 228 NSCLC patients. We found a predictive role of RAD51 -135G>C SNP in RP development (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.86, P = 0.010 for CG/CC vs. GG). We also found that RAD51 -135G>C and XRCC2 R188H SNPs were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (adjusted HR = 1.70, 95% CI, 1.14-2.62, P = 0.009 for CG/CC vs. GG; and adjusted HR = 1.70; 95% CI, 1.02-2.85, P = 0.043 for AG vs. GG, respectively) and that the SNP-survival association was most pronounced in the presence of RP. Our study suggests that HR genetic polymorphisms, particularly RAD51 -135G>C, may influence overall survival and radiation pneumonitis in NSCLC patients treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy. Large studies are needed to confirm our findings.

Lin WY, Camp NJ, Cannon-Albright LA, et al.
A role for XRCC2 gene polymorphisms in breast cancer risk and survival.
J Med Genet. 2011; 48(7):477-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The XRCC2 gene is a key mediator in the homologous recombination repair of DNA double strand breaks. It is hypothesised that inherited variants in the XRCC2 gene might also affect susceptibility to, and survival from, breast cancer.
METHODS: The study genotyped 12 XRCC2 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1131 breast cancer cases and 1148 controls from the Sheffield Breast Cancer Study (SBCS), and examined their associations with breast cancer risk and survival by estimating ORs and HRs, and their corresponding 95% CIs. Positive findings were further investigated in 860 cases and 869 controls from the Utah Breast Cancer Study (UBCS) and jointly analysed together with available published data for breast cancer risk. The survival findings were further confirmed in studies (8074 cases) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC).
RESULTS: The most significant association with breast cancer risk in the SBCS dataset was the XRCC2 rs3218408 SNP (recessive model p=2.3×10(-4), minor allele frequency (MAF)=0.23). This SNP yielded an OR(rec) of 1.64 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.16) in a two-site analysis of SBCS and UBCS, and a meta-OR(rec) of 1.33 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.57) when all published data were included. This SNP may mark a rare risk haplotype carried by two in 1000 of the control population. Furthermore, the XRCC2 coding R188H SNP (rs3218536, MAF=0.08) was significantly associated with poor survival, with an increased per-allele HR of 1.58 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.49) in a multivariate analysis. This effect was still evident in a pooled meta-analysis of 8781 breast cancer patients from the BCAC (HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.36; p=0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that XRCC2 SNPs may influence breast cancer risk and survival.

García-Quispes WA, Pérez-Machado G, Akdi A, et al.
Association studies of OGG1, XRCC1, XRCC2 and XRCC3 polymorphisms with differentiated thyroid cancer.
Mutat Res. 2011; 709-710:67-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of the DNA repair genes OGG1, XRCC1, XRCC2 and XRCC3 on differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) susceptibility was examined in 881 individuals (402 DTC and 479 controls). DNA repair genes were proposed as candidate genes, since the current data indicate that exposure to ionizing radiation is the only established factor in the development of thyroid cancer, especially when it occurs in early stages of life. We have genotyped DNA repair genes involved in base excision repair (BER) (OGG1, Ser326Cys; XRCC1, Arg280His and Arg399Gln), and homologous recombination repair (HRR) (XRCC2, Arg188His and XRCC3, ISV-14G). Genotyping was carried out using the iPLEX (Sequenom) technique. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed in a case-control study design. From all the studied polymorphism, only a positive association (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.05-2.46, P=0.027) was obtained for XRCC1 (Arg280His). No associations were observed for the other polymorphisms. No effects of the histopathological type of tumor were found when the DTC patients were stratified according to the type of tumor. It must be emphasized that this study include the greater patients group, among the few studies carried out until now determining the role of DNA repair genes in thyroid cancer susceptibility.

Romanowicz H, Smolarz B, Baszczyński J, et al.
Genetics polymorphism in DNA repair genes by base excision repair pathway (XRCC1) and homologous recombination (XRCC2 and RAD51) and the risk of breast carcinoma in the Polish population.
Pol J Pathol. 2010; 61(4):206-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background : Several polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene have been extensively studied in the association with various human cancers such as breast cancer. Material and methods : We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1-Arg399Gln, XRCC2-Arg188His and RAD51-135G/C with the breast cancer risk. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP assays in 220 patients with breast cancer and 220 age-matched healthy controls. Results : Our results demonstrated a significant positive association between the XRCC1 399Gln/Gln homozygous genotype and breast carcinoma, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.08 [1.08-3.98]. The 399Gln allele variant was also associated with type I breast cancer (OR = 1.41 [0.98-2.01], p = 0.034). The distributions of genotypes and alleles of the genes XRCC2 and RAD51 polymorphism were not significantly associated with the different stages of breast carcinoma (p > 0.05). Conclusion : These results suggest that 399Gln allele of XRCC1 Arg399Gln may be a risk factor for breast cancer in the Polish population.

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