WNT11

Gene Summary

Gene:WNT11; wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 11
Aliases: HWNT11
Location:11q13.5
Summary:The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It encodes a protein which shows 97%, 85%, and 63% amino acid identity with mouse, chicken, and Xenopus Wnt11 protein, respectively. This gene may play roles in the development of skeleton, kidney and lung, and is considered to be a plausible candidate gene for High Bone Mass Syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein Wnt-11
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Binding Sites
  • Wnt3 Protein
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  • Chromosome 11
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • beta Catenin
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Northern Blotting
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • RTPCR
  • Phosphorylation
  • DNA Primers
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Cell Movement
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • siRNA
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Base Sequence
  • Down-Regulation
  • RHOA
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • HCT116 Cells
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genomics
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Wnt1 Protein
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: WNT11 (cancer-related)

Tiwari A, Shivananda S, Gopinath KS, Kumar A
MicroRNA-125a reduces proliferation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting estrogen-related receptor α: implications for cancer therapeutics.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(46):32276-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
Estrogen-related receptor α (ESRRA) functions as a transcription factor and regulates the expression of several genes, such as WNT11 and OPN. Up-regulation of ESRRA has been reported in several cancers. However, the mechanism underlying its up-regulation is unclear. Furthermore, the reports regarding the role and regulation of ESRRA in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are completely lacking. Here, we show that tumor suppressor miR-125a directly binds to the 3'UTR of ESRRA and represses its expression. Overexpression of miR-125a in OSCC cells drastically reduced the level of ESRRA, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Conversely, the delivery of an miR-125a inhibitor to these cells drastically increased the level of ESRRA, increased cell proliferation, and decreased apoptosis. miR-125a-mediated down-regulation of ESRRA impaired anchorage-independent colony formation and invasion of OSCC cells. Reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of OSCC cells were dependent on the presence of the 3'UTR in ESRRA. The delivery of an miR-125a mimic to OSCC cells resulted in marked regression of xenografts in nude mice, whereas the delivery of an miR-125a inhibitor to OSCC cells resulted in a significant increase of xenografts and abrogated the tumor suppressor function of miR-125a. We observed an inverse correlation between the expression levels of miR-125a and ESRRA in OSCC samples. In summary, up-regulation of ESRRA due to down-regulation of miR-125a is not only a novel mechanism for its up-regulation in OSCC, but decreasing the level of ESRRA by using a synthetic miR-125a mimic may have an important role in therapeutic intervention of OSCC and other cancers.

Wang Y, Zheng T
Screening of hub genes and pathways in colorectal cancer with microarray technology.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; 20(3):611-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here we intend to identify key genes and pathways in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) through analyzing microarray data with bioinformatic tools. The gene expression profile dataset GSE23878 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out using Student's t-test. GO function and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses were performed for these DEGs with the DAVID online tool. Interaction network was constructed among the over-represented pathways based on the protein-protein interactions within the pathways. Besides, the protein interaction information obtained from HPRD database were applied to constructed protein-protein interaction networks among the DEGs and hub genes and function module were screened out. A total of 2,296 DEGs were obtained and they were enriched in 34 pathways. An interaction network was constructed among 32 pathways, in which p53 signaling pathway acted as the hub pathway as it showed the highest node degree. The protein-protein interaction network comprised 1,481 interaction relationships among 332 genes which included 40 DEGs. Further analysis revealed that theses DEGs formed 7 function modules and many genes, such as PDGFRB, MET, FZD2, CCND1, PRKCB, ARHGEF6, JUP, WNT2, WNT5A and WNT11 were key genes in the networks. The DEGs and disturbed biological functions uncovered in present study may play important roles in the development of CRC and can contribute to the understanding on molecular mechanisms of CRC. Further these DEGs we obtained can be acted as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of CRC.

Ono M, Yin P, Navarro A, et al.
Paracrine activation of WNT/β-catenin pathway in uterine leiomyoma stem cells promotes tumor growth.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(42):17053-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
Uterine leiomyomas are extremely common estrogen and progesterone-dependent tumors of the myometrium and cause irregular uterine bleeding, severe anemia, and recurrent pregnancy loss in 15-30% of reproductive-age women. Each leiomyoma is thought to arise from a single mutated myometrial smooth muscle stem cell. Leiomyoma side-population (LMSP) cells comprising 1% of all tumor cells and displaying tumor-initiating stem cell characteristics are essential for estrogen- and progesterone-dependent in vivo growth of tumors, although they have remarkably lower estrogen/progesterone receptor levels than mature myometrial or leiomyoma cells. However, how estrogen/progesterone regulates the growth of LMSP cells via mature neighboring cells is unknown. Here, we demonstrate a critical paracrine role of the wingless-type (WNT)/β-catenin pathway in estrogen/progesterone-dependent tumorigenesis, involving LMSP and differentiated myometrial or leiomyoma cells. Estrogen/progesterone treatment of mature myometrial cells induced expression of WNT11 and WNT16, which remained constitutively elevated in leiomyoma tissues. In LMSP cells cocultured with mature myometrial cells, estrogen-progesterone selectively induced nuclear translocation of β-catenin and induced transcriptional activity of its heterodimeric partner T-cell factor and their target gene AXIN2, leading to the proliferation of LMSP cells. This effect could be blocked by a WNT antagonist. Ectopic expression of inhibitor of β-catenin and T-cell factor 4 in LMSP cells, but not in mature leiomyoma cells, blocked the estrogen/progesterone-dependent growth of human tumors in vivo. We uncovered a paracrine role of the WNT/β-catenin pathway that enables mature myometrial or leiomyoma cells to send mitogenic signals to neighboring tissue stem cells in response to estrogen and progesterone, leading to the growth of uterine leiomyomas.

Colli LM, Saggioro F, Serafini LN, et al.
Components of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways are not mis-expressed in pituitary tumors.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e62424 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways are involved in the genesis of multiple tumors; however, their role in pituitary tumorigenesis is mostly unknown.
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated gene and protein expression of Wnt pathways in pituitary tumors and whether these expression correlate to clinical outcome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genes of the WNT canonical pathway: activating ligands (WNT11, WNT4, WNT5A), binding inhibitors (DKK3, sFRP1), β-catenin (CTNNB1), β-catenin degradation complex (APC, AXIN1, GSK3β), inhibitor of β-catenin degradation complex (AKT1), sequester of β-catenin (CDH1), pathway effectors (TCF7, MAPK8, NFAT5), pathway mediators (DVL-1, DVL-2, DVL-3, PRICKLE, VANGL1), target genes (MYB, MYC, WISP2, SPRY1, TP53, CCND1); calcium dependent pathway (PLCB1, CAMK2A, PRKCA, CHP); and planar cell polarity pathway (PTK7, DAAM1, RHOA) were evaluated by QPCR, in 19 GH-, 18 ACTH-secreting, 21 non-secreting (NS) pituitary tumors, and 5 normal pituitaries. Also, the main effectors of canonical (β-catenin), planar cell polarity (JNK), and calcium dependent (NFAT5) Wnt pathways were evaluated by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: There are no differences in gene expression of canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways between all studied subtypes of pituitary tumors and normal pituitaries, except for WISP2, which was over-expressed in ACTH-secreting tumors compared to normal pituitaries (4.8x; p = 0.02), NS pituitary tumors (7.7x; p = 0.004) and GH-secreting tumors (5.0x; p = 0.05). β-catenin, NFAT5 and JNK proteins showed no expression in normal pituitaries and in any of the pituitary tumor subtypes. Furthermore, no association of the studied gene or protein expression was observed with tumor size, recurrence, and progressive disease. The hierarchical clustering showed a regular pattern of genes of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways randomly distributed throughout the dendrogram.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data reinforce previous reports suggesting no activation of canonical Wnt pathway in pituitary tumorigenesis. Moreover, we describe, for the first time, evidence that non-canonical Wnt pathways are also not mis-expressed in the pituitary tumors.

Yu KD, Zhu R, Zhan M, et al.
Identification of prognosis-relevant subgroups in patients with chemoresistant triple-negative breast cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(10):2723-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy generally have worse outcome; however, some patients with residual tumor after neoadjuvant chemotherapy do not relapse. We hypothesize that there are subgroups of patients with chemoresistant TNBC with different prognosis.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Forty-nine chemoresistant cases from 111 patients with TNBC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX) constituted the discovery cohort, and 25 chemoresistant samples from 47 neoadjuvant chemotherapy-treated TNBC (The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX) were chosen for validation. Extended validation was carried out in 269 operable TNBC predicted to be chemoresistant by expression pattern from published datasets.
RESULTS: We established a seven-gene prognostic signature using dChip and gene set enrichment analyses. In the independent validation cohort, the classifier predicted correctly with positive predictive value of 75.0% and negative predictive value (i.e., relapse-free survival; RFS) of 76.9% at 3 years. Those predicted to relapse had a HR of 4.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-17.15] for relapse in 3 years. In extended validation, patients predicted not to relapse exhibited 3-year RFS of 78.9%, whereas the 3-year RFS was 48.5% for patients predicted to relapse, with HR of 2.61 (95% CI: 1.52-4.49). The TNBC subgroup that predicted to have relatively favorable prognosis was characterized by high expression of "luminal-like" genes [androgen-receptor (AR) and GATA3], whereas the subgroup with worse prognosis was characterized by expression of cancer stem-cell markers.
CONCLUSION: We developed a clinically relevant signature for patients with chemoresistant TNBC. For these women, new therapeutic strategies like targeting AR activation or cancer stem cells may need to be developed.

Bartis D, Csongei V, Weich A, et al.
Down-regulation of canonical and up-regulation of non-canonical Wnt signalling in the carcinogenic process of squamous cell lung carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e57393 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
The majority of lung cancers (LC) belong to the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) type. The two main NSCLC sub-types, namely adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respond differently to therapy. Whereas the link between cigarette smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, the relevance of non-canonical Wnt pathway up-regulation detected in SCC remains poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate further the molecular events in canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling during SCC development. A total of 20 SCC and AC samples with matched non-cancerous controls were obtained after surgery. TaqMan array analysis confirmed up-regulation of non-canonical Wnt5a and Wnt11 and identified down-regulation of canonical Wnt signalling in SCC samples. The molecular changes were tested in primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) and various lung cancer cell lines (e.g. A549, H157, etc). Our studies identified Wnt11 and Wnt5a as regulators of cadherin expression and potentiated relocation of β-catenin to the nucleus as an important step in decreased cellular adhesion. The presented data identifies additional details in the regulation of SCC that can aid identification of therapeutic drug targets in the future.

Liang H, Cheung LW, Li J, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing combined with functional genomics reveals novel candidate driver cancer genes in endometrial cancer.
Genome Res. 2012; 22(11):2120-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy, with more than 280,000 cases occurring annually worldwide. Although previous studies have identified important common somatic mutations in endometrial cancer, they have primarily focused on a small set of known cancer genes and have thus provided a limited view of the molecular basis underlying this disease. Here we have developed an integrated systems-biology approach to identifying novel cancer genes contributing to endometrial tumorigenesis. We first performed whole-exome sequencing on 13 endometrial cancers and matched normal samples, systematically identifying somatic alterations with high precision and sensitivity. We then combined bioinformatics prioritization with high-throughput screening (including both shRNA-mediated knockdown and expression of wild-type and mutant constructs) in a highly sensitive cell viability assay. Our results revealed 12 potential driver cancer genes including 10 tumor-suppressor candidates (ARID1A, INHBA, KMO, TTLL5, GRM8, IGFBP3, AKTIP, PHKA2, TRPS1, and WNT11) and two oncogene candidates (ERBB3 and RPS6KC1). The results in the "sensor" cell line were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown in endometrial cancer cell lines. Focusing on ARID1A, we integrated mutation profiles with functional proteomics in 222 endometrial cancer samples, demonstrating that ARID1A mutations frequently co-occur with mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and are associated with PI3K pathway activation. siRNA knockdown in endometrial cancer cell lines increased AKT phosphorylation supporting ARID1A as a novel regulator of PI3K pathway activity. Our study presents the first unbiased view of somatic coding mutations in endometrial cancer and provides functional evidence for diverse driver genes and mutations in this disease.

Zhao Y, Li Y, Lou G, et al.
MiR-137 targets estrogen-related receptor alpha and impairs the proliferative and migratory capacity of breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e39102 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
ERRα is an orphan nuclear receptor emerging as a novel biomarker of breast cancer. Over-expression of ERRα in breast tumor is considered as a prognostic factor of poor clinical outcome. The mechanisms underlying the dysexpression of this nuclear receptor, however, are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play important roles in tumor initiation and progression. In the present study, we have identified that the expression of ERRα is regulated by miR-137, a potential tumor suppressor microRNA. The bioinformatics search revealed two putative and highly conserved target-sites for miR-137 located within the ERRα 3'UTR at nt 480-486 and nt 596-602 respectively. Luciferase-reporter assay demonstrated that the two predicted target sites were authentically functional. They mediated the repression of reporter gene expression induced by miR-137 in an additive manner. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-137 down-regulated ERRα expression at both protein level and mRNA level, and the miR-137 induced ERRα-knockdown contributed to the impaired proliferative and migratory capacity of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, transfection with miR-137 mimics suppressed at least two downstream target genes of ERRα-CCNE1 and WNT11, which are important effectors of ERRα implicated in tumor proliferation and migration. Taken together, our results establish a role of miR-137 in negatively regulating ERRα expression and breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. They suggest that manipulating the expression level of ERRα by microRNAs has the potential to influence breast cancer progression.

Vincent-Chong VK, Ismail SM, Rahman ZA, et al.
Genome-wide analysis of oral squamous cell carcinomas revealed over expression of ISG15, Nestin and WNT11.
Oral Dis. 2012; 18(5):469-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multistep pathways and mechanisms are involved in the development of oral cancer. Chromosomal alterations are one of such key mechanisms implicated oral carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study aims to determine the genomic copy number alterations (CNAs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and in addition attempt to correlate CNAs with modified gene expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genome-wide screening was performed on 15 OSCCs using high-density aCGH. On the basis of pathway analysis, three genes (ISG15, Nestin and WNT11) which mapped to CNA regions were selected for further evaluation of their mRNA expression using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS: Copy number alterations were observed on multiple genomic regions, including amplifications on 1p, 3q, 5p, 6p, 7p, 8q, 9q, 11q, 12q, 16p, 18p and deletions on 3p, 7q, 8p, 11q, 19q and 20q. Among the three selected genes, ISG15 had the highest mRNA expression level with a 22.5-fold increase, followed by Nestin with a 4.5-fold increase and WNT11 with a 2.5-fold increase.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified several major CNAs in oral cancer genomes and indicated that this correlates with over expression of the ISG15, WNT11, and Nestin genes.

Nishioka M, Ueno K, Hazama S, et al.
Possible involvement of Wnt11 in colorectal cancer progression.
Mol Carcinog. 2013; 52(3):207-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous report revealed that the expression of Frizzled-7 (FZD7) in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its possible role in CRC progression. In this study we measured the expression levels of candidate FZD7 ligands, Wnt3 and Wnt11 in colon cancer cell lines (n = 7) and primary CRC tissues (n = 133) by quantitative RT-PCR. We also examined the functional effects of Wnt11 with the use of Wnt11 transfectants of colon cancer HCT-116 cells. Wnt11 transfectants showed the increased proliferation and migration/invasion activities compared to mock cells. Western blot analysis of transfectants revealed that phosphorylation of JNK and c-jun was increased after Wnt11 transfection. Wnt11 mRNA expression was significantly higher in the stage I, II, III, or IV tumor tissues than in non-tumor tissues (overall P < 0.003), while there was no significant difference in Wnt3 mRNA expression between tumor and non-tumor tissues. In addition, Wnt11 mRNA expression was significantly higher in patients with recurrence or death after surgery than in those with no recurrence (disease free) after surgery (P = 0.018). We also compared the expression levels of Wnt11 mRNA with those of FZD7 mRNA in the same CRC samples. Wnt11 mRNA expression was significantly higher in patients with higher FZD7 mRNA levels than in those with lower FZD7 mRNA levels (P = 0.0005). The expression levels of Wnt11 mRNA were correlated with those of FZD7 mRNA (P < 0.0001). These data suggest that Wnt11 may play an important role in CRC progression.

Siar CH, Nagatsuka H, Han PP, et al.
Differential expression of canonical and non-canonical Wnt ligands in ameloblastoma.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2012; 41(4):332-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways modulate diverse cellular processes during embryogenesis and post-natally. Their deregulations have been implicated in cancer development and progression. Wnt signaling is essential for odontogenesis. The ameloblastoma is an odontogenic epithelial neoplasm of enamel organ origin. Altered expressions of Wnts-1, -2, -5a, and -10a are detected in this tumor. The activity of other Wnt members remains unclarified.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Canonical (Wnts-1, -2, -3, -8a, -8b, -10a, and -10b), non-canonical (Wnts-4, -5a, -5b, -6, 7a, -7b, and -11), and indeterminate groups (Wnts-2b and -9b) were examined immunohistochemically in 72 cases of ameloblastoma (19 unicystic [UA], 35 solid/multicystic [SMA], eight desmoplastic [DA], and 10 recurrent [RA]).
RESULTS: Canonical Wnt proteins (except Wnt-10b) were heterogeneously expressed in ameloblastoma. Their distribution patterns were distinctive with some overlap. Protein localization was mainly membranous and/or cytoplasmic. Overexpression of Wnt-1 in most subsets (UA = 19/19; SMA = 35/35; DA = 5/8; RA = 7/10) (P < 0.05), Wnt-3 in granular cell variant (n = 3/3), and Wnt-8b in DA (n = 8/8) was key observations. Wnts-8a and -10a demonstrated enhanced expression in tumoral buddings and acanthomatous areas. Non-canonical and indeterminate Wnts were absent except for limited Wnt-7b immunoreactivity in UA (n = 1/19) and SMA (n = 1/35). Stromal components expressed variable Wnt positivity.
CONCLUSION: Differential expression of Wnt ligands in different ameloblastoma subtypes suggests that the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways are selectively activated or repressed depending on the tumor cell differentiation status. Canonical Wnt pathway is most likely the main transduction pathway while Wnt-1 might be the key signaling molecule involved in ameloblastoma tumorigenesis.

Uysal-Onganer P, Kypta RM
Wnt11 in 2011 - the regulation and function of a non-canonical Wnt.
Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2012; 204(1):52-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic studies of Wnt11 have revealed many insights into the roles and regulation of Wnt11, particularly during development. New tools to study Wnt11 have recently become available, making it timely to review the literature regarding this unique Wnt family member. In this study, we focus on mammalian Wnt11, describing its main sites of expression during development, and how the Wnt11 gene is regulated. We highlight an emerging theme in which canonical Wnt signals regulate Wnt11 expression through transcription factors in addition to, or other than, Tcf/LEF family members. We also discuss the frizzled family and other receptors that bind to Wnt11, the intracellular kinases and small GTPases that act downstream of Wnt11, and the effects of Wnt11 on Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Finally, we elaborate on the relevance of Wnt11 to human cancer, where it appears to be important both for proliferation and/or survival during normal differentiation and for migration/invasion.

Andrade Filho PA, Letra A, Cramer A, et al.
Insights from studies with oral cleft genes suggest associations between WNT-pathway genes and risk of oral cancer.
J Dent Res. 2011; 90(6):740-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for more than 90% of the malignant neoplasms that arise in the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Recent studies of cleft lip/palate have shown the association of genes involved in cancer. WNT pathway genes have been associated with several types of cancer and recently with cleft lip/palate. To investigate if genes associated with cleft lip/palate were also associated with oral cancer, we genotyped 188 individuals with OSCC and 225 control individuals for markers in AXIN2, AXIN1, GSK3β, WNT3A, WNT5A, WNT8A, WNT11, WNT3, and WNT9B. Statistical analysis was performed with PLINK 1.06 software to test for differences in allele frequencies of each polymorphism between cases and controls. We found association of SNPs in GSK3B (p = 0.0008) and WNT11 (p = 0.03) with OSCC. We also found overtransmission of GSK3B haplotypes in OSCC cases. Expression analyses showed up-regulation of WNT3A, GSK3B, and AXIN1 and down-regulation of WNT11 in OSCC in comparison with control tissues (P < 0.001). Additional studies should focus on the identification of potentially functional variants in these genes as contributors to human clefting and oral cancer.

Lai C, Robinson J, Clark S, et al.
Elevation of WNT5A expression in polyp formation in Lkb1+/- mice and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
J Pathol. 2011; 223(5):584-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare, inherited disease caused by germline mutation of the LKB1 gene. Patients with PJS develop characteristic polyps in the digestive tract and carry an elevated risk of cancers in multiple organs, including the intestinal tract. While LKB1 is capable of phosphorylating AMPK and regulates the mTOR pathway, it is also known to be a multitasking protein that can influence other cellular processes, including cell polarity. We hypothesized that there may be other biological pathways directly or indirectly affected by the loss of LKB1 in PJS and aimed to investigate this possibility through transcriptional profiling of polyps harvested from an Lkb1(+/-) mouse model of PJS and from PJS patients. We identified alterations in the mRNA level of a wide range of genes, including some that are involved in Wnt signalling (Wnt5a, Wif1, Dixdc1, Wnt11, Ccnd1, and Ccnd2), although we did not observe nuclear localization of β-catenin in over 93 human PJS intestinal polyps or in 24 gastric polyps from Lkb1(+/-) mice. Among these genes, WNT5A, a non-canonical and non-transforming Wnt, is consistently up-regulated in both Lkb1(+/-) mice and human PJS polyps at a high level. We performed in situ hybridization to further define the spatial expression pattern of WNT5A and observed a strong signal in the stroma of mouse and human polyps compared to no or very low expression in the mucosa. Our findings indicate that WNT5A plays an important role in PJS polyposis.

Mochmann LH, Bock J, Ortiz-Tánchez J, et al.
Genome-wide screen reveals WNT11, a non-canonical WNT gene, as a direct target of ETS transcription factor ERG.
Oncogene. 2011; 30(17):2044-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
E26 transforming sequence-related gene (ERG) is a transcription factor involved in normal hematopoiesis and is dysregulated in leukemia. ERG mRNA overexpression was associated with poor prognosis in a subset of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein, a genome-wide screen of ERG target genes was conducted by chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip (ChIP-chip) in Jurkat cells. In this screen, 342 significant annotated genes were derived from this global approach. Notably, ERG-enriched targets included WNT signaling genes: WNT11, WNT2, WNT9A, CCND1 and FZD7. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of normal and primary leukemia bone marrow material also confirmed WNT11 as a target of ERG in six of seven patient samples. A larger sampling of patient diagnostic material revealed that ERG and WNT11 mRNA were co-expressed in 80% of AML (n=30) and 40% in T-ALL (n=30) bone marrow samples. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of ERG confirmed downregulation of WNT11 transcripts. Conversely, in a tet-on ERG-inducible assay, WNT11 transcripts were co-stimulated. A WNT pathway agonist, 6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO), was used to determine the effect of cell growth on the ERG-inducible cells. The addition of BIO resulted in an ERG-dependent proliferative growth advantage over ERG-uninduced cells. Finally, ERG induction prompted morphological transformation whereby round unpolarized K562 cells developed elongated protrusions and became polarized. This morphological transformation could effectively be inhibited with BIO and with siRNA knockdown of WNT11. In conclusion, ERG transcriptional networks in leukemia converge on WNT signaling targets. Specifically, WNT11 emerged as a direct target of ERG. Potent ERG induction promoted morphological transformation through WNT11 signals. The findings in this study unravel new ERG-directed molecular signals that may contribute to the resistance of current therapies in acute leukemia patients with poor prognosis characterized by high ERG mRNA expression.

Dwyer MA, Joseph JD, Wade HE, et al.
WNT11 expression is induced by estrogen-related receptor alpha and beta-catenin and acts in an autocrine manner to increase cancer cell migration.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(22):9298-308 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
Elevated expression of the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) has been associated with a negative outcome in several cancers, although the mechanism(s) by which this receptor influences the pathophysiology of this disease and how its activity is regulated remain unknown. Using a chemical biology approach, it was determined that compounds, previously shown to inhibit canonical Wnt signaling, also inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRα. The significance of this association was revealed in a series of biochemical and genetic experiments that show that (a) ERRα, β-catenin (β-cat), and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 form macromolecular complexes in cells, (b) ERRα transcriptional activity is enhanced by β-cat expression and vice versa, and (c) there is a high level of overlap among genes previously shown to be regulated by ERRα or β-cat. Furthermore, silencing of ERRα and β-cat expression individually or together dramatically reduced the migratory capacity of breast, prostate, and colon cancer cells in vitro. This increased migration could be attributed to the ERRα/β-cat-dependent induction of WNT11. Specifically, using (a) conditioned medium from cells overexpressing recombinant WNT11 or (b) WNT11 neutralizing antibodies, we were able to show that this protein was the key mediator of the promigratory activities of ERRα/β-cat. Together, these data provide evidence for an autocrine regulatory loop involving transcriptional upregulation of WNT11 by ERRα and β-cat that influences the migratory capacity of cancer cells.

Thompson VC, Hurtado-Coll A, Turbin D, et al.
Relaxin drives Wnt signaling through upregulation of PCDHY in prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2010; 70(10):1134-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Relaxin, a potent peptide hormone of the insulin-like family normally produced and secreted by the human prostate, is upregulated in castrate resistant prostate cancer progression. In various tissues, relaxin increases angiogenesis and cell motility through upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteases, and nitric oxide, and therefore maybe an attractive target for cancer therapeutics.
METHODS: To examine the role of relaxin in prostate cancer progression, LNCaP cells stably transfected with relaxin (LNCaP(RLN)) were used to form xenograft tumors, and microarray expression analysis was subsequently performed to determine novel pathways regulated by relaxin. Prostate cancer tissue microarrays from patient samples were stained by immunohistochemistry for further validation and correlation of the findings.
RESULTS: Expression analysis identified novel relaxin regulated pathways, including the ProtocadherinY (PCDHY)/Wnt pathway. PCDHY, which upregulates Wnt11, has previously been shown to stabilize beta-catenin, causing beta-catenin to translocate from the cytoplasmic membrane to the nucleus and initiate TCF-mediated signaling. LNCaP(RLN) xenografts exhibit increased PCDHY expression and increased cytoplasmic localization of beta-catenin, suggesting relaxin directs Wnt11 overexpression through PCDHY upregulation. Similarly, prostate cancer samples from patients who have undergone androgen ablation have increased Wnt11 expression, which is further upregulated in castrate resistant tissues. Like relaxin, Wnt11, and PCDHY are negatively regulated by androgens, and further analysis indicated that the overexpression of relaxin results in dysregulation of androgen-regulated genes.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that prostate cancer cell motility and altered androgen receptor activity attributed to relaxin may be mediated in part by Wnt11.

Uysal-Onganer P, Kawano Y, Caro M, et al.
Wnt-11 promotes neuroendocrine-like differentiation, survival and migration of prostate cancer cells.
Mol Cancer. 2010; 9:55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wnt-11 is a secreted protein that modulates cell growth, differentiation and morphogenesis during development. We previously reported that Wnt-11 expression is elevated in hormone-independent prostate cancer and that the progression of prostate cancer from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent proliferation correlates with a loss of mutual inhibition between Wnt-11- and androgen receptor-dependent signals. However, the prevalence of increased expression of Wnt-11 in patient tumours and the functions of Wnt-11 in prostate cancer cells were not known.
RESULTS: Wnt-11 protein levels in prostate tumours were determined by immunohistochemical analysis of prostate tumour tissue arrays. Wnt-11 protein was elevated in 77/117 of tumours when compared with 27 benign prostatic hypertrophy specimens and was present in 4/4 bone metastases. In addition, there was a positive correlation between Wnt-11 expression and PSA levels above 10 ng/ml. Androgen-depleted LNCaP prostate cancer cells form neurites and express genes associated with neuroendocrine-like differentiation (NED), a feature of prostate tumours that have a poor prognosis. Since androgen-depletion increases expression of Wnt-11, we examined the role of Wnt-11 in NED. Ectopic expression of Wnt-11 induced expression of NSE and ASCL1, which are markers of NED, and this was prevented by inhibitors of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, consistent with the known role of this kinase in NED. In contrast, Wnt-11 did not induce NSE expression in RWPE-1 cells, which are derived from benign prostate, suggesting that the role of Wnt-11 in NED is specific to prostate cancer. In addition, silencing of Wnt-11 expression in androgen-depleted LNCaP cells prevented NED and resulted in apoptosis. Silencing of Wnt-11 gene expression in androgen-independent PC3 cells also reduced expression of NSE and increased apoptosis. Finally, silencing of Wnt-11 reduced PC3 cell migration and ectopic expression of Wnt-11 promoted LNCaP cell invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that the increased level of Wnt-11 found in prostate cancer contributes to tumour progression by promoting NED, tumour cell survival and cell migration/invasion, and may provide an opportunity for novel therapy in prostate cancer.

Pizzatti L, Binato R, Cofre J, et al.
SUZ12 is a candidate target of the non-canonical WNT pathway in the progression of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010; 49(2):107-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycomb proteins form multiprotein complexes that repress target genes by chromatin remodeling. In this work, we report that the SUZ12 polycomb gene is over-expressed in bone marrow samples of patients at the blastic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. We also found a direct interaction between polycomb group genes and the WNT signaling pathway in chronic myeloid leukemia transformation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP), and mass spectrometry assays identified noncanonical WNT pathway members, such as WNT5A and WNT11, bound to the SUZ12 promoter. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence with WNT5A and WNT11 antibodies confirmed nuclear localization. Knockdown of WNTs 1, 5A, and 11 with RNAi approaches showed that WNT members are capable of activating SUZ12 transcription with varying promoter affinities. Finally, we suggest that SUZ12 is blocking cellular differentiation, as SUZ12 knockdown release differentiation programs in chronic myeloid blastic phase (CML-BP) transformed cell line.

Katoh M
Networking of WNT, FGF, Notch, BMP, and Hedgehog signaling pathways during carcinogenesis.
Stem Cell Rev. 2007; 3(1):30-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biological functions of some orthologs within the human genome and model-animal genomes are evolutionarily conserved, but those of others are divergent due to protein evolution and promoter evolution. Because WNT signaling molecules play key roles during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and carcinogenesis, the author's group has carried out a human WNT-ome project for the comprehensive characterization of human genes encoding WNT signaling molecules. From 1996 to 2002, we cloned and characterized WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT9A/WNT14, WNT9B/WNT14B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, FZD1, FZD2, FZD3, FZD4, FZD5, FZD6, FZD7, FZD8, FZD10, FRAT1, FRAT2, NKD1, NKD2, VANGL1, RHOU/ARHU, RHOV/ARHV, GIPC2, GIPC3, FBXW11/betaTRCP2, SOX17, TCF7L1/TCF3, and established a cDNA-PCR system for snap-shot and dynamic analyses on the WNT-transcriptome. In 2003, we identified and characterized PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, DACT1/DAPPER1, DACT2/DAPPER2, DAAM2, and BCL9L. After completion of the human WNT-ome project, we have been working on the stem cell signaling network. WNT signals are transduced to beta-catenin, NLK, NFAT, PKC, JNK and RhoA signaling cascades. FGF20, JAG1 and DKK1 are target genes of the WNT-beta-catenin signaling cascade. Cross-talk of WNT and FGF signaling pathways potentiates beta-catenin and NFAT signaling cascades. BMP signals induce IHH upregulation in co-operation with RUNX. Hedgehog signals induce upregulation of SFRP1, JAG2 and FOXL1, and then FOXL1 induces BMP4 upregulation. The balance between WNT-FGF-Notch and BMP-Hedgehog signaling networks is important for the maintenance of homoestasis among stem and progenitor cells. Disruption of the stem cell signaling network results in pathological conditions, such as congenital diseases and cancer.

Katoh M, Katoh M
Comparative integromics on non-canonical WNT or planar cell polarity signaling molecules: transcriptional mechanism of PTK7 in colorectal cancer and that of SEMA6A in undifferentiated ES cells.
Int J Mol Med. 2007; 20(3):405-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-canonical WNT and planar cell polarity (PCP) are overlapping but distinct signaling pathways, which control convergent extension, neural tube closure, orientation of cilia and sensory hair cells, axon guidance, and cell motility. Non-canonical WNT signals, regulated by the interaction of WNT, WNT antagonist, Frizzled and ROR2, are transduced to JNK, ROCK, PKC, MAP3K7, and NFAT signaling cascades. PCP signals, regulated by the interaction of VANGL-PRICKLE complex, CELSR and Frizzled-DVL complex, are transduced to JNK, ROCK, and other uncharacterized signaling cascades. PTK7 signaling, regulated by SEMA6 and Plexin-A family members, affects PCP pathway through VANGL. Here, integrative genomic analyses on WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, ROR1, ROR2, RYK, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, VANGL1, VANGL2, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, PTK7, SEMA6A, SEMA6B, SEMA6C and SEMA6D were carried out. PTK7 and SEMA6A were expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells, SEMA6A in endodermal progenitors, CELSR1, VANGL1 and PTK7 in gastrointestinal tumors. CELSR2, PRICKLE2 and SEMA6C were expressed in fetal brain, CELSR2, PRICKLE1 and SEMA6A in adult brain, WNT5A and CELSR3 in adult brain tumors. These facts indicate class switches of non-canonical WNT or PCP signaling molecules during embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. TCF/LEF-, SP1-, and 5 bHLH-binding sites within human PTK7 promoter were conserved in chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, mouse, and rat PTK7 orthologs, which explained the mechanism of PTK7 upregulation in colorectal cancer. NANOG-, SOX2-, and POU5F1 (OCT3/OCT4)-binding sites within intron 1 of the human SEMA6A gene were conserved in chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, mouse, and rat SEMA6A orthologs, which explained the mechanism of SEMA6A upregulation in undifferentiated ES cells. Most of non-canonical WNT or PCP signaling molecules, except PTK7 and SEMA6A, were not frequently expressed in undifferentiated human ES cells. Non-canonical WNT or PCP signaling pathway, activated to orchestrate gastrulation and neurulation, was relatively downregulated in undifferentiated ES cells derived from inner cell mass of blastocysts.

Lin Z, Reierstad S, Huang CC, Bulun SE
Novel estrogen receptor-alpha binding sites and estradiol target genes identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation cloning in breast cancer.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(10):5017-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and its ligand estradiol play critical roles in breast cancer growth and are important therapeutic targets for this disease. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip, ligand-bound ERalpha was recently found to function as a master transcriptional regulator via binding to many cis-acting sites genome-wide. Here, we used an alternative technology (ChIP cloning) and identified 94 ERalpha target loci in breast cancer cells. The ERalpha-binding sites contained both classic estrogen response elements and nonclassic binding sequences, showed specific transcriptional activity in reporter gene assay, and interacted with the key transcriptional regulators, including RNA polymerase II and nuclear receptor coactivator-3. The great majority of the binding sites were located in either introns or far distant to coding regions of genes. Forty-three percent of the genes that lie within 50 kb to an ERalpha-binding site were regulated by estradiol. Most of these genes are novel estradiol targets encoding receptors, signaling messengers, and ion binders/transporters. mRNA profiling in estradiol-treated breast cancer cell lines and tissues revealed that these genes are highly ERalpha responsive both in vitro and in vivo. Among estradiol-induced genes, Wnt11 was found to increase cell survival by significantly reducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Taken together, we showed novel genomic binding sites of ERalpha that regulate a novel set of genes in response to estradiol in breast cancer. Our findings suggest that at least a subset of these genes, including Wnt11, may play important in vivo and in vitro biological roles in breast cancer.

Xu J, Fan H, Zhao ZJ, et al.
Identification of potential genes regulated by DNA methyltransferase 3B in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by RNA interference and microarray analysis.
Yi Chuan Xue Bao. 2005; 32(11):1115-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Whether DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) is deregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines is still unclear. The expression levels of DNMT3B protein in normal liver cell line, pericacinoma cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were compared by both Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Long-term downregulated DNMT3B in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 was achieved using a RNAi recombinant plasmid. The suppression of DNMT3B induced by RNA interference was confirmed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. High throughput cDNA microarray was used to analyze the expression profiling of downstream genes of DNMT3B displayed in the treated cell lines and control. In the result,DNMT3B in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines was expressed at a significantly higher level compared to those in pericacinoma cell line and normal liver cell line. A specific DNMT3B siRNA stably expressed from a plasmid vector effectively suppressed the expression of DNMT3B in SMMC-7721 cell line. By microarray analysis,26 downregulated genes and 115 upregulated genes have been identified in the DNMT3B knockdown cell line,including some important developmental genes and tumor-related genes such as SNCG, NOTCH1, MBD3, WNT11, MAOA and FACL4. The discovery showed DNMT3B was over-expressed in most hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines examined and may be linked to the carcinogenesis of hepatocytes. An array of candidate genes that are involved in the action of DNMT3B have been identified,including those related to development.

Katoh M
WNT/PCP signaling pathway and human cancer (review).
Oncol Rep. 2005; 14(6):1583-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway controls tissue polarity and cell movement through the activation of RHOA, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nemo-like kinase (NLK) signaling cascades. PCP is induced in Drosophila by the asymmetrical localization of Frizzled-Dishevelled-Diego-Starry night (Flamingo) complex and Van Gogh (Strabismus)-Prickle complex. Here, WNT/PCP signaling pathway implicated in human carcinogenesis is reviewed. Human WNT5A, WNT5B, and WNT11 are representative non-canonical WNTs transducing PCP signals through FZD3 or FZD6 receptors, and ROR1, ROR2 or PTK7 co-receptors. Human VANGL1, VANGL2 (Van Gogh homologs), CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3 (Starry night homologs), DVL1, DVL2, DVL3 (Dishevelled homologs), PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2 (Prickle homologs), and ANKRD6 (Diego homolog) are core PCP signaling molecules. MAGI3 assembles FZD, VANGL, PTEN, and adhesion molecules. Dishevelled-dependent WNT/PCP signals are transduced to the RHOA signaling cascade through Formin homology proteins DAAM1 and DAAM2, and to the JNK signaling cascade through MAPKKKs and MAPKK4/7. Dishevelled-independent WNT/ PCP signals are transduced to the NLK signaling cascade through MAP3K7 (TAK1). ANKRD6, NKD1 and NKD2 induce class switch from the WNT/GSK3beta signaling pathway to the WNT/PCP signaling pathway. WNT5A is up-regulated in various types of human cancer, such as gastric cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma. FZD3/FZD6 receptor and ROR2 co-receptor transduce WNT5A signal in gastric cancer. Aberrant activation of WNT/PCP signaling pathway in human cancer leads to more malignant phenotypes, such as abnormal tissue polarity, invasion, and metastasis. cDNA-PCR, microarray or ELISA reflecting aberrant activation of WNT/PCP signaling pathway could be developed as novel cancer prognostics. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number polymorphism (CNP) of WNT/PCP signaling molecules mentioned above are suitable for use in screening of cancer predisposition, especially for gastric cancer. Antibody, RNAi, or small molecule compounds to regulate the function of WNT/PCP signaling molecules mentioned above are good candidates for development as novel cancer therapeutics.

Zhu H, Mazor M, Kawano Y, et al.
Analysis of Wnt gene expression in prostate cancer: mutual inhibition by WNT11 and the androgen receptor.
Cancer Res. 2004; 64(21):7918-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Wnt signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in many tumor types, including those of the prostate, in which beta-catenin accumulates in cell nuclei and acts as a transcriptional coregulator for the androgen receptor. Because activating mutations in the beta-catenin gene are rare in prostate cancer, we have looked for altered expression of other components of the Wnt signaling pathway in prostate cancer cells. Here we determined the expression levels of Wnt family genes in cultured human prostate cells and prostate cancer cell lines. We found that WNT11 expression is elevated in hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Additional analysis indicated that WNT11 expression is also elevated in high-grade prostatic tumors and in hormone-independent xenografts. Growth of hormone-dependent LNCaP cells in hormone-depleted media led to increased WNT11 expression, which was repressed by the synthetic androgen R1881. This repression was inhibited by the antiandrogen bicalutamide, suggesting that androgens negatively regulate WNT11 expression through the androgen receptor. Expression of WNT11 inhibited androgen receptor transcriptional activity and cell growth in androgen-dependent cells but not in androgen-independent cells. WNT11 inhibited activation of the canonical Wnt pathway by WNT3A in HEK 293 cells and inhibited basal beta-catenin/Tcf transcriptional activity in LNCaP cells. However, expression of stabilized beta-catenin did not prevent the inhibition of androgen receptor transcriptional activity by WNT11. Our observations are consistent with a model in which androgen depletion activates WNT11-dependent signals that inhibit androgen-dependent but not androgen-independent cell growth.

Hoang BH, Kubo T, Healey JH, et al.
Expression of LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) as a novel marker for disease progression in high-grade osteosarcoma.
Int J Cancer. 2004; 109(1):106-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Wingless-type (Wnt) family of proteins and its coreceptor LRP5 have recently been implicated in human skeletal development. Wnt pathway modulates cell fate and cell proliferation during embryonic development and carcinogenesis through activation of receptor-mediated signaling. Osteosarcoma (OS) is a bone-forming tumor of mesenchymal origin whose growth control has been linked to autocrine or paracrine stimulation by several growth factor families. We examined 4 OS cell lines for WNT1, WNT4, WNT5A, WNT7A, WNT11, FZD1-10 and LRP5 expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, RT-PCR for LRP5 expression was performed in 44 OS patient samples and the findings were correlated with clinical data. Expression profiling of Wnts and their receptors revealed the presence of several isoforms in OS cell lines. Overall, 22/44 (50%) of OS patient samples showed evidence of LRP5 expression. Presence of LRP5 correlated significantly with tumor metastasis (p = 0.005) and the chondroblastic subtype of OS (p = 0.045). In addition, patients whose tumors were positive for LRP5 showed a trend toward decreased event-free survival (p = 0.066). No significant association was found between LRP5 expression and age, gender, site of disease, site of metastasis or degree of chemotherapy-induced tumor necrosis. Sequencing of exon 3 of LRP5 in 10 OS patient-derived cell cultures showed no activating mutation of LRP5. These results showed that expression of LRP5 is a common event in OS and strongly suggest a role for LRP and Wnt signaling in the pathobiology and progression of this disease.

Katoh M
Expression and regulation of WNT1 in human cancer: up-regulation of WNT1 by beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells.
Int J Oncol. 2003; 22(1):209-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
WNT family of secreted-type glycoproteins play key roles in carcinogenesis and embryogenesis. We have cloned and characterized human WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, WNT14 and WNT14B/WNT15 using bioinformatics and cDNA-PCR, and also reported frequent up-regulation of WNT2 in primary gastric cancer. Here, expression and regulation of WNT1 in human cancer were investigated using cDNA-PCR. WNT1 mRNA was relatively highly expressed in OKAJIMA cells (gastric cancer) and BxPC-3 cells (pancreatic cancer). Expression of WNT1 mRNA was up-regulated in 5 out of 10 cases of primary gastric cancer. Effects of beta-estradiol on expression of human WNT1 in MCF-7 cells (breast cancer) was next investigated, because mouse Wnt-1 induces mammary carcinogenesis even in estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) knockout mice. Expression of WNT1 mRNA was significantly up-regulated by beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells. WNT1 was found to be one of estrogen target genes in human MCF-7 cells, which in part explains Wnt1-induced mammary carcinogenesis in ERalpha knockout mice.

Kirikoshi H, Katoh M
Expression of WNT7A in human normal tissues and cancer, and regulation of WNT7A and WNT7B in human cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2002; 21(4):895-900 [PubMed] Related Publications
WNT signals are transduced through seven-transmembrane-type WNT receptors encoded by Frizzled (FZD) genes to the beta-catenin - TCF pathway, the JNK pathway or the Ca2+-releasing pathway. WNT signaling molecules are potent targets for diagnosis of cancer (susceptibility, metastasis, and prognosis), for prevention and treatment of cancer, and for regenerative medicine or tissue engineering. We have so far cloned and characterized human WNT signaling molecules WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, WNT14, WNT14B/WNT15, FZD1, FZD2, FZD3, FZD4, FZD5, FZD6, FZD7, FZD8, FZD10, FRAT1, FRAT2, NKD1, NKD2, VANGL1/STB2, ARHU/WRCH1, ARHV/WRCH2, GIPC2, GIPC3, betaTRCP2/FBXW1B, SOX17, and TCF-3 using bioinformatics, cDNA-library screening, and cDNA-PCR. Here, expression of WNT7A in human normal tissues and cancer, and regulation of WNT7A and WNT7B in human cancer were investigated. WNT7A was highly expressed in fetal lung, adult testis, lymph node, and peripheral blood leukocytes. WNT7A was relatively highly expressed in temporal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, paracentral gyrus of cerebral cortex, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, medulla oblongata and putamen within adult brain. WNT7A was highly expressed in SW480 (colorectal cancer), BxPC-3 and Hs766T (pancreatic cancer), and was also expressed in MKN7 and MKN45 (gastric cancer). WNT7B rather than WNT7A was expressed in MCF-7 (breast cancer) and NT2 (embryonal tumor). beta-estradiol did not affect expression levels of WNT7A and WNT7B in MCF-7 cells. WNT7B, but not WNT7A, was slightly up-regulated by all-trans retinoic acid in NT2 cells.

Kirikoshi H, Katoh M
Expression of ST7R (ST7-like, ST7L) in normal tissues and cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2002; 21(1):193-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have recently cloned and characterized ST7R (ST7-like, ST7L), WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, WNT14, WNT14B/WNT15, NKD1, NKD2, ARHU/WRCH1, ARHV/WRCH2, and VANGL1/STB2 using bioinformatics, cDNA-PCR and RACE. ST7R is a paralog of tumor suppressor gene ST7 in the human genome. ST7R gene is clustered with WNT2B gene in human chromo-some 1p13 region, while ST7 gene is clustered with WNT2 gene in human chromosome 7q31 region. Multiple ST7R mRNAs (ST7R1-ST7R4) are transcribed due to alternative splicing. ST7R4 is divergent from ST7R1-ST7R3 in the C-terminal region. Here, we investigated expression of ST7R mRNAs in normal human tissues and human cancer. Northern blot analysis with S7S1 probe corresponding to ST7R1, ST7R2 and ST7R3 isoforms detected 4.2 kb ST7R mRNA in various normal tissues, and also large amounts of 2.2-2.4 kb ST7R mRNAs in testis. Northern blot analysis with S7S4 probe corresponding to ST7R4 isoform detected 2.0 kb ST7R mRNA in testis. Expression of ST7R mRNAs in human cancer was next investigated using cDNA-PCR. Although ST7R mRNAs were almost ubiquitously expressed in 7 gastric cancer cell lines, expression levels of ST7R mRNAs were relatively lower in TMK1 cells. ST7R mRNAs were expressed in most cases of primary gastric cancer, and were up-regulated in 2 out of 10 cases of primary gastric cancer. This is the first report on expression analyses on ST7R.

Saitoh T, Mine T, Katoh M
Frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in primary gastric cancer.
Int J Mol Med. 2002; 9(5):515-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
WNT signal is transduced to the beta-catenin - TCF pathway, the JNK pathway, or the Ca2+-releasing pathway through seven-transmembrane-type WNT receptors encoded by Frizzled genes (FZD1-FZD10). We have previously cloned and characterized human WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, WNT14, and WNT14B/WNT15 by using bioinformatics, cDNA-library screening, and cDNA-PCR. Here, we investigated expression of human WNT5A mRNA in various normal tissues, 66 primary tumors derived from various tissues, and 15 human cancer cell lines. WNT5A mRNA was relatively highly expressed in salivary gland, bladder, uterus, placenta, and fetal kidney. Up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA was detected in 5 out of 8 cases of primary gastric cancer, 5 out of 18 cases of primary colorectal tumors, and in 2 out of 7 cases of primary uterus tumors by using matched tumor/normal expression array analysis. Up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA was also detected in 7 out of 10 other cases of primary gastric cancer by using cDNA-PCR. Although low-level expression of WNT5A mRNA was detected in gastric cancer cell line MKN45, WNT5A mRNA was almost undetectable in gastric cancer cell lines OKAJIMA, TMK1, MKN7, MKN28, MKN74, and KATO-III. Compared with frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in primary gastric cancer, expression levels of WNT5A mRNA in 7 gastric cancer cell lines were significantly lower than that in normal stomach. Frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in human primary gastric cancer might be due to cancer-stromal interaction.

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