Gene Summary

Gene:ST2; suppression of tumorigenicity 2
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ST2 (cancer-related)

Bie Q, Zhang P, Su Z, et al.
Polarization of ILC2s in peripheral blood might contribute to immunosuppressive microenvironment in patients with gastric cancer.
J Immunol Res. 2014; 2014:923135 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Newly identified nuocytes or group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play an important role in Th2 cell mediated immunity such as protective immune responses to helminth parasites, allergic asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis. However, the contributions of ILC2s in the occurrence and development of cancer remain unknown. Our previous study found that there was a predominant Th2 phenotype in patients with gastric cancer. In this study, the ILC2s related genes or molecules in PBMC from patients with gastric cancer were measured, and the potential correlation between them was analyzed. The expression levels of RORα, GATA3, T1/ST2, IL-17RB, CRTH2, IL-33, IL-5, and IL-4 mRNA were significantly increased in patients, but no significant changes were found in ICOS, CD45, and IL-13 expression, and there was a positive correlation between RORα or IL-13 and other related factors, such as ICOS and CD45. The increased frequency of ILC2s was also found in PBMC of patients by flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA of Arg1 and iNOS were also significantly increased in patients. These results suggested that there are polarized ILC2s in gastric cancer patients which might contribute to immunosuppressive microenvironment and closely related to the upregulation of MDSCs and M2 macrophages.

Schmieder A, Multhoff G, Radons J
Interleukin-33 acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and modulates its receptor gene expression in highly metastatic human pancreatic carcinoma cells.
Cytokine. 2012; 60(2):514-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal of all solid tissue malignancies. Pancreatic inflammation plays a key role in the development of pancreatic malignancy mediated by pro-inflammatory signalling cascades. Despite advances in surgery and radiation oncology, no significant improvements in overall survival have yet been achieved. Recent investigations suggest a crucial role of interleukin-33 (IL-33), a novel IL-1 family cytokine, in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis and possibly pancreatic cancer. However, the precise role of IL-33 in pancreatic carcinogenesis is poorly understood. As IL-33 mediates its effects via the heterodimeric ST2L/IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) receptor complex, we investigated the influence of IL-33 alone, IL-33 combined with IL-1 and other inflammatory cytokines on IL-33 receptor/ligand mRNA expression and production of tumorigenic factors in the highly metastatic human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Colo357. Our results demonstrated that IL-1 and IL-3 up-regulated IL-33 mRNA while IL-12 showed the opposite effect. We also detected a counter-regulatory effect of IL-33 and IL-1 on the mRNA expression of soluble IL-33 receptor ST2 and membrane-bound receptor ST2L. Furthermore, IL-33 and IL-1 acted synergistically in up-regulating secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6. IL-33 alone stimulated spontaneous release of pro-angiogenic IL-8, but it did not affect IL-1-induced IL-8 secretion. IL-33/IL-1 effects on cytokine production appear to be mediated via NF-κB activation. These data argue for the pro-inflammatory role of IL-33 in Colo357 cells implying that IL-33 might act as a crucial mediator in inflammation-associated pancreatic carcinogenesis.

Oue E, Lee JW, Sakamoto K, et al.
CXCL2 synthesized by oral squamous cell carcinoma is involved in cancer-associated bone destruction.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 424(3):456-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
To explore the mechanism of bone destruction associated with oral cancer, we identified factors that stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Two clonal cell lines, HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17, were isolated from the maternal oral cancer cell line, HSC3. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells showed the highest induction of Rankl expression in the mouse stromal cell lines ST2 and UAMS-32 as compared to that in maternal HSC3 cells and HSC3-C17 cells, which showed similar activity. The conditioned medium from HSC3-C13 cells significantly increased the number of osteoclasts in a co-culture with mouse bone marrow cells and UAMS-32 cells. Xenograft tumors generated from these clonal cell lines into the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice showed that HSC3-C13 cells caused extensive bone destruction and a significant increase in osteoclast numbers as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Gene expression was compared between HSC3-C13 and HSC3-C17 cells by using microarray analysis, which showed that CXCL2 gene was highly expressed in HSC3-C13 cells as compared to HSC3-C17 cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of CXCL2 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The increase in osteoclast numbers induced by the HSC3-C13-conditioned medium was dose-dependently inhibited by addition of anti-human CXCL2-neutralizing antibody in a co-culture system. Recombinant CXCL2 increased the expression of Rankl in UAMS-32 cells. These results indicate that CXCL2 is involved in bone destruction induced by oral cancer. This is the first report showing the role of CXCL2 in cancer-associated bone destruction.

Luzina IG, Pickering EM, Kopach P, et al.
Full-length IL-33 promotes inflammation but not Th2 response in vivo in an ST2-independent fashion.
J Immunol. 2012; 189(1):403-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Expression of IL-33 is elevated in patients with pulmonary diseases, and full-length (not proteolytically processed) IL-33 is the predominant form in the lungs in health and disease. To determine whether activation of IL-33 is needed for functional effects, activities of full-length mouse and mature mouse (mm) forms of IL-33 were compared in vivo. Replication-deficient adenoviral constructs were used for gene delivery. Both isoforms caused pulmonary infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils, whereas mm IL-33 also caused pulmonary eosinophilia and goblet cell hyperplasia and increased expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, MCP-1, and KC. The different effects were not associated with differential release from IL-33-producing cells or by differences in subcellular distributions of IL-33 isoforms. Germline deficiency of the cell surface receptor chain ST2 abrogated the mm IL-33-induced Th2-associated effects (pulmonary eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia, and increased IL-4 and IL-5), yet the lymphocytic infiltration induced by full-length mouse IL-33 or mm IL-33 was not fully abrogated by the absence of ST2. The similar effects of IL-33 isoforms were associated with comparable regulation of gene expression, notably matrix metalloproteinases 3, 10, and 13. Thus, full-length IL-33 is functionally active in vivo in an ST2-independent fashion, and its effects are partially different from those of mature IL-33. The different effects of these isoforms, particularly the pro-Th2 effects of mature IL-33, are due to differential utilization of the IL-33R chain ST2, whereas their similar effects result from regulation of gene expression.

Milovanovic M, Volarevic V, Radosavljevic G, et al.
IL-33/ST2 axis in inflammation and immunopathology.
Immunol Res. 2012; 52(1-2):89-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, binds to its plasma membrane receptor, heterodimeric complex consisted of membrane-bound ST2L and IL-1R accessory protein, inducing NFkB and MAPK activation. IL-33 exists as a nuclear precursor and may act as an alarmin, when it is released after cell damage or as negative regulator of NFκB gene transcription, when acts in an intracrine manner. ST2L is expressed on several immune cells: Th2 lymphocytes, NK, NKT and mast cells and on cells of myeloid lineage: monocytes, dendritic cells and granulocytes. IL-33/ST2 axis can promote both Th1 and Th2 immune responses depending on the type of activated cell and microenvironment and cytokine network in damaged tissue. We previously described and discuss here the important role of IL-33/ST2 axis in experimental models of type 1 diabetes, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, fulminant hepatitis and breast cancer. We found that ST2 deletion enhance the development of T cell-mediated autoimmune disorders, EAE and diabetes mellitus type I. Disease development was accompanied by dominantly Th1/Th17 immune response but also higher IL-33 production, which suggest that IL-33 in receptor independent manner could promote the development of inflammatory autoreactive T cells. IL-33/ST2 axis has protective role in Con A hepatitis. ST2-deficient mice had more severe hepatitis with higher influx of inflammatory cells in liver and dominant Th1/Th17 systemic response. Pretreatment of mice with IL-33 prevented Con A-induced liver damage through prevention of apoptosis of hepatocytes and Th2 amplification. Deletion of IL-33/ST2 axis enhances cytotoxicity of NK cells, production of IFN-γ in these cells and systemic production of IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α, which leads to attenuated tumor growth. IL-33 treatment of tumor-bearing mice suppresses activity of NK cells, dendritic cell maturation and enhances alternative activation of macrophages. In conclusion, we observed that IL-33 has attenuated anti-inflammatory effects in T cell-mediated responses and that both IL-33 and ST2 could be further explored as potential therapeutic targets in treatment of immune-mediated diseases.

Gillibert-Duplantier J, Duthey B, Sisirak V, et al.
Gene expression profiling identifies sST2 as an effector of ErbB2-driven breast carcinoma cell motility, associated with metastasis.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(30):3516-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase in breast cancer contributes to tumor development and is associated with poor prognosis. However, the mechanism by which ErbB2 might contribute to metastasis is not well defined. To identify genes that mediate ErbB2-driven cell motility, we performed differential gene expression analysis of ErbB2-expressing migrating breast cancer cells vs mutant ErbB2-expressing non-migrating cells. Among the genes that were specifically induced in migrating cells were known transcriptional targets of ErbB2, such as matrix metalloproteinases, and novel ErbB2 targets. Contribution of selected candidate genes to ErbB2-driven cell motility was tested by small interfering RNA targeting. Knockdown of the soluble form of ST2 (sST2), also called interleukin-1 receptor-like 1, one of the most robustly induced genes, decreased ErbB2-induced cell motility in two different cell lines. In response to ErbB2 activation, sST2 protein expression and secretion were increased. Moreover, recombinant sST2 associated with the plasma membrane and sST2-blocking antibodies reduced ErbB2-induced motility. Interestingly, cells from metastatic breast tumors secreted higher levels of sST2 than primary tumor cells. Finally, sST2 was found at high levels in the serum of metastatic breast cancer patients. Our data suggest that sST2 contributes to breast cancer cell motility and that sST2 secretion is associated with metastasis.

Wang XL, Kong F, Shen T, et al.
Sesquiterpenoids from myrrh inhibit androgen receptor expression and function in human prostate cancer cells.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011; 32(3):338-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To examine whether two naturally occurring sesquiterpenoids (ST1 and ST2) with anti-proliferative activity in prostate cancer cells inhibit androgen receptor (AR) signaling.
METHODS: Human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC3 were used. The expression of AR, AR translocation into the nucleus, and expression levels of AR coactivators ARA70 and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) in LNCaP cells were examined using real-time PCR and Western blot. Changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) protein levels, PSA promoter activity, and androgen response element (ARE)-mediated reporter gene activity were examined using enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) and transient transfection assays. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to analyze the interaction between AR and the AR coactivators in ST1- and ST2-treated cells.
RESULTS: In LNCaP cells, ST1 and ST2 (40 μmol/L) led to a significant decrease in the expression of AR as well as a reduction of AR translocation into the nucleus, but had no effect on AR protein translation. ST1 and ST2 treatment also resulted in a significant decrease in the level of PSA protein secreted into the medium and was able to suppress PSA promoter-dependent and ARE-dependent luciferase activity. Furthermore, decreased expression of ARA70 and SRC-1 was observed when LNCaP cells were exposed to ST1 and ST2, which interfered with their ability to interact with AR.
CONCLUSION: The observations suggest that suppression of AR transactivation by ST1 and ST2 may be mediated, in part, by inhibiting AR nuclear translocation and/or interfering with the interaction between AR and its coactivators ARA70 and SRC-1. Therefore, sesquiterpenoids could be developed as novel therapeutic agents for treating prostate cancer.

Kurio N, Shimo T, Fukazawa T, et al.
Anti-tumor effect in human breast cancer by TAE226, a dual inhibitor for FAK and IGF-IR in vitro and in vivo.
Exp Cell Res. 2011; 317(8):1134-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a 125-kDa non-receptor type tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions. FAK overexpression is frequently found in invasive and metastatic cancers of the breast, colon, thyroid, and prostate, but its role in osteolytic metastasis is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed anti-tumor effects of the novel FAK Tyr(397) inhibitor TAE226 against bone metastasis in breast cancer by using TAE226. Oral administration of TAE226 in mice significantly decreased bone metastasis and osteoclasts involved which were induced by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and increased the survival rate of the mouse models of bone metastasis. TAE226 also suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in vivo and the proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Significantly, TAE226 inhibited the osteoclast formation in murine pre-osteoclastic RAW264.7 cells, and actin ring and pit formation in mature osteoclasts. Moreover, TAE226 inhibited the receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B Ligand (RANKL) gene expression induced by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in bone stromal ST2 cells and blood free calcium concentration induced by PTHrP administration in vivo. These findings suggest that FAK was critically involved in osteolytic metastasis and activated in tumors, pre-osteoclasts, mature osteoclasts, and bone stromal cells and TAE226 can be effectively used for the treatment of cancer induced bone metastasis and other bone diseases.

Savage KJ, Ferreri AJ, Zinzani PL, Pileri SA
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma--not otherwise specified.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2011; 79(3):321-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) does correspond to a heterogeneous group of nodal and extranodal mature T-cell lymphomas, with a low prevalence in Western countries. PTCL-NOS accounts for about 25% of all PTCL, which represent over 15% of all lymphomas. In the lymph node, PTCL-NOS shows paracortical or diffuse infiltrates with effacement of the normal architecture, with a broad cytological spectrum and a frequently observed inflammatory background. Some morphological variants include: lymphoepithelioid or Lennert's type, T-zone, and follicular. PTCL-NOS is characterized by an aberrant T-cell phenotype, with frequent loss of CD5 and CD7. A CD4+/CD8- phenotype predominates in nodal cases. CD4/CD8 +/+ or -/- is at times seen, as is CD8, CD56 and cytotoxic granule expression. Ki-67 rate is typically high. TCR β-chain is usually expressed; TCR genes are most often clonally rearranged. PTCL-NOS typically occurs in adults (median age 55-60 years), with a higher prevalence in males. It presents more often as disseminated disease, occasionally with eosinophilia, pruritis or hemophagocytic syndrome. Patients often have B symptoms, generalized lymphadenopathy, bone marrow infiltration, and extranodal involvement, with high or high-intermediate IPI score in 50-70% of cases. Prognosis is poor, with a 5-year OS of 20-30%. Some variables, like ST2(L), CXCR5, CXCR3, EBV infection, cytotoxic granule expression, high proliferative index, NF-κB expression, were proposed as prognostic indicators, but the IPI score, and its variant called PIT, remains the most effective prognostic factor. Patients with PTCL-NOS should be treated with anthracycline-containing chemotherapy, followed by radiotherapy in cases of stage I-II disease. This strategy is associated with an overall response rate higher than 60%, but the 5-year overall survival is only 20-30%. Upfront high-dose chemotherapy supported by autologous or allogeneic SCT is an investigational approach, with a 4-year overall survival of about 40%. Patients with chemosensitive relapse respond favorably to high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT, with long-term survival rates of 35-45%. Graft-versus-lymphoma effect following allogeneic SCT has been observed; and reduced intensity conditioning emerges as an attractive strategy for frail patients. Most patients with PTCL-NOS are enrolled in prospective trials to explore new approaches, and new agents, like gemcitabine, alemtuzumab and pralatrexate, are being investigated.

Kayamori K, Sakamoto K, Nakashima T, et al.
Roles of interleukin-6 and parathyroid hormone-related peptide in osteoclast formation associated with oral cancers: significance of interleukin-6 synthesized by stromal cells in response to cancer cells.
Am J Pathol. 2010; 176(2):968-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We investigated the roles of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)-induced osteoclast formation. Microarray analyses performed on 43 human OSCC specimens revealed that many of the specimens overexpressed PTHrP mRNA, but a few overexpressed IL-6 mRNA. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that IL-6 was expressed not only in cancer cells but also in fibroblasts and osteoclasts at the tumor-bone interface. Many of the IL-6-positive cells coexpressed vimentin. Conditioned medium (CM) derived from the culture of oral cancer cell lines (BHY, Ca9-22, HSC3, and HO1-u-1) stimulated Rankl expression in stromal cells and osteoclast formation. Antibodies against both human PTHrP and mouse IL-6 receptor suppressed Rankl in ST2 cells and osteoclast formation induced by CM from BHY and Ca9-22, although the inhibitory effects of IL6 antibody were greater than those of PTHrP antibody. CM derived from all of the OSCC cell lines effectively induced IL-6 expression in stromal cells, and the induction was partially blocked by anti-PTHrP antibody. Xenografts of HSC3 cells onto the periosteal region of the parietal bone in athymic mice presented histology and expression profiles of RANKL and IL-6 similar to those observed in bone-invasive human OSCC specimens. These results indicate that OSCC provides a suitable microenvironment for osteoclast formation not only by producing IL-6 and PTHrP but also by stimulating stromal cells to synthesize IL-6.

Marvie P, Lisbonne M, L'helgoualc'h A, et al.
Interleukin-33 overexpression is associated with liver fibrosis in mice and humans.
J Cell Mol Med. 2010; 14(6B):1726-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-33 (IL-33), the most recently identified member of the IL-1 family, induces synthesis of T Helper 2 (Th2)-type cytokines via its heterodimeric ST2/IL-1RAcP receptor. Th2-type cytokines play an important role in fibrosis; thus, we investigated the role of IL-33 in liver fibrosis. IL-33, ST2 and IL-1RAcP gene expression was analysed in mouse and human normal (n= 6) and fibrotic livers (n= 28), and in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; n= 22), using real-time PCR. IL-33 protein was detected in normal and fibrotic liver sections and in isolated liver cells using Western blotting and immunolocalization approaches. Our results showed that IL-33 and ST2 mRNA was overproduced in mouse and human fibrotic livers, but not in human HCC. IL-33 expression correlated with ST2 expression and also with collagen expression in fibrotic livers. The major sources of IL-33 in normal liver from both mice and human beings are the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and, in fibrotic liver, the activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Moreover, IL-33 expression was increased in cultured HSC when stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, IL-33 is strongly associated with fibrosis in chronic liver injury and activated HSC are a source of IL-33.

Haga Y, Yanagisawa K, Ohto-Ozaki H, et al.
The effect of ST2 gene product on anchorage-independent growth of a glioblastoma cell line, T98G.
Eur J Biochem. 2003; 270(1):163-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ST2 gene, which is specifically induced by growth stimulation in fibroblasts, encodes interleukin-1 receptor-related proteins and is widely expressed in hematopoietic, helper T, and various cancer cells. However, the physiological as well as pathological functions of the ST2 gene products are not yet fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the expression of the ST2 gene in human glioma cell lines and human brain tumor samples with real-time polymerase chain reaction method, the results of which revealed that the expression level of the ST2 gene in glioma cell lines and glioblastoma samples is significantly lower than that in a fibroblastic cell line, TM12, and benign brain tumors, suggesting the reverse relationship between malignancy and ST2 expression. As we could not detect the soluble ST2 protein in the culture fluid of the T98G glioblastic cell line by ELISA, we established stable transformants of T98G that continuously produce and secrete the ST2 protein, in order to study the effect of the ST2 protein on malignancy. Although we could not detect a remarkable difference in proliferation between transformants and control cells in conventional tissue culture dishes, the efficiency of colony formation in soft agar was significantly decreased in the case of cells that continuously produce the ST2 protein. Furthermore, inhibition of colony formation in soft agar was observed in wild-type T98G cells when purified soluble ST2 protein was added to the culture, in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the results suggest that the expression of ST2 suppressed the anchorage-independent growth and malignancy.

Michigami T, Shimizu N, Williams PJ, et al.
Cell-cell contact between marrow stromal cells and myeloma cells via VCAM-1 and alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin enhances production of osteoclast-stimulating activity.
Blood. 2000; 96(5):1953-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloma is a unique hematologic malignancy that exclusively homes in the bone marrow and induces massive osteoclastic bone destruction presumably by producing cytokines that promote the differentiation of the hematopoietic progenitors to osteoclasts (osteoclastogenesis). It is recognized that neighboring bone marrow stromal cells influence the expression of the malignant phenotype in myeloma cells. This study examined the role of the interactions between myeloma cells and neighboring stromal cells in the production of osteoclastogenic factors to elucidate the mechanism underlying extensive osteoclastic bone destruction. A murine myeloma cell line 5TGM1, which causes severe osteolysis, expresses alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin and tightly adheres to the mouse marrow stromal cell line ST2, which expresses the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a ligand for alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin. Co-cultures of 5TGM1 with primary bone marrow cells generated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Co-cultures of 5TGM1 with ST2 showed increased production of bone-resorbing activity and neutralizing antibodies against VCAM-1 or alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin inhibited this. The 5TGM1 cells contacting recombinant VCAM-1 produced increased osteoclastogenic and bone-resorbing activity. The activity was not blocked by the neutralizing antibody to known osteoclastogenic cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. These data suggest that myeloma cells are responsible for producing osteoclastogenic activity and that establishment of direct contact with marrow stromal cells via alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin/VCAM-1 increases the production of this activity by myeloma cells. They also suggest that the presence of stromal cells may provide a microenvironment that allows exclusive colonization of myeloma cells in the bone marrow. (Blood. 2000;96:1953-1960)

Li H, Tago K, Io K, et al.
The cloning and nucleotide sequence of human ST2L cDNA.
Genomics. 2000; 67(3):284-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ST2 gene is a member of the IL-1 receptor family and is hypothesized to be involved in helper T cell function, but its functional ligand and physiological role remain unknown. We have cloned the human ST2L cDNA that encodes a distinct type of membrane-bound ST2 protein. The predicted 556-amino-acid sequence showed 67% identity to the mouse ST2L protein. The human ST2 gene (IL1RL1) contains 13 exons and spans 40 kb in length. Its exon-intron organization was elucidated from a registered human genomic sequence derived from chromosome 2q, which contains three other genes belonging to the IL-1 receptor family in an approximately 202-kb genomic region. The tissue distribution of ST2 expression was examined by RT-PCR, and the soluble form (ST2, IL1RL1-a) and ST2L (IL1RL1-b) appear to be expressed differentially. We also established stable transfectants of a human glioblastoma cell line, T98G, that express human ST2L constitutively, and we confirmed cell-surface expression of human ST2L protein on the transfectants.

Tominaga Si, Kuroiwa K, Tago K, et al.
Presence and expression of a novel variant form of ST2 gene product in human leukemic cell line UT-7/GM.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999; 264(1):14-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
A novel variant cDNA from the human ST2 gene other than ST2 or ST2L was identified and tentatively named ST2V. Alternative splicing inserts a new exon which leads to a change in the C-terminal portion of ST2, causing it to gain a hydrophobic tail instead of losing the third immunoglobulin-like domain. ST2V is expressed in human leukemic cell line UT-7 and its sublines UT-7/GM, UT-7/EPO, and UT-7/TPO, in addition to human helper T cell line 5C10. The amount of ST2V mRNA is greatly diminished when UT-7/GM cells are induced to differentiate into either erythroblastic or megakaryoblastic phenotypes. The possible roles of the ST2V in growth and differentiation are intriguing.

Yanagisawa K, Naito Y, Kuroiwa K, et al.
The expression of ST2 gene in helper T cells and the binding of ST2 protein to myeloma-derived RPMI8226 cells.
J Biochem. 1997; 121(1):95-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ST2 gene, which is specifically induced by growth stimulation, encodes interleukin-1 receptor-related proteins. Using the RT-PCR method, we found that the ST2 gene was broadly expressed in hematopoietic cell lines. It was also expressed specifically in helper T cell lines among lymphocytic cell lines. We analyzed the expression of ST2 in mouse helper T cell subsets with Northern blotting analysis. Mouse Th1 cell lines so far studied did not express ST2 mRNAs. On the other hand, one of the Th2 cell lines, D10, expressed ST2L (transmembrane form) without stimulation, while co-stimulation by PMA and A23187 induced ST2 (soluble form) mRNA. These results suggest that the ST2 gene is involved in the regulation of the immune system. IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and receptor antagonist did not bind to ST2L protein, which prompted us to search for the specific ligand of ST2. The recombinant human ST2 protein was purified and labeled with FITC. The labeled human ST2 protein bound with myeloma-derived RPMI8226 cells among the various B-cell lines, indicating possible involvement of ST2 in T-cell/B-cell interaction.

Yoshida K, Arai T, Yokota T, et al.
Studies on natural ST2 gene products in the human leukemic cell line UT-7 using monoclonal antihuman ST2 antibodies.
Hybridoma. 1995; 14(5):419-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Eight species of murine monoclonal antibodies against human ST2 protein, which is highly similar in protein sequence to the interleukin 1 receptor, were produced. The fusion was carried out between the murine myeloma cell line PAI and murine lymph node or spleen cells from mice immunized with the recombinant ST2 protein produced in Escherichia coli. Characterization of these monoclonal antibodies by immunoblot analysis revealed that they all reacted with recombinant, N-glycosylated ST2 protein that was secreted from COS7 cells transiently transfected with a mammalian expression vector carrying ST2 cDNA. The recombinant N-glycosylated ST2 protein could be immunoprecipitated by 5 out of 6 species of the IgG class monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, these antibodies were also able to detect, by immunofluorescence, the membrane-bound chimeric molecule possessing an extracellular portion of human ST2 and a transmembrane and cytoplasmic portion of murine receptor type ST2L expressed on COS7 cells, indicating that these monoclonal antibodies were useful for detecting the natural membrane-bound ST2 in human cells. Combining immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence with the aid of these monoclonal antibodies, together with the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method, the human leukemic cell line UT-7 was demonstrated to express human ST2 mRNA and protein. The identification of the ST2 gene product in UT-7 cells may help investigators elucidate the function of the human ST2 gene.

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