Gene Summary

Gene:SSTR5; somatostatin receptor 5
Aliases: SS-5-R
Summary:Somatostatin and its related peptide cortistatin exert multiple biological actions on normal and tumoral tissue targets by interacting with somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). The protein encoded by this gene is one of the SSTRs, which is a multi-pass membrane protein and belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase, and different regions of this receptor molecule are required for the activation of different signaling pathways. A mutation in this gene results in somatostatin analog resistance. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:somatostatin receptor type 5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 21 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 21 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 21 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SSTR5 (cancer-related)

Murasawa S, Kageyama K, Sugiyama A, et al.
Inhibitory effects of SOM230 on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 394(1-2):37-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by pituitary corticotroph adenomas is the main cause of Cushing's disease. A drug that targets pituitary ACTH-secreting adenomas would aid treatment of Cushing's disease. Octreotide, a somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2)-preferring somatostatin analogue, has no effect on ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing's disease. The multiligand SOM230 (pasireotide) displays a much higher affinity for SSTR1 and SSTR5 than octreotide and suppresses ACTH secretion in cultures of human corticotroph tumors to a greater extent than octreotide. In the present in vitro and in vivo study, we determined the effect of SOM230 on ACTH production and cell proliferation of AtT-20 corticotroph tumor cells. SOM230 decreased proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels in AtT-20 cells and ACTH levels in the culture medium of these cells, suggesting that SOM230 suppresses ACTH synthesis and secretion in corticotroph tumor cells. SOM230 also decreased cell proliferation and both cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein and Akt phosphorylation in AtT-20 cells. SSTR5 knockdown inhibited the SOM230-induced decreases in cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses revealed that SOM230 did not attenuate cell cycle progression. Tumor weight in mice xenografted with AtT-20 cells and treated with SOM230 was significantly lower than in AtT-20-xenografted control mice. SOM230 also significantly decreased plasma ACTH levels, and POMC and pituitary tumor transforming gene mRNA levels in the tumor cells. Thus, SOM230 inhibits ACTH production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

Wang L, Huang J, Jiang M, et al.
CAMK1 phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting and transport network in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by biocomputation.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014; 70(2):1011-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We data-analyzed and constructed the high-expression CAMK1 phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting and transport network in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with low-expression (fold change ≥ 2) no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection) in GEO data set, using integration of gene regulatory network inference method with gene ontology (GO). Our result showed that CAMK1 transport subnetwork upstream KCNQ3, LCN2, NKX2_5, NUP62, SORT1, STX1A activated CAMK1, and downstream CAMK1-activated AFP, ENAH, KPNA2, SLC4A3; CAMK1 signal subnetwork upstream BRCA1, DKK1, GPSM2, LEF1, NR5A1, NUP62, SORT1, SSTR5, TBL3 activated CAMK1, and downstream CAMK1-activated MAP2K6, SFRP4, SSTR5, TSHB, UBE2C in HCC. We proposed that CAMK1 activated network enhanced endosome to lysosome transport, endosome transport via multivesicular body sorting pathway, Golgi to endosome transport, intracellular protein transmembrane transport, intracellular protein transport, ion transport, mRNA transport, plasma membrane to endosome transport, potassium ion transport, protein transport, vesicle-mediated transport, anion transport, intracellular transport, androgen receptor signaling pathway, cell surface receptor-linked signal transduction, hormone-mediated signaling, induction of apoptosis by extracellular signals, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in transcription of p21 class mediator, signal transduction resulting in induction of apoptosis, phosphoinositide-mediated signaling, Wnt receptor signaling pathway, as a result of inducing phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting, and transport in HCC. Our hypothesis was verified by CAMK1 functional regulation subnetwork containing positive regulation of calcium ion transport via voltage gated calcium channel, cell proliferation, DNA repair, exocytosis, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, immunoglobulin-mediated immune response, mast cell activation, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against tumor cell target, protein ubiquitination, sodium ion transport, survival gene product activity, T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, transcription, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription via serum response element binding, exit from mitosis, ubiquitin ligase activity during mitotic cell cycle, regulation of angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell growth, cell proliferation, cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity, gene expression, insulin secretion, steroid biosynthesis, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription from RNA polymerase III promoter, cell cycle, cell migration, DNA recombination, and protein metabolism; also by CAMK1 negative functional regulation subnetwork including negative regulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation, centriole replication, fatty acid biosynthesis, lipoprotein lipase activity, MAPK activity, progression through cell cycle, transcription, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, cell growth, phosphorylation, and ubiquitin ligase activity during mitotic cell cycle in HCC.

Wang S, Bao Z, Liang QM, et al.
Octreotide stimulates somatostatin receptor-induced apoptosis of SW480 colon cancer cells by activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, A Wnt/β-catenin pathway modulator.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2013; 60(127):1639-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide hormone somatostatin and its receptors (SSTRs) have a wide range of physiological functions and play a role in the treatment of numerous human diseases, including colorectal cancer. Octreotide, a somatostatin-analog peptide, inhibits growth of colonic cancer SW480 cells through Wnt/β-catenin pathway modulation. However, the specific octreotide-stimulating SSTR subtypes and the signal-transduction mechanism responsible for the negative regulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway by octreotide have not been fully elucidated.
METHODOLOGY: Octreotide-induced apoptosis in SW480 colon cancer cells mediated by SSTR2,SSTR5-dependent regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway components GSK-3β and β-catenin was investigated. Cell apoptosis of SW480 cells was measured by apoptosis-DNA ladder assay. SSTR1, SSTR2, SSTR3, SSTR4, and SSTR5 mRNA expression levels were confirmed by RT-PCR; β-catenin, TCF-4, cyclin D1, c-Myc, and GSK-3β protein levels were examined by Western blot. The distribution of β-catenin in the cell was analyzed with immunocytochemistry.
RESULTS: Octreotide treatment increased SSTR2,SSTR5-induced apoptosis of SW480 colon cancer cells, promoted the plasma membrane accumulation of β-catenin, inactivated T-cell factor-dependent transcription, and downregulated Wnt target genes cyclin D1 and c-Myc. Further, octreotide treatment mediated the activation of GSK-3.
CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings showed the negative regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by peptide hormone G protein-coupled receptors SSTRs.

Mayr B, Buslei R, Theodoropoulou M, et al.
Molecular and functional properties of densely and sparsely granulated GH-producing pituitary adenomas.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2013; 169(4):391-400 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: GH-producing pituitary adenomas display two distinct morphological patterns of cytoplasmic GH-containing secretory granules, namely the densely and sparsely granulated somatotroph adenoma subtype. It is unknown whether these morphological variants reflect distinct pathophysiological entities at the molecular level.
METHODS: In 28 GH-producing adenoma tissues from a consecutive set of patients undergoing pituitary surgery for acromegaly, we studied the GH granulation pattern, the expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR) as well as the calcium, cAMP and ZAC1 pathways in primary adenoma cell cultures.
RESULTS: The expression of GSP oncogene was similar between densely and sparsely granulated somatotroph adenoma cells. There were no differences in the calcium, cAMP and ZAC1 pathways as well as in their regulation by SSTR agonists. SSTR2 was exclusively expressed in densely but not in sparsely granulated tumours (membrane expression 86 vs 0%; cytoplasmic expression 67 vs 0%). By contrast, expression of SSTR5 was only found in sparsely but not in densely granulated somatotroph adenomas (membrane expression 29 vs 0%; cytoplasmic expression 57 vs 0%).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that different granulation patterns in GH-producing adenomas do not reflect differences in pathways and factors pivotal for somatotroph differentiation and function. In vitro, the vast majority of both densely and sparsely granulated tumour cells were responsive to SSTR activation at the molecular level. Sparsely granulated adenomas lacking SSTR2, but expressing SSTR5, might be responsive to novel SSTR agonists with increased affinity to SSTR5.

Tsilidis KK, Travis RC, Appleby PN, et al.
Insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and blood concentrations, dietary protein and risk of prostate cancer in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).
Int J Cancer. 2013; 133(2):495-504 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It has been hypothesized that a high intake of dairy protein may increase prostate cancer risk by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been weakly associated with circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), but none of these SNPs was associated with risk of prostate cancer. We examined whether an association between 16 SNPs associated with circulating IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 concentrations and prostate cancer exists within subgroups defined by dietary protein intake in 5,253 cases and 4,963 controls of European ancestry within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The BPC3 includes nested case-control studies within large North-American and European cohorts. Per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for the SNPs were compared across tertiles of protein intake, which was expressed as the percentage of energy derived from total, animal, dairy or plant protein sources, using conditional logistic regression models. Total, animal, dairy and plant protein intakes were significantly positively associated with blood IGF-1 (p < 0.01), but not with IGFBP-3 concentrations (p > 0.10) or with risk of prostate cancer (p > 0.20). After adjusting for multiple testing, the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by intakes of protein, although two interactions by intake of plant protein were of marginal statistical significance [SSTR5 (somatostatin receptor 5)-rs197056 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.001); SSTR5-rs197057 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.002)]. We found no strong evidence that the associations between 16 IGF pathway SNPs and prostate cancer differed by intakes of dietary protein.

Lattanzio L, Tonissi F, Monteverde M, et al.
Differential molecular mechanism of docetaxel-octreotide combined treatment according to the docetaxel-resistance status in PC3 prostate cancer cells.
Anticancer Drugs. 2013; 24(2):120-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
To examine the effect and the molecular mechanisms of the combined treatment of the somatostatin (SST) analogue octreotide with docetaxel: analysis of proliferation, apoptosis and migration in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3, either sensitive (PC3wt) or made resistant to docetaxel (PC3R). We examined the effect of the two drugs individually or in combination on cell proliferation and migration by analysis of apoptosis and cell cycle proteins. The role of octreotide in modulating P-glycoprotein function was examined together with the modulation of SST receptors type 2 and 5 (SSTR2 and SSTR5). We observed an enhanced effect of docetaxel and octreotide given in combination or in sequence compared with either agent alone; this result was particularly evident when docetaxel was given before octreotide in PC3wt and when the two drugs were given together in PC3R cells. In contrast to lanreotide, our data indicate that octreotide does not act as a P-glycoprotein inhibitor in PC3R cells. A role of docetaxel and combined treatment in regulating SSTR2, SSTR5, proliferation and apoptosis gene expression is suggested as the possible mechanism for the enhanced effect observed. In addition, an evaluation of the effect of the combined treatment on cellular migration was examined, showing a moderate loss of invasive properties in PC3R cells. The present results confirm that SST analogues may be combined with docetaxel to increase the antitumour effect in patients with advanced prostate carcinoma.

Ramírez C, Cheng S, Vargas G, et al.
Expression of Ki-67, PTTG1, FGFR4, and SSTR 2, 3, and 5 in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: a high throughput TMA, immunohistochemical study.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(5):1745-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are the most common pituitary neoplasms. There is no clinical, biochemical, or histopathological marker that would accurately predict recurrence of NFPA.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a large group of NFPA for the presence of potential markers of biological behavior.
DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study using a high throughput tissue microarray technology was conducted at tertiary care centers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-four gonadotroph and null cell adenomas were included in the tissue microarray. Using highly specific antibodies and appropriate controls, we determined the expression of Ki-67, pituitary tumor transforming gene 1, the N-terminally truncated pituitary tumor-derived fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (FGFR4), as well as somatostatin receptor subtypes 2, 3, and 5 (SSTR2, -3, and -5), in an attempt to establish correlations and/or associations with clinical characteristics of the patients.
RESULTS: Median Ki-67 index was 1.49 (interquartile range, 0.62-2.49). Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 nuclear immunoreactivity was found in all but one tumor (median percentage of positive nuclei, 11.44); immunopositivity for FGFR4 was found in the majority of the tumors, with variable levels of expression. The immunostaining score for SSTR2 was significantly higher than that for SSTR3 or SSTR5. FGFR4 expression correlated positively with SSTR2 and SSTR5 immunostaining scores (r = 0.59; P < 0.001; and r = 0.46; P < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the Ki-67 index was significantly associated with a tumor size greater than 3 cm (odds ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-4.58) as well as with tumor recurrence (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.89).
CONCLUSIONS: Ki-67 is the most consistent marker of biological behavior in NFPA. The finding of significant amounts of SSTR2 and SSTR5 may have therapeutic implications regarding the use of somatostatin analogs in preventing tumor recurrence.

Kato M, Inoshita N, Sugiyama T, et al.
Differential expression of genes related to drug responsiveness between sparsely and densely granulated somatotroph adenomas.
Endocr J. 2012; 59(3):221-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
There are two main subtypes of GH-producing pituitary adenoma: densely granulated (DG-type) and sparsely granulated (SG-type). Despite the difference in drug responsiveness between the two subtypes, their molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the differential expression of genes related to drug responsiveness between the two subtypes of somatotroph adenoma, and their relationship to the clinical characteristics. Eighty-two acromegaly patients (44 DG-type, 38 SG-type) were studied retrospectively. Clinical characteristics were compared between the two subtypes. Among them, 36 tumor tissue specimens (19 DG-type, 17 SG-type) were available for investigation of the expression of SSTR2, SSTR5 and D2R that are reported to be involved in drug responsiveness by realtime RT-PCR. Protein level was evaluated by immunohistochemical study. Patients with SG-type adenomas were younger in age and showed greater GH suppression by octreotide, but not by bromocriptin, and bigger in size and more invasiveness than DG-type adenomas. The mRNA expression of SSTR2 in DG-type adenomas were greater than those in SG-type adenomas and showed significantly positive correlation with GH suppression by octreotide. There was positive correlation between mRNA and protein levels of SSTR2. These data suggested that the differences of responsiveness to octreotide between DG- and SG-type adenomas are based on the expression levels of SSTR2.

Syro LV, Sundsbak JL, Scheithauer BW, et al.
Somatotroph pituitary adenoma with acromegaly and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: SSTR5 polymorphism and PKD1 mutation.
Pituitary. 2012; 15(3):342-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A 39-year-old woman with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) presented with acromegaly and a pituitary macroadenoma. There was a family history of this renal disorder. She had undergone surgery for pituitary adenoma 6 years prior. Physical examination disclosed bitemporal hemianopsia and elevation of both basal growth hormone (GH) 106 ng/mL (normal 0-5) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) 811 ng/mL (normal 48-255) blood levels. A magnetic resonance imaging scan disclosed a 3.0 cm sellar and suprasellar mass with both optic chiasm compression and left cavernous sinus invasion. Pathologic, cytogenetic, molecular and in silico analysis was undertaken. Histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies of the lesion disclosed a sparsely granulated somatotroph adenoma. Standard chromosome analysis on the blood sample showed no abnormality. Sequence analysis of the coding regions of PKD1 and PKD2 employing DNA from both peripheral leukocytes and the tumor revealed the most common PKD1 mutation, 5014_5015delAG. Analysis of the entire SSTR5 gene disclosed the variant c.142C>A (p.L48M, rs4988483) in the heterozygous state in both blood and tumor, while no pathogenic mutations were noted in the MEN1, AIP, p27Kip1 and SSTR2 genes. To our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of a GH-producing pituitary adenoma associated with ADPKD, but the first subjected to extensive morphological, ultrastructural, cytogenetic and molecular studies. The physical proximity of the PKD1 and SSTR5 genes on chromosome 16 suggests a causal relationship between ADPKD and somatotroph adenoma.

Li D, Tanaka M, Brunicardi FC, et al.
Association between somatostatin receptor 5 gene polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer risk and survival.
Cancer. 2011; 117(13):2863-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin (SST) inhibited cell proliferation and negatively regulated the release of growth hormones by means of specific receptors (SSTR). Genetic variation in SSTR had been associated with risk of human cancers but had never been investigated in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: In this retrospective study the SSTR5 gene in paired tumor and blood samples from 33 pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using the Sanger method were sequenced. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in samples from 863 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and 876 healthy controls using the TaqMan method were analyzed. The associations between gene polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer risk and survival were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively.
RESULTS: No somatic mutations were identified, but 3 nonsynonymous SSTR5 SNPs (P109S, L48M, and P335L) in pancreatic tumors were identified. The SSTR5 P109S variant allele was associated with a 1.62-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.43, P = 0.019). Furthermore, the SSTR5 L48M AC variant and smoking had a joint effect on pancreatic cancer risk (p(interaction) = 0.035). The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.58 (0.34-0.97), 1.49 (1.18-1.89), and 2.27 (1.35-3.83) for the variant genotype alone, smoking alone, and both factors, respectively, compared with no factors. Finally, SSTR5 P335L CC and P109S CC combined were associated with lower overall survival durations in patients with resectable disease.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that SSTR5 genetic variants play a role in pancreatic cancer development and progression.

Kaemmerer D, Peter L, Lupp A, et al.
Molecular imaging with ⁶⁸Ga-SSTR PET/CT and correlation to immunohistochemistry of somatostatin receptors in neuroendocrine tumours.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011; 38(9):1659-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are known for an overexpression in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET). The aim of the present study was to find out if the receptor density predicted by the semi-quantitative parameters generated from the static positron emission tomography (PET/CT) correlated with the in vitro immunohistochemistry using a novel rabbit monoclonal anti-SSTR2A antibody (clone UMB-1) for specific SSTR2A immunohistochemistry and polyclonal antibodies for SSTR1 and 3-5.
METHODS: Overall 14 surgical specimens generated from 34 histologically documented GEP-NET patients were correlated with the preoperative (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT. Quantitative assessment of the receptor density was done using the immunoreactive score (IRS) of Remmele and Stegner; the additional 4-point IRS classification for immunohistochemistry and standardized uptake values (SUV(max) and SUV(mean)) were used for PET/CT.
RESULTS: The IRS for SSTR2A and SSTR5 correlated highly significant with the SUV(max) on the PET/CT (p < 0.001; p < 0.05) and the IRS for SSTR2A with the SUV(mean) (p < 0.013). The level of SSTR2A score correlated significantly with chromogranin A staining and indirectly to the tumour grading.
CONCLUSION: The highly significant correlation between SSTR2A and SSTR5 and the SUV(max) on the (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT scans is concordant with the affinity profile of (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC to the SSTR subtypes and demonstrates the excellent qualification of somatostatin analogues in the diagnostics of NET. This study correlating somatostatin receptor imaging using (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT with immunohistochemically analysed SSTR also underlines the approval of therapy using somatostatin analogues, follow-up imaging as well as radionuclide therapy.

Muscarella LA, D'Alessandro V, la Torre A, et al.
Gene expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes SSTR2a, SSTR3 and SSTR5 in peripheral blood of neuroendocrine lung cancer affected patients.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2011; 34(5):435-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin (SS) acts as a universal endocrine off-switch, and also inhibits the growth of neuroendocrine tumours through its specific receptors (SSTRs). Somatostatin receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors, which are encoded by five separate genes (SSTR1-5). Short peptide analogues demonstrate specific binding only for the subgroup consisting of SSTR2a, SSTR3 and SSTR5. Moreover, previous studies reported that expression of mRNA for SSTR2a correlated with therapeutic outcome in patients with carcinoid tumours treated with somatostatin analogs.
PURPOSE: To develop and apply a Real Time Quantitative PCR technique (RT-qPCR) to compare and contrast the mRNA levels of SSTR2a, SSTR3 and SSTR5 in Neuroendocrine Lung Cancer affected patients.
METHODS: Peripheral blood samples from 21 neuroendocrine lung cancer affected patients (14 SCLC, 6 LC and 1 LCNEC) subjected to scintigraphy with (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide (OctreoScan) and 24 healthy blood donors were investigated by RT-qPCR. mRNA levels for SSTR2a, SSTR3 and SSTR5 were measured in peripheral blood samples with a relative quantification method using plasmid dilutions as calibration curves and GAPDH as reference gene.
RESULTS: A statistically significant increase in target genes/GAPDH copy number ratio was found for SSTR2a (median 38; IQR 22-141) and SSTR5 (median 51; IQR 19-499) in neuroendocrine lung cancer affected patients as compared with samples from healthy blood donors (P ≤ 0.0003 and P ≤ 0.0005). Since low levels of expression were detected in the control group for all three genes, optimal cut-off values were assessed using ROC curve analyses and were equal to 9.05 for SSTR2a and 16.97 for SSTR5. These cut off values resulted in a sensitivity of 86% (95%IC 65-95) for both markers and a specificity of 83% (95%IC 64-93%) and 79% (95%IC 60-91%) for SSTR2a and SSTR5 respectively. Comparison between OctreoScan results and RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated agreement in 76% of the cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that SSTR2a and SSTR5 mRNAs are detectable in peripheral blood of neuroendocrine lung cancer affected patients using real-time quantitative PCR, with a good agreement with OctreoScan. The high sensitivity of this non-invasive molecular technique suggests that this method could represent a useful tool in the clinical management of neuroendocrine lung cancers.

Zhou G, Gingras MC, Liu SH, et al.
The hypofunctional effect of P335L single nucleotide polymorphism on SSTR5 function.
World J Surg. 2011; 35(8):1715-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (SSTR5) mediates the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on insulin expression/secretion and cell proliferation. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SSTR5 have been identified, including P335L, a nonsynonymous SNP located in the protein C-terminal region and encrypted by the codon CCG (proline) or the codon CTG (leucine). In the present study we sought to determine the distribution of the SSTR5 P335L SNP in a cohort of pancreatic cancer patients and whether the P335L SNP affected cellular function of SSTR5 in human pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: The P335L germline genotype of 246 patients with pancreatic cancer (213 Caucasians, 16 Hispanics, and 17 African Americans) and 17 human pancreatic cell lines was determined with the TaqMan SNP Genotyping assay. Human SSTR5 leucine variant (L335) was generated by performing site-directed mutagenesis using SSTR5 proline variant (P335) as a template. Transient transfections were performed in HEK293, Mia PaCa-2, and β-TC-6 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. The expression of SSTR5 L335 was determined with a mouse monoclonal anti-SSTR5 L335 antibody generated in our laboratory. The cell proliferation rate was measured by performing MTS assays. Insulin concentration was measured by performing ELISA assays.
RESULTS: Genotyping of the patients' blood indicated that the frequency of the T allele (CT and TT genotypes) in codon 335 of SSTR5 in Caucasians, Hispanics, and African Americans was 52, 69, and 35%, respectively, which was race-dependent. Statistical analysis indicated that association between the frequency of the T allele and the existence of pancreatic cancer in each race missed significance perhaps due to limited sample size. In 17 tested human pancreatic cancer cell lines, 5 (Capan-2, HPAF-II, Panc03.27, Panc-1, and -3) were homozygous (TT genotype) and 9, including Mia PaCa-2, were heterozygous (CT genotype). Overexpression of SSTR5 L335 in Mia PaCa-2 cells enhanced cell proliferation compared to overexpression of SSTR5 P335. Overexpression of SSTR5 P335 enhanced the inhibitory effect of SSTR5 agonist RPL-1980 on cell proliferation of Mia PaCa-2 cells and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from mouse insulinoma cells, while overexpression of SSTR5 L335 blocked the inhibitory effect of RPL-1980. Overexpression of SSTR5 L335 enhanced PDX-1 expression in Mia PaCa-2 cells. A specific monoclonal antibody was generated to detect SSTR5 P335L.
CONCLUSION: SSTR5 P335L SNP widely exists in the human population, in patients with pancreatic cancer, and is race-dependent. The SNP is also present in selected human pancreatic cancer cell lines. In contrast to SSTR5 P335, overexpression of the SSTR5 L335 variant resulted in cellular proliferation and PDX-1 overexpression in human pancreatic cancer cells. Its overexpression blocked the inhibitory effect of an SSTR5-specific analog on human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from mouse insulinoma cells. These data suggest that SSTR5 P335L is a hypofunctional protein with a potentially harmful effect on function, as well as potential latent effect, and therefore it could affect the clinical response to somatostatin analog therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer.

Gatto F, Barbieri F, Castelletti L, et al.
In vivo and in vitro response to octreotide LAR in a TSH-secreting adenoma: characterization of somatostatin receptor expression and role of subtype 5.
Pituitary. 2011; 14(2):141-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHomas) are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism and account for less than 2% of pituitary adenomas. Medical therapy with somatostatin analogues (SSAs) effectively reduces TSH secretion in approximately 80% of patients and induces shrinkage in about 45% of tumors. According with previous data, resistance to SSA treatment might be due to heterogeneity in somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) expression. We report the case of TSHoma in a 41-year-old man treated with octreotide LAR that caused a dramatic decrease of TSH and thyroid hormones and tumor shrinkage already after 3 months of pre-surgical therapy. In search of potential molecular determinants of octreotide effectiveness, we measured, in primary cultures from this tumor, SSTR and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression, and octreotide and/or cabergoline effects on TSH secretion and cell proliferation. SSTR5 and D2R expression was higher than SSTR2. Octreotide significantly inhibited TSH secretion more effectively than cabergoline (P<0.001), whereas the combined treatment was comparable with cabergoline alone. Similarly, octreotide resulted more effective than cabergoline on cell proliferation, while the combination did not show any additive or synergistic effects. In conclusion, the significant antisecretive and antiproliferative effect of octreotide in this patient might be related to the high expression of SSTR5, in the presence of SSTR2. After reviewing the literature, indeed, in line with previous observations, we hypothesize that SSTR5/SSTR2 ratio in TSHomas may represent a useful marker in predicting the outcome of therapy with SSAs. The role of D2R should be further explored considering that the presence of D2R can influence SSTRs functionality.

Gu F, Schumacher FR, Canzian F, et al.
Eighteen insulin-like growth factor pathway genes, circulating levels of IGF-I and its binding protein, and risk of prostate and breast cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010; 19(11):2877-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its main binding protein, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), have been associated with risk of several types of cancer. Heritable factors explain up to 60% of the variation in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in studies of adult twins.
METHODS: We systematically examined common genetic variation in 18 genes in the IGF signaling pathway for associations with circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. A total of 302 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped in >5,500 Caucasian men and 5,500 Caucasian women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.
RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple testing, SNPs in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes were significantly associated with circulating IGF-I (P < 2.1 × 10(-4)); SNPs in the IGFBP3 and IGFALS genes were significantly associated with circulating IGFBP-3. Multi-SNP models explained R(2) = 0.62% of the variation in circulating IGF-I and 3.9% of the variation in circulating IGFBP-3. We saw no significant association between these multi-SNP predictors of circulating IGF-I or IGFBP-3 and risk of prostate or breast cancers.
CONCLUSION: Common genetic variation in the IGF1 and SSTR5 genes seems to influence circulating IGF-I levels, and variation in IGFBP3 and IGFALS seems to influence circulating IGFBP-3. However, these variants explain only a small percentage of the variation in circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in Caucasian men and women.
IMPACT: Further studies are needed to explore contributions from other genetic factors such as rare variants in these genes and variation outside of these genes.

Nishioka H, Tamura K, Iida H, et al.
Co-expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes and estrogen receptor-α mRNAs by non-functioning pituitary adenomas in young patients.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011; 331(1):73-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The expression by non-functioning adenomas (NFoma) of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes and estrogen receptor (ERα) is poorly understood. Consequently, the mRNAs of SSTR subtypes (SSTR) 1, 2, 3, and 5, dopamine receptor (D2R), and ERα were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in 59 NFomas and 50 functioning adenomas; the latter included 30 GH-secreting adenomas (GHomas) and 20 prolactinomas (PRLomas). NFomas expressed higher levels of SSTR3 than functioning adenomas but had lower levels of SSTR2, SSTR5 and D2R mRNAs than GHomas. Their ERα levels were higher than those of GHomas. The SSTR subtype mRNA levels in NFomas correlated significantly with each other; there was also a good correlation between the SSTR subtypes and ERα in NFomas. These correlations were largely only observed in younger patients (<50 years). The present study describes the differential expression of SSTR subtypes in the largest number of NFoma patients studied thus far, and further proposes possible involvements of SSTR3 and estrogen in the pathophysiology of NFomas.

Nakayama Y, Wada R, Yajima N, et al.
Profiling of somatostatin receptor subtype expression by quantitative PCR and correlation with clinicopathological features in pancreatic endocrine tumors.
Pancreas. 2010; 39(8):1147-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic endocrine tumor (PET) presents variable clinical features. Five subtypes of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) are involved in hormone secretion and cell proliferation. In this paper, we explore the correlation between the SSTR subtype messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and clinicopathological features of PET.
METHODS: Twenty-one cases of PET and 5 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinomas (AC) were studied. Using total RNA extracted from paraffin sections and fresh tissues, SSTR subtype mRNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The hormones and MIB1 index were examined using immunohistochemical techniques.
RESULTS: The mRNA levels of SSTR1, SSTR2, SSTR3, and SSTR5 were high in PET compared with AC, whereas the expression of SSTR4 was low in PET and AC. Levels of each subtype did not vary with histological grades. Somatostatin receptor 2 levels in functioning tumors were slightly low compared with nonfunctioning tumors. Four distinct groups of PET were identified by hierarchical cluster analysis, and two of these groups showed reduced SSTR5 with elevation of MIB1 index.
CONCLUSIONS: The study showed a heterogeneous expression profile of SSTR subtype mRNA and the association of reduction in SSTR5 with high proliferative activity. Such profiling of SSTR subtypes may provide useful information on tumor biology and treatment of PET.

Ishii A, Imanishi Y, Kobayashi K, et al.
The levels of somatostatin receptors in causative tumors of oncogenic osteomalacia are insufficient for their agonist to normalize serum phosphate levels.
Calcif Tissue Int. 2010; 86(6):455-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM) is a rare disease characterized by renal phosphate wasting and osteomalacia and is caused by the secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) from causative tumors. Scintigraphy with octreotide, which binds to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), is a useful way to locate causative tumors in OOM patients. However, the therapeutic effects of octreotide acetate are still controversial. Two OOM patients were administered octreotide acetate intramuscularly. Ten causative OOM tumors, including two resected from the patients participating in the octreotide administration study, were examined for expression of genes encoding SSTRs by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Octreotide therapy did not improve hypophosphatemia in either case, despite temporal decreases in FGF-23 levels in one patient. The mean expression levels of SSTR1, SSTR3, and SSTR5 were similar in the OOM and non-OOM tumors. Expression of SSTR2 was significantly higher in the OOM tumors than in the non-OOM tumors. Immunohistochemical examinations revealed the presence of SSTR2A, SSTR2B, and SSTR5 in both the OOM and non-OOM tumors. The expression of SSTR genes in OOM tumors contributes to positive imaging using octreotide scintigraphy. However, the levels of SSTRs seem to be insufficient for the octreotide therapy to improve hypophosphatemia. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms by which FGF-23 secretion from OOM tumors is suppressed by octreotide acetate.

Slaby O, Sachlova M, Bednarikova M, et al.
Gene expression of somatostatin receptor 4 predicts clinical outcome of patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors treated with somatostatin analogs.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2010; 25(2):237-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatostatin analogs (SSA) are the standard diagnostic and treatment tools in the clinical management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) expressing somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). Although symptomatic and biochemical control is obtained with SSA in the majority of functional NETs, antineoplastic effects of SSA are partial and of limited duration. The aim of this study was to quantify expression levels of five SSTR subtypes (SSTR1-SSTR5) and correlate them with the clinical outcomes of patients with NETs who underwent SSA therapy. The expression levels were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction in a series of 22 metastatic NETs with a median time of 10 months on the SSA therapy (range 2-82 months). The median duration of disease stabilization in patients who developed progression (n = 14) was 9 months (range 3-92 months). The median survival period for all patients was 44 months (range 3-175 months). According to RECIST criteria, one (5%) partial objective tumor response was obtained, disease stabilization was achieved in 10 (45%) patients, and progressive disease was observed in 11 (50%). Analysis of mRNA expression of the SSTR subtypes showed that SSTR2 and SSTR5 were expressed in all of the studied NETs; SSTR1 and SSTR4 in all but 3 tumors (86%); and SSTR3 in only 10 NETs (49%). Interestingly, our preliminary data suggest that only the levels of SSTR4, though it has the lowest affinity for SSA of all SSTR subtypes, were significantly associated with the stabilization of disease during SSA therapy (p = 0.0357). These levels correlated with time to progression (p = 0.0015) and overall survival (p = 0.0017) in NET patients.

Martinez-Alonso M, Llecha N, Mayorga ME, et al.
Expression of somatostatin receptors in human melanoma cell lines: effect of two different somatostatin analogues, octreotide and SOM230, on cell proliferation.
J Int Med Res. 2009 Nov-Dec; 37(6):1813-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatostatin analogues (SAs) are potential anticancer agents. This study was designed to investigate the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in melanoma cells and the effect of two SAs on cell proliferation and viability. Eighteen primary and metastatic human cutaneous melanoma cell lines were treated with octreotide and SOM230. Expression of SSTR1, SSTR2, SSTR3 and SSTR5 was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Proliferation, viability and cell death were assessed using standard assays. Inhibition was modelled by mixed-effect regression. Melanoma cells expressed one or more SSTR. Both SAs inhibited proliferation of most melanoma cell lines, but inhibition was < 50%. Neither SA affected cell viability or induced cell death. The results suggest that melanoma cell lines express SSTRs. The SAs investigated, under the conditions used in this study, did not, however, significantly inhibit melanoma growth or induce cell death. Novel SAs, combination therapy with SAs and their anti-angiogenic properties should be further investigated.

Klagge A, Krause K, Schierle K, et al.
Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in human thyroid tumours.
Horm Metab Res. 2010; 42(4):237-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are expressed in various endocrine tumours. The expression of SSTR at the tumour cell surface confers the possibility for diagnostic imaging and therapy of tumours using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues. The majority of currently available somatostatin analogues show a higher binding affinity for the SSTR2 subtype. To date, the precise expression pattern of the SSTR subtypes 1-5 in thyroid epithelial tumours remains to be determined. We investigated the mRNA expression of SSTR1-5 in benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumours [20 cold thyroid nodules (CTNs), 20 toxic thyroid nodules (TTNs), 20 papillary, 20 follicular, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas (PTCs, FTCs, ATCs, respectively)] and compared them to normal surrounding thyroid tissues. Four out of five SSTR subtypes were detected in malignant thyroid tumours, benign neoplasia, and normal surrounding tissue with a predominant expression of SSTR2 and SSTR5, and a weak expression of SSTR1 and SSTR3. Weak SSTR4 mRNA expression was detected in some PTCs. Compared to normal thyroid tissue, SSTR2 was significantly upregulated in PTC and ATC. In addition significant upregulation of SSTR3 was found in PTC. SSTR5 mRNA expression was increased in PTC and FTC and significantly decreased in CTN and TTN compared to normal thyroid tissue. SSTR2 is the predominant subtype in thyroid epithelial tumours with a high expression pattern, in particular, in PTC . Perspectively, the expression of distinct SSTR in thyroid epithelial tumours might represent a promising avenue for diagnostics and therapy of advanced thyroid cancer with somatostatin analogues.

Johansson M, McKay JD, Wiklund F, et al.
Genetic variation in the SST gene and its receptors in relation to circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, IGFBP3, and prostate cancer risk.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18(5):1644-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin (SST) and its receptors (SSTR1-5) may have a role in prostate cancer by influencing the IGFI hormone axis or through direct effects on prostate epithelia. We have investigated if genetic variation in the SST and SSTR1-5 genes influences prostate cancer risk and/or circulating IGFI and IGFBP3 hormone levels.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 28 haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SST and SSTR1-5 genes in a case-control/genetic association study to investigate the association between genetic variation and prostate cancer risk. The study included 2863 cases and 1737 controls from the Cancer Prostate in Sweden (CAPS) study. To investigate the genetic influence on circulating hormone levels, plasma concentrations of IGFI and IGFBP3 were analyzed in 874 controls of the CAPS study and 550 male subjects from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Cohort (NSHDC).
RESULTS: No clear association between prostate cancer risk and genetic variation of the SST and SSTR1-5 genes was identified. The SSTR5 missense single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988483 was associated with circulating IGFI (P = 0.002) and IGFBP3 (P = 0.0003) hormone levels in CAPS controls, with a per allele decrease of approximately 11%. This decrease was replicated in NSHDC for circulating IGFBP3 (P = 0.01) but not for IGFI (P = 0.09). Combining CAPS and NSHDC subjects indicated evidence of association between rs4988483 and both IGFBP3 (P = 2 x 10(-5)) and IGFI (P = 0.0004) hormone levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetic variation in the SSTR5 gene and, particularly, the rs4988483 single nucleotide polymorphism influence circulating IGFI and IGFBP3 hormone levels with no measurable effect on prostate cancer risk.

Tateno T, Kato M, Tani Y, et al.
Differential expression of somatostatin and dopamine receptor subtype genes in adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumors and silent corticotroph adenomas.
Endocr J. 2009; 56(4):579-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists are clinically used for medical therapy of functioning pituitary tumors, such as growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting tumors, however, their effects on ACTH-secreting tumors are controversial. This study was aimed to determine whether somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtype (1-5) and dopamine receptor type 2 (D2R) are differentially expressed in pituitary tumors causing Cushing's disease (CD), silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA), and non-functioning pituitary tumor (NFT). Tissue specimens were obtained from 35 pituitary tumors during transsphenoidal surgery. The steady-state mRNA levels of SSTR1-5 and D2R genes were determined by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Both SSTR1 and 2 mRNA levels in SCA were greater than CD, while SSTR1 mRNA levels, but not SSTR2, in SCA were also greater than NFT. SSTR5 mRNA levels in CD were greater than SCA, but did not differ between NFT and SCA. SSTR4 mRNA expression was undetectable. D2R mRNA levels were markedly lower in CD and SCA than in NFT. The present study suggests that somatostatin analogs more selective for SSTR5 and for SSTR1 and/or 2may have the therapeutic potential for medical treatment of CD and SCA, respectively, whereas clinical application of dopamine agonists selective for D2R is very limited in either CD or SCA.

Vieira Neto L, Taboada GF, Gadelha MR
Somatostatin receptors subtypes 2 and 5, dopamine receptor type 2 expression and gsp status as predictors of octreotide LAR responsiveness in acromegaly.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2008; 52(8):1288-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: We present two acromegalic patients in which clinical and molecular data are discussed in regard to their ability to predict long term octreotide LAR therapy response.
CASE REPORTS: Patient 1: female, 36 years old at diagnosis. Basal GH and IGF-I at diagnosis were 133 ng/mL and 181% above the upper limit of reference values (ULRV), respectively. Growth hormone during acute test with subcutaneous octreotide decreased from 133 to 13 ng/mL. Patient started on primary octreotide LAR therapy (20mg q28 days) and achieved biochemical parameters of disease control after 6 months. Molecular analysis of tumor fragments: gsp +; quantitative analysis of SSTR (somatostatin receptor) and DR (dopamine receptor) mRNA - SSTR2 23954; SSTR5 2407; DR2 total 17016 copies. Patient 2: male, 38 years old at diagnosis. Basal GH and IGF-I at diagnosis were 120 ng/mL and 114% ULRV, respectively. Patient underwent non-curative trans-sphenoidal surgery. Post-operative GH and IGF-I were 112 ng/mL and 137% ULRV, respectively. Growth hormone during acute test with subcutaneous octreotide decreased from 112 to 7 ng/mL. Octreotide LAR therapy (20 mg q28 days) was then initiated. After 6 months of treatment, patient did not attain biochemical control of disease and displayed increased tumor volume. Molecular analysis of tumor fragments: gsp not done; quantitative analysis of SSTR and DR mRNA - SSTR2 416; SSTR5 3767; DR2 total 3439 copies. In conclusion, these two cases illustrate how laboratory data can be conflicting as predictors of octreotide LAR responsiveness and how molecular analysis of tumor fragments can help explain different behaviors in clinically similar patients.

Zou Y, Xiao X, Li Y, Zhou T
Somatostatin analogues inhibit cancer cell proliferation in an SSTR2-dependent manner via both cytostatic and cytotoxic pathways.
Oncol Rep. 2009; 21(2):379-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are inhibitory G-protein coupled receptors that are ubiquitously expressed in normal and cancer cells. Somatostatins (SST) are the natural ligands for SSTRs and act as inhibitory regulators of hormone secretion and proliferation. Octreotide and RC-160 (vapreotide) are two well tolerated SSTR2/SSTR5 selective somatostatin analogues (SSA) that have been used in the treatment of cancers with mixed outcomes. Loss-of-expression of SSTR2 in tumor tissues has been suggested to correlate to tumor progressions and to the poor outcomes of somatostatin analogue treatment in certain clinical trials. In this study, exogenous human SSTR2 was overexpressed in two cancer cell lines, capan-2 cells and A549 cells, which had different profiles of endogenous SSTR expression. It was shown that overexpression of SSTR2 dramatically inhibited the proliferation of SSTR2-positive and SSTR2-negative cancer cells. Further growth inhibition of these cancer cells overexpressing SSTR2 was observed by application of octreotide/RC-160 in a dose-dependent fashion. In addition, immunoassay demonstrated that SSA/SSTR2 inhibited proliferation via both cell cycle arresting and promoting apoptosis. The results suggested that SSTR2 could be a promising candidate for gene therapy for SSTR2-positive and SSTR2-negative tumors. The cellular level of SSTR2 might be a critical factor that could affect both tumor progression and the outcomes of somatostatin analogue treatment.

Liu Z, Marquez M, Nilsson S, Holmberg AR
Incubation with somatostatin, 5-aza decitabine and trichostatin up-regulates somatostatin receptor expression in prostate cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2008; 20(1):151-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatostatin (SMS), binds to its specific receptors (SSTRs) and transduces growth inhibitory, anti-secretory and apoptotic signals. Several human cancers express SSTRs, including prostate cancer, and therefore SMS is of interest for anti-cancer therapy. DNA methylation and histone modifications are involved in normal cell development, gene imprinting and human carcinogenesis. Reversing DNA methylation is an attractive therapeutic possibility, since epigenetic modifications change gene expression without changing the gene function. DNA methylation inhibitors such as 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5'-aza, decitabine) have been used to treat several types of haematological malignancies. Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as trichostatin (TSA), are a new class of 'targeted anti-cancer agents'. TSA and decitabine can induce growth arrest, apoptosis or terminal differentiation in a variety of solid and haematological cancers in advanced disease patients. In the present study, the LNCaP cell line (prostate cancer) was incubated with SMS or Somadex (an SMS polymer conjugate) for three days, 1 nM per day, and the untreated cells were the negative control. For DNA demethylation, cells were grown in the presence of 2.5 microM 5-aza for 120 h, and re-fed with 5-aza-containing fresh medium at day 3. The total incubation time with 5-aza was 120 h. TSA at 1.0 microM was added into the cultured cells for 24 h. The combined treatment of 5-aza and TSA was performed by incubating the cells with 5-aza for 120 h followed by a 24-h exposure to TSA. Using cDNA obtained from these cell lines, the difference in the expression level of SSTR mRNA transcripts before and after 5-aza and TSA treatments was analyzed by RT-PCR. An increased induction of mRNA expression of the five SSTR subtypes was observed in the LNCaP cells when incubated with SMS/Somadex (dose-dependent). The inhibition of DNA methylation and histone acetylation resulted in the up-regulation of SSTR5 mRNA expression. The results demonstrate a positive feedback loop between SMS and its receptors. This regulation pathway may enhance the anti-tumor activity of somatostatin. To benefit from this effect in a clinical setting, the dose, dose frequency and pan affinity of the SMS derivative are important factors. The epigenetic manipulation with DNA methylation or histone deacetylase inhibitors, combined with SMS, may offer a novel alternative for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

Taboada GF, Luque RM, Neto LV, et al.
Quantitative analysis of somatostatin receptor subtypes (1-5) gene expression levels in somatotropinomas and correlation to in vivo hormonal and tumor volume responses to treatment with octreotide LAR.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2008; 158(3):295-303 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the somatostatin receptor subtype (SSTR) expression profile correlates with hormonal and tumor volume responses to postsurgical octreotide long acting repeatable (OCT LAR) treatment.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to evaluate the absolute mRNA copy numbers for all five SSTR subtypes in 22 somatotropinomas. Response to OCT LAR was studied by hormone levels (GH and IGF-I) and tumor volume (sella turcica magnetic resonance imaging).
RESULTS: SSTR5 was present at the highest level followed by SSTR2, SSTR3, SSTR1, and SSTR4 (2327 (1046-5555), 2098 (194-23 954), 97 (0-460), 14 (0-29 480), and 0 (0-652) copies respectively). Positive correlations were found between SSTR2 levels and the percentage decrease of GH and IGF-I after 3 (r=0.49, P<0.027 and r=0.49, P<0.029 respectively) and 6 (r=0.59, P<0.006 and r=0.58, P<0.008 respectively) months of OCT LAR. A negative correlation was found between SSTR5 mRNA levels and the percentage decrease of GH after 3 months of OCT LAR (r=-0.52, P=0.016, n=21). A higher SSTR2/SSTR5 ratio was observed among patients who obtained hormonal control with OCT LAR, when compared with those uncontrolled (2.4 (0.7-10) vs 0.3 (0.1-7.7), P=0.001). A ROC curve analysis showed a SSTR2/SSTR5 ratio of 1.3 as the best predictor of disease control, with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 92% - area under curve, 0.9. A positive correlation was also found between SSTR2 mRNA levels and the percentage decrease in tumor volume after 6 months of OCT LAR (r=0.79, P=0.002, n=12).
CONCLUSIONS: Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 mRNA expression levels in somatotropinomas correlate positively with in vivo hormonal and tumor volume responses to OCT LAR.

Horiguchi K, Yamada M, Umezawa R, et al.
Somatostatin receptor subtypes mRNA in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a case showing a dramatic reduction in tumor size during short octreotide treatment.
Endocr J. 2007; 54(3):371-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
TSH-secreting adenoma is a rare pituitary adenoma, and the expression levels of the specific subtypes of somatostatin receptors (sstr) mRNAs have remained obscure. To determine the quantitative expression of the sstr1-5 mRNAs in TSH-secreting adenomas that may be related to the efficacy of treatment with a somatostatin analogue, expression of the sstr1-5 mRNAs was examined and compared in TSH-secreting adenomas and other pituitary adenomas. The pituitary adenomas were obtained at transsphenoidal surgery from 4 cases of TSH-secreting adenoma, including 1 patient showing a significant shrinkage of the tumor size after only 10 days of octreotide treatment, 2 patients without tumor size reduction and 1 patient without treatment, and 5 GH-secreting adenomas, 6 prolactinomas, 5 nonfunctioning adenomas, 4 ACTH-secreting adenomas and normal pituitaries at autopsy from 4 normal subjects. In comparison to the normal pituitary, sstr2A>sstr1>sstr5>sstr3 mRNAs were expressed in the TSH-secreting adenomas examined. No expression of sstr2B or sstr4 mRNA was observed. The expression level of sstr2 mRNA was significantly higher than those in normal pituitary, prolactinomas, ACTH-secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. The patient with marked shrinkage of the tumor showed the highest expression of both sstr2 and sstr5 mRNAs among all the cases of pituitary adenoma. A TSH-secreting tumor without shrinkage showed a similar expression level of sstr2 mRNA. These findings demonstrated that TSH-secreting adenomas express sstr1, 2A, 3 and 5 mRNAs, predominantly sstr2A, and in addition to the expression of sstr2 mRNA, the expression level of sstr5 mRNA may be a factor affecting the tumor shrinkage by somatostatin analogues against TSH-secreting adenomas.

Taboada GF, Luque RM, Bastos W, et al.
Quantitative analysis of somatostatin receptor subtype (SSTR1-5) gene expression levels in somatotropinomas and non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2007; 156(1):65-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: It is believed that the variable effectiveness of somatostatin analogs in post-surgical management of somatotropinomas and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) may be due in part to variable expression of somatostatin receptor isoforms (SSTR1-5), within and between pituitary tumor types.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to compare absolute mRNA copy numbers for all five SSTR isoforms in 23 somatotropinomas and 19 NFPA.
RESULTS: Somatostatin receptor subtype 5 mRNA was present at the highest level in somatotropinomas, followed by SSTR2>SSTR3>SSTR1>SSTR4. In contrast, SSTR3 mRNA was present at the highest level in NFPA, followed by SSTR2, while SSTR1, SSTR4, and SSTR5 transcripts were only detectable in select tumors. Among somatotropinomas, a positive correlation was found between SSTR2 mRNA levels and the percent decrease of GH (%GH) after 3 and 6 months of therapy with octreotide long acting repeatable (LAR) (r=0.51 and r=0.66; P=0.05 and P=0.008). Also the percent decrease of IGF-I (%IGF-I) after 3 months of octreotide LAR was negatively correlated with SSTR5 and %IGF-I after 6 months of octreotide LAR was positively correlated with SSTR2.
CONCLUSIONS: The present report is a large series examining SSTR mRNA levels in somatotropinomas and NFPA. These initial findings suggest that detailed knowledge of the SSTR mRNA expression profile in somatotropinomas can help to predict the hormonal response to therapy with LAR. Also, it appears that SSTR3 in NFPA may be a potential target for SSTR3 preferential or universal ligands such as pasireotide.

Yoshihara A, Isozaki O, Hizuka N, et al.
Expression of type 5 somatostatin receptor in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a possible marker for predicting long-term response to octreotide therapy.
Endocr J. 2007; 54(1):133-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma), octreotide (OCT) therapy reduces tumor size and TSH secretion in some cases but not in others. As OCT acts through various types of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), the different responses of TSHoma to OCT might be explained by the differences of SSTR expression. We therefore studied the expression of subtype-specific SSTR mRNA transcripts in tumor tissues by RT-PCR. Type 2 (SSTR2) mRNA transcripts were detected in all 8 tumors but those of SSTR3 and SSTR5 were demonstrated only in 5 of them. Serum TSH levels were decreased by OCT administration test in all patients but OCT therapy was effective in two patients out of three. SSTR5 mRNA was detected in two tumors from the responder, but not in one tumor that was resistant to OCT. These observations suggest that the temporal decrease of TSH by OCT may be mediated by SSTR2, and that the long term response to OCT therapy may be related with the expression of SSTR5. Therefore, the expression of SSTR5 in TSHoma may be a useful marker for predicting the outcome of the therapy, but further studies with larger numbers of patients are necessary.

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