Gene Summary

Gene:SERPINA1; serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 1
Aliases: PI, A1A, AAT, PI1, A1AT, PRO2275, alpha1AT
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a serine protease inhibitor whose targets include elastase, plasmin, thrombin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and plasminogen activator. Defects in this gene can cause emphysema or liver disease. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 26 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 26 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 26 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SERPINA1 (cancer-related)

Xu C, Xie S, Song C, et al.
Lin28 Mediates Cancer Chemotherapy Resistance via Regulation of miRNA Signaling.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2014; 61(132):1138-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy resistance is one of the major obstacles limiting the success of cancer drug treatment. Among the mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapy treatment, there are those closely related to P-Glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-related protein, glutathione S-transferase pi and topoisomerase-II. Lin28 is a highly conserved RNA-binding protein, it consists of a cold shock domain and retroviral-type (CCHC) zinc finger motifs. In previous preclinical and clinical studies, positive Lin28 expression in cancer cells was correlated with decreased sensitivity to chemotherapy. And Lin28 could mediate cancer chemotherapy resistance via regulation of miR107 and Let-7 MiRNA. This article reviews current knowledge on predictive value of Lin28 in response to chemotherapy. Better understanding of its role may facilitate patient's selection of therapeutic regimen and lead to optimal clinical outcome.

Tsvetkova A, Todorova A, Todorov T, et al.
Molecular and clinico-histological data in aggressive prostate cancer patients from Bulgaria.
J BUON. 2015 Mar-Apr; 20(2):498-504 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of death in men worldwide. We report Bulgarian patients with strongly aggressive, castration-resistant PCa.
METHODS: PCA3 overexpression, GSTP1 promoter hyper-methylation, TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions, IVS1-27G>A in the KLF6 gene and mutations in androgen receptor (AR) gene, for diagnostic purposes were assessed. PCR, real-time PCR (RT-PCR), sequencing, and bisulfite conversion of DNA were applied. We correlated the molecular data to the histological and clinical findings.
RESULTS: The obtained molecular profile in 11 PCa Bulgarian patients coincided with the clinico-histological data of strongly aggressive PCa. Association was detected between the tumor stage (assessed by TNM as T3 and T4) and the detected molecular profile of aggressive cancer behavior with one exception, assessed as T2. None of our patients had positive family history of prostate cancer and no somatic mutations were detected in the AR gene. All patients showed normal genotype with respect to the KLF6 IVS1- 27G>A polymorphism. The rest of the markers were positive in fresh prostatic tissues and biopsies from all patients, whereas only one blood sample showed triple positive result.
CONCLUSIONS: The appearance of PCa-specific markers in blood was considered as a predictor for a PCa (micro) dissemination into the circulation. The GSTP1 promoter hypermethylation is the earliest epigenetic alteration, which indicates cancerous changes and the first and long-lasting marker that is detectable in blood circulation. The molecular profile needs to be strictly monitored during treatment, which is of great help in determining the patient's individual response to therapy.

Lopes-Aguiar L, Visacri MB, Nourani CM, et al.
Do genetic polymorphisms modulate response rate and toxicity of Cisplatin associated with radiotherapy in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma?: a case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(16):e578 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Cisplatin (CDDP) plus radiotherapy (RT) has been used to treat advanced laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be responsible for differences in chemo/radiosensitivity and side effects in those patients. We reported an advanced LSCC patient, who obtained durable complete response and unexpected pronounced toxicity during CDDP and RT, possibly due to SNPs in genes that modulate the effects of this therapeutic modality.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old man with advanced LSCC obtained durable complete response and severe alopecia and pancytopenia after standard and reduced doses of CDDP and RT. Analyses of SNPs revealed that the patient presented GSTT1 deletion, variant MSH3 1045ThrThr, wild GSTP1 105IleIle, and wild BAX -248GG genotypes, which were previously described in association with abnormal detoxification, DNA repair, and damaged cell apoptosis, respectively. Seven other advanced LSCC patients with GSTT1 gene, MSH3 AlaAla or AlaThr, GSTP1 IleVal or ValVal, and BAX GA or AA genotypes served as controls of the study. Only 1 control presented complete response; the other 6 controls obtained partial response of short duration. Four and 3 controls presented grade 1 or 2 and grade 3 anemia or leukopenia during treatment, respectively. The CDDP level in urine collected after CDDP infusion in the reported patient was lower than the median value obtained in controls, suggesting a higher amount of intracellular CDDP in the reported case.The data suggest, for the first time, that inherited abnormalities in intracellular detoxification of CDDP, DNA repair of lesions induced by CDDP and RT, and damaged cell apoptosis may alter treatment response and toxicity in LSCC, but should be confirmed by large pharmacogenomic studies.

Wu H, Gao L, Li F, et al.
Identifying overlapping mutated driver pathways by constructing gene networks in cancer.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2015; 16 Suppl 5:S3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Large-scale cancer genomic projects are providing lots of data on genomic, epigenomic and gene expression aberrations in many cancer types. One key challenge is to detect functional driver pathways and to filter out nonfunctional passenger genes in cancer genomics. Vandin et al. introduced the Maximum Weight Sub-matrix Problem to find driver pathways and showed that it is an NP-hard problem.
METHODS: To find a better solution and solve the problem more efficiently, we present a network-based method (NBM) to detect overlapping driver pathways automatically. This algorithm can directly find driver pathways or gene sets de novo from somatic mutation data utilizing two combinatorial properties, high coverage and high exclusivity, without any prior information. We firstly construct gene networks based on the approximate exclusivity between each pair of genes using somatic mutation data from many cancer patients. Secondly, we present a new greedy strategy to add or remove genes for obtaining overlapping gene sets with driver mutations according to the properties of high exclusivity and high coverage.
RESULTS: To assess the efficiency of the proposed NBM, we apply the method on simulated data and compare results obtained from the NBM, RME, Dendrix and Multi-Dendrix. NBM obtains optimal results in less than nine seconds on a conventional computer and the time complexity is much less than the three other methods. To further verify the performance of NBM, we apply the method to analyze somatic mutation data from five real biological data sets such as the mutation profiles of 90 glioblastoma tumor samples and 163 lung carcinoma samples. NBM detects groups of genes which overlap with known pathways, including P53, RB and RTK/RAS/PI(3)K signaling pathways. New gene sets with p-value less than 1e-3 are found from the somatic mutation data.
CONCLUSIONS: NBM can detect more biologically relevant gene sets. Results show that NBM outperforms other algorithms for detecting driver pathways or gene sets. Further research will be conducted with the use of novel machine learning techniques.

Abu-Dahab R, Abdallah MR, Kasabri V, et al.
Mechanistic studies of antiproliferative effects of Salvia triloba and Salvia dominica (Lamiaceae) on breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and T47D).
Z Naturforsch C. 2014 Nov-Dec; 69(11-12):443-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ethanol extracts obtained from two Salvia species, S. triloba and S. dominica, collected from the flora of Jordan, were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against MCF7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines by the sulforhodamine B assay. The ethanol extracts were biologically active with IC50 values of (29.89 ±0.92) and (38.91 ±2.44) μg/mL for S. triloba against MCF7 and T47D cells, respectively, and (5.83 ±0.51) and (12.83 ±0.64) μg/mL for S. dominica against MCF7 and T47D cells, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis and the annexinV-propidium iodide (PI) assay revealed apoptosismediated, and to a lesser extent necrosis-induced, cell death by the S. triloba and S. dominica ethanolic extracts in T47D cells. The mechanism of apoptosis was further investigated by determining the levels of p53, p21/WAF1, FasL (Fas ligand), and sFas (Fas/APO-1). The extract from S. triloba induced a more pronounced enrichment in cytoplasmic mono- and oligonucleosomes than that from S. dominica (p < 0:05) in T47D cells. In response to the extract from S. dominica, but not from S. triloba, the proapoptotic efficacy was specifically regulated by p21. Extracts from both Salvia spp. did not enhance p53 levels, and apoptosis induced by them was not caspase-8- or sFas/FasL-dependent. Thus, our findings indicate that S. triloba and S. dominica ethanolic extracts may be useful in breast cancer management/treatment via proapoptotic cytotoxic mechanisms.

Schulze K, Imbeaud S, Letouzé E, et al.
Exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinomas identifies new mutational signatures and potential therapeutic targets.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(5):505-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic analyses promise to improve tumor characterization to optimize personalized treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Exome sequencing analysis of 243 liver tumors identified mutational signatures associated with specific risk factors, mainly combined alcohol and tobacco consumption and exposure to aflatoxin B1. We identified 161 putative driver genes associated with 11 recurrently altered pathways. Associations of mutations defined 3 groups of genes related to risk factors and centered on CTNNB1 (alcohol), TP53 (hepatitis B virus, HBV) and AXIN1. Analyses according to tumor stage progression identified TERT promoter mutation as an early event, whereas FGF3, FGF4, FGF19 or CCND1 amplification and TP53 and CDKN2A alterations appeared at more advanced stages in aggressive tumors. In 28% of the tumors, we identified genetic alterations potentially targetable by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. In conclusion, we identified risk factor-specific mutational signatures and defined the extensive landscape of altered genes and pathways in HCC, which will be useful to design clinical trials for targeted therapy.

Kim DW, Lee KT, Kwon J, et al.
Neuroprotection against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells by 5,7-Dihydroxychromone: Activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway.
Life Sci. 2015; 130:25-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The aim of this study was to prove the neuroprotective effect of 5,7-Dihydroxychromone (DHC) through the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. To elucidate the mechanism, we investigated whether 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells could be attenuated by DHC via activating the Nrf2/ARE signal and whether DHC could down-regulate 6-OHDA-induced excessive ROS generation
MAIN METHODS: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of DHC against 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, FACS analysis was performed using PI staining. The inhibitory effect of DHC against 6-OHDA-induced ROS generation was evaluated by DCFH-DA staining assay. Additionally, translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus and increased Nrf2/ARE binding activity, which subsequently resulted in the up-regulation of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant gene expressions including HO-1, NQO1, and GCLc, were evaluated by Western blotting and EMSA.
KEY FINDINGS: Pre-treatment of DHC, one of the constituents of Cudrania tricuspidata, significantly protects 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death and ROS generation. Also, DHC inhibited the expression of activated caspase-3 and caspase-9 and cleaved PARP in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cells. DHC induced the translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus and increased Nrf2/ARE binding activity which results in the up-regulation of the expression of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes, including HO-1, NQO1, and GCLc. The addition of Nrf2 siRNA abolished the neuroprotective effect of DHC against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity and the expression of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant genes.
SIGNIFICANCE: Activation of Nrf2/ARE signal by DHC exerted neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. This finding will give an insight that activating Nrf2/ARE signal could be a new potential therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disease.

Misra UK, Pizzo SV
Activated α2-macroglobulin binding to human prostate cancer cells triggers insulin-like responses.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(15):9571-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
Ligation of cell surface GRP78 by activated α2-macroglobulin (α2M*) promotes cell proliferation and suppresses apoptosis. α2M*-treated human prostate cancer cells exhibit a 2-3-fold increase in glucose uptake and lactate secretion, an effect similar to insulin treatment. In both α2M* and insulin-treated cells, the mRNA levels of SREBP1-c, SREBP2, fatty-acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ATP citrate lyase, and Glut-1 were significantly increased together with their protein levels, except for SREBP2. Pretreatment of cells with α2M* antagonist antibody directed against the carboxyl-terminal domain of GRP78 blocks these α2M*-mediated effects, and silencing GRP78 expression by RNAi inhibits up-regulation of ATP citrate lyase and fatty-acid synthase. α2M* induces a 2-3-fold increase in lipogenesis as determined by 6-[(14)C]glucose or 1-[(14)C]acetate incorporation into free cholesterol, cholesterol esters, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phosphatidylcholine, which is blocked by inhibitors of fatty-acid synthase, PI 3-kinase, mTORC, or an antibody against the carboxyl-terminal domain of GRP78. We also assessed the incorporation of [(14)CH3]choline into phosphatidylcholine and observed similar effects. Lipogenesis is significantly affected by pretreatment of prostate cancer cells with fatostatin A, which blocks sterol regulatory element-binding protein proteolytic cleavage and activation. This study demonstrates that α2M* functions as a growth factor, leading to proliferation of prostate cancer cells by promoting insulin-like responses. An antibody against the carboxyl-terminal domain of GRP78 may have important applications in prostate cancer therapy.

Lee ST, Muench MO, Fomin ME, et al.
Epigenetic remodeling in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurs in two tracks and employs embryonic stem cell-like signatures.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(5):2590-602 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
We investigated DNA methylomes of pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (B-ALLs) using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-definition microarrays, along with RNA expression profiles. Epigenetic alteration of B-ALLs occurred in two tracks: de novo methylation of small functional compartments and demethylation of large inter-compartmental backbones. The deviations were exaggerated in lamina-associated domains, with differences corresponding to methylation clusters and/or cytogenetic groups. Our data also suggested a pivotal role of polycomb and CTBP2 in de novo methylation, which may be traced back to bivalency status of embryonic stem cells. Driven by these potent epigenetic modulations, suppression of polycomb target genes was observed along with disruption of developmental fate and cell cycle and mismatch repair pathways and altered activities of key upstream regulators.

Joerger M, Huitema AD, Boot H, et al.
Germline TYMS genotype is highly predictive in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015; 75(4):763-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This work was initiated to extend data on the effect of pharmacogenetics and chemotherapy pharmacokinetics (PK) on clinical outcome in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies.
METHODS: We assessed 44 gene polymorphisms in 16 genes (TYMS, MTHFR, GSTP1, GSTM1, GSTT1, DPYD, XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, ERCC1, RECQ1, RAD54L, ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCG2 and UGT2B7) in 64 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) receiving capecitabine/oxaliplatin and 76 patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) receiving epirubicin/cisplatin/capecitabine, respectively. Plasma concentrations of anticancer drugs were measured for up to 24 h, and results were submitted to population PK analysis. We calculated the association between gene polymorphisms, chemotherapy exposure, tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and chemotherapy-related toxicity using appropriate statistical tests.
RESULTS: Patients with a low clearance of 5FU were at increased risk of neutropenia (P < 0.05) and hand-foot syndrome (P = 0.002). DPYD T85C, T1896C and A2846T mutant variants were associated with diarrhea (P < 0.05) and HFS (P < 0.02), and IVS14+1G>A additionally with diarrhea (P < 0.001). The TYMS 2R/3G, 3C/3G or 3G/3G promoter variants were associated with worse PFS in the CRC (HR = 2.0, P < 0.01) and GEC group (HR = 5.4, P < 0.001) and worse OS in the GEC group (HR = 4.7, P < 0.001). The GSTP1 A313G mutant variant was associated with a higher PFS (HR = 0.55, P = 0.001) and OS (HR = 0.60, P = 0.002) in the CRC group.
CONCLUSIONS: Germline polymorphisms of DPYD, TYMS and GSTP1 have a significant effect on toxicity and clinical outcome in patients receiving capecitabine-based chemotherapy for advanced colorectal or gastroesophageal cancer. These data should further be validated in prospective clinical studies.

Haluskova J, Lachvac L, Nagy V
The investigation of GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 gene promoter hypermethylation in urine DNA of prostate-diseased patients.
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2015; 116(2):79-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents one of the most complicated human tumors and, like many others malignancies, arises from progressive genetic and epigenetic alterations. Among all recognized epigenetic alterations, aberrant DNA methylation (hypo- and hypermethylation) is the most important and the best characterized change in PCa.
BACKGROUND: We analyzed GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 gene promoter hypermethylation in urine DNA of ten previously non-treated prostate-diseased patients.
METHODS: For the purpose, the quantitative real-time methylation specific PCR (MSP) with primers designed for amplification of methylated bisulfite-converted human DNA, followed by melting procedure, was currently optimized.
RESULTS: GSTP1 gene promoter hypermethylation was detected in 2 and 1 out of 5 patients with biopsy-confirmed PCa using the primers covering the 3´ and 5´ CpG regions of the promoter, respectively. The APC gene promoter hypermethylation was found in neither of PCa or non-PCa patients and the RASSFI gene promoter hypermethylation was found in some non-PCa and not in all PCa patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that GSTP1 gene promoter hypermethylation can be detected in urine DNA of PCa patients with real-time MSP followed by melting. This enables evaluation of its potential as a useful biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of PCa (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 9).

Villanueva A, Portela A, Sayols S, et al.
DNA methylation-based prognosis and epidrivers in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2015; 61(6):1945-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Epigenetic deregulation has emerged as a driver in human malignancies. There is no clear understanding of the epigenetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and of the potential role of DNA methylation markers as prognostic biomarkers. Analysis of tumor tissue from 304 patients with HCC treated with surgical resection allowed us to generate a methylation-based prognostic signature using a training-validation scheme. Methylome profiling was done with the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA), which covers 96% of known cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) islands and 485,000 CpG, and transcriptome profiling was performed with Affymetrix Human Genome U219 Plate (Affymetrix, Inc., Santa Clara, CA) and miRNA Chip 2.0. Random survival forests enabled us to generate a methylation signature based on 36 methylation probes. We computed a risk score of mortality for each individual that accurately discriminated patient survival both in the training (221 patients; 47% hepatitis C-related HCC) and validation sets (n = 83; 47% alcohol-related HCC). This signature correlated with known predictors of poor outcome and retained independent prognostic capacity of survival along with multinodularity and platelet count. The subset of patients identified by this signature was enriched in the molecular subclass of proliferation with progenitor cell features. The study confirmed a high prevalence of genes known to be deregulated by aberrant methylation in HCC (e.g., Ras association [RalGDS/AF-6] domain family member 1, insulin-like growth factor 2, and adenomatous polyposis coli) and other solid tumors (e.g., NOTCH3) and describes potential candidate epidrivers (e.g., septin 9 and ephrin B2).
CONCLUSIONS: A validated signature of 36 DNA methylation markers accurately predicts poor survival in patients with HCC. Patients with this methylation profile harbor messenger RNA-based signatures indicating tumors with progenitor cell features.

Lang J, Zhu W, Nokes B, et al.
Characterization of a novel radiation-induced sarcoma cell line.
J Surg Oncol. 2015; 111(6):669-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) is a potential complication of cancer treatment. No widely available cell line models exist to facilitate studies of RIS.
METHODS: We derived a spontaneously immortalized primary human cell line, UACC-SARC1, from a RIS.
RESULTS: Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of UACC-SARC1 was virtually identical to its parental tumor. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of the tumor and immunocytochemistry (ICC) analysis of UACC-SARC1 revealed shared expression of vimentin, osteonectin, CD68, Ki67 and PTEN but tumor-restricted expression of the histiocyte markers α1-antitrypsin and α1-antichymotrypsin. Karyotyping of the tumor demonstrated aneuploidy. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) provided direct genetic comparison between the tumor and UACC-SARC1. Sequencing of 740 mutation hotspots revealed no mutations in UACC-SARC1 nor in the tumor. NOD/SCID gamma mouse xenografts demonstrated tumor formation and metastasis. Clonogenicity assays demonstrated that 90% of single cells produced viable colonies. NOD/SCID gamma mice produced useful patient-derived xenografts for orthotopic or metastatic models.
CONCLUSION: Our novel RIS strain constitutes a useful tool for pre-clinical studies of this rare, aggressive disease. UACC-SARC1 is an aneuploid cell line with complex genomics lacking common oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes as drivers of its biology. The UACC-SARC1 cell line will enable further studies of the drivers of RIS.

Tell-Marti G, Puig-Butille JA, Potrony M, et al.
The MC1R melanoma risk variant p.R160W is associated with Parkinson disease.
Ann Neurol. 2015; 77(5):889-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidemiological studies have reported the co-occurrence of Parkinson disease (PD) and melanoma. Common genetic variants in the MC1R (melanocortin 1 receptor) gene, which determines skin and hair color, are associated with melanoma. Here we investigated whether genetic variants in MC1R modulate the risk of PD by sequencing the entire gene in 870 PD patients and 736 controls ascertained from Spain. We found that the MC1R variant p.R160W (rs1805008) is marginally associated with PD (odds ratio = 2.10, gender- and age-adjusted p = 0.009, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.063). Our results suggest that MC1R genetic variants modulate the risk of PD disease in the Spanish population.

Yang B, Yang E, Liao H, et al.
ARNT2 is downregulated and serves as a potential tumor suppressor gene in non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):2111-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study aims to investigate the expression pattern of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT2) protein and its clinical significance in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated the expression levels of ARNT2 in 104 NSCLC surgical specimens by immunohistochemistry and then analyzed its clinical significance. Additionally, the role of ARNT2 on the biological properties of the NSCLC line HCC827 was experimentally tested in vitro and in vivo to confirm the clinical observations. We found that the expression level of ARNT2 was significantly higher in normal lung tissues compared with NSCLC tissues (P < 0.01). Overall survival (OS) of patients with a high intratumoral ARNT2 level was significantly longer than survival of those with a low ARNT2 level (P = 0.004). In addition, intratumoral ARNT2 expression was an independent prognostic factors for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.529; P = 0.001). 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the ARNT2 overexpression inhibited cell viability, while ARNT2 knockdown promoted cell growth in NSCLC cell lines HCC827 and A549. Annexin V/PI assay showed that ARNT2 overexpression increased cell apoptosis, while ARNT2 knockdown decreased cell apoptosis in HCC827 and A549 cells. Moreover, in vivo study showed that attenuated ARNT2 expression in HCC827 cells greatly promoted tumor growth, while overexpressed ARNT2 remarkably inhibited tumor growth in a HCC827 xenograft model. Taken together, our data demonstrate that ARNT2 might serve as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC progression.

Mishra R, Watanabe T, Kimura MT, et al.
Identification of a novel E-box binding pyrrole-imidazole polyamide inhibiting MYC-driven cell proliferation.
Cancer Sci. 2015; 106(4):421-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
The MYC transcription factor plays a crucial role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cellular transformation. Due to its oncogenic activities and overexpression in a majority of human cancers, it is an interesting target for novel drug therapies. MYC binding to the E-box (5'-CACGTGT-3') sequence at gene promoters contributes to more than 4000 MYC-dependent transcripts. Owing to its importance in MYC regulation, we designed a novel sequence-specific DNA-binding pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide, Myc-5, that recognizes the E-box consensus sequence. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the Myc-5 binding sequence appeared in 5'- MYC binding E-box sequences at the eIF4G1, CCND1, and CDK4 gene promoters. Furthermore, ChIP coupled with detection by quantitative PCR indicated that Myc-5 has the ability to inhibit MYC binding at the target gene promoters and thus cause downregulation at the mRNA level and protein expression of its target genes in human Burkitt's lymphoma model cell line, P493.6, carrying an inducible MYC repression system and the K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) cell line. Single i.v. injection of Myc-5 at 7.5 mg/kg dose caused significant tumor growth inhibition in a MYC-dependent tumor xenograft model without evidence of toxicity. We report here a compelling rationale for the identification of a PI polyamide that inhibits a part of E-box-mediated MYC downstream gene expression and is a model for showing that phenotype-associated MYC downstream gene targets consequently inhibit MYC-dependent tumor growth.

Sargen MR, Kanetsky PA, Newton-Bishop J, et al.
Histologic features of melanoma associated with CDKN2A genotype.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015; 72(3):496-507.e7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inherited susceptibility genes have been associated with histopathologic characteristics of tumors.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify associations between histology of melanomas and CDKN2A genotype.
METHODS: This was a case-control study design comparing 28 histopathologic tumor features among individuals with sporadic melanomas (N = 81) and cases from melanoma families with (N = 123) and without (N = 120) CDKN2A germline mutations.
RESULTS: Compared with CDKN2A(-) cases, mutation carriers tended to have histologic features of superficial spreading melanoma subtype including higher pigmentation (Ptrend = .02) and increased pagetoid scatter (Ptrend = .07) after adjusting for age at diagnosis, sex, and American Joint Committee on Cancer thickness category. Similar associations were observed when comparing mutation carriers with a combined group of CDKN2A(-) (wild type) and sporadic melanomas. The presence of spindle cell morphology in the vertical growth phase was also an important predictor of genotype. Of the 15 cases with this phenotype, none were observed to harbor a CDKN2A mutation.
LIMITATIONS: Our study examined rare mutations and may have been underpowered to detect small, but biologically significant associations between histology and genotype.
CONCLUSION: Familial melanomas with CDKN2A mutations preferentially express a histologic phenotype of dense pigmentation, high pagetoid scatter, and a non-spindle cell morphology in the vertical growth phase.

Cornella H, Alsinet C, Sayols S, et al.
Unique genomic profile of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gastroenterology. 2015; 148(4):806-18.e10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare primary hepatic cancer that develops in children and young adults without cirrhosis. Little is known about its pathogenesis, and it can be treated only with surgery. We performed an integrative genomic analysis of a large series of patients with FLC to identify associated genetic factors.
METHODS: By using 78 clinically annotated FLC samples, we performed whole-transcriptome (n = 58), single-nucleotide polymorphism array (n = 41), and next-generation sequencing (n = 48) analyses; we also assessed the prevalence of the DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion transcript associated with this cancer (n = 73). We performed class discovery using non-negative matrix factorization, and functional annotation using gene-set enrichment analyses, nearest template prediction, ingenuity pathway analyses, and immunohistochemistry. The genomic identification of significant targets in a cancer algorithm was used to identify chromosomal aberrations, MuTect and VarScan2 were used to identify somatic mutations, and the random survival forest was used to determine patient prognoses. Findings were validated in an independent cohort.
RESULTS: Unsupervised gene expression clustering showed 3 robust molecular classes of tumors: the proliferation class (51% of samples) had altered expression of genes that regulate proliferation and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling activation; the inflammation class (26% of samples) had altered expression of genes that regulate inflammation and cytokine enriched production; and the unannotated class (23% of samples) had a gene expression signature that was not associated previously with liver tumors. Expression of genes that regulate neuroendocrine function, as well as histologic markers of cholangiocytes and hepatocytes, were detected in all 3 classes. FLCs had few copy number variations; the most frequent were focal amplification at 8q24.3 (in 12.5% of samples), and deletions at 19p13 (in 28% of samples) and 22q13.32 (in 25% of samples). The DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion transcript was detected in 79% of samples. FLC samples also contained mutations in cancer-related genes such as BRCA2 (in 4.2% of samples), which are uncommon in liver neoplasms. However, FLCs did not contain mutations most commonly detected in liver cancers. We identified an 8-gene signature that predicted survival of patients with FLC.
CONCLUSIONS: In a genomic analysis of 78 FLC samples, we identified 3 classes based on gene expression profiles. FLCs contain mutations and chromosomal aberrations not previously associated with liver cancer, and almost 80% contain the DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion transcript. By using this information, we identified a gene signature that is associated with patient survival time.

Moreira L, Muñoz J, Cuatrecasas M, et al.
Prevalence of somatic mutl homolog 1 promoter hypermethylation in Lynch syndrome colorectal cancer.
Cancer. 2015; 121(9):1395-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) that have microsatellite instability (MSI) and mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) immunoloss are observed in 3 clinical scenarios: Lynch syndrome (LS), sporadic MSI CRC, and Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutational analysis is used to differentiate LS from sporadic MSI CRC. The role of MLH1 promoter methylation status for the differential diagnosis of these clinical forms is not well established. The objectives of this study were: 1) to analyze MLH1 promoter methylation in MLH1-deficient CRCs by pyrosequencing, and 2) to assess its role in the differential diagnosis of MLH1-deficient CRCs.
METHODS: In total, 165 CRCs were analyzed, including LS (n = 19), MSI BRAF-mutated CRC (n = 37), MSI BRAF wild-type CRC (n = 60), and a control group of CRCs without MSI (microsatellite stable [MSS] CRC; n = 49). MLH1 promoter methylation status was analyzed by pyrosequencing, and the ability of different strategies to identify LS was assessed.
RESULTS: The average ± standard deviation methylation in LS (9% ± 7%) was significantly lower than that in MSI BRAF-mutated CRC (42% ± 17%; P < .001) and in MSI BRAF wild-type CRC (25% ± 19%; P = .002). Somatic MLH1 hypermethylation was detected in 3 patients (15.8%) with LS, in 34 patients (91.9%) with MSI BRAF-mutated CRC, and in 37 patients (61.7%) with MSI BRAF wild-type tumors. Patients with MSI BRAF wild-type, unmethylated tumors (ie, LLS) had a stronger family history of CRC than those who had tumors with MLH1 methylation (P < .05). The sensitivity for ruling out LS was 100% for BRAF analysis, 84.2% for MLH1 methylation analysis, and 84.2% for the combination of both analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: Somatic MLH1 promoter methylation occurs in up to 15% of LS CRCs. Somatic BRAF analysis is the most sensitive strategy for ruling out LS. Patients who have CRCs with loss of MLH1 protein expression and neither BRAF mutation nor MLH1 methylation resemble patients with LS.

Liu H, Li P, Li B, et al.
RKIP promotes cisplatin-induced gastric cancer cell death through NF-κB/Snail pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):1445-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objectives of this study were to explore the expression profiles of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) in human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901) and cisplatin-resistant cell line (SGC-7901/DDP) and investigate the role of RKIP in the sensitivity of human gastric cancer cells to cisplatin and its signaling pathways, with an attempt to identify new approaches and strategies for the management of gastric cancer. The human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901) and cisplatin-resistant cell line (SGC-7901/DDP) were separately cultured in vitro. The expression profiles of RKIP in these two cell lines were detected by Western blotting. Forty-eight hours after the transfection of RKIP siRNA in SGC-7901 cells, the change of RKIP expression in the cells was detected using Western blotting, and the change of cell viability after the interference of RKIP expression was determined using 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) method. The effect of the ectopic expression of RKIP on the cisplatin-induced viability of gastric cancer cell was detected using MTT method. The effect of the ectopic expression of RKIP on the cisplatin-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cell was detected using flow cytometry after having been double stained with Annexin V/PI. The effect of the ectopic expression of RKIP on the NF-κB and Snail expressions in cisplatin-induced gastric cancer cells was detected using Western blotting. As shown by the Western blotting, the expression of RKIP in SGC-7901/DDP cells significantly decreased when compared with that in SGC-7901 cells (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the expression of RKIP in SGC-7901 cells significantly decreased 48 h after the transfection of RKIP siRNA (P < 0.01). After the SGC-7901 cells were transfected with RKIP siRNA, the cell viability was significantly increased (P < 0.05); after the SGC-7901/DDP cells were transfected with RKIP recombinant plasmid, the cell viability was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). After the RKIP expression was suppressed in the cisplatin-treated SGC-7901 cells, the cell viability significantly increased (P < 0.05), and the amount of apoptotic cells significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In contrast, after the RKIP overexpression in the cisplatin-treated SGC-7901/DDP cells, the cell viability significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the amount of apoptotic cells significantly increased (P < 0.05). The suppression of RKIP expression in SGC-7901 cells could significantly promote the increase of NF-κB expression (P < 0.05); in contrast, the increased expression of RKIP in SGC-7901/DDP cells significantly inhibited the expression of Snail (P < 0.05). The expression of RKIP is downregulated in cisplatin-resistant cell line (SGC-7901/DDP). The overexpression of RKIP can enhance the sensitivity of human gastric cancer cells to cisplatin, which may be achieved via the NF-κB/Snail signaling pathway.

Akrami H, Aminzadeh S, Fallahi H
Inhibitory effect of ibuprofen on tumor survival and angiogenesis in gastric cancer cell.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3237-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Numerous epidemiological studies have suggested effectiveness of long-term and regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen and aspirin, in preventing and treatment of certain cancers including prostate, colon, breast, lung, and gastric cancers. We have studied the potential anti-turmeric effect of ibuprofen in adenocarcinoma gastric cell line (AGS). The effects of ibuprofen were investigated on cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and expression of stemness marker genes using real-time RT-PCR, DNA laddering, and tube formation assays via ECM gel and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Annexin-V-FLUOS and propidium iodide (PI) were used to stain the apoptotic cells. Our findings indicate that ibuprofen at the concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 μM is able to reduce the cancerous characteristics of the AGS cells by inducing apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation, and angiogenesis. Real-time RT-PCR showed that ibuprofen altered the expression of several genes including Akt, P53, PCNA, Bax, and Bcl2 in the AGS cells. In addition, reduction in CD44 and OCT3/4 transcript levels revealed that ibuprofen reduces the stemness of the AGS cells and therefore it could be used as a potential anti-tumor drug.

Huang SK, Qian JX, Yuan BQ, et al.
SiRNA-mediated knockdown against NUF2 suppresses tumor growth and induces cell apoptosis in human glioma cells.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2014; 60(4):30-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma is one of the most commonly malignant brain tumors. Current therapies for glioma have failed to achieve satisfactory results, which necessitates the development of novel molecular therapies. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of NUF2 (Ndc80 kinetochore complex component) in glioma cell growth and assessed the possible mechanisms underlying NUF2-mediated glioma development. The lentivirus-based short hairpin RNA-expressing vectors were constructed and transfected into U87 and U251 cells. Real time PCR and western blot were performed for expression level determination. Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric assay was conducted to determine apoptotic cell proportions. Cell viability in vitro and tumorgenic ability in vivo were assessed by MTT assay and a nude mouse xenograft, respectively. We found that NUF2 was overexpressed in glioma tissues and differentially expressed in a series of glioma cell lines. Depletion of NUF2 by short-hairpin RNA inhibited cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, NUF2 depletion-induced growth inhibition was associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Aberrant expressions of cell cycle regulators and apoptosis-related proteins further confirmed that NUF2 depletion induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In all, our results indicate that siRNA-mediated knockdown against NUF2 may be a promising therapeutic method for the treatment of glioma.

Hong SE, Shin KS, Lee YH, et al.
Inhibition of S6K1 enhances dichloroacetate-induced cell death.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(7):1171-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The unique metabolic profile of cancer (aerobic glycolysis) is an attractive therapeutic target for cancer. Dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, has been shown to reverse glycolytic phenotype and induce mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) inhibition on DCA-induced cell death and the underlying mechanisms in breast cancer cells.
METHODS: Cell death was evaluated by annexin V and PI staining. The synergistic effects of DCA and PF4708671 were assessed by isobologram analysis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used for suppressing gene expression. The mRNA and protein levels were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively.
RESULTS: PF4708671, a selective inhibitor of S6K1, and knockdown of S6K1 with specific siRNA enhanced DCA-induced cell death. Interestingly, a combination of DCA/PF4708671 markedly reduced protein expression of a glycolytic enzyme, hexokinase 2 (HK2). Suppression of HK2 activity using specific siRNA and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) further enhanced cell sensitivity to DCA/PF4708671. Overexpression of Myc-tagged HK2 rescued cell death induced by DCA/PF4708671.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, we propose that inhibition of S6K1, in combination with the glycolytic inhibitor, DCA, provides effective cancer therapy.

Baer R, Cintas C, Dufresne M, et al.
Pancreatic cell plasticity and cancer initiation induced by oncogenic Kras is completely dependent on wild-type PI 3-kinase p110α.
Genes Dev. 2014; 28(23):2621-35 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
Increased PI 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) correlates with poor prognosis, but the role of class I PI3K isoforms during its induction remains unclear. Using genetically engineered mice and pharmacological isoform-selective inhibitors, we found that the p110α PI3K isoform is a major signaling enzyme for PDAC development induced by a combination of genetic and nongenetic factors. Inactivation of this single isoform blocked the irreversible transition of exocrine acinar cells into pancreatic preneoplastic ductal lesions by oncogenic Kras and/or pancreatic injury. Hitting the other ubiquitous isoform, p110β, did not prevent preneoplastic lesion initiation. p110α signaling through small GTPase Rho and actin cytoskeleton controls the reprogramming of acinar cells and regulates cell morphology in vivo and in vitro. Finally, p110α was necessary for pancreatic ductal cancers to arise from Kras-induced preneoplastic lesions by increasing epithelial cell proliferation in the context of mutated p53. Here we identify an in vivo context in which p110α cellular output differs depending on the epithelial transformation stage and demonstrate that the PI3K p110α is required for PDAC induced by oncogenic Kras, the key driver mutation of PDAC. These data are critical for a better understanding of the development of this lethal disease that is currently without efficient treatment.

Khan A, Aljarbou AN, Aldebasi YH, et al.
Resveratrol suppresses the proliferation of breast cancer cells by inhibiting fatty acid synthase signaling pathway.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2014; 38(6):765-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
In breast cancer cells, overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) increases the translation of fatty acid synthase (FASN) by altering the activity of PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cancer chemotherapy causes major side effects and is not effective enough in slowing down the progression of the disease. Earlier studies showed a role for resveratrol in the inhibition of FASN, but the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol-induced inhibition are not known. In the present study, we examined the novel mechanism of resveratrol on Her2-overexpressed breast cancer cells. The effect of resveratrol on the growth of breast cancer cells was assessed as percent cell viability by cytotoxicity-based MTT assay and the induction of apoptosis was determined by cell-death detection ELISA and flow cytometric analysis of Annexin-V-PI binding. Western immunobloting was used to detect signaling events in human breast cancer (SKBR-3) cells. Data showed that resveratrol-mediated down-regulation of FASN and HER2 genes synergistically induced apoptotic death in SKBR-3 cells. This concurrently caused a prominent up-regulation of PEA3, leads to down-regulation of HER2 genes. Resveratrol also alleviated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling by down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation and up-regulation of PTEN expression. These findings suggest that resveratrol alters the cell cycle progression and induce cell death via FASN inhibition in HER2 positive breast cancer.

Hevir-Kene N, Rižner TL
The endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and HEC-1A, and the control cell line HIEEC, differ in expression of estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic genes, and in androstenedione and estrone-sulfate metabolism.
Chem Biol Interact. 2015; 234:309-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogens have important roles in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer. They can have carcinogenic effects through stimulation of cell proliferation or formation of DNA-damaging species. To characterize model cell lines of endometrial cancer, we determined the expression profiles of the estrogen receptors (ERs) ESR1, ESR2 and GPER, and 23 estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic genes, and investigated estrogen biosynthesis in the control HIEEC cell line and the Ishikawa and HEC-1A EC cell lines. HIEEC and Ishikawa expressed all ERs to different extents, while HEC-1A cells lacked expression of ESR1. Considering the estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes, these cells showed statistically significant different gene expression profiles for SULT2B1, HSD3B2, CYP19A1, AKR1C3, HSD17B1, HSD17B7, HSD17B12, CYP1B1, CYP3A5, COMT, SULT1A1, GSTP1 and NQO2. In these cells, E2 was formed from E1S and E1, while androstenedione was not converted to estrogens. HIEEC and Ishikawa had similar profiles of androstenedione and E1 metabolism, but hydrolysis of E1S to E1 was weaker in Ishikawa cells. HEC-1A cells were less efficient for activation of E1 into the potent E2, but metabolized androstenedione to other androgenic metabolites better than HIEEC and Ishikawa cells. This study reveals that HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells can all form estrogens only via the sulfatase pathway. HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells expressed all the major genes in the production of hydroxyestrogens and estrogen quinones, and in their conjugation. Significantly higher CYP1B1 mRNA levels in Ishikawa cells compared to HEC-1A cells, together with lack of UGT2B7 expression, indicate that Ishikawa cells can accumulate more toxic estrogen-3,4-quinones than HEC-1A cells, as also for HIEEC cells. This study provides further characterization of HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells, and shows that they differ greatly in expression of the genes investigated and in their capacity for E2 formation, and thus they represent different in vitro models.

Bănescu C, Trifa AP, Voidăzan S, et al.
CAT, GPX1, MnSOD, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genetic polymorphisms in chronic myeloid leukemia: a case-control study.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014; 2014:875861 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
Oxidative damage at the DNA level may be promoted by high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to genomic instability and increased neoplastic risk. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) enzymes are implicated in the prevention of DNA damage by ROS. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between CAT C262T, GPX1 Pro198Leu, MnSOD Ala16Val, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphisms and the risk of CML. No association was observed between CML and variant genotypes of GPX1, MnSOD, GSTM1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms in any of the investigated cases. Our study suggests that the homozygous variant genotype of the GSTP1 Ile105Val gene polymorphisms may be associated with the risk of developing CML (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.08-5.7; P value = 0.02), while the heterozygous genotype of the CAT C262T polymorphism seems to have a protective effect against CML (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.39-0.89, P value = 0.01). In most cases, no association was found between laboratory parameters and prognostic factors and the variant genotype of investigated gene polymorphisms. We concluded that CAT, GPX, MnSOD, GSTM1, and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms are not associated with the risk of CML. Variant genotype of the GSTP1 Ile105Val gene polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of developing CML.

Miao ZF, Li WY, Wang ZN, et al.
Lung cancer cells induce senescence and apoptosis of pleural mesothelial cells via transforming growth factor-beta1.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2657-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pleural dissemination is commonly associated with metastatic advanced lung cancer. The injury of pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) by soluble factors, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), is a major driver of lung cancer pleural dissemination (LCPD). In this study, we examine the effects of TGF-β1 on PMC injury and the ability of TGF-β1 inhibition to alleviate this effect both in vitro and in vivo. PMCs were co-cultured with the high TGF-β1-expressing lung cancer cell line A549 and with various TGF-β1 signaling inhibitors. Expression of cleaved-caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 9, p21, and p16 were evaluated by Western blot and immunofluorescent confocal imaging. Apoptosis was measured by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltrazoliumbromide assay and AnnexinV-propidium iodide (PI) staining. PMC senescence was assessed by staining for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal). The ability of lung cancer cells (LCCs) to adhere to injured PMCs was investigated using an LCC-PMC adhesion assay. In our mouse model, PMC injury status was monitored by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome staining. LCCs expressing high levels of TGF-β1 induce apoptosis and senescence of PMCs in a co-culture system. Injured PMCs adhere to LCCs, which may further promote LCPD. Importantly, PMC monolayer injury could be reversed with TGF-β1 inhibitors. This was consistent with our in vivo data showing that the TGF-β1 inhibitor SB-431542 attenuated PMC barrier injury induced by A549 culture medium in our mouse model. Our study highlights the importance of TGF-β1 signaling in LCPD and establishes this signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target in the disease.

Tan B, Li Y, Zhao Q, et al.
Inhibition of Vav3 could reverse the drug resistance of gastric cancer cells by downregulating JNK signaling pathway.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2014; 21(12):526-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of Vav3 on the multidrug resistance of gastric cancer. Fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR and western blot assay were used to detect Vav3 and drug resistance genes in gastric cancer tissues as well as gastric cell lines such as SGC7901, SGC7901/adriamycin (ADR) and GES-1. Besides, Vav3-specific small interfering RNA (Vav3-siRNA) was applied to inhibit Vav3 in SGC7901/ADR, and SRB assay was used to determine chemosensitivity. After that, drug resistance genes and proteins in MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway were detected after Vav3-siRNA transfection. The results showed that overexpressed Vav3 was found in gastric cancer tissues and SGC7901 and SGC7901/ADR cells. Activity of SGC7901/ADR cells transfected with Vav3-siRNA combined with 5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin was much lower than that of control groups, and MDR1/P-gp, GST-π and Bcl-2, Bax genes were significantly downregulated in Vav3-siRNA transfection group. AKT, ERK and p38 total protein and their phosphorylation levels showed no significant change in Vav3-siRNA-transfected SGC7901/ADR cells, whereas the ratio of C-Jun phosphorylation levels to total C-Jun protein was significantly downregulated. The results suggested that Vav3 may play a role in drug resistance of gastric cancer by inhibiting drug resistance genes MDR1/P-gp, GST-π and Bcl-2 through regulating the JNK signaling pathway.

Gillespie DL, Aguirre MT, Ravichandran S, et al.
RNA interference targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1α via a novel multifunctional surfactant attenuates glioma growth in an intracranial mouse model.
J Neurosurg. 2015; 122(2):331-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECT: High-grade gliomas are the most common form of adult brain cancer, and patients have a dismal survival rate despite aggressive therapeutic measures. Intratumoral hypoxia is thought to be a main contributor to tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of these tumors. Because hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is the major mediator of hypoxia-regulated cellular control, inhibition of this transcription factor may reduce glioblastoma growth.
METHODS: Using an orthotopic mouse model with U87-LucNeo cells, the authors used RNA interference to knock down HIF-1α in vivo. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) was packaged using a novel multifunctional surfactant, 1-(aminoethyl) iminobis[N-(oleicylcysteinylhistinyl-1-aminoethyl)propionamide] (EHCO), a nucleic acid carrier that facilitates cellular uptake and intracellular release of siRNA. Stereotactic injection was used to deliver siRNA locally through a guide-screw system, and delivery/uptake was verified by imaging of fluorescently labeled siRNA. Osmotic pumps were used for extended siRNA delivery to model a commonly used human intracranial drug-delivery technique, convection-enhanced delivery.
RESULTS: Mice receiving daily siRNA injections targeting HIF-1α had a 79% lower tumor volume after 50 days of treatment than the controls. Levels of the HIF-1 transcriptional targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), c-MET, and carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) and markers for cell growth (MIB-1 and microvascular density) were also significantly lower. Altering the carrier EHCO by adding polyethylene glycol significantly increased the efficacy of drug delivery and subsequent survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Treating glioblastoma with siRNA targeting HIF-1α in vivo can significantly reduce tumor growth and increase survival in an intracranial mouse model, a finding that has direct clinical implications.

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