Gene Summary

Gene:SBDS; Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome
Aliases: SDS, SWDS, CGI-97
Summary:This gene encodes a member of a highly conserved protein family that exists from archaea to vertebrates and plants. The encoded protein may function in RNA metabolism. Mutations within this gene are associated with Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome. An alternative transcript has been described, but its biological nature has not been determined. This gene has a closely linked pseudogene that is distally located. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ribosome maturation protein SBDS
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (18)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Lipomatosis
  • Tumor Markers
  • Genomic Instability
  • Spindle Apparatus
  • Western Blotting
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • NME1
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Protein Binding
  • Leukaemia
  • Chromosome 7
  • Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency
  • Models, Molecular
  • Isochromosomes
  • Heterozygote
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Cell Cycle
  • Proteins
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
  • Mutation
  • Infant
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Young Adult
  • Exons
  • Guanidine
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Gene Expression
  • Messenger RNA
  • Bone Marrow Diseases
  • Archaeoglobus fulgidus
  • Alleles
  • Adolescents
  • Transcriptome
  • Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SBDS (cancer-related)

Derosa L, Galli L, Orlandi P, et al.
Docetaxel plus oral metronomic cyclophosphamide: a phase II study with pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic analyses in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.
Cancer. 2014; 120(24):3923-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel plus prednisone is currently the standard first-line treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The aim of this study was to assess the clinical activity and pharmacodynamic/pharmacogenetic profile of docetaxel plus prednisone in combination with metronomic cyclophosphamide in mCRPC patients.
METHODS: Forty-one chemotherapy-naive patients received docetaxel (60 mg/m(2) intravenously every 3 weeks up to 12 cycles) and, from day 2, prednisone 10 mg/day, celecoxib 400 mg/day, and metronomic cyclophosphamide 50 mg/day, continuously. Plasma VEGF and bFGF were detected by ELISA. Real-time PCR-SNP analysis of VEGF gene was performed using an ABI PRISM 7900HT SDS and TaqMan SNP genotyping.
RESULTS: Eighty-seven percent of patients were free of progression at 6 months. A decrease in prostate-specific antigen ≥50% was observed in 82% of 39 evaluable patients, with a median time to progression of 12.3 months. Grade 3 adverse events were neutropenia (5%), thrombocytopenia, diarrhea, and stomatitis (2.5%). Median PFS and OS were 14.9 months (95% CI, 9.2-15.3 months) and 33.3 months (95% CI, 23-35.6 months), respectively. Of 11 patients (28%) with evaluable disease, 5 (44%) achieved a complete response, 2 (11%) a partial response, and 2 (11%) stable disease, whereas 2 showed disease progression. The -1154A/G VEGF polymorphism, plasma VEGF, and bFGF after the first cycle of chemotherapy may represent useful pharmacodynamic markers to predict better outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of docetaxel and oral metronomic chemotherapy is effective and well tolerated in mCRPC patients and may deserve further evaluation.

Stumpff J, Ghule PN, Shimamura A, et al.
Spindle microtubule dysfunction and cancer predisposition.
J Cell Physiol. 2014; 229(12):1881-3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Chromosome segregation and spindle microtubule dynamics are strictly coordinated during cell division in order to preserve genomic integrity. Alterations in the genome that affect microtubule stability and spindle assembly during mitosis may contribute to genomic instability and cancer predisposition, but directly testing this potential link poses a significant challenge. Germ-line mutations in tumor suppressor genes that predispose patients to cancer and alter spindle microtubule dynamics offer unique opportunities to investigate the relationship between spindle dysfunction and carcinogenesis. Mutations in two such tumor suppressors, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS), affect multifunctional proteins that have been well characterized for their roles in Wnt signaling and interphase ribosome assembly, respectively. Less understood, however, is how their shared involvement in stabilizing the microtubules that comprise the mitotic spindle contributes to cancer predisposition. Here, we briefly discuss the potential for mutations in APC and SBDS as informative tools for studying the impact of mitotic spindle dysfunction on cellular transformation.

Hu SJ, Jiang RX, Xie HH, et al.
Purification of a Pd20-TNFα fusion protein that prevents liver metastasis of gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(8):7523-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The specific binding peptide pd20 of gastric cancer cells with a high potential for liver metastasis was fused with human tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α, and a prokaryotic expression vector was established to express the pd20-TNFα fusion protein. After purification and identification, the preventive effects of the fusion protein on liver metastasis of gastric cancer were observed in mice. The whole gene synthesis method was used for pd20-TNFα fusion gene preparation, and a pd20-TNFα prokaryotic expression vector was constructed. The vector was induced and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The expression products were analysed and verified by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. The Ni-NTA column method was used to purify the fusion protein, and the L929 cytotoxicity method was used to detect biological activity. Flow cytometry apoptosis experiments and invasion assays were performed to observe the effects of the fusion protein on apoptosis and metastasis of gastric cancer cells with high potential for liver metastasis. Thirty nude mice with liver metastasis of gastric cancer were established and then randomly divided into three groups of ten mice each. The Pd20-TNFα recombinant protein (1.2 × 10(6) U/kg day) or standard TNFα (1.2 × 10(6) U/kg day) saline was administered via tail vein injection for 7 consecutive days. The pathological changes in various organs of nude mice were observed 4 weeks later. The size of the gastric cancer, the incidence of liver metastasis and the number of liver metastases were measured and calculated. We successfully constructed a Pd20-TNFα recombinant plasmid and prepared the fusion protein. Detection of the pd20-TNFα protein by immunofluorescence showed a very strong expression in liver tissue, suggesting a targeting of the fusion protein to the liver. The L929 cytotoxicity assays showed that the pd20-TNFα fusion purified protein had a significant lethal effect on L929 cells, with a killing activity of up to 7.6 × 10(6) IU/ml. The apoptosis experiments showed that as the concentration of the fusion protein increased, the early gastric cancer cell apoptosis also increased, with the early apoptosis rate increasing from 5.99 % to 9.04 %. Cell invasion experiments showed that the purified pd20-TNFα fusion protein significantly inhibited the in vitro invasion of XGC9811-L cells, with the penetrating cells being significantly decreased compared with the control group per unit time (P < 0.01). Vector experiments showed that the pd20-TNFα recombinant protein group had significantly reduced cancer lesions and liver metastasis in nude mice compared with the control group. We successfully purified a pd20-TNFα fusion protein and confirmed that it had significant biological activity promoting early gastric cancer cell apoptosis, thereby inhibiting gastric cancer cell invasion.

Popa I, Ganea E, Petrescu SM
Expression and subcellular localization of RAGE in melanoma cells.
Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 92(2):127-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in multiple stages of tumor development and malignization. To gain further knowledge on the RAGE role in tumor progression, we investigated the receptor expression profile and its subcellular localization in melanoma cells at different stages of malignancy. We found that RAGE clustered at membrane ruffles and leading edges, and at sites of cell-to-cell contact in primary melanoma cells (e.g., MelJuSo), in contrast with a more dispersed localization in metastatic cells (e.g., SK-Mel28). RAGE silencing by RNAi selectively inhibited migration of MelJuSo cells, whilst having no influence on SK-Mel28 cell migration, in a "wound healing" assay. Western blot detection of RAGE showed a more complex RAGE oligomerization in MelJuSo cells compared to melanocytes and SK-Mel28 cells. By competing the binding of antibodies with recombinant soluble RAGE, an oligomeric form running at approximately 200 kDa was detected, as it was the monomeric RAGE of 55-60 kDa. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis under reducing versus nonreducing conditions indicated that the oligomer of about 200 kDa is formed by disulfide bonds, but other interactions are likely to be important for RAGE multimerization in melanoma cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that treatment with two cholesterol-chelating drugs, nystatin and filipin, significantly affected RAGE localization in MelJuSo cells. SK-Mel28 cells showed a reduced RAGE glycosylation and association with cholesterol-rich membranes and also a considerable downregulation of the soluble forms. Our results indicate that RAGE isoform expression and subcellular localization could be important determinants for the regulation of its function in tumor progression.

Nakaya T, Kurata A, Hashimoto H, et al.
Young-age-onset pancreatoduodenal carcinoma in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.
Pathol Int. 2014; 64(2):75-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, which is characterized by pancreatic fatty degeneration, skeletal growth retardation, and hematological dysfunction, is a congenital disease caused by SBDS gene mutations. Although hematological disorders often accompany this syndrome, carcinomas associated with this syndrome have not been reported except in one breast cancer and one moderately differentiated pancreatic cancer case. We report on an autopsy of a 24-year-old case of pancreatoduodenal carcinoma in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. The histology of the tumor was undifferentiated carcinoma, which seems to have originated from either the pancreatic duct or the duodenal epithelium. The tumor was intermingled with two pathological changes characteristic of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: fatty degeneration of the pancreas and inflammation of the villous stroma of the duodenum. Considering that SBDS protein regulates mitosis and its suppression causes genomic instability, this case might provide an example of carcinogenesis based on genomic instability, together with degenerative changes and chronic inflammation, at a very young age.

Bona A, Papai Z, Maasz G, et al.
Mass spectrometric identification of ancient proteins as potential molecular biomarkers for a 2000-year-old osteogenic sarcoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e87215 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone usually occurring in young adolescent and children. This disease has a poor prognosis, because of the metastases in the period of tumor progression, which are usually developed previous to the clinical diagnosis. In this paper, a 2000-year-old ancient bone remain with osteogenic sarcoma was analyzed searching for tumor biomarkers which are closely related to this disease. After a specific extraction SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis followed by tryptic digestion was performed. After the digestion the samples were measured using MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Healthy bone samples from same archaeological site were used as control samples. Our results show that in the pathological skeletal remain several well known tumor biomarkers are detected such as annexin A10, BCL-2-like protein, calgizzarin, rho GTPase-activating protein 7, HSP beta-6 protein, transferrin and vimentin compared to the control samples. The identified protein biomarkers can be useful in the discovery of malignant bone lesions such as osteosarcoma in the very early stage of the disease from paleoanthropological remains.

Cheng DD, Zhao HG, Yang YS, et al.
GSK3β negatively regulates HIF1α mRNA stability via nucleolin in the MG63 osteosarcoma cell line.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 443(2):598-603 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) is a transcription factor involved in the growth, invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) is a protein kinase involved in a variety of signaling pathways, such as the Wnt and NF-κB pathways; this kinase can affect tumor progress through the regulation of transcription factor expression and apoptosis. Recent studies showed that GSK3β was involved in the expression of HIF1α. However, the effect of GSK3β on HIF1α expression in osteosarcoma cells remains unknown. To understand the relationship between GSK3β and HIF1α comprehensively, small RNA interference techniques, Western blot analyses, quantitative real-time PCR analyses and luciferase assays were used in our study. Experimental data revealed that inhibition of GSK3β could increase HIF1α protein levels and expression of its target genes by increasing the stability of the HIF1α mRNA, not by affecting the HIF1α protein stability, and that this process could be mediated by nucleolin.

Kwak SY, Yang JS, Kim BY, et al.
Ionizing radiation-inducible miR-494 promotes glioma cell invasion through EGFR stabilization by targeting p190B rhoGAP.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1843(3):508-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in various stages of tumor progression. miR-494, which we had previously identified as a miRNA induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in the glioma cell line U-251, was observed to enhance invasion of U-251 cells by activating MMP-2. The miR-494-induced invasive potential was accompanied by, and dependent on, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) upregulation and the activation of its downstream signaling constituents, Akt and ERK. The upregulation of EGFR by miR-494 involved the suppression of lysosomal protein turnover. Among the putative target proteins tested, p190B RhoGAP (p190B) was downregulated by miR-494, and its reduced expression was responsible for the increase in EGFR expression. A reporter assay using a luciferase construct containing p190B 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) confirmed that p190B is a direct target of miR-494. Downregulation of p190B by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection closely mimicked the outcomes of miR-494 transfection, and showed increased EGFR expression, MMP-2 secretion, and invasion. Ectopic expression of p190B suppressed the miR-494-induced EGFR upregulation and invasion promotion, thereby suggesting that p190B depletion is critical for the invasion-promoting action of miR-494. Collectively, our results suggest a novel function for miR-494 and its potential application as a target to control invasiveness in cancer therapy.

Rajagopalan K, Qiu R, Mooney SM, et al.
The Stress-response protein prostate-associated gene 4, interacts with c-Jun and potentiates its transactivation.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1842(2):154-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
The Cancer/Testis Antigen (CTA), Prostate-associated Gene 4 (PAGE4), is a stress-response protein that is upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) especially in precursor lesions that result from inflammatory stress. In cells under stress, translocation of PAGE4 to mitochondria increases while production of reactive oxygen species decreases. Furthermore, PAGE4 is also upregulated in human fetal prostate, underscoring its potential role in development. However, the proteins that interact with PAGE4 and the mechanisms underlying its pleiotropic functions in prostatic development and disease remain unknown. Here, we identified c-Jun as a PAGE4 interacting partner. We show that both PAGE4 and c-Jun are overexpressed in the human fetal prostate; and in cell-based assays, PAGE4 robustly potentiates c-Jun transactivation. Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer experiments indicate that upon binding to c-Jun, PAGE4 undergoes conformational changes. However, no interaction is observed in presence of BSA or unilamellar vesicles containing the mitochondrial inner membrane diphosphatidylglycerol lipid marker cardiolipin. Together, our data indicate that PAGE4 specifically interacts with c-Jun and that, conformational dynamics may account for its observed pleiotropic functions. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating crosstalk between a CTA and a proto-oncogene. Disrupting PAGE4/c-Jun interactions using small molecules may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for PCa.

Chu HC, Lee HY, Huang YS, et al.
Erythroid differentiation is augmented in Reelin-deficient K562 cells and homozygous reeler mice.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(1):58-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein that is highly conserved in mammals. In addition to its expression in the nervous system, Reelin is present in erythroid cells but its function there is unknown. We report in this study that Reelin is up-regulated during erythroid differentiation of human erythroleukemic K562 cells and is expressed in the erythroid progenitors of murine bone marrow. Reelin deficiency promotes erythroid differentiation of K562 cells and augments erythroid production in murine bone marrow. In accordance with these findings, Reelin deficiency attenuates AKT phosphorylation of the Ter119(+)CD71(+) erythroid progenitors and alters the cell number and frequency of the progenitors at different erythroid differentiation stages. A regulatory role of Reelin in erythroid differentiation is thus defined.

Xu L, Beckebaum S, Iacob S, et al.
MicroRNA-101 inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma progression through EZH2 downregulation and increased cytostatic drug sensitivity.
J Hepatol. 2014; 60(3):590-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oncogene polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) has been proposed to be a target gene of putative tumor suppressor microRNA-101 (miR-101). The aim of our study was to investigate the functional role of both miR-101 and EZH2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: MiR-101 and EZH2 expressions were evaluated in tumor tissues of 99 HCC patients and 7 liver cancer cell lines by real-time PCR. Luciferase reporter assay was employed to validate whether EZH2 represents a target gene of miR-101. The effect of miR-101 on HCC growth as well as programmed cell death was studied in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: MiR-101 expression was significantly downregulated in most of HCC tissues and all cell lines, whereas EZH2 was significantly overexpressed in most of HCC tissues and all cell lines. There was a negative correlation between expression levels of miR-101 and EZH2. Luciferase assay results confirmed EZH2 as a direct target gene of miR-101, which negatively regulates EZH2 expression in HCC. Ectopic overexpression of miR-101 dramatically repressed proliferation, invasion, colony formation as well as cell cycle progression in vitro and suppressed tumorigenicity in vivo. Furthermore, miR-101 inhibited autophagy and synergized with either doxorubicin or fluorouracil to induce apoptosis in tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: Tumor suppressor miR-101 represses HCC progression through directly targeting EZH2 oncogene and sensitizes liver cancer cells to chemotherapeutic treatment. Our findings provide significant insights into molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis and may have clinical relevance for the development of novel targeted therapies for HCC.

Leonard B, Hart SN, Burns MB, et al.
APOBEC3B upregulation and genomic mutation patterns in serous ovarian carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(24):7222-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease. The driving forces behind this variability are unknown. Here, we report wide variation in the expression of the DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B, with elevated expression in the majority of ovarian cancer cell lines (three SDs above the mean of normal ovarian surface epithelial cells) and high-grade primary ovarian cancers. APOBEC3B is active in the nucleus of several ovarian cancer cell lines and elicits a biochemical preference for deamination of cytosines in 5'-TC dinucleotides. Importantly, examination of whole-genome sequence from 16 ovarian cancers reveals that APOBEC3B expression correlates with total mutation load as well as elevated levels of transversion mutations. In particular, high APOBEC3B expression correlates with C-to-A and C-to-G transversion mutations within 5'-TC dinucleotide motifs in early-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer genomes, suggesting that APOBEC3B-catalyzed genomic uracil lesions are further processed by downstream DNA "repair" enzymes including error-prone translesion polymerases. These data identify a potential role for APOBEC3B in serous ovarian cancer genomic instability.

Lin SJ, Chang KP, Hsu CW, et al.
Low-molecular-mass secretome profiling identifies C-C motif chemokine 5 as a potential plasma biomarker and therapeutic target for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
J Proteomics. 2013; 94:186-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Cancer cell secretome profiling has been shown to be a promising strategy for identifying potential body fluid-accessible cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. However, very few reports have investigated low-molecular-mass (LMr) proteins (<15kDa) in the cancer cell secretome. In the present study, we applied tricine-SDS-gel-assisted fractionation in conjunction with LC-MS/MS to systemically identify LMr proteins in the secretomes of three nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines. We examined two NPC tissue transcriptome datasets to identify LMr genes/proteins that are highly upregulated in NPC tissues and also secreted/released from NPC cells, obtaining 35 candidates. We verified the overexpression of four targets (LSM2, SUMO1, RPL22, and CCL5) in NPC tissues by immunohistochemistry and demonstrated elevated plasma levels of two targets (S100A2 and CCL5) in NPC patients by ELISA. Notably, plasma CCL5 showed good power (AUC 0.801) for discriminating NPC patients from healthy controls. Additionally, functional assays revealed that CCL5 promoted migration of NPC cells, an effect that was effectively blocked by CCL5-neutralizing antibodies and maraviroc, a CCL5 receptor antagonist. Collectively, our data indicate the feasibility of the tricine-SDS-gel/LC-MS/MS approach for efficient identification of LMr proteins from cancer cell secretomes, and suggest that CCL5 is a potential plasma biomarker and therapeutic target for NPC.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Both LMr proteome and cancer cell secretome represent attractive reservoirs for discovery of cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Our present study provides evidence for the practicality of using the tricine-SDS-PAGE/LC-MS/MS approach for in-depth identification of LMr proteins from the NPC cell secretomes, leading to the discovery of CCL5 as a potential plasma biomarker and therapeutic target for NPC. We believe that the modified GeLC-MS/MS approach used here can be further applied to explore extremely low-abundance, extracellular LMr proteins with important biological functions in other cell lines and biospecimens.

Libisch MG, Casás M, Chiribao M, et al.
GALNT11 as a new molecular marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Gene. 2014; 533(1):270-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant mucin O-glycosylation often occurs in different cancers and is characterized by immature expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrates. At present, there are some controversial reports about the Tn antigen (GalNAcα-O-Ser/Thr) expression and there is a great lack of information about the [UDP-N-acetyl-α-d-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-Ts)] expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To gain insight in these issues we evaluated the Tn antigen expression in CLL patient samples using two Tn binding proteins with different fine specificity. We also studied the expression from 14 GalNAc-Ts genes in CLL patients by RT-PCR. Our results have provided additional information about the expression level of the Tn antigen, suggesting that a low density of Tn residues is expressed in CLL cells. We also found that GALNT11 was expressed in CLL cells and normal T cell whereas little or no expression was found in normal B cells. Based on these results, GALNT11 expression was assessed by qPCR in a cohort of 50 CLL patients. We found significant over-expression of GALNT11 in 96% of B-CLL cells when compared to normal B cells. Moreover, we confirmed the expression of this enzyme at the protein level. Finally we found that GALNT11 expression was significantly associated with the mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV), [א(2)(1)=18.26; P<0.0001], lipoprotein lipase expression [א(2)(1)=13.72; P=0.0002] and disease prognosis [א(2)(1)=15.49; P<0.0001]. Our evidence suggests that CLL patient samples harbor aberrant O-glycosylation highlighted by Tn antigen expression and that the over-expression of GALNT11 constitutes a new molecular marker for CLL.

Sandner A, Illert J, Koitzsch S, et al.
Reflux induces DNA strand breaks and expression changes of MMP1+9+14 in a human miniorgan culture model.
Exp Cell Res. 2013; 319(19):2905-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastroesophageal reflux disease has been implicated in the pathogenesis of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. The same applies to laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, but so far, this link has not been proven. The impact of low pH and bile acids has not been studied extensively in cells other than oesophageal cancer cell lines and tissue. The aims of this study were to investigate the pathogenic potential of reflux and its single components on the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. We measured DNA stability in human miniorgan cultures (MOCs) and primary epithelial cell cultures (EpCs) in response to reflux by the alkaline comet assay. As matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in extracellular matrix remodelling processes and may contribute to cancer progression, we studied the expression of MMP1, -9, and -14 in MOCs, EpC, UM-SCC-22B, and FADUDD. DNA strand breaks (DNA-SBs) increased significantly at low pH and after incubation with human or artificial gastric juice. Single incubation with glycochenodeoxycholic acid also showed a significant increase in DNA-SBs. In epithelial cell cultures, human gastric juice increased the number of DNA-SBs at pH 4.5 and 5.5. Artificial gastric juice significantly up regulated the gene expression of MMP9. Western blot analysis confirmed the results of gene expression analysis, but the up regulation of MMP1, -9, and -14 was donor-specific. Reflux has the ability to promote genomic instability and may contribute to micro environmental changes suitable for the initiation of malignancy. Further functional gene analysis may elucidate the role of laryngopharyngeal reflux in the development of head neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

Ruiz Esparza-Garrido R, Velázquez-Flores MÁ, Diegopérez-Ramírez J, et al.
A proteomic approach of pediatric astrocytomas: MiRNAs and network insight.
J Proteomics. 2013; 94:162-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Pediatric astrocytomas, a leading cause of death associated with cancer, are the most common primary central nervous system tumors found in children. Most studies of these tumors focus on adults, not on children. We examined the global protein and microRNA expression pattern by 2D SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), and RT(2) miRNA PCR Array System. Proteomic studies revealed 49 proteins with changes on the expression. Interactome showed that vimentin, calreticulin, and 14-3-3 epsilon protein are hub proteins in these neoplasms. MicroRNA analyses demonstrated for the first time novel microRNAs involved in the astrocytoma biology. In conclusion, our results show that novel proteins and microRNAs with expression changes on pediatric astrocytoma could serve as biomarkers of tumor progression.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Astrocytomas are tumors that progress rapidly and that invade surrounding tissues. Although some drugs have been developed to treat these neoplasms, the mortality of patients is still very high. In this study, we describe for the first time, to our knowledge, some proteins and miRNAs associated with the biology of astrocytic tumors that could be postulated as possible diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Altogether, our results indicate that large-scale analyses allow making a fairly accurate prediction of different cellular processes altered in astrocytic tumors.

Chen Z, Ma T, Huang C, et al.
MiR-27a modulates the MDR1/P-glycoprotein expression by inhibiting FZD7/β-catenin pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Cell Signal. 2013; 25(12):2693-701 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapy has been widely used to treat cancer, however, the appearance of multiple drug resistance (MDR) in cancer patients is regarded as a major clinical obstacle to successful chemotherapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionary conserved small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and have been shown to regulate cell differentiation, development, proliferation and apoptosis. Nevertheless, the involvement of miRNAs and their roles in the development of MDR in liver cancer are not fully understood. Our study found that the expression of miR-27a was down-regulated in the multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7402/5-fluorouracil (BEL/5-FU) compared with its parental BEL-7402 cell line, while the MDR1/P-glycoprotein expression was elevated. Overexpression of miR-27a by transfecting with miR-27a mimics in the BEL/5-FU cells could reduce the MDR1/P-glycoprotein and β-catenin expressions, enhance the sensitivity of these cells to 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis. Moreover, up-regulation of miR-27a did not decrease the FZD7 mRNA level, but significantly reduce its protein expression in BEL/5-FU cells. It was also confirmed that reduction of FZD7 by RNA interference induced inhibitory effects on the expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein and β-catenin, similar to miR-27a. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-27a could function as a novel regulator to reverse MDR in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inhibiting the FZD7/β-catenin pathway.

Hossain MM, Banik NL, Ray SK
N-Myc knockdown and apigenin treatment controlled growth of malignant neuroblastoma cells having N-Myc amplification.
Gene. 2013; 529(1):27-36 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Malignant neuroblastomas mostly occur in children and are frequently associated with N-Myc amplification. Oncogene amplification, which is selective increase in copy number of the oncogene, provides survival advantages in solid tumors including malignant neuroblastoma. We have decreased expression of N-Myc oncogene using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid to increase anti-tumor efficacy of the isoflavonoid apigenin (APG) in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ and SK-N-BE2 cell lines that harbor N-Myc amplification. N-Myc knockdown induced morphological and biochemical features of neuronal differentiation. Combination of N-Myc knockdown and APG most effectively induced morphological and biochemical features of apoptotic death. This combination therapy also prevented cell migration and decreased N-Myc driven survival, angiogenic, and invasive factors. Collectively, N-Myc knockdown and APG treatment is a promising strategy for controlling the growth of human malignant neuroblastoma cell lines that harbor N-Myc amplification.

Greening DW, Ji H, Kapp EA, Simpson RJ
Sulindac modulates secreted protein expression from LIM1215 colon carcinoma cells prior to apoptosis.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1834(11):2293-307 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality in Western populations. Growing evidence from human and rodent studies indicate that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause regression of existing colon tumors and act as effective chemopreventive agents in sporadic colon tumor formation. Although much is known about the action of the NSAID sulindac, especially its role in inducing apoptosis, mechanisms underlying these effects is poorly understood. In previous secretome-based proteomic studies using 2D-DIGE/MS and cytokine arrays we identified over 150 proteins released from the CRC cell line LIM1215 whose expression levels were dysregulated by treatment with 1mM sulindac over 16h; many of these proteins are implicated in molecular and cellular functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, angiogenesis and apoptosis (Ji et al., Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2009, 3, 433-451). We have extended these studies and describe here an improved protein/peptide separation strategy that facilitated the identification of 987 proteins and peptides released from LIM1215 cells following 1mM sulindac treatment for 8h preceding the onset of apoptosis. This peptidome separation strategy involved fractional centrifugal ultrafiltration of concentrated cell culture media (CM) using nominal molecular weight membrane filters (NMWL 30K, 3K and 1K). Proteins isolated in the >30K and 3-30K fractions were electrophoretically separated by SDS-PAGE and endogenous peptides in the 1-3K membrane filter were fractioned by RP-HPLC; isolated proteins and peptides were identified by nanoLC-MS-MS. Collectively, our data show that LIM1215 cells treated with 1mM sulindac for 8h secrete decreased levels of proteins associated with extracellular matrix remodeling (e.g., collagens, perlecan, syndecans, filamins, dyneins, metalloproteinases and endopeptidases), cell adhesion (e.g., cadherins, integrins, laminins) and mucosal maintenance (e.g., glycoprotein 340 and mucins 5AC, 6, and 13). A salient finding of this study was the increased proteolysis of cell surface proteins following treatment with sulindac for 8h (40% higher than from untreated LIM1215 cells); several of these endogenous peptides contained C-terminal amino acids from transmembrane domains indicative of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). Taken together these results indicate that during the early-stage onset of sulindac-induced apoptosis (evidenced by increased annexin V binding, dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and cleavage of caspase-3), 1mM sulindac treatment of LIM1215 cells results in decreased expression of secreted proteins implicated in ECM remodeling, mucosal maintenance and cell-cell-adhesion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.

Akcay A, Ulucan K, Taskin N, et al.
Suprasellar mass mimicking a hypothalamic glioma in a patient with a complete PROP1 deletion.
Eur J Med Genet. 2013; 56(8):445-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in PROP1 are the most frequent defect detected in patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (MIM #262600), characterized by a clinical phenotype of proportionate growth deficit due to impaired production of growth hormone in combination with deficiency of one or more of the additional anterior pituitary hormones. Approximately one third of patients with PROP1 inactivating mutations present with abnormal development of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland as revealed by MRI. We report on the clinical and molecular characterization of the fourth complete PROP1 deletion in a girl with proportional short stature, combined pituitary hormone deficiency and a suprasellar mass mimicking a hypothalamic glioma. The proband, born to consanguineous parents, presented with proportional growth failure (height 108.8 cm, -3.48 SDS), combined pituitary hormone deficiency (GH, TSH, PRL and gonadotropins) and a suprasellar mass with optic chiasm invasion, compatible with a diagnosis of chiasmatic hypothalamic glioma, as revealed by MRI. PROP1 mutation screening by PCR and MLPA detected a homozygous deletion of the entire PROP1. The deletion was delimited to at least 7.7 kb upstream of PROP1 and more finely to ∼541-74 bp downstream from PROP1 by aCGH and PCR mapping. We describe the fourth case with a complete PROP1 deletion in homozygosis. The apparent location of the respective 5' (within a highly repetitive region, rich in Alu sequences) and 3' (within an Alu sequence) breakpoints, suggests that the deletion may have arisen through homologous recombination. The differentiation between PROP1 mutation associated pituitary enlargements from craniopharyngioma, pituitary adenoma, dys-germinoma, or Rathke's pouch cyst, is critical for the correct patient management. It is important to recognize that PROP1 mutations can present associated with evolving pituitary masses and/or other MRI alterations of the pituitary during early childhood and that surgery is not indicated in these patients. Therefore, in the presence of combined pituitary hormone deficiency and a pituitary or hypothalamic mass, PROP1 analysis should be considered before referring the patient to a neurosurgeon.

Zhang C, Yang L, Wang XB, et al.
Calyxin Y induces hydrogen peroxide-dependent autophagy and apoptosis via JNK activation in human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells.
Cancer Lett. 2013; 340(1):51-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Calyxin Y has been recently isolated from Alpinia katsumadai which has a folk use as an anti-tumor medicine. Calyxin Y induced caspase-dependent cell death in NCI-H460 cells, and concomitantly, provoked cytoprotective autophagy with the upregulation of critical Atg proteins. The cleavage of Atg proteins by caspases acted as a switch between autophagy and apoptosis induced by calyxin Y. Intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production was triggered upon exposure to calyxin Y via the induction of autophagy and apoptosis. We provided evidence that activated JNK was upstream effectors controlling both autophagy and apoptosis in response to elevated H2O2. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that calyxin Y serves multiple roles as a promising chemotherapeutic agent that induces H2O2-dependent autophagy and apoptosis via JNK activation.

Pang CY, Chiu SC, Harn HJ, et al.
Proteomic-based identification of multiple pathways underlying n-butylidenephthalide-induced apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2013; 59:281-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although numerous studies have shown the cancer-preventive properties of butylidenephthalide (BP), there is little report of BP affecting human prostate cancer cells. In the present study, proteomic-based approaches were used to elucidate the anticancer mechanism of BP in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. BP treatment decreased the viability of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which was correlated with G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Increased cell cycle arrest was associated with a decrease in the level of CCND1, CDK2, and PCNA proteins and an increase in the level of CDKN2A, CDKN1A, and SFN proteins. Proteomic studies revealed that among 48 differentially expressed proteins, 25 proteins were down-regulated and 23 proteins were up-regulated and these proteins fall into one large protein protein interaction network. Among these proteins, FAS, AIFM1, BIK, CYCS, SFN, PPP2R1A, CALR, HSPA5, DDIT3, and ERN1 are apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress associated proteins. Proteomic data suggested that multiple signaling pathways including FAS-dependent pathway, mitochondrial pathway, and ER stress pathway are involved in the apoptosis induced by BP.

Mayer-Sonnenfeld T, Har-Noy M, Lillehei KO, Graner MW
Proteomic analyses of different human tumour-derived chaperone-rich cell lysate (CRCL) anti-cancer vaccines reveal antigen content and strong similarities amongst the vaccines along with a basis for CRCL's unique structure: CRCL vaccine proteome leads to unique structure.
Int J Hyperthermia. 2013; 29(6):520-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper was to compare protein content of chaperone-rich cell lysate (CRCL) anti-cancer vaccines prepared from human tumours of different histological origins to evaluate the uniformity of their protein content.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical grade CRCL was prepared under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions from surgically resected human tumours (colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, non-small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer). Protein samples were separated by SDS-PAGE and slices cut from gels for protease digestion followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Proteins were identified, and the content assessed by gene ontogeny/networking programmatic computation. CRCL preparations were also analysed by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
RESULTS: We identified between 200 and 550 proteins in the various CRCL preparations. Gene ontogeny analysis indicated that the vaccines showed clear relationships, despite different tumour origins. A total of 95 proteins were common to all the CRCLs. Networking analyses implicated heat shock proteins in antigen processing pathways, and showed connections to the cytoskeletal network. We found that CRCL vaccines showed a particulate structure by NTA, and TEM revealed an extended fence-like structural network in CRCL, with regions that were microns in size.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that it is feasible to prepare and characterise CRCL from a variety of different tissue sources; a substantial portion of the protein content is identical among the different CRCLs, while the overall compositions also suggest high overlaps in functional categories. The protein content indicates the presence of antigens and implies a potential structure, which we believe may play a role in CRCL's ability to stimulate innate antigen presenting cell activation.

Mitra M, Kandalam M, Rangasamy J, et al.
Novel epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody conjugated polyethyleneimine-capped gold nanoparticles for enhanced and targeted small interfering RNA delivery to retinoblastoma cells.
Mol Vis. 2013; 19:1029-38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Several nanoconjugates have been designed to deliver nucleic acids such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and DNA to cells to study silencing and expression efficacies. In the present study, we prepared novel epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) monoclonal antibody conjugated polyethyleneimine (PEI) capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) loaded with EpCAM-specific siRNA molecules to knock-down the EpCAM gene in retinoblastoma (RB) cells. We chose EpCAM as a target moiety to deliver siRNA because this molecule is highly expressed in various epithelial cancers and is an ideal target as it is highly expressed in the apical surface of tumor cells while showing basolateral expression in normal cells.
METHODS: The EpCAM antibody was conjugated to AuNP-PEI loaded with siRNA molecules to specifically deliver siRNA to EpCAM-expressing RB cells. Conjugation efficiencies were confirmed with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and agarose and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The size and zeta potential were measured using a Zeta sizer analyzer. Nanoparticle internalization and uptake were studied using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Gene silencing efficacy was monitored with western blot analysis and real-time quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: Optimal size and neutral zeta potential properties of the AuNP-PEI- EpCAM antibody (EpAb) antibody were achieved for the transfection studies. The AuNP-PEI nanoparticles did not show any cytotoxicity to the cells, which means these nanomaterials are suitable for intracellular delivery of siRNA for therapeutic interventions. With EpCAM antibody conjugation, PEI-capped AuNPs loaded with EpCAM siRNA were significantly internalized in the Y79 cells as observed with fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry and induced a highly significant reduction in the cell viability of the Y79 cells. Through increased binding of EpCAM antibody-conjugated AuNP-PEI nanoparticles, significant downregulation of EpCAM gene was observed in the Y79 cells when compared to the cells treated with the antibody-unconjugated AuNP-PEI nanoparticles.
CONCLUSIONS: Thus, a novel antibody conjugated nanocarrier designed to deliver siRNA holds promise as an effective gene therapy strategy for retinoblastoma in the near future. In addition to serving as an siRNA delivery tool for therapy, gold nanoparticles can also serve as imaging modality in diagnosis.

Horiguchi S, Shiraha H, Nagahara T, et al.
Loss of runt-related transcription factor 3 induces gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(4):840-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIM: Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a tumor suppressor gene that is expressed in gastric and other cancers including pancreatic cancer. However, the precise function of RUNX3 in pancreatic cancer has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of decreased RUNX3 expression in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: This study included 36 patients with primary pancreatic cancer, who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy. All patients were treated with 1000 mg/m2 gemcitabine after the surgery. The pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1, MIAPaCa-2, BxPC-3, SUIT-2, and KLM-1 were used for immunoblotting analysis of RUNX3 and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) expressions. Ectopic RUNX3 expression was achieved by cDNA transfection of the cells, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) against RUNX3 was used to knock down endogenous RUNX3. Cell growth in the presence of gemcitabine was assessed using the MTT assay.
RESULTS: Patients with RUNX3-positive and RUNX3-negative pancreatic cancer had a median survival of 1006 and 643 days, respectively. Exogenous RUNX3 expression reduced the expression of MRP1, MRP2, and MRP5 in endogenous RUNX3-negative cells, whereas RUNX3 siRNA increased the expressions of these genes in endogenous RUNX3-positive cells. Exogenous RUNX3 expression decreased gemcitabine IC50 in RUNX3-negative cells.
CONCLUSION: Loss of RUNX3 expression contributes to gemcitabine resistance by inducing MRP expression, thereby resulting in poor patient survival.

Poschmann G, Lendzian A, Uszkoreit J, et al.
A combination of two electrophoretical approaches for detailed proteome-based characterization of SCLC subtypes.
Arch Physiol Biochem. 2013; 119(3):114-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Small cell lung cancers (SCLC) are heterogeneous and tumours differ in growth characteristics and treatment resistance.
OBJECTIVE: To get insight into the underlying protein profiles responsible for this heterogeneity, two subtypes of SCLC cells mutually differing in chemo resistance properties and growth characteristics are analysed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two different electrophoresis approaches in combination with mass spectrometry were used to detect differences between the SCLC cell lines GLC1 and GLC1M13: IEF/SDS-PAGE as well as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-SDS-PAGE.
RESULTS: Altogether 60 non redundant differentially expressed proteins were found of which 5 were verified by Western Blot analysis.
DISCUSSION: Most of these proteins identified are involved in processes of tumour progression. Therefore, these proteins are interesting candidates for further functional analysis.
CONCLUSION: Additional CTAB-SDS page is a complementary method to IEF-SDS page revealing a complete new subset of proteins differentially expressed between GLC1 and GLC1 M13 cells SCLC subtypes.

Mareninov S, De Jesus J, Sanchez DE, et al.
Lyophilized brain tumor specimens can be used for histologic, nucleic acid, and protein analyses after 1 year of room temperature storage.
J Neurooncol. 2013; 113(3):365-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Frozen tissue, a gold standard biospecimen, can yield well preserved nucleic acids and proteins after over a decade but is vulnerable to thawing and has substantial fiscal, spatial, and environmental costs. A long-term room temperature biospecimen storage alternative that preserves broad analytical utility can potentially empower tissue-based research. As there is scant data on the analytical utility of lyophilized brain tumor biospecimens, we evaluated lyophilized (freeze-dried) samples stored for 1 year at room temperature. Lyophilized tumor tissue processed into paraffin sections produced good histology. Yields of extracted DNA, RNA, and protein approximated those of frozen tissue. After 1 year, lyophilized samples yielded high molecular weight DNA that permitted copy number variation analysis, IDH 1 mutation detection, and MGMT promoter methylation PCR. A 27 % decrease in RIN scores over the 1 year suggests that RNA degradation was inhibited though incompletely. Nevertheless, RT-PCR studies on lyophilized tissue performed similarly to frozen tissue. In contrast to FFPE tissues where protein bands were absent or shifted to a lower molecular weight, lyophilized samples showed similar protein bands as frozen tissue on SDS-PAGE analysis. Lyophilized tissue performed similarly to frozen tissue for Western blots and enzyme activity assays. Immunohistochemistry of lyophilized tissue that were processed into FFPE blocks often required longer incubation times for staining than standard FFPE samples but generally provided robust antigen detection. This preliminary study suggests that lyophilization has promise for long-term room temperature storage while permitting varied tests; however, further work is required to better stabilize nucleic acids particularly RNA.

Ghalayini MK, Dong Q, Richardson DR, Assinder SJ
Proteolytic cleavage and truncation of NDRG1 in human prostate cancer cells, but not normal prostate epithelial cells.
Biosci Rep. 2013; 33(3) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
NDRG1 (N-myc downstream regulated gene-1) is a metastasis suppressor that is down-regulated in prostate cancer. NDRG1 phosphorylation is associated with inhibition of metastasis and Western blots indicate two bands at ~41 and ~46 kDa. Previous investigations by others suggest the higher band is due to NDRG1 phosphorylation. However, the current study using a dephosphorylation assay and the Phos-tag (phosphate-binding tag) SDS/PAGE assay, demonstrated that the 46 kDa NDRG1 protein band was not due to phosphorylation. Further experiments showed that the NDRG1 protein bands were not affected upon glycosidase treatment, despite marked effects of these enzymes on the glycosylated protein, fetuin. Analysis using RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-PCR) demonstrated only a single amplicon, and thus, the two bands could not result from an alternatively spliced NDRG1 transcript. Western-blot analysis of prostate cancer cell lysates identified the 41 kDa band to be a truncated form of NDRG1, with MS confirming the full and truncated proteins to be NDRG1. Significantly, this truncated protein was not present in normal human PrECs (prostate epithelial cells). Western-blot analysis using anti-NDRG1 raised to its N-terminal sequence failed to detect the truncated protein, suggesting that it lacked N-terminus amino acids (residues 1-49). Sequence analysis predicted a pseudotrypsin protease cleavage site between Cys49-Gly50. Such cleavage of NDRG1 in cancer cells may result in loss of NDRG1 tumour suppressive activity.

Lee YJ, Lee DM, Lee SH
Production of Cyr61 protein is modulated by extracellular acidification and PI3K/Akt signaling in prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2013; 58:169-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
High expression of Cyr61, an extracellular cysteine-rich heparin-binding protein, has been associated with a malignant cell phenotype and poor outcome in prostate cancers. Although Cyr61 was found by us to be overproduced in androgen-independent PC-3 cells treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), its significance is still unclear. We therefore aimed to determine how and why Cyr61 protein is overexpressed in NAC-treated cells. Here, we found that Cyr61 protein level markedly increased in cells treated with NAC at high cell seeding density. Silencing of Cyr61 by siRNA induced enhanced activity of caspase-3/7, upregulation of the proapototic Bok, BimL and BimS, cleavage of apoptosis hallmarkers such as Bax, PARP and caspase-3, and downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 proteins. NAC treatment caused a reduction of extracellular medium pH to acidic and an increase in Akt phosphorylation, after which the replacement with NAC-free medium returned them to control levels within 24h. Acid stimulation increased the levels of Cyr61 and p-Akt proteins, whereas it suppressed the induction of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins. Overall, our data indicate that PC-3 cells overproduce Cyr61 protein via activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling as a part of the survival mechanisms under the conditions causing extracellular acidity and further cytotoxicity.

Uen YH, Lin KY, Sun DP, et al.
Comparative proteomics, network analysis and post-translational modification identification reveal differential profiles of plasma Con A-bound glycoprotein biomarkers in gastric cancer.
J Proteomics. 2013; 83:197-213 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: In the study, we used Con A affinity chromatography, 1-D gel electrophoresis, and nano-LC-MS/MS to screen biomarker candidates in plasma samples obtained from 30 patients with gastric cancer and 30 healthy volunteers. First, we pooled plasma samples matched by age and sex. We identified 17 differentially expressed Con A-bound glycoproteins, including 10 upregulated proteins and 7 downregulated proteins; these differences were significant (Student's t-test, p-value<0.05). Furthermore, 2 of the upregulated proteins displayed expression levels that were increased by 2-fold or more in gastric cancer samples when compared with normal control samples. These proteins included leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1) and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3 (ITIH3), and the expression levels were validated by Western blot analysis. Pathway and network analysis of the differentially expressed proteins by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed vital canonical pathways involving acute phase response signaling, the complement system, LXR/RXR activation, hematopoiesis from pluripotent stem cells, and primary immunodeficiency signaling. Our results suggest that Con A-bound LRG1 and ITIH3 may not be practically applicable as a robust biomarker for the early detection of gastric cancer. Additionally, three novel PTMs in ITIH3 were identified and include hexose-N-acetyl-hexosamine at asparagine-(41), trimethylation at aspartic acid-(290), and flavin adenine dinucleotide at histidine-(335).
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Our study was to describe a combinatorial approach of Con A affinity chromatography, 1-D SDS-PAGE, and nano-LC/MS/MS that provides a label-free, comparative glycoproteomic quantification strategy for the investigation of glycoprotein profiles in plasma from gastric cancer patients versus healthy volunteers and to identify glycoprotein biomarkers for the early clinical detection of gastric cancer. Three novel PTMs, HexHexNAc, trimethylation and FAD, in Con A-bound ITIH3 were identified and built in molecular modeling. The aspartic acid-(290) trimethylation site was located in a metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS motif; (290)-DXSXS…T…D-(313)) that may influence important function for binding protein ligands.

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