Research IndicatorsGraph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: RIN1 (cancer-related)
He H, Wu G, Liu H, et al.Low RIN1 expression in HCC is associated with tumor invasion and unfavorable prognosis.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2013; 140(1):73-81 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between the expression of Ras and Rab interactor 1 (RIN1) and the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: RIN1 expression was detected in paired HCC tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Transfection was applied to analyze the RIN1 function.
RESULTS: We found that expression of the RIN1 protein was downregulated in the HCC samples compared with the corresponding normal tissues. Downregulation of RIN1 expression was also associated with invasion and poor overall survival (OS). The results of our multivariate analysis indicated that the RIN1 status is a significant prognostic factor for OS. RIN1 overexpression also inhibited cell invasion in HepG2 cells. The expression between RIN1 and ABL2 may present a positive correlation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that RIN1 suppresses tumor invasion in HCC patients and that a poor prognosis for HCC is expected when RIN1 expression is downregulated.
Biswal BK, Beyrouthy MJ, Hever-Jardine MP, et al.Acute hypersensitivity of pluripotent testicular cancer-derived embryonal carcinoma to low-dose 5-aza deoxycytidine is associated with global DNA Damage-associated p53 activation, anti-pluripotency and DNA demethylation.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e53003 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the stem cells of nonseminoma testicular germ cells tumors (TGCTs) and share remarkable similarities to human embryonic stem (ES) cells. In prior work we found that EC cells are hypersensitive to low nanomolar doses of 5-aza deoxycytidine (5-aza) and that this hypersensitivity partially depended on unusually high levels of the DNA methyltransferase, DNMT3B. We show here that low-dose 5-aza treatment results in DNA damage and induction of p53 in NT2/D1 cells. In addition, low-dose 5-aza results in global and gene specific promoter DNA hypomethylation. Low-dose 5-aza induces a p53 transcriptional signature distinct from that induced with cisplatin in NT2/D1 cells and also uniquely downregulates genes associated with pluripotency including NANOG, SOX2, GDF3 and Myc target genes. Changes in the p53 and pluripotency signatures with 5-aza were to a large extent dependent on high levels of DNMT3B. In contrast to the majority of p53 target genes upregulated by 5-aza that did not show DNA hypomethylation, several other genes induced with 5-aza had corresponding decreases in promoter methylation. These genes include RIN1, SOX15, GPER, and TLR4 and are novel candidate tumors suppressors in TGCTs. Our studies suggest that the hypersensitivity of NT2/D1 cells to low-dose 5-aza is multifactorial and involves the combined activation of p53 targets, repression of pluripotency genes, and activation of genes repressed by DNA methylation. Low-dose 5-aza therapy may be a general strategy to treat those tumors that are sustained by cells with embryonic stem-like properties.GEO NUMBER FOR THE MICROARRAY DATA: GSE42647.
Yu HF, Zhao G, Ge ZJ, et al.High RIN1 expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2012; 33(5):1557-63 [PubMed
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The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of RIN1 in gastric adenocarcinoma. RIN1 expression was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining on tissue samples from a consecutive series of 315 gastric adenocarcinoma patients who underwent tumor resections between 2003 and 2006. The relationship between RIN1 expression, clinicopathological factors, and patient survival was investigated. qRT-PCR results showed that the RIN1 mRNA expression was higher in tumor tissue samples than in the adjacent normal tissues, and a corresponding increase in protein expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that RIN1 is highly expressed in 54.3 % of gastric adenocarcinomas. RIN1 expression levels were closely associated with tumor size, histological differentiation, tumor stage, and lymph node involvement. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that high RIN1 expression exhibited a significant correlation with poor prognosis for gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that RIN1 expression is an independent prognostic parameter for the overall survival rate of gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Our data suggest that RIN1 plays an important role in gastric adenocarcinoma progression and that a high RIN1 expression predicts an unfavorable prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma patients.
Shan GY, Zhang Z, Chen QG, et al.Overexpression of RIN1 associates with tumor grade and progression in patients of bladder urothelial carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2012; 33(3):847-55 [PubMed
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Ras and Rab interactor 1 (RIN1) is an effector of H-Ras, which plays an important role in the development and progression of carcinomas, but it has not been reported in bladder cancer. Hence, the association of RIN1 expression with prognosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC) was examined. RIN1 mRNA and protein expression in 20 paired UCs and the adjacent normal tissues was detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The expression of RIN1 protein in 96 specimens of UCs and 22 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The overall survival (OS) was assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Moreover, the progression-free survival (PFS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS), classified by the clinicopathologic features with RIN1 expression, were assessed by multivariate analysis. RIN1 mRNA and protein level was higher in UCs than in the adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.01). Enhanced RIN1 immunoexpression was associated with high histologic grades (P = 0.046), cancer progression (P = 0.047) as well as Ki-67 expression (P = 0.023). Furthermore, the 5-year survival rate was 29% in the subgroup with high level of RIN1 expression, while it was 43% in the subgroup with normal level of RIN1 expression (P < 0.05). Importantly, RIN1 level was revealed as the significant independent prognostic factor for death (P = 0.023) and progression (P = 0.003), but a weak contribution for recurrence (P = 0.063). Collectively, RIN1 expression could be a potential prognostic predictor for UC patients.
Wang Q, Gao Y, Tang Y, et al.Prognostic significance of RIN1 gene expression in human non-small cell lung cancer.
Acta Histochem. 2012; 114(5):463-8 [PubMed
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Ras interaction/interference 1 (RIN1), originally identified as a Ras effector protein, has been implicated in tumorigenesis and development of human cancers. The aim of this study was to detect RIN1 expression in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to analyze its association with prognosis of NSCLC patients. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed to examine the expression of RIN1 mRNA in 25 cases of NSCLC and corresponding non-tumor tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of RIN1 in 90 NSCLC tissues. We found that the expression levels of RIN1 mRNA in NSCLC tissues were significantly higher than those in corresponding non-tumor tissues. High-level RIN1 expression was observed in 53.3% (48 of 90 cases), and correlated with poor tumor differentiation (P=0.024), TNM stage (P=0.032), and lymph node metastasis (P=0.018). Patients with high expression levels of RIN1 showed lower overall survival rate than those with low expression levels (P=0.033). Multivariate analysis showed that high RIN1 protein expression was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC patients (P=0.021). Our study suggests that over-expression of RIN1 may play an important role in the progression of NSCLC and RIN1 expression may offer a valuable marker for predicting the outcome of patients with NSCLC.
Chetcuti A, Aktas S, Mackie N, et al.Expression profiling reveals MSX1 and EphB2 expression correlates with the invasion capacity of Wilms tumors.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011; 57(6):950-7 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Wilms tumor is the most common pediatric renal malignancy, but the parameters that are important to its invasion capacity are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify new proteins associated with the invasion capacity of Wilms tumor.
PROCEDURE: Gene expression profiles for 15 primary Wilms tumor samples were determined by Affymetrix Genechip® Human Genome Ul33A microarray analysis. The gene expression profiles for selected genes was further confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 25 Wilms tumor cases to confirm expression for Bcl2A1, EphB2, MSX1, and RIN1.
RESULTS: Using microarray analysis 14 genes showed differential expression (P < 0.05) comparing stage 1 non-invasive Wilms tumor to stages 2-4 invasive Wilms tumor. The differential expression for Bcl2A1, EphB2, MSX1, and RIN1 was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. MSX1 protein was statistically significantly lower in stages 2-4 invasive Wilms tumor cases compared to stage 1 non-invasive cases (P = 0.013). EphB2 protein was higher in stages 2-4 Wilms tumor cases compared to stage 1 cases (P = 0.006). There was no statistically significant difference between stages 1 and 2-4 Wilms tumor for Bcl2A1 (P = 0.230) or RIN1 (P = 0.969) at the protein level.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that MSX1 may be associated with the invasion capacity of Wilms tumors. RIN1 is a downstream effector of RAS and Bcl2A1 functions as an anti-apoptotic protein. EphB2 is an ephrin receptor and is up-regulated in invasive tumors but its role needs to be confirmed in further cases of Wilms tumors.
Inoue T, Goi T, Hirono Y, et al.RIN1-Ras-ERK pathway plays an important role in carcinogenesis in colon cancer cell line LoVo.
Oncol Res. 2011; 19(12):527-34 [PubMed
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The RIN1 protein has SH2, three domains, and H-Ras binding domains; thus, it is presumed to be an important molecule in an intracellular signaling pathway. We examined the effect of the introduction of a membrane protein-encoding, mutated (S351A)RIN1 gene into a colon cancer. In the LoVo colon cancer cell line, endogenous RIN1 protein was strongly expressed in the cytoplasmic fraction, and the RIN1 protein in the cytoplasmic fraction was strongly bound to the 14-3-3 protein. In the mutated (S351A)RIN1-transfected LoVo cells, the mutated (S351A)RIN1 protein was identified in the cell membrane, and was bound to HRas protein. Also, in vitro the proliferative capacity of the mutated (S351A)RIN1-transfected LoVo cells was significantly inhibited, compared with that of their empty vector-transfected counterparts. In the mutated (S351A)RIN1-transfected LoVo cells, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins downstream of the H-Ras molecule was inhibited, compared with the counterparts. This study is the first to show that the localization of RIN1 protein plays an important role in the carcinogenesis in colon cancer cells LoVo (i.e., signal transduction in the Ras-ERK pathway).
ABL gene translocations create constitutively active tyrosine kinases that are causative in chronic myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia and other hematopoietic malignancies. Consistent retention of ABL SH3/SH2 autoinhibitory domains, however, suggests that these leukemogenic tyrosine kinase fusion proteins remain subject to regulation. We resolve this paradox, demonstrating that BCR-ABL1 kinase activity is regulated by RIN1, an ABL SH3/SH2 binding protein. BCR-ABL1 activity was increased by RIN1 overexpression and decreased by RIN1 silencing. Moreover, Rin1(-/-) bone marrow cells were not transformed by BCR-ABL1, ETV6-ABL1 or BCR-ABL1(T315I), a patient-derived drug-resistant mutant, as judged by growth factor independence. Rescue by ectopic RIN1 verified a cell autonomous mechanism of collaboration with BCR-ABL1 during transformation. Sensitivity to the ABL kinase inhibitor imatinib was increased by RIN1 silencing, consistent with RIN1 stabilization of an activated BCR-ABL1 conformation having reduced drug affinity. The dependence on activation by RIN1 to unleash full catalytic and cell transformation potential reveals a previously unknown vulnerability that could be exploited for treatment of leukemic cases driven by ABL translocations. The findings suggest that RIN1 targeting could be efficacious for imatinib-resistant disease and might complement ABL kinase inhibitors in first-line therapy.
BACKGROUND: Three functional c-ras genes, known as c-H-ras, c-K-ras, and c-N-ras, have been largely studied in mammalian cells with important insights into normal and tumorigenic cellular signal transduction events. Two K-Ras mRNAs are obtained from the same pre-mRNA by alternative splicing. H-Ras pre-mRNA can also be alternatively spliced in the IDX and 4A terminal exons, yielding the p19 and p21 proteins, respectively. However, despite the Ras gene family's established role in tumorigenic cellular signal transduction events, little is known about p19 function. Previous results showed that p19 did not interact with two known p21 effectors, Raf1 and Rin1, but was shown to interact with RACK1, a scaffolding protein that promotes multi-protein complexes in different signaling pathways (Cancer Res 2003, 63 p5178). This observation suggests that p19 and p21 play differential and complementary roles in the cell.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that p19 regulates telomerase activity through its interaction with p73alpha/beta proteins. We also found that p19 overexpression induces G1/S phase delay; an observation that correlates with hypophosphorylation of both Akt and p70SK6. Similarly, we also observed that FOXO1 is upregulated when p19 is overexpressed. The three observations of (1) hypophosphorylation of Akt, (2) G1/S phase delay and (3) upregulation of FOXO1 lead us to conclude that p19 induces G1/S phase delay, thereby maintaining cells in a reversible quiescence state and preventing entry into apoptosis. We then assessed the effect of p19 RNAi on HeLa cell growth and found that p19 RNAi increases cell growth, thereby having the opposite effect of arrest of the G1/S phase or producing a cellular quiescence state.
SIGNIFICANCE: Interestingly, p19 induces FOXO1 that in combination with the G1/S phase delay and hypophosphorylation of both Akt and p70SK6 leads to maintenance of a reversible cellular quiescence state, thereby preventing entry into apoptosis.
Fujioka M, Goi T, Hirono Y, et al.Cloning of a novel splicing variant of RIN1 and its expression in gastric and colon cancer.
Oncol Res. 2009; 17(11-12):593-9 [PubMed
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The regular RIN1 gene is a molecule located on chromosome 1lq13.2, and contains a coding region of 2352 bp with a 3' domain that binds to H-Ras protein, suggesting that it is an important molecule in the intracellular signaling pathway. In this study, we confirmed the existence of a novel form of the RIN1 gene with a different splicing pattern, successfully cloned it, and examined its expression in gastric and colon cancer cell lines. A 612-bp band (the RIN1 variant mRNA) was identified in the RT-PCR product from the colon cancer cell line Colo320D. (A 2352-bp band representing the regular RIN1 gene in HT29 cell line.) The 612-bp band was sequenced and compared with that of the regular RIN1 gene. As a result, the 612-bp product was found to contain a tyrosine phosphorylation site on the 5' side and Ras and 14-3-3 binding domains on the 3' side, indicating that it is a product with a different splicing pattern. The expression of the RIN1 variant mRNA was observed in two of six gastric cancer cell lines and four of five colon cancer cell lines. We identified a novel RIN1 gene with a splicing pattern different from that of the regular RIN1 gene. Comparison of both genes revealed that the novel RIN1 products had a structure conserving the Ras and 14-3-3 binding domains, but lacking two tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Novel RIN1 variant protein was expressed primarily in the cytoplasm and no expression in the cell membrane, and RIN1 variant protein was bound to 14-3-3 protein. In addition, the novel RIN1 mRNA was found to be expressed in gastric and colon cancer cell lines, suggesting that it is an important gene for the function of cancer cells.
Rin1 is a Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor that plays an important role in Ras-activated endocytosis and growth factor receptor trafficking in fibroblasts. In this study, we show that Rin1 is expressed at high levels in a large number of non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, including Hop62, H650, HCC4006, HCC827, EKVX, HCC2935, and A549. Rin1 depletion from A549 cells resulted in a decrease in cell proliferation that was correlated to a decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Expression of wild type Rin1 but not the Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor-deficient Rin1 (Rin1Delta) complemented the Rin1 depletion effects, and overexpression of Rin1Delta had a dominant negative effect on cell proliferation. Rin1 depletion stabilized the cell surface levels of EGFR, suggesting that internalization was necessary for robust signaling in A549 cells. In support of this conclusion, introduction of either dominant negative Rab5 or dominant negative dynamin decreased A549 proliferation and EGFR signaling. These data demonstrate that proper internalization and endocytic trafficking are critical for EGFR-mediated signaling in A549 cells and suggest that up-regulation of Rin1 in A549 cell lines may contribute to their proliferative nature.
Breast cancer progression is driven by altered gene expression. We show that the RIN1 gene, which encodes a RAS effector regulating epithelial cell properties, is silenced in breast tumor cell lines compared with cultured human mammary epithelial cells. We also report that RIN1 is often reduced in human breast tumor cells compared with morphologically normal breast glandular cells. At least two silencing mechanisms seem to be involved. Overexpression of the transcription repressor SNAI1 (Snail) was observed in ZR75-1 cells, and SNAI1 knockdown restored RIN1 expression. In addition, DNA methylation within the RIN1 promoter and the first exon in KPL-1 cells suggested that epigenetic modifications may contribute to silencing, and demethylation was shown to restore RIN1 expression. Reexpression of RIN1 was shown to inhibit anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. In addition, RIN1 expression inhibited both the initiation and progression of tumorigenesis for two breast tumor cell lines in a mouse model, consistent with a tumor suppressor function. We also show that RIN1 acts as a negative regulator of tumor cell invasive growth and that this requires the ABL kinase-signaling function of RIN1, suggesting a mechanism through which RIN1 silencing may contribute to breast cancer progression.
Senda K, Goi T, Hirono Y, et al.Analysis of RIN1 gene expression in colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2007; 17(5):1171-5 [PubMed
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The RIN1 gene, located on chromosome 11q13.2, is a molecule consisting of a coding region of 2352 bp, has a domain on the 3' side that binds to H-Ras protein, and is presumed to be an important molecule in an intracellular signaling pathway. Since the RIN1 molecule belonging to the effector molecules of H-Ras has not been reported in colorectal or other digestive tract cancers to date, we investigated how the RIN1 gene was involved in colorectal cancer. Fifty-two (51.5%) of 101 colorectal cancer specimens strongly expressed the RIN1 gene compared to the adjacent normal colorectal tissue. The 5-year survival rate of patients positive for the expression of the RIN1 gene was significantly poorer at 55% than that (83%) of patients negative for the expression of the RIN1 gene. Also, we confirmed that RIN1 protein was localized chiefly in the cytoplasm of colorectal cancer cell lines, and bound to 14-3-3 protein, but not to Ras protein. These results indicate that the RIN1 gene serves as an important signal transduction system for evaluating the malignancy of colorectal cancer.
Zainabadi K, Benyamini P, Chakrabarti R, et al.A 700-kb physical and transcription map of the cervical cancer tumor suppressor gene locus on chromosome 11q13.
Genomics. 2005; 85(6):704-14 [PubMed
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Nonrandom deletion of chromosome 11q13 sequences is a significant event in a number of human tumors. We have recently identified a 300-kb minimal area of deletion in primary cervical tumors that overlaps with deletions observed in endocrine and nasopharyngeal tumors. We have also observed a 5.7-kb homozygous deletion within this interval in HeLa cells (a cervical cancer cell line), HeLa cell-derived tumorigenic hybrids, and a primary cervical tumor, suggesting the presence of a tumor suppressor gene in this region. In the present investigation, we have constructed a 700-kb contig map encompassing the 300-kb deletion using the human genome sequence database and confirmed the map using various STS markers from the region. Our map also shows the overlap of a previously published rare, heritable fragile site, FRA11A, with the cervical cancer deletion locus. The mapped region contains highly repetitive GC-poor sequences. We have identified and characterized eight different polymorphic microsatellite markers from the sequences within and surrounding the deletion. Further, expression studies performed with 18 different ESTs localized adjacent to the homozygous deletion showed the presence of a transcript for only one of the ESTs, AA282789. This EST mapping within the homozygous deletion is also expressed in HeLa cells, thereby excluding the EST as the putative tumor suppressor gene. Additionally, analysis of four candidate genes (SF3B2, BRMS1, RIN1, and RAB1B) from the region showed expression of the expected size message in both the nontumorigenic and the tumorigenic HeLa cell hybrids, thereby excluding them as the putative tumor suppressor gene(s). However, Northern blot analysis with a fifth candidate gene, PACS1 (phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein), mapped to the deletion/FRA11A overlap region showed the expression of an 8-kb transcript in HeLa and five other tumor cell lines in addition to the expected 4.5-kb transcript. Since the gene shows abundant expression in normal tissues and an altered transcript is observed in tumor cell lines, we hypothesize that this gene could represent sequences of the putative tumor suppressor gene. Finally, we have observed a perfect 48-bp CAG/CCG repeat 99 kb proximal to D11S913, the marker linked to the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia 5. The physical and transcription maps and the microsatellite markers of the 700-kb region of chromosome 11q13 should be helpful in the cloning of the cervical cancer tumor suppressor gene.
Morikawa J, Li H, Kim S, et al.Identification of signature genes by microarray for acute myeloid leukemia without maturation and acute promyelocytic leukemia with t(15;17)(q22;q12)(PML/RARalpha).
Int J Oncol. 2003; 23(3):617-25 [PubMed
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has distinct subgroups characterized by different maturation and specific chromosomal translocation. In order to gain insight into the gene expression activities in AML, we carried out a gene expression profiling study with 21 AML samples using cDNA microarrays, focusing on acute promyelocytic leukemia with specific translocation t(15;17)(q22;q12) [French-American-British or FAB-M3 with t(15;17)] and AML without maturation (FAB-M1) characterized by morphologically and phenotypically immature AML blasts and no recurrent chromosomal abnormalities. Using a multivariate sigma-classifier algorithm, we identified 33 strong feature genes that distinguish FAB-M3 with t(15;17) from other AML samples, and 24 strong feature genes that classify FAB-M1. A direct comparison between FAB-M3 with t(15;17) and FAB-M1 led to selection of 13 strong feature genes. Those genes include some known to be related to leukemogenesis and cell differentiation. RIN1, a gene in the ras pathway, was up-regulated in FAB-M3 with t(15;17). Growth factor-binding protein 2 gene was down-regulated in FAB-M1. Huntingtin gene was up-regulated in FAB-M1. Others include syndecan 4, interleukin-2 receptor beta, folate receptor beta, low affinity immunoglobulin gamma, Fc receptor IIC precursor, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, and myeloperoxidase, which are involved in cell differentiation. Overexpression of myeloperoxidase in FAB-M3 cells with t(15;17) compared to FAB-M1 cells is consistent with the conventional cytochemical staining pattern. Thus, the study revealed that a morphologically-defined FAB-M1 subtype has a distinct gene expression signature that contributes to its cell differentiation and proliferation as well as FAB-M3 with a recurrent cytogenetic abnormality t(15;17)(q22;q12).
Samant RS, Debies MT, Shevde LA, et al.Identification and characterization of the murine ortholog (brms1) of breast-cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1).
Int J Cancer. 2002; 97(1):15-20 [PubMed
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We have cloned a novel metastasis-suppressor gene (BRMS1) by differential display, comparing metastatic human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435 to its metastasis-suppressed human chromosome 11 microcell hybrid. Screening of a murine cDNA library led to the identification of a 1.4 kb cDNA with a sequence revealing 85% homology to human BRMS1 within the open reading frame. The predicted protein sequence for the murine ortholog is 95% identical, suggesting that it is strongly conserved across these 2 species. The cloned cDNA was used to screen a murine strain SV129 BAC library to obtain brms1 genomic DNA. Three BAC clones [226(I4), 226(H4) and 239(N7)] were confirmed to encode the entire brms1 gene. Detailed analysis of BAC clone 226(I4) shows that the gene spans 8.5 kb and, like the human gene, is organized into 10 exons and 9 introns. While the exons share a high degree of homology, there are greater differences when comparing intron structures between the human and murine genes. The 5' upstream region shares about 64% homology with its human counterpart, retaining several of the many putative regulatory elements. Like the human genomic BRMS1, the murine ortholog of the iGnT gene is found upstream of brms1 and the murine ortholog of the RIN1 gene is found downstream of brms1. brms1 was then tested for suppression of metastasis of mouse mammary carcinoma cell line 66cl4 in syngeneic BALB/c mice. Transfection with brms1 did not inhibit 66cl4 primary tumor formation but significantly suppressed its metastatic capability. This suggests that the murine ortholog functions similarly to BRMS1.
Multistep carcinogenesis is exemplified by chronic myeloid leukemia with clinical manifestation consisting of a chronic phase and blast crisis. Pathological generation of BCR-ABL (breakpoint cluster region-Abelson) results in growth promotion, differentiation, resistance to apoptosis, and defect in DNA repair in targeted blood cells. Domains in BCR and ABL sequences work in concert to elicit a variety of leukemogenic signals including Ras, STAT5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-5), Myc, cyclin D1, P13 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase), RIN1 (Ras interaction/interference), and activation of actin cytoskeleton. However, the mechanism of differentiation of transformed cells is poorly understood. A mutator phenotype of BCR-ABL could explain the transformation to blast crisis. The aim of this review is to integrate molecular and biological information on BCR, ABL, and BCR-ABL and to focus on how signaling from those molecules mirrors the biological phenotypes of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Shuster MI, Han L, Le Beau MM, et al.A consistent pattern of RIN1 rearrangements in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines supports a breakage-fusion-bridge cycle model for 11q13 amplification.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000; 28(2):153-63 [PubMed
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Gene amplification is a common feature of tumors. Overexpression of some amplified genes plays a role in tumor progression. Gene amplification can occur either extrachromosomally as double-minute chromosomes (dmin) or intrachromosomally in the form of homogeneously staining regions (hsrs). Approximately one-half of our oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are characterized by amplification of band 11q13, usually as an hsr located entopically (occurring or situated at the normal chromosomal site, as opposed to ectopically). Using chromosomal fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we confirmed the amplification of the cyclin D1 (CCND1/PRAD1) and fibroblast growth factor types 3 and 4 (FGF3/INT2 and FGF4/HSTF1) genes within the 11q13 amplicon in our series of primary OSCCs and derived cell lines. The human RIN1 gene was isolated as an RAS interaction/interference protein in a genetic selection in yeast and has been described as a putative effector of both the RAS and ABL oncogenes. We mapped RIN1 to 11q13.2. FISH analysis of 10 11q13-amplified OSCC cell lines revealed high-level RIN1 amplification in two cell lines. Three additional cell lines have what appear to be duplications and/or low-level amplification of RIN1, visible in both interphase and metaphase cells. The hybridization pattern of RIN1 on the metaphase chromosomes is particularly revealing; RIN1 signals flank the 11q13 hsr, possibly as a result of an inverted duplication. The gene amplification model of Coquelle et al. (1997) predicted that gene amplification occurs by breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycles involving fragile sites. Our data suggest that the pattern of gene amplification at 11q13 in OSCC cell lines is consistent with a BFB model. RIN1 appears to be a valuable probe for investigating the process of gene amplification in general and, specifically, 11q13 amplification in oral cancer.