POLK

Gene Summary

Gene:POLK; polymerase (DNA directed) kappa
Aliases: DINP, POLQ, DINB1
Location:5q13
Summary:External and internal DNA-damaging agents continually threaten the integrity of genetic material in cells. Although a variety of repair mechanisms exist to remove the resulting lesions, some lesions escape repair and block the replication machinery. Members of the Y family of DNA polymerases, such as POLK, permit the continuity of the replication fork by allowing replication through such DNA lesions. Each Y family polymerase has a unique DNA-damage bypass and fidelity profile. POLK is specialized for the extension step of lesion bypass (summary by Lone et al., 2007 [PubMed 17317631]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA polymerase kappa
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (7)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 5
  • Pituitary Tumors
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Lung Cancer
  • Proteoglycans
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Up-Regulation
  • Risk Factors
  • Haplotypes
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Western Blotting
  • Models, Molecular
  • Base Sequence
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Mutation
  • DNA Repair
  • DNA Adducts
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Markers
  • Chromosome 11
  • DNA
  • Pedigree
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • DNA Damage
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Promoter Regions
  • MicroRNAs
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • RTPCR
  • Cancer DNA
  • Adenoma
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Messenger RNA
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: POLK (cancer-related)

Ceccaldi R, Liu JC, Amunugama R, et al.
Homologous-recombination-deficient tumours are dependent on Polθ-mediated repair.
Nature. 2015; 518(7538):258-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/08/2015 Related Publications
Large-scale genomic studies have shown that half of epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) have alterations in genes regulating homologous recombination (HR) repair. Loss of HR accounts for the genomic instability of EOCs and for their cellular hyper-dependence on alternative poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP)-mediated DNA repair mechanisms. Previous studies have implicated the DNA polymerase θ (Polθ also known as POLQ, encoded by POLQ) in a pathway required for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, referred to as the error-prone microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ) pathway. Whether Polθ interacts with canonical DNA repair pathways to prevent genomic instability remains unknown. Here we report an inverse correlation between HR activity and Polθ expression in EOCs. Knockdown of Polθ in HR-proficient cells upregulates HR activity and RAD51 nucleofilament assembly, while knockdown of Polθ in HR-deficient EOCs enhances cell death. Consistent with these results, genetic inactivation of an HR gene (Fancd2) and Polq in mice results in embryonic lethality. Moreover, Polθ contains RAD51 binding motifs and it blocks RAD51-mediated recombination. Our results reveal a synthetic lethal relationship between the HR pathway and Polθ-mediated repair in EOCs, and identify Polθ as a novel druggable target for cancer therapy.

Egger ME, McNally LR, Nitz J, et al.
Adenovirus-mediated FKHRL1/TM sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis induced by temozolomide.
Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev. 2014; 25(3):186-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Melanoma exhibits variable resistance to the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). We evaluated the potential of adenovirus expressing forkhead human transcription factor like 1 triple mutant (Ad-FKHRL1/TM) to sensitize melanoma cells to TMZ. Four melanoma cell lines were treated with Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ, alone or in combination. Apoptosis was assessed by activation and inhibition of caspase pathway, nuclei fragmentation, and annexin V staining. The potential therapeutic efficacy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM with TMZ was also assessed in a mouse melanoma xenograft model. Combination therapy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ resulted in greater cell killing (<20% cell viability) compared with single therapy and controls (p<0.05). Combination indices of Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ therapy indicated significant (p<0.05) synergistic killing effect. Greater apoptosis induction was found in cells treated with Ad-FKHRL1/TM and TMZ than with Ad-FKHRL1/TM or TMZ-treated cells alone. Treatment with TMZ enhanced adenovirus transgene expression in a cell type-dependent manner. In an in vivo model, combination therapy of Ad-FKHRL1/TM with TMZ results in greater tumor growth reduction in comparison with single treatments. We suggest that Ad-FKHRL1/TM is a promising vector to sensitize melanoma cells to TMZ, and that a combination of both approaches would be effective in the clinical setting.

Yang S, Zhang H, Guo L, et al.
Reconstructing the coding and non-coding RNA regulatory networks of miRNAs and mRNAs in breast cancer.
Gene. 2014; 548(1):6-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that deregulate and/or decrease the expression of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which specifically contribute to complex diseases. In our study, we reanalyzed an integrated data to promote classification performance by rebuilding miRNA-mRNA modules, in which a group of deregulated miRNAs cooperatively regulated a group of significant mRNAs. In five-fold cross validation, the multiple processes flow considered the biological and statistical significant correlations. First, of statistical significant miRNAs, 6 were identified as core miRNAs. Second, in the 13 significant pathways enriched by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), 705 deregulated mRNAs were found. Based on the union of predicted sets and correlation sets, 6 modules were built. Finally, after verified by test sets, three indexes, including area under the ROC curve (AUC), Accuracy and Matthews correlation coefficients (MCCs), indicated only 4 modules (miR-106b-CIT-KPNA2-miR-93, miR-106b-POLQ-miR-93, miR-107-BTRC-UBR3-miR-16 and miR-200c-miR-16-EIF2B5-miR-15b) had discriminated ability and their classification performance were prior to that of the single molecules. By applying this flow to different subtypes, Module 1 was the consistent module across subtypes, but some different modules were still specific to each subtype. Taken together, this method gives new insight to building modules related to complex diseases and simultaneously can give a supplement to explain the mechanism of breast cancer (BC).

Wang T, Feldman AL, Wada DA, et al.
GATA-3 expression identifies a high-risk subset of PTCL, NOS with distinct molecular and clinical features.
Blood. 2014; 123(19):3007-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The cell of origin and the tumor microenvironment's role remain elusive for the most common peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs). As macrophages promote the growth and survival of malignant T cells and are abundant constituents of the tumor microenvironment, their functional polarization was examined in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Cytokines that are abundant within the tumor microenvironment, particularly interleukin (IL)-10, were observed to promote alternative macrophage polarization. Macrophage polarization was signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 dependent and was impaired by the Janus kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib. In conventional T cells, the production of T helper (Th)2-associated cytokines and IL-10, both of which promote alternative macrophage polarization, is regulated by the T-cell transcription factor GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA-3). Therefore, its role in the T-cell lymphomas was examined. GATA-3 expression was observed in 45% of PTCLs, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS) and was associated with distinct molecular features, including the production of Th2-associated cytokines. In addition, GATA-3 expression identified a subset of PTCL, NOS with distinct clinical features, including inferior progression-free and overall survival. Collectively, these data suggest that further understanding the cell of origin and lymphocyte ontogeny among the T-cell lymphomas may improve our understanding of the tumor microenvironment's pathogenic role in these aggressive lymphomas.

Santarpia L, Iwamoto T, Di Leo A, et al.
DNA repair gene patterns as prognostic and predictive factors in molecular breast cancer subtypes.
Oncologist. 2013; 18(10):1063-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
DNA repair pathways can enable tumor cells to survive DNA damage induced by chemotherapy and thus provide prognostic and/or predictive value. We evaluated Affymetrix gene expression profiles for 145 DNA repair genes in untreated breast cancer (BC) patients (n = 684) and BC patients treated with regimens containing neoadjuvant taxane/anthracycline (n = 294) or anthracycline (n = 210). We independently assessed estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/HER2-negative, HER2-positive, and ER-negative/HER2-negative subgroups for differential expression, bimodal distribution, and the prognostic and predictive value of DNA repair gene expression. Twenty-two genes were consistently overexpressed in ER-negative tumors, and five genes were overexpressed in ER-positive tumors, but no differences in expression were associated with HER2 status. In ER-positive/HER2-negative tumors, the expression of nine genes (BUB1, FANCI, MNAT1, PARP2, PCNA, POLQ, RPA3, TOP2A, and UBE2V2) was associated with poor prognosis, and the expression of one gene (ATM) was associated with good prognosis. Furthermore, the prognostic value of specific genes did not correlate with proliferation. A few genes were associated with chemotherapy response in BC subtypes and treatment-specific manner. In ER-negative/HER2-negative tumors, the MSH2, MSH6, and FAN1 (previously MTMR15) genes were associated with pathological complete response and residual invasive cancer in taxane/anthracycline-treated patients. Conversely, PMS2 expression was associated with residual invasive cancer in treatments using anthracycline as a single agent. In HER2-positive tumors, TOP2A was associated with patient response to anthracyclines but not to taxane/anthracycline regimens. In genes expressed in a bimodal fashion, RECQL4 was significantly associated with clinical outcome. In vitro studies showed that defects in RECQL4 impair homologous recombination, sensitizing BC cells to DNA-damaging agents.

Kanaan Z, Roberts H, Eichenberger MR, et al.
A plasma microRNA panel for detection of colorectal adenomas: a step toward more precise screening for colorectal cancer.
Ann Surg. 2013; 258(3):400-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers of colorectal (CR) adenomas.
BACKGROUND: Detection of precancerous lesions such as CR adenoma is a key to reduce CR cancer (CRC) mortality. There is a great need for accurate, noninvasive biomarkers for detection of CR adenoma and CRC. MiRNAs are non-protein-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Our prior work investigated the dysregulation of 5 plasma miRNAs in CRC patients. As intended, we undertook a more comprehensive plasma-miRNA screening study in patients with CR adenoma and CRC.
METHODS: We screened for 380 plasma-miRNAs using microfluidic array technology (Applied BioSystems) in a screening cohort of 12 healthy controls, 9 patients with CR adenomas, and 20 patients with CRC. A panel of the most dysregulated miRNAs (P < 0.05, False Discovery Rate: 5%) was then validated in a blinded cohort of 26 healthy controls, 16 patients with large adenomas, and 45 patients with CRC.
RESULTS: A panel of 8 plasma miRNAs (miR-532-3p, miR-331, miR-195, miR-17, miR-142-3p, miR-15b, miR-532, and miR-652) distinguished polyps from controls with high accuracy [area under curve (AUC) = 0.868 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.98)]. In addition, a panel of 3 plasma miRNAs (miR-431, miR-15b, and miR-139-3p) distinguished Stage IV CRC from controls with an [AUC = 0.896 (95% CI: 0.78-1.0)]. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves of miRNA panels for all CRC versus controls and polyps versus all CRC showed AUC values of 0.829 (95% CI: 0.73-0.93) and 0.856 (95% CI: 0.75-0.97), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Plasma miRNAs are reliable, noninvasive, and inexpensive markers for CR adenomas. This miRNA panel warrants study in larger cohorts. Plasma-based assays could provide better screening compliance compared to fecal occult blood or endoscopic screening.

Li WQ, Hu N, Hyland PL, et al.
Genetic variants in DNA repair pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma in a Chinese population.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(7):1536-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The DNA repair pathways help to maintain genomic integrity and therefore genetic variation in the pathways could affect the propensity to develop cancer. Selected germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pathways have been associated with esophageal cancer and gastric cancer (GC) but few studies have comprehensively examined the pathway genes. We aimed to investigate associations between DNA repair pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and GC, using data from a genome-wide association study in a Han Chinese population where ESCC and GC are the predominant cancers. In sum, 1942 ESCC cases, 1758 GC cases and 2111 controls from the Shanxi Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Genetics Project (discovery set) and the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials (replication set) were genotyped for 1675 SNPs in 170 DNA repair-related genes. Logistic regression models were applied to evaluate SNP-level associations. Gene- and pathway-level associations were determined using the resampling-based adaptive rank-truncated product approach. The DNA repair pathways overall were significantly associated with risk of ESCC (P = 6.37 × 10(-4)), but not with GC (P = 0.20). The most significant gene in ESCC was CHEK2 (P = 2.00 × 10(-6)) and in GC was CLK2 (P = 3.02 × 10(-4)). We observed several other genes significantly associated with either ESCC (SMUG1, TDG, TP53, GTF2H3, FEN1, POLQ, HEL308, RAD54B, MPG, FANCE and BRCA1) or GC risk (MRE11A, RAD54L and POLE) (P < 0.05). We provide evidence for an association between specific genes in the DNA repair pathways and the risk of ESCC and GC. Further studies are warranted to validate these associations and to investigate underlying mechanisms.

Yousefzadeh MJ, Wood RD
DNA polymerase POLQ and cellular defense against DNA damage.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2013; 12(1):1-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
In mammalian cells, POLQ (pol θ) is an unusual specialized DNA polymerase whose in vivo function is under active investigation. POLQ has been implicated by different experiments to play a role in resistance to ionizing radiation and defense against genomic instability, in base excision repair, and in immunological diversification. The protein is formed by an N-terminal helicase-like domain, a C-terminal DNA polymerase domain, and a large central domain that spans between the two. This arrangement is also found in the Drosophila Mus308 protein, which functions in resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents. Homologs of POLQ and Mus308 are found in multicellular eukaryotes, including plants, but a comparison of phenotypes suggests that not all of these genes are functional orthologs. Flies defective in Mus308 are sensitive to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, while mammalian cells defective in POLQ are primarily sensitive to DNA double-strand breaking agents. Cells from Polq(-/-) mice are hypersensitive to radiation and peripheral blood cells display increased spontaneous and ionizing radiation-induced levels of micronuclei (a hallmark of gross chromosomal aberrations), though mice apparently develop normally. Loss of POLQ in human and mouse cells causes sensitivity to ionizing radiation and other double strand breaking agents and increased DNA damage signaling. Retrospective studies of clinical samples show that higher levels of POLQ gene expression in breast and colorectal cancer are correlated with poorer outcomes for patients. A clear understanding of the mechanism of action and physiologic function of POLQ in the cell is likely to bear clinical relevance.

Billeter AT, Barnett RE, Druen D, et al.
MicroRNA as a new factor in lung and esophageal cancer.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012; 24(3):155-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most lethal cancer due to late detection in advanced stages; early diagnosis of lung cancer allows surgical treatment and improves the outcome. The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux-related adenocarcinomas of the esophagus is increasing; repetitive surveillance endoscopies are necessary to detect development of cancer. A blood-based biomarker would simplify the diagnosis and treatment of both diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA strands that interfere with protein production. miRNAs play pivotal roles in cell homeostasis, and dysregulation of miRNAs can lead to the development of cancer. miRNAs can be found in all body fluids and have been proposed to serve as messengers between closely localized cells but also distant organs. Cancer cells actively secrete miRNAs, and these miRNA profiles can be found in blood. We outline, here, how these miRNAs may aid in diagnosis and treatment of lung and esophageal cancers, as well as their apparent limitations.

Lessa RC, Campos AH, Freitas CE, et al.
Identification of upregulated genes in oral squamous cell carcinomas.
Head Neck. 2013; 35(10):1475-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is the most common subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). These tumors often have an aggressive clinical outcome hallmarked by a propensity for local invasion and regional nodal metastasis. Upregulated genes could be useful as markers for diagnosis, prognosis, and as new drug targets for these tumors.
METHODS: To identify upregulated genes in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSSCs), we examined the ORESTES public database and used a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) approach to determine the expression level of selected genes in tumor samples.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The ORESTES data mining analysis indicated 40 upregulated genes in HNSCC. Nine of these candidate genes were selected for further qRT-PCR validation and 3 of them (ALDOA, AHSA1, and POLQ) were frequently found upregulated in OSCC samples, which may indicate an association of these genes with the carcinogenesis process in this tumor site and they can constitute potential new targets for therapy.

Kanaan Z, Rai SN, Eichenberger MR, et al.
Plasma miR-21: a potential diagnostic marker of colorectal cancer.
Ann Surg. 2012; 256(3):544-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC).
BACKGROUND: CRC, a leading cause of death, is curable if detected early. There is an unmet need for an accurate, noninvasive biomarker of CRC. MiRNAs are non-protein-coding RNAs regulating gene expression that play a role in CRC development.
METHODS: Levels of 380 miRNAs were determined using microfluidic array technology (Applied Biosystems) in a "training" set of 30 CRC patients from whom cancer and adjacent normal tissue were collected. The 4 most dysregulated miRNAs (P < 0.05, false discovery rate (FDR): 10%) were then validated in a second blinded "test" set of 16 CRC patients from whom cancer and normal adjacent tissue had been collected. Validated tissue miRNAs were then evaluated in a plasma "test" set consisting of 30 CRC patients and 30 individuals without CRC. The most dysregulated tissue miRNAs were then validated in an independent new plasma test set consisting of 20 CRC patients with 20 age-, -, and race-matched subjects without CRC.
RESULTS: Nineteen of 380 miRNAs were dysregulated in CRC tissue in the tissue "training" set (P < 0.05, FDR: 10%). The 2 most upregulated (miR-31; miR-135b) and most downregulated (miR-1; miR-133a) miRNAs identified CRC in our "test" set with 100% sensitivity and 80% specificity. MiR-31 was more upregulated in stages III and IV compared with stages I and II (P < 0.05). In the "plasma" group, miR-21 differentiated CRC patients from controls with 90% specificity and sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: Plasma miRNAs provide reliable and noninvasive markers for CRC. Plasma miR-21 warrants study in larger cohorts. It seems uniquely promising as a plasma biomarker for CRC.

Dubé PE, Yan F, Punit S, et al.
Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibits colitis-associated cancer in mice.
J Clin Invest. 2012; 122(8):2780-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic illness caused by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors that propagate inflammation and damage to the gastrointestinal epithelium. This state of chronic inflammation increases the risk for development of colitis-associated cancer in IBD patients. Thus, the development of targeted therapeutics that can disrupt the cycle of inflammation and epithelial injury is highly attractive. However, such biological therapies, including those targeting epidermal growth factor receptor pathways, pose a risk of increasing cancer rates. Using two mouse models of colitis-associated cancer, we found that epidermal growth factor receptor inactivation accelerated the incidence and progression of colorectal tumors. By modulating inflammation and epithelial regeneration, epidermal growth factor receptor optimized the response to chronic inflammation and limited subsequent tumorigenesis. These findings provide important insights into the pathogenesis of colitis-associated cancer and suggest that epidermal growth factor-based therapies for IBD may reduce long-term cancer risk.

Chaturvedi R, Asim M, Romero-Gallo J, et al.
Spermine oxidase mediates the gastric cancer risk associated with Helicobacter pylori CagA.
Gastroenterology. 2011; 141(5):1696-708.e1-2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis has been linked to the microbial oncoprotein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Spermine oxidase (SMO) metabolizes the polyamine spermine into spermidine and generates H(2)O(2), which causes apoptosis and DNA damage. We determined if pathogenic effects of CagA are attributable to SMO.
METHODS: Levels of SMO, apoptosis, and DNA damage (8-oxoguanosine) were measured in gastric epithelial cell lines infected with cagA(+) or cagA(-)H pylori strains, or transfected with a CagA expression plasmid, in the absence or presence of SMO small interfering RNA, or an SMO inhibitor. The role of CagA in induction of SMO and DNA damage was assessed in H pylori-infected gastritis tissues from humans, gerbils, and both wild-type and hypergastrinemic insulin-gastrin mice, using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry.
RESULTS: cagA(+) strains or ectopic expression of CagA, but not cagA(-) strains, led to increased levels of SMO, apoptosis, and DNA damage in gastric epithelial cells, and knockdown or inhibition of SMO blocked apoptosis and DNA damage. There was increased SMO expression, apoptosis, and DNA damage in gastric tissues from humans infected with cagA(+), but not cagA(-) strains. In gerbils and mice, DNA damage was CagA-dependent and present in cells that expressed SMO. Gastric epithelial cells with DNA damage that were negative for markers of apoptosis accounted for 42%-69% of cells in gerbils and insulin-gastrin mice with dysplasia and carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: By inducing SMO, H pylori CagA generates cells with oxidative DNA damage, and a subpopulation of these cells are resistant to apoptosis and thus at high risk for malignant transformation.

Varadi V, Bevier M, Grzybowska E, et al.
Genetic variation in genes encoding for polymerase ζ subunits associates with breast cancer risk, tumour characteristics and survival.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 129(1):235-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal instability is a known hallmark of many cancers. DNA polymerases represent a group of enzymes that are involved in the mechanism of chromosomal instability as they have a central function in DNA metabolism. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the polymerase genes may affect gene expression or protein configuration and by that cancer risk and clinical outcome. We selected four genes encoding for the catalytic subunits of the polymerases β, δ, θ and ζ (POLB, POLD1, POLQ and REV3L, respectively) and two associated proteins (MAD2L2 and REV1) because of their previously reported association with chromosomal instability and/or tumorigenesis. We selected potentially functional and most informative tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genotyping in a population-based series of 783 Swedish breast cancer (BC) cases and 1562 controls. SNPs that showed a significant association in the Swedish population were additionally genotyped in a Polish population consisting of 506 familial/early onset BC cases and 568 controls. SNPs in all three polymerase ζ subunit genes associated either with BC risk or prognosis. Two SNPs in REV3L and one SNP in MAD2L2 associated with BC risk: rs462779 (multiplicative model: OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92), rs3204953 (dominant model: OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.56) and rs2233004 (recessive model: OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.28-0.86). Homozygous carriers of the minor allele C of the third SNP in REV3L, rs11153292, had significantly worse survival compared to the TT genotype carriers (HR 2.93, 95% CI 1.34-6.44). Minor allele carriers of two REV1 SNPs (rs6761391 and rs3792142) had significantly more often large tumours and tumours with high histological grade and stage. No association was observed for SNPs in POLB, POLQ and POLD1. Altogether, our data suggest a significant role of genetic variation in the polymerase ζ subunit genes regarding the development and progression of BC.

Higgins GS, Harris AL, Prevo R, et al.
Overexpression of POLQ confers a poor prognosis in early breast cancer patients.
Oncotarget. 2010; 1(3):175-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Depletion of POLQ (DNA polymerase theta) has recently been shown to render tumour cells more sensitive to radiotherapy whilst having little or no effect on normal tissues. This finding led us to investigate whether tumours that overexpress POLQ are associated with an adverse outcome. We therefore correlated the clinical outcomes of two retrospective series of patients with early breast cancer with the expression levels of POLQ, as determined by microarray gene expression analysis. We found that a significant number of tumours overexpressed POLQ and that overexpression was correlated with ER negative disease (p=0.047) and high tumour grade (p=0.004), both of which are associated with poor clinical outcomes. POLQ overexpression was associated with poor relapse free survival rates on both univariate (HR 5.80; 95% CI, 2.220 to 15.159; p<0.001) and multivariate analysis (HR 8.086; 95% CI 2.340 to 27.948 p=0.001). Analysis of other published clinical series confirmed that POLQ overexpression is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The poor prognosis associated with POLQ is independent of other clinical or pathological features. The mechanism that causes this adverse outcome remains to be elucidated but may in part arise from resistance to adjuvant treatment. These findings, combined with the limited normal tissue expression of POLQ, make it a very appealing target for possible clinical exploitation.

Lemée F, Bergoglio V, Fernandez-Vidal A, et al.
DNA polymerase theta up-regulation is associated with poor survival in breast cancer, perturbs DNA replication, and promotes genetic instability.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010; 107(30):13390-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
"Replicative stress" is one of the main factors underlying neoplasia from its early stages. Genes involved in DNA synthesis may therefore represent an underexplored source of potential prognostic markers for cancer. To this aim, we generated gene expression profiles from two independent cohorts (France, n=206; United Kingdom, n=117) of patients with previously untreated primary breast cancers. We report here that among the 13 human nuclear DNA polymerase genes, DNA Polymerase (POLQ) is the only one significantly up-regulated in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissues. Importantly, POLQ up-regulation significantly correlates with poor clinical outcome (4.3-fold increased risk of death in patients with high POLQ expression), and this correlation is independent of Cyclin E expression or the number of positive nodes, which are currently considered as markers for poor outcome. POLQ expression provides thus an additional indicator for the survival outcome of patients with high Cyclin E tumor expression or high number of positive lymph nodes. Furthermore, to decipher the molecular consequences of POLQ up-regulation in breast cancer, we generated human MRC5-SV cell lines that stably overexpress POLQ. Strong POLQ expression was directly associated with defective DNA replication fork progression and chromosomal damage. Therefore, POLQ overexpression may be a promising genetic instability and prognostic marker for breast cancer.

Frey MR, Hilliard VC, Mullane MT, Polk DB
ErbB4 promotes cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cell survival in colon epithelial cells.
Lab Invest. 2010; 90(10):1415-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed at high levels in human and mouse colitis, and inhibits colon epithelial cell apoptosis in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for ErbB4-induced cell survival. In cultured mouse colon epithelial cells, ErbB4 overexpression resulted in increased levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein; in contrast, ErbB4 knockdown with siRNA blocked COX-2 accumulation in response to tumor necrosis factor. Although ErbB4 is expressed as up to four isoforms in epithelial tissues, its ability to promote COX-2 expression was isoform independent. ErbB4-stimulated COX-2 induction was associated with an increase in mRNA half-life and was blocked by inhibition of Src, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Furthermore, ErbB4 expression promoted EGFR phosphorylation in the presence of heregulin, implicating ErbB4-EGFR heterodimerization in these responses. As to the cellular responses to ErbB4 activation, increased survival of ErbB4-expressing cells in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines was sensitive to the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Furthermore, ErbB4-overexpressing cells acquired the ability to form colonies in soft agar, indicative of cellular transformation, also in a celecoxib-sensitive manner. Together our data indicate that ErbB4 is a key regulator of COX-2 expression and cellular survival in colon epithelial cells, acting in concert with EGFR through a Src- and PI 3-kinase-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that chronic overexpression of ErbB4 in the context of inflammation could contribute to colitis-associated tumorigenesis by inhibiting colonocyte apoptosis.

Higgins GS, Prevo R, Lee YF, et al.
A small interfering RNA screen of genes involved in DNA repair identifies tumor-specific radiosensitization by POLQ knockdown.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(7):2984-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The effectiveness of radiotherapy treatment could be significantly improved if tumor cells could be rendered more sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR) without altering the sensitivity of normal tissues. However, many of the key therapeutically exploitable mechanisms that determine intrinsic tumor radiosensitivity are largely unknown. We have conducted a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of 200 genes involved in DNA damage repair aimed at identifying genes whose knockdown increased tumor radiosensitivity. Parallel siRNA screens were conducted in irradiated and unirradiated tumor cells (SQ20B) and irradiated normal tissue cells (MRC5). Using gammaH2AX foci at 24 hours after IR, we identified several genes, such as BRCA2, Lig IV, and XRCC5, whose knockdown is known to cause increased cell radiosensitivity, thereby validating the primary screening end point. In addition, we identified POLQ (DNA polymerase ) as a potential tumor-specific target. Subsequent investigations showed that POLQ knockdown resulted in radiosensitization of a panel of tumor cell lines from different primary sites while having little or no effect on normal tissue cell lines. These findings raise the possibility that POLQ inhibition might be used clinically to cause tumor-specific radiosensitization.

Wang H, Wu W, Wang HW, et al.
Analysis of specialized DNA polymerases expression in human gliomas: association with prognostic significance.
Neuro Oncol. 2010; 12(7):679-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Aberrant activation of the translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) pathway has been suggested to play a role in tumorigenesis by promoting genetic mutations. We therefore examined glioma specimens for the expression of specialized DNA polymerases involved in TLS and assessed their prognostic significance. The expression levels of DNA polymerase κ (Pol κ), Pol ι, and Pol η were assessed in 40 primary glioma samples and 10 normal brain samples using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Their prognostic significance was evaluated using a population-based tissue microarray derived from a cohort of 104 glioma patients. Overexpression of Pol κ and Pol ι was observed in 57.5% (23-40) and 27.5% (11-40) of patients, respectively, whereas no significant expression of Pol η was seen in the specimens. Immunohistochemical studies revealed positive Pol κ and Pol ι staining in 72 (69.2%) and 33 (31.7%) of the 104 glioma specimens, respectively. Pol κ expression was associated with advanced stages of the disease. Both Pol κ- and Pol ι-positive staining were associated with shorter survival in glioma patients (P < .001 and P = .014, respectively). A multivariate survival analysis identified Pol κ as an independent prognostic factor for glioma patients (P < .001). These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that the expression of Pol κ and Pol ι is deregulated in gliomas, and upregulation of Pol κ is associated with poorer prognosis in glioma patients.

Pillaire MJ, Selves J, Gordien K, et al.
A 'DNA replication' signature of progression and negative outcome in colorectal cancer.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(6):876-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. As the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging classification does not allow to predict the survival of patients in many cases, additional prognostic factors are needed to better forecast their outcome. Genes involved in DNA replication may represent an underexplored source of such prognostic markers. Indeed, accidents during DNA replication can trigger 'replicative stress', one of the main features of cancer from earlier stages onward. In this study, we assessed the expression of 47 'DNA replication' genes in primary tumors and adjacent normal tissues from a homogeneous series of 74 patients. We found that genes coding for translesional (TLS) DNA polymerases, initiation of DNA replication, S-phase signaling and protection of replication forks were significantly deregulated in tumors. We also observed that the overexpression of either the MCM7 helicase or the TLS DNA polymerase POLQ (if also associated with a concomitant overexpression of firing genes) was significantly related to poor patient survival. Our data suggest the existence of a 'DNA replication signature' that might represent a source of new prognostic markers. Such a signature could help in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor progression in colorectal cancer patients.

Fukuda H, Takamura-Enya T, Masuda Y, et al.
Translesional DNA synthesis through a C8-guanyl adduct of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in Vitro: REV1 inserts dC opposite the lesion, and DNA polymerase kappa potentially catalyzes extension reaction from the 3'-dC terminus.
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(38):25585-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is the most abundant heterocyclic amine in cooked foods, and is both mutagenic and carcinogenic. It has been suspected that the carcinogenicity of PhIP is derived from its ability to form DNA adducts, principally dG-C8-PhIP. To shed further light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of mutations by PhIP, in vitro DNA synthesis analyses were carried out using a dG-C8-PhIP-modified oligonucleotide template. In this template, the dG-C8-PhIP adduct was introduced into the second G of the TCC GGG AAC sequence located in the 5' region. This represents one of the mutation hot spots in the rat Apc gene that is targeted by PhIP. Guanine deletions at this site in the Apc gene have been found to be preferentially induced by PhIP in rat colon tumors. DNA synthesis with A- or B-family DNA polymerases, such as Escherichia coli polymerase (pol) I and human pol delta, was completely blocked at the adducted guanine base. Translesional synthesis polymerases of the Y-family, pol eta, pol iota, pol kappa, and REV1, were also used for in vitro DNA synthesis analyses with the same templates. REV1, pol eta, and pol kappa were able to insert dCTP opposite dG-C8-PhIP, although the efficiencies for pol eta and pol kappa were low. pol kappa was also able to catalyze the extension reaction from the dC opposite dG-C8-PhIP, during which it often skipped over one dG of the triple dG sequence on the template. This slippage probably leads to the single dG base deletion in colon tumors.

Faili A, Stary A, Delbos F, et al.
A backup role of DNA polymerase kappa in Ig gene hypermutation only takes place in the complete absence of DNA polymerase eta.
J Immunol. 2009; 182(10):6353-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients with the variant form of xeroderma pigmentosum (XPV) syndrome have a genetic deficiency in DNA polymerase (Pol) eta, and display accordingly an increased skin sensitivity to UV light, as well as an altered mutation pattern of their Ig V genes in memory B cells, alteration that consists in a reduced mutagenesis at A/T bases. We previously suggested that another polymerase with a different mutation signature, Pol kappa, is used as backup for Ig gene hypermutation in both humans and mice in cases of complete Pol eta deficiency, a proposition supported in this study by the analysis of Pol eta x Pol kappa double-deficient mice. We also describe a new XPV case, in which a splice site mutation of the first noncoding exon results in a decreased mRNA expression, a mRNA that otherwise encodes a normal Pol eta protein. Whereas the Pol eta mRNA level observed in patient's fibroblasts is one-twentieth the value of healthy controls, it is only reduced to one-fourth of the normal level in activated B cells. Memory B cells from this patient showed a 50% reduction in A/T mutations, with a spectrum that still displays a strict Pol eta signature. Pol eta thus appears as a dominant enzyme in hypermutation, its presence precluding the use of a substitute enzyme even in conditions of reduced availability. Such a dominant behavior may explain the lack of Pol kappa signature in Ig gene mutations of some XPV patients previously described, for whom residual Pol eta activity might exist.

Bétous R, Rey L, Wang G, et al.
Role of TLS DNA polymerases eta and kappa in processing naturally occurring structured DNA in human cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2009; 48(4):369-78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Accurate DNA replication during S-phase is fundamental to maintain genome integrity. During this critical process, replication forks frequently encounter obstacles that impede their progression. While the regulatory pathways which act in response to exogenous replication stress are beginning to emerge, the mechanisms by which fork integrity is maintained at naturally occurring endogenous replication-impeding sequences remains obscure. Notably, little is known about how cells replicate through special chromosomal regions containing structured non-B DNA, for example, G4 quartets, known to hamper fork progression or trigger chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we have investigated the role in this process of the human translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases of the Y-family (pol eta, pol iota, and pol kappa), specialized enzymes known to synthesize DNA through DNA damage. We show that depletion by RNA interference of expression of the genes for Pol eta or Pol kappa, but not Pol iota, sensitizes U2OS cells treated with the G4-tetraplex interactive compound telomestatin and triggers double-strand breaks in HeLa cells harboring multiple copies of a G-rich sequence from the promoter region of the human c-MYC gene, chromosomally integrated as a transgene. Moreover, we found that downregulation of Pol kappa only raises the level of DSB in HeLa cells containing either one of two breakage hotspot structured DNA sequences in the chromosome, the major break region (Mbr) of BCL-2 gene and the GA rich region from the far right-hand end of the genome of the Kaposi Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus. These data suggest that naturally occurring DNA structures are physiological substrates of both pol eta and pol kappa. We discuss these data in the light of their downregulation in human cancers.

Shinmura K, Iwaizumi M, Igarashi H, et al.
Induction of centrosome amplification and chromosome instability in p53-deficient lung cancer cells exposed to benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (B[a]PDE).
J Pathol. 2008; 216(3):365-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (B[a]PDE), the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of benzo[a] pyrene, has been implicated in the mutagenesis of the p53 gene involved in smoking-associated lung cancer. To further understand the role of B[a]PDE in lung tumour progression, we investigated its effect on the numerical integrity of centrosomes and chromosome stability in lung cancer cells lacking p53. Exposure of p53-deficient H1299 lung cancer cells to B[a]PDE resulted in S-phase arrest, leading to abnormal centrosome amplification. Analysis of H1299 cells stably expressing fluorescence-tagged centrin (a known centriolar marker) revealed that the centrosome amplification was primarily attributable to excessive centrosome duplication rather than to centriole splitting. Forced expression of POLK DNA polymerase, which has the ability to bypass B[a]PDE-guanine lesions in an error-free manner, suppressed the B[a]PDE-induced centrosome amplification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses with probes specific for chromosomes 2, 3, and 16 revealed that B[a]PDE exposure also led to chromosome instability, which was likely to have resulted from centrosome amplification. We extended these findings to primary lung carcinomas containing non-functional p53, and found a strong association between centrosome amplification and a high level of B[a]PDE-DNA accumulation. Therefore B[a]PDE contributes to neoplasia by inducing centrosome amplification and consequent chromosome destabilization as well as its mutagenic activity.

Wang X, Szabo C, Qian C, et al.
Mutational analysis of thirty-two double-strand DNA break repair genes in breast and pancreatic cancers.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(4):971-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inactivating mutations in several genes that encode components of the DNA repair machinery have been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. To assess whether alterations in other DNA repair genes contribute to breast cancer and to further determine the relevance of these genes to pancreatic cancer, we performed mutational analysis of 32 DNA double-strand break repair genes in genomic DNA from 38 breast tumors, 48 pancreatic tumors, and 10 non-BRCA1/BRCA2 hereditary breast cancer patients. A total of 494 coding exons were screened by denatured high-performance liquid chromatography and direct DNA sequencing. Two inactivating mutations were identified in breast tumor samples, a germline single-nucleotide deletion in POLQ (c.3605delT) and a somatic nonsense change in PRKDC (c.2408C>A, p.Ser803X). Two germline-inactivating mutations in RAD50 (c.1875C>G, p.Tyr625X and IVS14+1G>A) were also detected in separate pancreatic tumor samples. In addition, 35 novel nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions, resulting from two in-frame deletions and 33 single nucleotide alterations, were identified. Seven of these were predicted to influence protein function. A separate analysis of the CLSPN c.3839C>T (rs35490896) variant that was observed more frequently in breast tumors than in pancreatic tumors or normal controls failed to detect a significant association with breast cancer risk in a Mayo Clinic breast cancer case-control study. In conclusion, this screen of DNA repair genes implicates PRKDC and POLQ as candidate tumor suppressor genes involved in breast cancer and suggests that inactivating mutations in RAD50 predispose to pancreatic cancer as well as breast cancer.

Michiels S, Danoy P, Dessen P, et al.
Polymorphism discovery in 62 DNA repair genes and haplotype associations with risks for lung and head and neck cancers.
Carcinogenesis. 2007; 28(8):1731-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA repair is essential for the maintenance of genetic stability. We undertook sequencing to determine common genetic variants in 70 genes involved in three major repair pathways (base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair and mismatch repair) and in DNA synthesis, and investigated their relationship to lung and head and neck (H-N) cancers. Of the 70 genes examined, 62 were successfully screened (exon coverage >20%) by sequencing exons, parts of introns and flanking regions in 32 DNA samples from healthy Caucasian individuals. The strategy used allowed the detection of almost all variants with a minor allele frequency >or=5% in the regions sequenced. During single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery, 772 sequences were detected in introns or regions flanking the gene and 313 were found in exons (leading to 113 non-synonymous variations) during single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery. In total, 695 variants were successfully genotyped in 151 lung cancer cases, 251 H-N cancer cases and 172 hospital controls. Score statistics were used to test differences in haplotype frequencies between cases and controls in an unconditional logistic regression model. To account for multiple testing, we associated to each P-value an estimated proportion of false discoveries. Haplotype analysis revealed potential associations (P < 0.05) between lung cancer and eight genes (MSH3, MLH3, POLK, LIG1, ERCC5, PMS1, POLG2 and RPA3) and between H-N cancer and four genes (PMS1, POLG2, POLR2B and RPA1) with false discovery proportions of 25 and 55%, respectively. The DNA synthesis pathway showed a tendency for more differential SNP allele frequencies between H-N cases and controls than expected by chance (P = 0.05). These results hint to a few potential candidates for further investigation in larger studies.

Albrecht J, Fine LA, Piette W
Drug-associated lymphoma and pseudolymphoma: recognition and management.
Dermatol Clin. 2007; 25(2):233-44, vii [PubMed] Related Publications
This article discusses ways to recognize and manage lymphomas and pseudolymphomas associated with drug exposure. Over the last 30 years, the classification of pseudolymphomas and lymphomas has undergone significant change, especially following the application of sophisticated immunostaining and gene rearrangement analysis. The term cutaneous pseudolymphomas (CPL) is a nonspecific term for a heterogeneous group of benign reactive T- or B-cell lymphoproliferative processes that simulate cutaneous lymphomas clinically or histologically. While pseudolymphomas are relatively rare diseases, their clinical and histological heterogeneity has led to multiple systems of categorization based on immunological factors, causative agents, presentation, and clinical course.

Bao F, Polk P, Nordberg ML, et al.
Comparative gene expression analysis of a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line resistant to cyclophosphamide using oligonucleotide arrays and response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Leuk Res. 2007; 31(11):1511-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acquired imatinib resistance in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) can be the consequence of mutations in the kinase domain of BCR-ABL or increased protein levels. However, as in other malignancies, acquired resistance to cytostatic drugs is a common reason for treatment failure or disease progression. As a model for drug resistance, we developed a CML cell line resistant to cyclophosphamide (CP). Using oligonucleotide arrays, we examined changes in global gene expression. Selected genes were also examined by real-time PCR and flow cytometry. Neither the parent nor the resistant lines had mutations in their ATP binding domain. Filtering genes with a low-base line expression, a total of 239 genes showed significant changes (162 up- and 77 down-regulated) in the resistant clone. Most of the up-regulated genes were associated with metabolism, signal transduction, or encoded enzymes. The gene for aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was over-expressed more than 2000-fold in the resistant clone. BCR-ABL was expressed in both cell lines to a comparable extent. When exposed to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and nilotinib, both lines were sensitive. In conclusion, we found multiple genetic changes in a CML cell line resistant to CP related to metabolism, signal transduction or apoptosis. Despite these changes, the resistant cells retained sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Lemée F, Bavoux C, Pillaire MJ, et al.
Characterization of promoter regulatory elements involved in downexpression of the DNA polymerase kappa in colorectal cancer.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(23):3387-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
The low-fidelity DNA polymerases thought to be specialized in DNA damage processing are frequently misregulated in cancers. We show here that DNA polymerase kappa (polkappa), prone to replicate across oxidative and aromatic adducts and known to function in nucleotide excision repair (NER), is downregulated in colorectal tumour biopsies. Contrary to the replicative poldelta and polalpha, for which only activating domains were described, we identified an upstream 465-bp-long repressor region in the promoter of POLK. We also found an activating 237-bp region that includes stimulating protein-1 (SP1) and cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE)-binding sites. Mutations at one CRE-binding site led to a dramatic 80% decrease in promoter activity. Alterations of the SP1-binding site also affected, to a lesser extent, the transcription. Gel shift assays confirmed the role played by CRE/SP1 recognition sequences. Moreover, ectopic expression of SP1 or CRE-binding protein (CREB) protein favoured polkappa transcription. Finally, we found that polkappa downexpression in colorectal biopsies correlated with a decreased level of CREB and SP1 transcripts. This work shows that the promoter of POLK is cis-controlled and suggests that silencing of CREB and SP1 proteins could contribute to downregulation of this repair polymerase in colorectal tumours.

Yasui M, Suzuki N, Laxmi YR, Shibutani S
Translesion synthesis past tamoxifen-derived DNA adducts by human DNA polymerases eta and kappa.
Biochemistry. 2006; 45(39):12167-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The long-term treatment of tamoxifen (TAM), widely used for adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoprevention for breast cancer, increases a risk of developing endometrial cancer. A high frequency of K-ras mutations has been observed in the endometrium of women treated with TAM. Human DNA polymerase (pol) eta and pol kappa are highly expressed in the reproductive organs and are associated with translesion synthesis past bulky DNA adducts. To explore the miscoding properties of alpha-(N2-deoxyguanosinyl)tamoxifen (dG-N2-TAM), a major TAM-DNA adduct, site-specifically modified oligodeoxynucleotides containing a single diastereoisomer of trans or cis forms of dG-N2-TAM were prepared by phosphoramidite chemical procedure and used as templates. The primer extension reaction catalyzed by pol kappa deltaC, a truncated form of pol kappa, extended more efficiently past the adduct than that of pol eta by incorporating dCMP, a correct base, opposite the adduct. With pol eta, all diastereoisomers of dG-N2-TAM promoted small amounts of direct incorporation of dAMP and deletions. With pol kappa deltaC, dG-N2-TAM promoted small amounts of dTMP and/or dAMP incorporations and deletions. The miscoding properties varied depending on the diastereoisomer of dG-N2-TAM adducts and the DNA pol used. Steady-state kinetic studies were also performed using either the nonspecific sequence or the K-ras gene sequence containing a single dG-N2-TAM at the second base of codon 12. With pol eta, the bypass frequency past the dA x dG-N2-TAM pair positioned in the K-ras sequence was only 2.3 times lower than that for the dC x dG-N2-TAM pair, indicating that dG-N2-TAM in the K-ras sequence has higher miscoding potential than that in the nonspecific sequence. However, with pol kappa deltaC, the bypass frequency past the dC x dG-N2-TAM pair was higher than that of the dT x dG-N2-TAM pair in both sequences. The properties of pol eta and pol kappa are consistent with the mutagenic events attributed to TAM-DNA adducts.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. POLK, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/POLK.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 25 June, 2015     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999