Gene Summary

Gene:NFKBIA; NFKB inhibitor alpha
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor family, which contain multiple ankrin repeat domains. The encoded protein interacts with REL dimers to inhibit NF-kappa-B/REL complexes which are involved in inflammatory responses. The encoded protein moves between the cytoplasm and the nucleus via a nuclear localization signal and CRM1-mediated nuclear export. Mutations in this gene have been found in ectodermal dysplasia anhidrotic with T-cell immunodeficiency autosomal dominant disease. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (51)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (31)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Mutation
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Proteins
  • NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Polymorphism
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • I-kappa B Proteins
  • Liver Cancer
  • Chromosome 14
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • RNA Interference
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Brain Tumours
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Breast Cancer
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • X-Rays
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
  • NF-kappa B p50 Subunit
  • Sex Factors
  • Lung Cancer
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2
  • Young Adult
  • NF-kappa B
  • Taiwan
  • Sweden
  • Apoptosis
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Xanthones
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Promoter Regions
  • tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • Point Mutation
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: NFKBIA (cancer-related)

Wang Y, Sun L, Luo Y, He S
Knockdown of KDM1B inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(5):1054-1060 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the common malignant tumors in digestive tract with a high fatality rate. The oncogenic role of lysine-specific demethylase1 (LSD1/KDM1 A) has been well recognized in PC. While, the role of its homolog LSD2 (KDM1B) in regulating PC progression is poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the functional role of KDM1B in PC cells. The expression of KDM1B was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting in PC tissues and cells. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA was applied to silence KDM1B in PANC-1 and SW1990 cells. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT and Celigo assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by both Caspase-Glo

Gillison ML, Akagi K, Xiao W, et al.
Human papillomavirus and the landscape of secondary genetic alterations in oral cancers.
Genome Res. 2019; 29(1):1-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary but insufficient cause of a subset of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) that is increasing markedly in frequency. To identify contributory, secondary genetic alterations in these cancers, we used comprehensive genomics methods to compare 149 HPV-positive and 335 HPV-negative OSCC tumor/normal pairs. Different behavioral risk factors underlying the two OSCC types were reflected in distinctive genomic mutational signatures. In HPV-positive OSCCs, the signatures of APOBEC cytosine deaminase editing, associated with anti-viral immunity, were strongly linked to overall mutational burden. In contrast, in HPV-negative OSCCs, T>C substitutions in the sequence context 5'-ATN-3' correlated with tobacco exposure. Universal expression of HPV

Lee JH, Kim C, Lee SG, et al.
Ophiopogonin D modulates multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, leading to suppression of proliferation and chemosensitization of human lung cancer cells.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 40:165-175 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ophiopogonin D (OP-D), a steroidal glycoside obtained from the Chinese medicinal plant Ophiopogonin japonicas (the root portion), has been traditionally used to treat fever, inflammation, cough, sputum etc. However, the detailed molecular mechanism(s) underlying its therapeutic actions is still unknown.
HYPOTHESIS: Because nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), PI3K/AKT, and activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling cascades have significant functions in cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis in tumor cells, we hypothesized that OP-D may disrupt these signaling cascades to exert its anticancer effects in human lung-cancer cells.
METHODS: We evaluated the effect of OP-D on multiple signaling cascades and its regulated functional responses in lung cancer cells.
RESULTS: OP-D blocked both basal and cytokine-induced proliferation of human lung-cancer cells and caused down-regulation of the expression of diverse oncogenic gene products through the suppression of NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, and AP-1 pathways; but did not affect JNK, p38 and ERK MAP kinases. Interestingly, OP-D suppressed constitutive NF-κB activation in lung cancer cells via interfering with the IκB kinase activation, which inhibited phosphorylation and caused degradation of IκB-α. OP-D also blocked phosphorylation and the nuclear translocation of p65, thereby suppressing NF-κB reporter activity in lung cancer cells. Besides, OP-D could augment cell death induced by paclitaxel in lung-cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Overall, the data indicates that OP-D may abrogate diverse signaling cascades linked to tumorigenesis, and can be used in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for cancer therapy.

Johncilla M, Stachler M, Misdraji J, et al.
Mutational landscape of goblet cell carcinoids and adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids of the appendix is distinct from typical carcinoids and colorectal adenocarcinomas.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(6):989-996 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is limited data on the spectrum of molecular alterations in goblet cell carcinoids and adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids of the appendix. We used next generation sequencing to determine mutations of potential pathogenetic and therapeutic significance in this rare group of tumors. Adequate DNA was successfully extracted in 34/46 cases and the final group included 18 goblet cell carcinoids and 16 adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids. Illumina TruSeq™ was used for sequencing exons of a custom 282 gene panel using an Illumina HiSeq 2000. All cases had a minimum coverage depth of at least 50 reads. After filtering through the Exome Sequencing Project, the number of mutations per case ranged from 0-9 (mean:3). The mutational burden in adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids was significantly higher than goblet cell carcinoids (mean 5 vs. 3; p < 0.05) but the spectrum of alterations overlapped between the two groups. The most frequent mutations included ARID1A (4/34), ARID2 (4/34), CDH1 (4/34), RHPN2 (4/34), and MLL2 (3/34). Some mutations typically seen in conventional colorectal adenocarcinomas were also identified but with much lower frequency (APC :4/34; KRAS :2/34). MLL2 and KRAS mutations were only seen in adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids and TP53 mutations were limited to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids (2/34). Copy number changes could be evaluated in 15/34 cases and showed low copy number gains in CDKN1B (6/15) and NFKBIA (6/15), among others. The overlapping molecular alterations suggest that goblet cell carcinoids and adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoids are best considered two grades of differentiation of the same tumor rather than two distinct histological types. Mutations in TP53, CDH1 and MLL2 mutations were predominantly present in the adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoid group consistent with transformation to a higher grade lesion. The unique mutational profile also offers an explanation for the poor chemosensitivity in these tumors and highlights the need for developing new targeted therapies.

Weng W, Liu N, Toiyama Y, et al.
Novel evidence for a PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) as an oncogenic mediator of disease progression, and a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2018; 17(1):16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) may be important epigenetic regulators of gene expression in human cancers; however, their functional and clinical significance in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown.
METHODS: We performed piRNA expression profiling in paired cancer and normal tissues through small RNA-sequencing. The clinical significance of candidate piRNAs was investigated, and independently validated in 771 CRC patients from three independent cohorts. The biological function of piRNAs was characterized in cell lines, followed by identification and validation of downstream target genes in CRC tissues.
RESULTS: We identified piR-1245 as a novel and frequently overexpressed noncoding RNA in CRC, and its expression significantly correlated with advanced and metastatic disease. Patients with high piR-1245 expression experienced significantly shorter overall survival, and multivariate analysis identified its expression to serve as an independent prognostic biomarker in CRC. Functionally, piR-1245 acts as an oncogene and promotes tumor progression, and gene expression profiling results identified a panel of downstream target-genes involved in regulating cell survival pathway. Based upon piRNA:mRNA sequence complementarity, we identified a panel of tumor suppressor genes (ATF3, BTG1, DUSP1, FAS,NFKBIA, UPP1, SESN2, TP53INP1 and MDX1) as direct targets of piR-1245, and successfully validated an inverse correlation between their expression and piR-1245 in CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: We for the first time have identified the role for a PIWI-interacting noncoding RNA, piR-1245, as a novel oncogene and a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer.

Zheng J, Li H, Xu D, Zhu H
Upregulation of Tyrosine Kinase FYN in Human Thyroid Carcinoma: Role in Modulating Tumor Cell Proliferation, Invasion, and Migration.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2017; 32(9):320-326 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tyrosine kinase FYN-a member of the SRC family of kinases-is associated with mediating mitogenic signals and regulating cell cycle entry, growth, and proliferation. It was hypothesized that FYN is upregulated in thyroid carcinoma, which plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. FYN expression level in thyroid carcinoma tissue and tumor cell lines was determined. Also, the effects of FYN on thyroid cancer (TC) growth, signaling, cell cycle, and apoptosis were evaluated in vitro. FYN was knocked down in thyroid cancer cells (TPC-1) by siRNA to investigate the effects on cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. First, FYN was upregulated both in thyroid carcinoma tissue and in tumor cell lines. Loss of FYN by siRNA weakened proliferation, invasion, and migration of PTC-1 cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that knockdown of FYN can inhibit the G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. It was also observed that reduced expression of FYN could increase the level of NF-κB/P65 and IκBα. This study was the first to demonstrate critical positive regulation of thyroid tumorigenesis by FYN, which could be a potential target gene for thyroid carcinoma treatment. In addition, findings from this study highlighted the potential role of FYN inhibitors in TC therapy.

Torres-Odio S, Key J, Hoepken HH, et al.
Progression of pathology in PINK1-deficient mouse brain from splicing via ubiquitination, ER stress, and mitophagy changes to neuroinflammation.
J Neuroinflammation. 2017; 14(1):154 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PINK1 deficiency causes the autosomal recessive PARK6 variant of Parkinson's disease. PINK1 activates ubiquitin by phosphorylation and cooperates with the downstream ubiquitin ligase PARKIN, to exert quality control and control autophagic degradation of mitochondria and of misfolded proteins in all cell types.
METHODS: Global transcriptome profiling of mouse brain and neuron cultures were assessed in protein-protein interaction diagrams and by pathway enrichment algorithms. Validation by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunoblots was performed, including human neuroblastoma cells and patient primary skin fibroblasts.
RESULTS: In a first approach, we documented Pink1-deleted mice across the lifespan regarding brain mRNAs. The expression changes were always subtle, consistently affecting "intracellular membrane-bounded organelles". Significant anomalies involved about 250 factors at age 6 weeks, 1300 at 6 months, and more than 3500 at age 18 months in the cerebellar tissue, including Srsf10, Ube3a, Mapk8, Creb3, and Nfkbia. Initially, mildly significant pathway enrichment for the spliceosome was apparent. Later, highly significant networks of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and endoplasmic reticulum protein processing occurred. Finally, an enrichment of neuroinflammation factors appeared, together with profiles of bacterial invasion and MAPK signaling changes-while mitophagy had minor significance. Immunohistochemistry showed pronounced cellular response of Iba1-positive microglia and GFAP-positive astrocytes; brain lipidomics observed increases of ceramides as neuroinflammatory signs at old age. In a second approach, we assessed PINK1 deficiency in the presence of a stressor. Marked dysregulations of microbial defense factors Ifit3 and Rsad2 were consistently observed upon five analyses: (1) Pink1
CONCLUSIONS: Thus, an individual biomarker with expression correlating to progression was not identified. Instead, more advanced disease stages involved additional pathways. Hence, our results identify PINK1 deficiency as an early modulator of innate immunity in neurons, which precedes late stages of neuroinflammation during alpha-synuclein spreading.

Li D, Wu C, Cai Y, Liu B
Association of NFKB1 and NFKBIA gene polymorphisms with susceptibility of gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317717107 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xianyou county of Fujian province, located on the southeast coastal of China, has higher gastric cancer mortality. Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the occurrence of gastric cancer, in which the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway of the inflammatory reaction begins and plays an important role in the amplification process. Studies have found that a single-nucleotide polymorphism of nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway molecules encoding genes is associated with gastric cancer, but the combined effect of the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway gene has not been explained nor has been cardia and non-cardia gastric cancer risk factors and genetic susceptibility loci. New gastric cancer cases of the Fujian Xianyou Hospital were the research object. They were divided into cardia and non-cardia cancer in order to study a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway important node molecules P50 and I kappa B encoding genes NFKB1 and NFKBIA by desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry analysis and by matrix-assisted laser mass spectrometry. The results showed that NFKB1 and NFKBIA single-nucleotide polymorphisms and gastric cancer are related and that the combined effects of polymorphisms in two genes and the NFKBIA gene monomer increased the risk of gastric cancer, and it was found that in different types of gastric cancer (the cardia and non-cardia cancer), susceptible polymorphism sites and combined effects are different.

Cao YJ, Zhou YJ, He XZ, et al.
Overexpression of β-arrestin2 induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest and suppresses tumorigenicity in renal cell carcinoma.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(8):1729-1737 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of β-arrestin2 in the proliferation, migration, apoptosis, cell cycle and clone formation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines and to explore the possible mechanism of β-arrestin2 in RCC invasion and metastasis to find a new therapeutic target.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, cell cycle and clone formation were analyzed after RCC cell lines (786-0 and CaKi) and transfected with β-arrestin2 overexpression plasmid. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference technology abrogates β-arrestin2 overexpression, and changes in cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, cell cycle and clone formation were analyzed. The expression levels of total IkBa, IkBa phosphorylation (P-IkBa) and NFkB P65 in 786-0 cells were examined after transfection with β-arrestin2 overexpression plasmid to explore the mechanism of β-arrestin2.
RESULTS: After transfection with β-arrestin2 overexpression plasmid, the abilities of proliferation, migration, and cloning formation in 786-0 and CaKi cells decreased significantly, the apoptosis rate increased significantly, and the cell cycles were blocked in the G1 phase. After siRNA reduced the expression of β-arrestin2, the abilities to proceed through cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, the cell cycle and clone formation were enhanced. The P-IkBa level in 786-0 cells decreased significantly after transfection, while the expression of P-IkBa in the control group remained high. The expression of NFkB P65 was high in the control group and low in the transfection group.
CONCLUSIONS: The overexpression of β-arrestin2 can inhibit the growth of RCC cells in vitro, and β-arrestin2 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in RCC. The main mechanism may directly suppress the phosphorylation of IkBa and indirectly suppress NFkB activation. Thus, β-arrestin2 is expected to be an important marker of RCC prognosis and a new therapeutic target.

Youssef MR, Attia ZI, El-Baz RA, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of NFκB1-94ins/delATTG and NFκBIA-881A/G genes in Egyptian patients with colorectal cancer.
Fam Cancer. 2017; 16(4):517-524 [PubMed] Related Publications
To assess the association of genetic polymorphisms of NFκB1 and NFκBIA genes with the susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC). Subjects included 100 Egyptian patients with CRC (60 males and 40 females) in addition to 85 healthy controls (47 males and 38 females) from the same locality. For all participants, genetic polymorphisms of NFκB1-94ins/delATTG (rs28362491) and NFκBIA-881A/G (rs3138053) were detected by using restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR). CRC patients showed a significantly higher frequency of the NFκB1-94ins/ins genotype than controls (30 vs. 4.7%) that was significant in the recessive (OR 17.69, 95% CI   5.41-57.82, p < 0.0001) and codominant models (OR   18.28, 95% CI   4.87-68.6, p < 0.0001). The NFκB1-94ins allele frequency was significantly higher among patients than controls (58 vs. 39%, OR  2.18, 95% CI  1.4-3.3, p = 0.0004). We also noticed that the genotype G/G of NFκBIA-881 polymorphism was present in patients (4%) while it was absent (0%) in controls with increased frequency of the NFκBIA-881G allele in patients compared to controls (23 vs. 14%, p = 0.041). These polymorphisms were more associated with smoking and advanced tumor staging. This study indicates that the NFκB1-94ins/ins genotype was associated with the risk of developing colorectal cancer in Egyptian subjects. Also, CRC cases showed an increase in the frequency of NFκBIA-881G allele but not reaching statistical significance for multiple comparisons.

Dantas WS, Murai IH, Perandini LA, et al.
Acute exercise elicits differential expression of insulin resistance genes in the skeletal muscle of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2017; 86(5):688-697 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the role of acute exercise on skeletal muscle gene expression related to insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls.
METHODS: Four obese women with PCOS and four body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (CTRL) participated in this study. After an overnight fast, the subjects underwent a single 40-min bout of aerobic exercise. Muscle samples were obtained from vastus lateralis at baseline and 60 min after exercise. The expression of a panel of insulin resistance genes was evaluated by a quantitative PCR array system. Network-based analyses were performed to interpret transcriptional changes occurring before and after the exercise challenge.
RESULTS: Overall, differentially expressed genes associated with mitochondria function and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling were identified. At baseline, there was a significant upregulation of six genes exclusively in PCOS (i.e. NFKBIA, MAPK3, PPARGC1A, GAPDH, ACTB and PPARA). Twelve genes were upregulated in CTRL after a single bout of aerobic exercise (i.e. LEPR, CXCR4, CCR5, IL-18R1, CRLF2, ACACA, CEBPA, PPARGC1A, UCP1, TNFRSF1B, TLR4 and IKBKB). After the exercise session, three genes were upregulated in PCOS (i.e. SOCS3, NAMPT and IL-8), whilst IL-6 was upregulated in both groups after exercise.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence on the effects of acute exercise on insulin resistance genes in skeletal muscle of PCOS. The differentially expressed genes reported herein could be further investigated as targets for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving insulin resistance in this syndrome.

Luo M, Ding L, Li Q, Yao H
miR-668 enhances the radioresistance of human breast cancer cell by targeting IκBα.
Breast Cancer. 2017; 24(5):673-682 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of breast cancer patients are resistant to radiotherapy, which is a mainstay treatment for this malignancy, but the mechanisms of radioresistance remain unclear.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: To evaluate the role of miRNAs in radioresistance, we established two radioresistant breast cancer cell lines MCF-7R and T-47DR derived from parental MCF-7 and T-47D. Moreover, miRNA microarray, quantitative RT-PCR analysis, luciferase reporter assay and western blotting were used.
RESULTS: We found that miR-668 was most abundantly expressed in radioresistant cells MCF-7R and T-47DR. miR-668 knockdown reversed radioresistance of MCF-7R and T-47DR, miR-668 overexpression enhanced radioresistance of MCF-7 and T-47D cells. Mechanically, bioinformatics analysis combined with experimental analysis demonstrated IκBα, a tumor-suppressor as well as an NF-κB inhibitor, was a direct target of miR-668. Further, miR-668 overexpression inhibited IκBα expression, activated NF-κB, thus, increased radioresistance of MCF-7 and T-47D cells. Conversely, miR-668 knockdown restored IκBα expression, suppressed NF-κB, increased radiosensitivity of MCF-7R and T-47DR cells.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest miR-668 is involved in the radioresistance of breast cancer cells and miR-668-IκBα-NF-κB axis may be a novel candidate for developing rational therapeutic strategies for human breast cancer treatment.

Jeong JH, Park SJ, Dickinson SI, Luo JL
A Constitutive Intrinsic Inflammatory Signaling Circuit Composed of miR-196b, Meis2, PPP3CC, and p65 Drives Prostate Cancer Castration Resistance.
Mol Cell. 2017; 65(1):154-167 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Androgen deprivation therapy is the most effective treatment for advanced prostate cancer, but almost all cancer eventually becomes castration resistant, and the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that an intrinsic constitutively activated feedforward signaling circuit composed of IκBα/NF-κB(p65), miR-196b-3p, Meis2, and PPP3CC is formed during the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This circuit controls the expression of stem cell transcription factors that drives the high tumorigenicity of CRPC cells. Interrupting the circuit by targeting its individual components significantly impairs the tumorigenicity and CRPC development. Notably, constitutive activation of IκBα/NF-κB(p65) in this circuit is not dependent on the activation of traditional IKKβ/NF-κB pathways that are important in normal immune responses. Therefore, our studies present deep insight into the bona fide mechanisms underlying castration resistance and provide the foundation for the development of CRPC therapeutic strategies that would be highly efficient while avoiding indiscriminate IKK/NF-κB inhibition in normal cells.

Qiu L, Liu J, Wang Z, et al.
ZGDHu-1 promotes apoptosis of mantle cell lymphoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(7):11659-11675 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a well-defined aggressive Non-Hodgkin-lymphoma with short survival rates and remains incurable to date. Previously, we demonstrated the antitumor activity of ZGDHu-1(N, N'-di-(m-methylphenyi)-3, 6-dimethyl-1, 4-dihydro-1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazine-1, 4-dicarboamide) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this study, ZGDHu-1 shows potent anti-lymphoma activity in MCL cells. ZGDHu-1 significantly induces cell cycle G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in MCL cells. ZGDHu-1 reduces the protein levels of Mcl-1, Bcl-XL and cyclin D1. Importantly, ZGDHu-1 inhibits TNFα-induced IkBa phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation and NF-kB downstream target gene expression in MCL cells. MCL samples expressing high levels of Bcl-2 and high Bcl-2/Bax ratios tend to be less effective to ZGDHu-1. Together, these results suggest that ZGDHu-1 could inhibit the NF-kB signaling pathway partly, which may lead to the suppression of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in MCL cells. Thus, our studies provide evidence of the potential of ZGDHu-1 in treating mantle cell lymphoma.

Wei T, Cong X, Wang XT, et al.
Interleukin-17A promotes tongue squamous cell carcinoma metastasis through activating miR-23b/versican pathway.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(4):6663-6680 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A), a proinflammatory cytokine mainly produced by T helper 17 cells, exerts protumor or antitumor effects in different cancer entities. However, the exact role of IL-17A in carcinogenesis and progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) remains unclear. Here, we found that the levels of IL-17A in serum and tumor samples were significantly increased in TSCC patients and positively correlated with tumor metastasis and clinical stage. Besides, IL-17A enhanced cell migration and invasion in SCC15, a TSCC cell line. Furthermore, IL-17A inversely correlated with miR-23b expression in TSCC specimens. In vitro, NF-κB inhibited miR-23b transcription by directly binding to its promoter region. IL-17A downregulated miR-23b expression via activating NF-κB signaling pathway characterized by increasing p65 expression in the nuclear and elevating the levels of p-IKKα and p-IκBα. Overexpression of miR-23b inhibited, whereas knockdown of miR-23b promoted migration and invasion abilities of SCC15 cells. Moreover, extracellular matrix protein versican was proved to be the direct target of miR-23b through luciferase assay. IL-17A increased versican levels in vitro and knockdown of versican by siRNA inhibited SCC15 cell migration and invasion. Taken together, these results reveal a novel mechanism that IL-17A in TSCC microenvironment promotes the migration and invasion of TSCC cells through targeting miR-23b/versican pathway.

Carrà G, Crivellaro S, Taulli R, et al.
Mechanisms of p53 Functional De-Regulation: Role of the IκB-α/p53 Complex.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Deshmukh RR, Kim S, Elghoul Y, Dou QP
P-Glycoprotein Inhibition Sensitizes Human Breast Cancer Cells to Proteasome Inhibitors.
J Cell Biochem. 2017; 118(5):1239-1248 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although effective for the treatment of hematological malignancies, the FDA approved proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib have limited efficacy in solid tumors including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Chemotherapy is the only option for treating TNBC due to the absence of specific therapeutic targets. Therefore, development of new TNBC therapeutic strategies has been warranted. We studied whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition could sensitize TNBC cells to proteasome inhibitors. When verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, was combined with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, bortezomib, or carfilzomib, the cytotoxic effects and apoptosis in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells were enhanced, compared to each treatment alone. Furthermore, addition of verapamil improved proteasome-inhibitory properties of MG132, bortezomib, or carfilzomib in MDA-MB-231 cells, as shown by the increased accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and proteasome substrates such as IκBα and p27

Turner JG, Kashyap T, Dawson JL, et al.
XPO1 inhibitor combination therapy with bortezomib or carfilzomib induces nuclear localization of IκBα and overcomes acquired proteasome inhibitor resistance in human multiple myeloma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(48):78896-78909 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acquired proteasome-inhibitor (PI) resistance is a major obstacle in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). We investigated whether the clinical XPO1-inhibitor selinexor, when combined with bortezomib or carfilzomib, could overcome acquired resistance in MM. PI-resistant myeloma cell lines both in vitro and in vivo and refractory myeloma patient biopsies were treated with selinexor/bortezomib or carfilzomib and assayed for apoptosis. Mechanistic studies included NFκB pathway protein expression assays, immunofluorescence microscopy, ImageStream flow-cytometry, and proximity-ligation assays. IκBα knockdown and NFκB activity were measured in selinexor/bortezomib-treated MM cells. We found that selinexor restored sensitivity of PI-resistant MM to bortezomib and carfilzomib. Selinexor/bortezomib treatment inhibited PI-resistant MM tumor growth and increased survival in mice. Myeloma cells from PI-refractory MM patients were sensitized by selinexor to bortezomib and carfilzomib without affecting non-myeloma cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy, Western blot, and ImageStream analyses of MM cells showed increases in total and nuclear IκBα by selinexor/bortezomib. Proximity ligation found increased IκBα-NFκB complexes in treated MM cells. IκBα knockdown abrogated selinexor/bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity in MM cells. Selinexor/bortezomib treatment decreased NFκB transcriptional activity. Selinexor, when used with bortezomib or carfilzomib, has the potential to overcome PI drug resistance in MM. Sensitization may be due to inactivation of the NFκB pathway by IκBα.

Zhang J, Lei Z, Huang Z, et al.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate(EGCG) suppresses melanoma cell growth and metastasis by targeting TRAF6 activity.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(48):79557-79571 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TRAF6 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains a Ring domain, induces K63-linked polyubiquitination, and plays a critical role in signaling transduction. Our previous results demonstrated that TRAF6 is overexpressed in melanoma and that TRAF6 knockdown dramatically attenuates tumor cell growth and metastasis. In this study, we found that EGCG can directly bind to TRAF6, and a computational model of the interaction between EGCG and TRAF6 revealed that EGCG probably interacts with TRAF6 at the residues of Gln54, Gly55, Asp57 ILe72, Cys73 and Lys96. Among these amino acids, mutation of Gln54, Asp57, ILe72 in TRAF6 could destroy EGCG bound to TRAF6, furthermore, our results demonstrated that EGCG significantly attenuates interaction between TRAF6 and UBC13(E2) and suppresses TRAF6 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, the phosphorylation of IκBα, p-TAK1 expression are decreased and the nuclear translocation of p65 and p50 is blocked by treatment with EGCG, leading to inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. Moreover, EGCG significantly inhibits cell growth as well as the migration and invasion of melanoma cells. Taken together, these findings show that EGCG is a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase inhibitor that could be used to target TRAF6 for chemotherapy or the prevention of melanoma.

Tseng JC, Lin CY, Su LC, et al.
CAPE suppresses migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells via activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(25):38010-38024 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) was the fifth most common cancer overall in the world. More than 80% of patients died from PCa developed bone metastases. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a main bioactive component of honeybee hive propolis. Transwell and wound healing assays demonstrated that CAPE treatment suppressed the migration and invasion of PC-3 and DU-145 PCa cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blotting indicated that CAPE treatment reduced the abundance and activity of MMP-9 and MMP-2. Analysis using Micro-Western Array (MWA), a high-throughput antibody-based proteomics platform with 264 antibodies detecting signaling proteins involved in important pathways indicated that CAPE treatment induced receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) in non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway but suppressed abundance of β-catenin, NF-κB activity, PI3K-Akt signaling, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Overexpression or knockdown of ROR2 suppressed or enhanced cell migration of PC-3 cells, respectively. TCF-LEF promoter binding assay revealed that CAPE treatment reduced canonical Wnt signaling. Intraperitoneal injection of CAPE reduced the metastasis of PC-3 xenografts in tail vein injection nude mice model. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that CAPE treatment increased abundance of ROR2 and Wnt5a but decreased protein expression of Ki67, Frizzle 4, NF-κB p65, MMP-9, Snail, β-catenin, and phosphorylation of IκBα. Clinical evidences suggested that genes affected by CAPE treatment (CTNNB1, RELA, FZD5, DVL3, MAPK9, SNAl1, ROR2, SMAD4, NFKBIA, DUSP6, and PLCB3) correlate with the aggressiveness of PCa. Our study suggested that CAPE may be a potential therapeutic agent for patients with advanced PCa.

Kashyap T, Argueta C, Aboukameel A, et al.
Selinexor, a Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound, acts through NF-κB deactivation and combines with proteasome inhibitors to synergistically induce tumor cell death.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(48):78883-78895 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nuclear export protein, exportin-1 (XPO1/CRM1), is overexpressed in many cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. Selinexor, a first-in-class Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound, binds covalently to XPO1 and blocks its function. Treatment of cancer cells with selinexor results in nuclear retention of major tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulators, leading to growth arrest and apoptosis. Recently, we described the selection of SINE compound resistant cells and reported elevated expression of inflammation-related genes in these cells. Here, we demonstrated that NF-κB transcriptional activity is up-regulated in cells that are naturally resistant or have acquired resistance to SINE compounds. Resistance to SINE compounds was created by knockdown of the cellular NF-κB inhibitor, IκB-α. Combination treatment of selinexor with proteasome inhibitors decreased NF-κB activity, sensitized SINE compound resistant cells and showed synergistic cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that selinexor inhibited NF-κB activity by blocking phosphorylation of the IκB-α and the NF-κB p65 subunits, protecting IκB-α from proteasome degradation and trapping IκB-α in the nucleus to suppress NF-κB activity. Therefore, combination treatment of selinexor with a proteasome inhibitor may be beneficial to patients with resistance to either single-agent.

Kim J, McMillan E, Kim HS, et al.
XPO1-dependent nuclear export is a druggable vulnerability in KRAS-mutant lung cancer.
Nature. 2016; 538(7623):114-117 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The common participation of oncogenic KRAS proteins in many of the most lethal human cancers, together with the ease of detecting somatic KRAS mutant alleles in patient samples, has spurred persistent and intensive efforts to develop drugs that inhibit KRAS activity. However, advances have been hindered by the pervasive inter- and intra-lineage diversity in the targetable mechanisms that underlie KRAS-driven cancers, limited pharmacological accessibility of many candidate synthetic-lethal interactions and the swift emergence of unanticipated resistance mechanisms to otherwise effective targeted therapies. Here we demonstrate the acute and specific cell-autonomous addiction of KRAS-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer cells to receptor-dependent nuclear export. A multi-genomic, data-driven approach, utilizing 106 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines, was used to interrogate 4,725 biological processes with 39,760 short interfering RNA pools for those selectively required for the survival of KRAS-mutant cells that harbour a broad spectrum of phenotypic variation. Nuclear transport machinery was the sole process-level discriminator of statistical significance. Chemical perturbation of the nuclear export receptor XPO1 (also known as CRM1), with a clinically available drug, revealed a robust synthetic-lethal interaction with native or engineered oncogenic KRAS both in vitro and in vivo. The primary mechanism underpinning XPO1 inhibitor sensitivity was intolerance to the accumulation of nuclear IκBα (also known as NFKBIA), with consequent inhibition of NFκB transcription factor activity. Intrinsic resistance associated with concurrent FSTL5 mutations was detected and determined to be a consequence of YAP1 activation via a previously unappreciated FSTL5-Hippo pathway regulatory axis. This occurs in approximately 17% of KRAS-mutant lung cancers, and can be overcome with the co-administration of a YAP1-TEAD inhibitor. These findings indicate that clinically available XPO1 inhibitors are a promising therapeutic strategy for a considerable cohort of patients with lung cancer when coupled to genomics-guided patient selection and observation.

Zheng H, Dai W, Cheung AK, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing identifies multiple loss-of-function mutations of NF-κB pathway regulators in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(40):11283-11288 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy with a unique geographical distribution. The genomic abnormalities leading to NPC pathogenesis remain unclear. In total, 135 NPC tumors were examined to characterize the mutational landscape using whole-exome sequencing and targeted resequencing. An APOBEC cytidine deaminase mutagenesis signature was revealed in the somatic mutations. Noticeably, multiple loss-of-function mutations were identified in several NF-κB signaling negative regulators NFKBIA, CYLD, and TNFAIP3 Functional studies confirmed that inhibition of NFKBIA had a significant impact on NF-κB activity and NPC cell growth. The identified loss-of-function mutations in NFKBIA leading to protein truncation contributed to the altered NF-κB activity, which is critical for NPC tumorigenesis. In addition, somatic mutations were found in several cancer-relevant pathways, including cell cycle-phase transition, cell death, EBV infection, and viral carcinogenesis. These data provide an enhanced road map for understanding the molecular basis underlying NPC.

Johansson P, Klein-Hitpass L, Grabellus F, et al.
Recurrent mutations in NF-κB pathway components, KMT2D, and NOTCH1/2 in ocular adnexal MALT-type marginal zone lymphomas.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(38):62627-62639 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The pathogenesis of ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue-type (OAML) is still poorly understood. We analyzed 63 cases of such lymphomas for non-synonymous mutations in 24 candidate genes by amplicon sequencing. We validated frequent mutations in the NF-κB regulators MYD88, TNFAIP3 and TNIP1 in OAML, but also identified recurrent mutations in several additional components of the NF-κB pathway, including BCL10 and NFKBIA. Overall, 60% of cases had mutations in at least one component of NF-κB signaling, pointing to a central role of its genetic deregulation in OAML pathogenesis. Mutations in NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 were each found in 8% of cases, indicating a pathogenetic function of these factors in OAML. KMT2D was identified as the first epigenetic regulator with mutations in OAML, being mutated in 22% of cases. Mutations in MYD88 were associated with an inferior disease-free survival. Overall, we identified here highly recurrent genetic lesions in components of the NF-κB pathway, of NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 as well as KMT2D in OAML and thereby provide major novel insights into the pathogenesis of this B cell malignancy.

Miyar A, Habibi I, Ebrahimi A, et al.
Predictive and prognostic value of TLR9 and NFKBIA gene expression as potential biomarkers for human glioma diagnosis.
J Neurol Sci. 2016; 368:314-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant gliomas are the most common form of primary intracranial tumors with the highest mortality rates. Various gene alterations are considered as prognostic markers in glioma. But, the relevant molecular mechanisms in this setting are not well-understood.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association and prognostic value of TLR9 and NFKBIA with clinical significance and also their impact on patient survival in human glioma.
METHODS: Expression of TLR9 and NFKBIA mRNA in the tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR methods. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to assess the association of TLR9 and NFKBIA with clinical outcomes of patients.
RESULTS: Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that TLR9 mRNAs is markedly expressed in glioma tissues than in non-neoplastic tissues (mean±SD: 3.26±0.40 vs. 0.71±0.36, P<0.001). There was also a significant difference between TLR9 mRNAs and high grade glioma (P<0.001).NFKBIA mRNAs was significantly identified in non-neoplastic tissues compared with glioma specimens (mean±SD: 2.76±0.30 vs. 0.94±0.35, P<0.001). Lower levels of NFKBIA mRNA were significantly related to advanced grade of gliomas (P<0.001). Furthermore, Immunoreactivity for high expression of TLR9 was detected in 65% of cases (26/40) that was associated with high grade glioma (P=0.001). No statistically significant correlation was found between TLR9 and other clinical parameters (P>0.05). Immunoreactivity for high expression of NFKBIA was observed in 32.5% (13/40) of cases and NFKBIA expression was decreased in patients with high grad glioma (P=0.014). There was no significant correlation between NFKBIA protein expression and age, sex, and relapse. The Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high expression of TLR9 and low expression of NFKBIA are significantly related to poorer OS (P<0.001). In addition, the multivariate Cox regression model revealed that TLR9 and NFKBIA protein expressions (low/high) and tumor grade were potentially an independent predictor of survival in patients (hazard ratio, 2.132, 2.411, 2.13 [95% confidence interval, 1.825-3.782, 1.61-3.231, 1.542-3.92]; P=0.012,P=0.018, P=0.001).
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that TLR9 and NFKBIA protein expressions act as independent predictor of survival for the diagnosis of glioma and a prognostic biomarker for those with a tumor at an advanced pathological grade.

Christmann M, Diesler K, Majhen D, et al.
Integrin αVβ3 silencing sensitizes malignant glioma cells to temozolomide by suppression of homologous recombination repair.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(17):27754-27771 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Integrins have been suggested as possible targets in anticancer therapy. Here we show that knockdown of integrins αVβ3, αVβ5, α3β1 and α4β1 and pharmacological inhibition using a cyclo-RGD integrin αVβ3/αVβ5 antagonist sensitized multiple high-grade glioma cell lines to temozolomide (TMZ)-induced cytotoxicity. The greatest effect was observed in LN229 cells upon integrin β3 silencing, which led to inhibition of the FAK/Src/Akt/NFκB signaling pathway and increased formation of γH2AX foci. The integrin β3 knockdown led to the proteasomal degradation of Rad51, reduction of Rad51 foci and reduced repair of TMZ-induced DNA double-strand breaks by impairing homologous recombination efficiency. The down-regulation of β3 in Rad51 knockdown (LN229-Rad51kd) cells neither further sensitized them to TMZ nor increased the number of γH2AX foci, confirming causality between β3 silencing and Rad51 reduction. RIP1 was found cleaved and IκBα significantly less degraded in β3-silenced/TMZ-exposed cells, indicating inactivation of NFκB signaling. The anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL, survivin and XIAP were proteasomally degraded and caspase-3/-2 cleaved. Increased H2AX phosphorylation, caspase-3 cleavage, reduced Rad51 and RIP1 expression, as well as sustained IκBα expression were also observed in mouse glioma xenografts treated with the cyclo-RGD inhibitor and TMZ, confirming the molecular mechanism in vivo. Our data indicates that β3 silencing in glioma cells represents a promising strategy to sensitize high-grade gliomas to TMZ therapy.

Yi C, Wang Y, Zhang C, et al.
Cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4 targets NF-κB/cyclooxygenase-2 signaling to promote lung cancer growth and progression.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 381(1):1-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is frequently found in early and advanced lung cancers. However, the precise regulatory mechanism of COX-2 in lung cancers remains unclear. Here we identified cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4 (CPSF4) as a new regulatory factor for COX-2 and demonstrated the role of the CPSF4/COX-2 signaling pathway in the regulation of lung cancer growth and progression. Overexpression or knockdown of CPSF4 up-regulated or suppressed the expression of COX-2 at mRNA and protein levels, and promoted or inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in lung cancer cells. Inhibition or induction of COX-2 reversed the CPSF4-mediated regulation of lung cancer cell growth. Cancer cells with CPSF4 overexpression or knockdown exhibited increased or decreased expression of p-IKKα/β and p-IκBα, the translocation of p50/p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and the binding of p65 on COX-2 promoter region. In addition, CPSF4 was found to bind to COX-2 promoter sequences directly and activate the transcription of COX-2. Silencing of NF-κB expression or blockade of NF-κB activity abrogated the binding of CPSF4 on COX-2 promoter, and thereby attenuated the CPSF4-mediated up-regulation of COX-2. Moreover, CPSF4 was found to promote lung tumor growth and progression by up-regulating COX-2 expression in a xenograft lung cancer mouse model. CPSF4 overexpression or knockdown promoted or inhibited tumor growth in mice, while such regulation of tumor growth mediated by CPSF4 could be rescued through the inhibition or activation of COX-2 signaling. Correspondingly, CPSF4 overexpression or knockdown also elevated or attenuated COX-2 expression in tumor tissues of mice, while treatment with a COX-2 inducer LPS or a NF-κB inhibitor reversed this elevation or attenuation. Furthermore, we showed that CPSF4 was positively correlated with COX-2 levels in tumor tissues of lung cancer patients. Simultaneous high expression of CPSF4 and COX-2 proteins predicted poor prognosis of patients with lung cancers. Our results therefore demonstrated a novel mechanism for the transcriptional regulation of COX-2 by CPSF4 in lung cancer, and also offer a potential therapeutic target for lung cancers bearing aberrant activation of CPSF4/COX-2 signaling.

Jiang GY, Zhang XP, Zhang Y, et al.
Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 8 inhibits the invasiveness and migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Hum Pathol. 2016; 56:64-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer has always been the leading cause of death among patients with malignant tumors, and the majority of these patients die because of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Previous studies have implicated coiled-coil domain-containing protein 8 (CCDC8) as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer, such as breast and prostate cancers. However, the expression levels or functions of CCDC8 in lung cancer have not been elucidated. Here, we used immunohistochemical staining to measure CCDC8 expression in 147 samples from tumors and 30 samples from the adjacent normal lung tissues of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. CCDC8 was shown to be located predominantly in the cytoplasm and partially on the cell membrane, and its expression level was significantly lower in lung cancer samples than that in the adjacent normal lung tissues (P=.001). CCDC8 expression was closely related to tumor differentiation (P=.039), tumor-node-metastasis stage (P=.009), lymph node metastasis (P=.038), and prognosis (P=.043) of lung cancer. Transfection of A549 cells with CCDC8 significantly reduced cell invasion and migration (P<.05), whereas the invasiveness and migration capacity in CCDC8-knockdown A549 cells were significantly increased in comparison with the control cells (P<.05). Furthermore, we demonstrated that CCDC8 can downregulate the expression of Snail and upregulate the expression of E-cadherin by inhibiting p-P38 and p-IκBα. Collectively, CCDC8 may suppress the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer cells, and it may represent a promising therapeutic target for non-small cell lung cancer.

Weniger MA, Küppers R
NF-κB deregulation in Hodgkin lymphoma.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2016; 39:32-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cells in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) show constitutive activity of both the canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathways. The central pathogenetic role of this activity is indicated from studies with HL cell lines, which undergo apoptosis upon NF-κB inhibition. Multiple factors contribute to the strong NF-κB activity of HRS cells. This includes interaction with other cells in the lymphoma microenvironment through CD30, CD40, BCMA and other receptors, but also recurrent somatic genetic lesions in various factors of the NF-κB pathway, including destructive mutations in negative regulators of NF-κB signaling (e.g. TNFAIP3, NFKBIA), and copy number gains of genes encoding positive regulators (e.g. REL, MAP3K14). In Epstein-Barr virus-positive cases of classical HL, the virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 causes NF-κB activation by mimicking an active CD40 receptor. NF-κB activity is also seen in the tumor cells of the rare nodular lymphocyte predominant form of HL, but the causes for this activity are largely unclear.

Chen M, Sun F, Han L, Qu Z
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) microRNA K12-1 functions as an oncogene by activating NF-κB/IL-6/STAT3 signaling.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(22):33363-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human oncogenic virus Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the most common cause of malignancies among AIDS patients. KSHV possesses over hundred genes, including 25 microRNAs (miRNAs). The roles of these miRNAs and many other viral genes in KSHV biology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Accordingly, the molecular mechanisms by which KSHV induces tumorigenesis are still poorly defined. Here, we identify KSHV miRNA K12-1 (miR-K12-1) as a novel viral oncogene by activating two important transcription factors, nuclear factor-κb (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Interestingly, miR-K12-1 activates STAT3 indirectly through inducing NF-κB activation and NF-κB-dependent expression of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) by repressing the expression of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα. Accordingly, expression of ectopic IκBα or knockdown of NF-κB RelA, IL-6 or STAT3 prevents expression of cell growth genes and suppresses the oncogenicities of both miR-K12-1 and KSHV. These data identify miR-K12-1/NF-κB/IL-6/STAT3 as a novel oncogenic signaling underlying KSHV tumorigenesis. These data also provide the first evidence showing that IL-6/STAT3 signaling acts as an essential mediator of NF-κB oncogenic actions. These findings significantly improve our understanding of KSHV pathogenesis and oncogenic interaction between NF-κB and STAT3.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. NFKBIA, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999