MUC5B

Gene Summary

Gene:MUC5B; mucin 5B, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming
Aliases: MG1, MUC5, MUC9, MUC-5B
Location:11p15.5
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the mucin family of proteins, which are highly glycosylated macromolecular components of mucus secretions. This family member is the major gel-forming mucin in mucus. It is a major contributor to the lubricating and viscoelastic properties of whole saliva, normal lung mucus and cervical mucus. This gene has been found to be up-regulated in some human diseases, including sinus mucosa of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), CRS with nasal polyposis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and H. pylori-associated gastric disease, and it may be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mucin-5B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MUC5B (cancer-related)

Zhang Z, Chen Y, Xie X, Tang J
The expression of disabled-2 is common reduced in meningiomas.
Neurol India. 2014 Jan-Feb; 62(1):57-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Disabled-2 (Dab2) is frequently down-regulated in several types of cancers. We examined the expression level of Dab2 in human meningiomas and meningioma cells, aimed to investigate its role in the oncogenesis and development of meningiomas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blot analysis was employed to detect Dab2 expression in 90 fresh tissues of meningiomas, 10 leptomeninges and two kinds of human malignant meningioma cell lines. Independent samples t-test, analysis of variance, Pearson Chi-square test and likelihood ratio test were used to analyze the expression level of Dab2 and its relations to clinic-pathological characteristics of meningiomas.
RESULTS: Dab2 was significantly down-regulated in classic meningiomas than the atypical or anaplastic meningiomas. The reduced or loss of expression of Dab2 were significantly correlated with the lower classification of meningiomas and negatively correlated with the invasive ability of adjacent tissues. Furthermore, it was reduced or lost in malignant meningioma cell lines (IOMM-Lee and KT21-MG1). The lower classification of meningiomas correlated with previous comorbidities; not with the gender, age of patients and smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: Dab2 is expressed at variable level in meningiomas with different grade of malignancy and probably plays a pivotal role in the early stage of oncogenesis of malignant meningiomas.

Hao Y, Kuang Z, Xu Y, et al.
Pyocyanin-induced mucin production is associated with redox modification of FOXA2.
Respir Res. 2013; 14:82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The redox-active pyocyanin (PCN) is a toxic, secondary metabolite secreted by the respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). Previously, we have shown that mouse lungs chronically exposed to PCN develop goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia (GCHM) and mucus hypersecretion, fibrosis and emphysema. These pathological features are commonly found in the airways of several chronic lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as in mouse airways deficient in the forkhead box A2 (FOXA2), a transcriptional repressor of goblet GCHM and mucus biosynthesis. Furthermore, PCN inhibits FOXA2 by activating the pro-GCHM signaling pathways Stat6 and EGFR. However, it is not known whether PCN-generated reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species posttranslationally modify and inactivate FOXA2.
METHODS: We examined the posttranslational modifications of FOXA2 by PCN using specific antibodies against oxidation, nitrosylation, acetylation and ubiquitination. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to examine the ability of modified FOXA2 to bind the promoter of MUC5B mucin gene. In addition, we used quantitative real time PCR, ELISA, immunofluorescence and mouse lung infection to assess whether the loss of FOXA2 function caused GCHM and mucin overexpression. Finally, we examined the restoration of FOXA2 function by the antioxidant glutathione (GSH).
RESULTS: We found that PCN-generated ROS/RNS caused nitrosylation, acetylation, ubiquitination and degradation of FOXA2. Modified FOXA2 had reduced ability to bind the promoter of the MUC5B gene. The antioxidant GSH alleviated the modification of FOXA2 by PCN, and inhibited the overexpression of MUC5AC and MUC5B mucins.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PCN-mediated posttranslational modifications of FOXA2 are positively correlated with GCHM and overexpression of airway mucins. Furthermore, antioxidant treatment restores the function of FOXA2 to attenuate GCHM and mucus hypersecretion.

Walsh MD, Clendenning M, Williamson E, et al.
Expression of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 mucins in colorectal cancers and their association with the CpG island methylator phenotype.
Mod Pathol. 2013; 26(12):1642-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mucinous differentiation is associated with both CpG island methylator phenotype and microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer. The mucinous phenotype derives from abundant expression of the colonic goblet cell mucin, MUC2, and de novo expression of gastric foveolar mucin, MUC5AC. We, therefore, investigated the protein expression levels of MUC2 and MUC5AC, as well as MUC5B and MUC6, in molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer. Seven-hundred and twenty-two incident colorectal carcinomas occurring in 702 participants of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study were characterized for methylator status, MLH1 methylation, somatic BRAF and KRAS mutations, microsatellite-instability status, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 mismatch repair, and p53 protein expression, and their histopathology was reviewed. Protein expression levels of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, and the putative mucin regulator CDX2 were compared with molecular and clinicopathological features of colorectal cancers using odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. MUC2 overexpression (>25% positive tumor cells) was observed in 33% colorectal cancers, MUC5B expression in 53%, and de novo MUC5AC and MUC6 expression in 50% and 39%, respectively. Co-expression of two or more of the mucins was commonly observed. Expression of MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6 was strongly associated with features associated with tumorigenesis via the serrated neoplasia pathway, including methylator positivity, somatic BRAF p.V600E mutation, and mismatch repair deficiency, as well as proximal location, poor differentiation, lymphocytic response, and increased T stage (all P<0.001). Overexpression was observed in tumors with and without mucinous differentiation. There were inverse associations between expression of all four mucins and p53 overexpression. CDX2 expression was inversely associated with MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6 expression. Our results suggest that, in methylator-positive tumors, mucin genes on chromosome 11p15.5 region undergo increased expression via mechanisms other than direct regulation by CDX2.

Perrais M, Rousseaux C, Ducourouble MP, et al.
Helicobacter pylori urease and flagellin alter mucin gene expression in human gastric cancer cells.
Gastric Cancer. 2014; 17(2):235-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (Hp), which is one of the causative agents in human gastric adenocarcinoma, is known to interact with mucous gel and alter mucin gene expression. The aim of this work was to study, using an in vitro model of cell infection, the effects of urease, flagellin, and CagA virulence factors on the regulation of the four 11p15 mucin genes (MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6).
METHODS: KATO-III and AGS gastric cancer cells were infected for 1, 3 or 6 h with Hp wild-type strains (ATCC 43504, N6, and SS1) or corresponding isogenic mutants deficient for urease subunit B, flagellin subunit A, and CagA. mRNA levels of MUC2, MUC5B, MUC5AC and MUC6 were assessed by RT-PCR, and functional activity of their promoters was measured by transient transfection assays.
RESULTS: Infection of KATO-III cells with Hp wild-type strains resulted in an early (at 1 h) transient expression of MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 mRNA concomitant with those of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α cytokines. In these cells, the UreB(-) isogenic mutant induced strong activation of MUC5AC expression, and UreB-responsive elements were located in the -486/-1 region of the promoter. FlaA(-) and CagA(-) mutants had no effect on mucin gene mRNA levels in KATO-III cells. In AGS cells, Hp-responsive elements were identified in all promoters, and overexpression of NF-κB induced upregulation of MUC5AC promoter activity when infected with the UreB(-) isogenic mutant.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that Hp infection of gastric cancer cells alters 11p15 mucin gene transcription and that MUC5AC downregulation is mediated by urease virulence factor.

Seibold MA, Smith RW, Urbanek C, et al.
The idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis honeycomb cyst contains a mucocilary pseudostratified epithelium.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58658 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously identified a MUC5B gene promoter-variant that is a risk allele for sporadic and familial Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (IPF/UIP). This allele was strongly associated with increased MUC5B gene expression in lung tissue from unaffected subjects. Despite the strong association of this airway epithelial marker with disease, little is known of mucin expressing structures or of airway involvement in IPF/UIP.
METHODS: Immunofluorescence was used to subtype mucus cells according to MUC5B and MUC5AC expression and to identify ciliated, basal, and alveolar type II (ATII) cells in tissue sections from control and IPF/UIP subjects. Staining patterns were quantified for distal airways (Control and IPF/UIP) and in honeycomb cysts (HC).
RESULTS: MUC5B-expressing cells (EC) were detected in the majority of control distal airways. MUC5AC-EC were identified in half of these airways and only in airways that contained MUC5B-EC. The frequency of MUC5B+ and MUC5AC+ distal airways was increased in IPF/UIP subjects. MUC5B-EC were the dominant mucus cell type in the HC epithelium. The distal airway epithelium from control and IPF/UIP subjects and HC was populated by basal and ciliated cells. Most honeycombing regions were distinct from ATII hyperplasic regions. ATII cells were undetectable in the overwhelming majority of HC.
CONCLUSIONS: The distal airway contains a pseudostratified mucocilary epithelium that is defined by basal epithelial cells and mucus cells that express MUC5B predominantly. These data suggest that the HC is derived from the distal airway.

Walsh MD, Cummings MC, Pearson SA, et al.
Lynch syndrome-associated breast cancers do not overexpress chromosome 11-encoded mucins.
Mod Pathol. 2013; 26(7):944-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mismatch repair-deficient breast cancers may be identified in Lynch syndrome mutation carriers, and have clinicopathological features in common with mismatch repair-deficient colorectal and endometrial cancers such as tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and poor differentiation. Mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers frequently show mucinous differentiation associated with upregulation of chromosome 11 mucins. The aim of this study was to compare the protein expression of these mucins in mismatch repair-deficient and -proficient breast cancers. Cases of breast cancer (n=100) were identified from families where (1) both breast and colon cancer co-occurred and (2) families met either modified Amsterdam criteria or had at least one early-onset (<50 years) colorectal cancer. Tumour sections were stained for the epithelial mucins, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6, and the homeobox protein CDX2, a regulator of MUC2 expression. In all, 16 mismatch repair-deficient Lynch syndrome breast cancers and 84 non-Lynch breast cancers were assessed for altered mucin expression. No significant difference in the expression of MUC2, MUC5AC or MUC6 was observed between the mismatch repair-deficient and mismatch repair-proficient breast cancers; however, there was a trend for mismatch repair-deficient tumours to express high levels of MUC5B less frequently (P=0.07, OR=0.2 (0.0-1.0)). Co-expression of two or more gel-forming mucins was common. Ectopic expression of CDX2 was associated with expression of MUC2 (P=0.035, OR=8.7 (1.3-58.4)). Mismatch repair-deficient breast cancers do not show differential expression of the mucins genes on chromosome 11 when compared with mismatch repair-proficient breast cancers, in contrast with mismatch repair-deficient colorectal and endometrial cancers, which frequently have increased mucin protein expression when compared with their mismatch repair-proficient counterparts. In addition, ectopic CDX2 expression is positively associated with de novo MUC2 expression.

Kim K, Jang SJ, Song HJ, Yu E
Clinicopathologic characteristics and mucin expression in Brunner's gland proliferating lesions.
Dig Dis Sci. 2013; 58(1):194-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Brunner's gland proliferating lesions, termed Brunner's gland hamartoma, hyperplasia, or adenoma, is regarded as a benign condition. However, cancerous changes have been reported in Brunner's gland proliferating lesions.
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to define the characteristic features of Brunner's gland proliferating lesions and evaluate any observed cancerous changes.
METHODS: We analysed clinicopathologic features and mucin expression in 25 Brunner's gland proliferating lesions.
RESULTS: Brunner's gland proliferating lesions were categorized as Brunner's gland hamartoma or hyperplasia according to their tissue components. Brunner's gland hamartoma commonly occurred in the duodenal bulb and exhibited a polypoid appearance, while Brunner's gland hyperplasia was primarily observed in the second portion of duodenum as a submucosal mass and was accompanied by symptoms more frequently than Brunner's gland hamartoma. The Brunner's glands in Brunner's gland proliferating lesions exhibited various morphologic characteristics, from normal-appearing glands to sclerotic glandular foci with atypia. Changes in MUC5 expression observed in both sclerotic glandular foci and dilated Brunner's glands suggest that they might share a common mechanism and are associated with gastric foveolar metaplasia.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that most Brunner's gland proliferating lesions are either hamartoma or hyperplasia, and that true neoplastic Brunner's gland proliferating lesions are very rare. Thus, Brunner's gland adenomas or carcinomas arising in Brunner's gland proliferating lesions should be confirmed by ancillary tests, including immunostaining or molecular analysis, in addition to morphological criteria.

Mahomed F
Recent advances in mucin immunohistochemistry in salivary gland tumors and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol. 2011; 47(9):797-803 [PubMed] Related Publications
This review focuses on the immunohistochemical expression of members of the MUC-type mucin family in salivary gland tumors and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Information is available on changes in the expression levels and distribution profiles of MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6 and MUC7 in tumors of the salivary glands; and of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC4 in HNSCC. In salivary gland tumors the expression patterns of MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC and MUC6 appear to be very closely correlated with the histopathological tumor type indicating their potential use to improve diagnostic accuracy in salivary gland neoplasia. Some MUC-type mucins have emerged as valuable prognostic indicators in pleomorphic adenoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and HNSCC. Nine antibodies directed against different MUC1 antigens have thus far been examined in HNSCC of which monoclonal antibodies DF3, HMFG-1 and Ma695 have shown significant correlations with disease outcome. The importance of taking the specific anti-MUC antibody into consideration when comparing the results of different studies on MUC expression in salivary gland tumors and HNSCC is also highlighted in this review.

Carrara S, Cangi MG, Arcidiacono PG, et al.
Mucin expression pattern in pancreatic diseases: findings from EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2011; 106(7):1359-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Alterations in mucin (MUC) glycosylation and expression have been described in cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) can provide material for molecular biology analysis. This study assessed the feasibility of evaluating MUC expression from material obtained by EUS-FNA and studied the profile of MUC expression in benign and malignant pancreatic lesions.
METHODS: A total of 90 patients with solid or cystic pancreatic lesions underwent FNA. The aspirated material was used for cytological analysis and RNA extraction to assess the expression pattern of MUCs by reverse transcription-PCR with primers specific for the MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5A, MUC5B, MUC6, and MUC7 genes.
RESULTS: RNA extraction was successful in 81% of the biopsies. The prevalences of MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, and MUC7 in ductal adenocarcinoma were 57.7, 51.4, 18.9, and 73.0%, respectively. Fifty percent of benign lesions and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and 63% of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) were positive for MUC1. Twenty-five percent of benign lesions, 86% of NETs, and 47% of IPMNs were positive for MUC2. Of NETs, 50% were positive for MUC1, and 14% were positive for MUC7. None of the benign lesions or NETs expressed MUC4. MUC7 expression was highly significant for adenocarcinoma (P=0.007) and borderline for IPMN (P=0.05). MUC7 was expressed in 37.5% of chronic pancreatitis cases.
CONCLUSIONS: RNA can be extracted from samples obtained under EUS-FNA. MUC7 could serve as a potential biological marker to identify malignant lesions, especially pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Costa-Rodrigues J, Teixeira CA, Fernandes MH
Paracrine-mediated osteoclastogenesis by the osteosarcoma MG63 cell line: is RANKL/RANK signalling really important?
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2011; 28(6):505-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although in the past little attention has been paid to the influence of osteosarcoma cells in osteoclast function, recent studies suggest a close relationship between osteosarcoma aggressiveness and osteoclastic activity. The present study addresses the paracrine effects of MG63 cells, a human osteosarcoma-derived cell line, on the differentiation of peripheral blood osteoclast precursor cells (PBMC). PBMC were cultured for 21 days in the presence of conditioned media from MG63 cell cultures (CM) collected at 48 h (CM_MG1), 7 days (CM_MG2) and 14 days (CM_MG3). MG63 cell cultures displayed the expression of ALP and BMP-2 and, also, the osteoclastogenic genes M-CSF and RANKL, although with a low expression of RANKL. PBMC cultures supplemented with CM presented an evident osteoclastogenic behavior, which was dependent on the culture period of the MG63 cells. The inductive effect appeared to be more relevant for the differentiation and activation genes, c-myc and c-src, and lower for genes associated with osteoclast function. In addition, PBMC cultures displayed increased functional parameters, including calcium phosphate resorbing activity. Assessment of the PBMC cultures in the presence of U0126, PDTC, and indomethacin suggested that in addition to MEK and NFkB pathways, other signaling mechanisms, probably not involving RANKL/RANK interaction, might be activated in the presence of conditioned medium from MG63. In conclusion, MG63 cell line appears to induce a significant paracrine-mediated osteoclastogenic response. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the interaction of osteosarcoma cells and osteoclasts may contribute to the development of new potential approaches in the treatment of such bone metabolic diseases.

Zhang ZQ, Zhu ZX, Bai CX, Chen ZH
Aquaporin 5 expression increases mucin production in lung adenocarcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2011; 25(6):1645-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our recent studies have demonstrated that AQP5 is involved in the metastatic potential of lung cancer. Here, our aim was to explore the effects of AQP5 expression on mucin production in lung adenocarcinoma. We tested MUC5AC and MUC5B mucin production induced by AQP5 expression in lung adenocarcinoma metastasis. Lung adenocarcinoma cells with different levels of AQP5 expression were used in this study. In another set of experiments, deletion of AQP5 was studied using AQP5 (-/-) mice. Significantly increased expression of MUC5AC and MUC5B mucin was found in AQP5 high-expressing tumor cells, which suggested that mucin production induced by AQP5 may contribute to the enhanced metastatic potential in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Our results also showed that AQP5 expression increases MUC5AC and MUC5B mucin production and that this may be partly through the EGFR signaling pathway. In brief, our results provide evidence that mucin production induced by AQP5 expression may play important roles in enhanced metastasis potential in lung adenocarcinoma.

Jonckheere N, Velghe A, Ducourouble MP, et al.
The mouse Muc5b mucin gene is transcriptionally regulated by thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and GATA-6 transcription factors.
FEBS J. 2011; 278(2):282-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
MUC5B is one of the major mucin genes expressed in the respiratory tract. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that MUC5B is expressed in human lung adenocarcinomas and during lung morphogenesis. Moreover, in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues, a converse correlation between MUC5B and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) expression, a lung-specific transcription factor, has been established. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern the regulation of MUC5B expression in the lung are largely unknown. In order to better understand the biological role of MUC5B in lung pathophysiology, we report the characterization of the promoter region of the mouse Muc5b mucin gene. The promoter is flanked by a TATA box (TACATAA) identical to that in the human gene. Human and murine promoters share 67.5% similarity over the first 170 nucleotides. By RT-PCR, co-transfection studies and gel-shift assays, we show that Muc5b promoter activity is completely inhibited by TTF-1, whereas factors of the GATA family (GATA-4/GATA-5/GATA-6) are activators. Together, these results demonstrate, for the first time, that Muc5b is a target gene of transcription factors (TTF-1, GATA-6) involved in lung differentiation programs during development and carcinogenesis, and identify TTF-1 as a strong repressor of Muc5b. The characterization of the structural and functional features of the Muc5b mucin gene will provide us with a strong base to develop studies in murine models aimed at the identification of its biological role in lung pathophysiology.

Ju W, Yoo BC, Kim IJ, et al.
Identification of genes with differential expression in chemoresistant epithelial ovarian cancer using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays.
Oncol Res. 2009; 18(2-3):47-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
A major obstacle in treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer is chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether distinct gene expression profiles are associated with chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We performed global gene expression analysis in 13 primary epithelial ovarian cancer tissues including 5 primary chemosensitive tumors and 8 primary chemoresistant tumors using Affymetrix HGU133A microarray. The gene expression patterns of chemosensitive tumors were compared with those of chemoresistant tumors using fold change. Validity of microarray results was examined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. We identified over 320 genes differentially expressed in chemoresistant epithelial ovarian cancer (> or = twofold). Upregulated genes in chemoresistant tumors included cell cycle regulating genes (TOP2A, BCAT1, CDCA8, CCNA2, CENPE), and genes with previously known mechanisms in tumorigenesis (S100A9, APOA1, RNF125, IFI16). Downregulated genes in chemoresistant tumors included genes related to cell adhesion (MUC5B, CITED2), transcription regulating genes (FOXD1, MAD1L1, PAX2), genes involving signal transduction (SOSTDC1, SNX1, SFRP1, FOXA2, PLK2), and stress protein gene (TP53AP1). These data show that gene expression profiling can discriminate primary chemoresistant from primary chemosensitive ovarian cancers. This type of molecular profiling could provide a basis for additional functional studies.

Pantano F, Baldi A, Santini D, et al.
MUC2 but not MUC5 expression correlates with prognosis in radically resected pancreatic cancer patients.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2009; 8(11):996-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal cancer with less than 10% long-term survivors. The apoptotic pathway deregulation is a postulated mechanism of carcinogenesis of this tumor. The present study investigated the prognostic role of MUC2 and MUC5 apomucin expression in a series of surgically resected pancreatic cancer patients.
RESULTS: By univariate analysis, survival was influenced by MUC2 expression but not by MUC5 expression. The MUC2 overexpression was associated with better prognosis (p = 0.003). By a multivariate Cox regression analysis, MUC2 overexpression maintained the prognostic statistical value. In particular, patients with high MUC2 staining showed a longer survival. Moreover the present study does report the absence of a prognostic role of MUC5 expression in this type of cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients affected by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and treated with surgical resection from 1988-2003 were considered for the study. MUC2 and MUC5 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Tumor specimens of 59 resected patients were included in the study.
CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated the prognostic relevance of MUC2 expression in pancreatic cancer and underlined its potential role as target gene in the field of therapy research.

Yaman B, Nart D, Yilmaz F, et al.
Biliary intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia: three case reports.
Virchows Arch. 2009; 454(5):589-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is subdivided as mass-forming, periductal-infiltrating, and intraductal-growing types. Intraductal-growing type is an entity described in recent years as mucin-producing intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma or intrahepatic (biliary) intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (b-IPMN). b-IPMN is classified as adenoma, borderline tumor, carcinoma in situ, and carcinoma, from benign to malignant. Using a different classification, b-IPMNs are subdivided into intestinal, pancreatobiliary, gastric, or oncocytic based on morphology of the cells forming the lesion and expression of MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5 gene proteins in the mucin family. The clinical and histopathological features of b-IPMN diagnosed in three cases are presented herein. Case 1 was classified as borderline. Case 2 was diagnosed as carcinoma in situ. Case 3 had large invasive areas, and was diagnosed as carcinoma. In all three cases, immunohistochemical investigation revealed MUC1 and MUC5AC to be positive, and MUC2 to be negative. We present herein three cases diagnosed with the clinical and pathological findings of a new entity in the literature, b-IPMN, and we discuss the macroscopic, histological, and immunohistochemical features.

Ahn EK, Kim WJ, Kwon JA, et al.
Variants of MUC5B minisatellites and the susceptibility of bladder cancer.
DNA Cell Biol. 2009; 28(4):169-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human MUC5B gene, which is primarily expressed in the tracheobronchial tract, is clustered to chromosome 11p15.5 with three other secreted gel-forming mucins, MUC6, MUC2, and MUC5AC. In this study, we identified seven variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs; minisatellites) from the entire MUC5B region. Six (MUC5B-MS1, -MS2, -MS3, -MS4, -MS5, and -MS7) of the seven minisatellites evaluated in this study were novel minisatellites, but the MUC5B-MS6 minisatellite was described in a previous study. These minisatellites of MUC5B were analyzed in genomic DNA extracted from controls, cancer patients, and multigenerational families. Three (MUC5B-MS3, -MS6, and -MS7) of the seven minisatellites were found to be polymorphic and transmitted through meiosis following Mendelian inheritance in seven families; therefore, these minisatellite polymorphisms could be useful as markers for paternity mapping and DNA fingerprinting. In addition, we evaluated allelic variation in these minisatellites to determine if such variation affected the susceptibility to various carcinomas. To accomplish this, we conducted a case-control study in which the genomic DNA of 789 cancer-free controls and cancer patients with five types of cancer were compared. A statistically significant association between the long rare MUC5B-MS6 alleles and the occurrence of bladder cancer was identified in the younger group (<60; odds ratio, 4.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-20.7; p=0.03). This observation suggests that the long rare MUC5B-MS6 alleles evaluated in this study could be used to identify the risk of bladder cancer.

Partheen K, Levan K, Osterberg L, et al.
Four potential biomarkers as prognostic factors in stage III serous ovarian adenocarcinomas.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 123(9):2130-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mortality rate for patients with ovarian carcinomas is high and the available prognostic factors are insufficient. The use of biomarkers may contribute to better prediction and survival for these patients. We aimed to study the gene and protein expressions for 7 potential biomarkers, to determine if it is possible to use them as prognostic factors. Genes selected from our previous microarray analysis (2006), CLU, ITGB3, TACC1, MUC5B, CAPG, PRAME and TROAP, were analyzed in 19 of the tumors with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). We found that CLU and ITGB3 were more expressed in tumors from survivors and PRAME and CAPG were more expressed in tumors from deceased patients. None of the other 3 genes were significantly differently expressed. The protein expressions of CLU, ITGB3, PRAME and CAPG were analyzed in 43 of the tumors with western blot for semiquantitative analysis. We established that the mRNA and protein expressions correlated and that all 4 proteins were significantly differently expressed. Further, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to localize the expression of the proteins in the tumor samples. According to our results, the 4 biomarkers CLU, ITGB3, PRAME and CAPG may be used as prognostic factors for patients with stage III serous ovarian adenocarcinomas.

Ligtenberg AJ, Veerman EC, Nieuw Amerongen AV, Mollenhauer J
Salivary agglutinin/glycoprotein-340/DMBT1: a single molecule with variable composition and with different functions in infection, inflammation and cancer.
Biol Chem. 2007; 388(12):1275-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Salivary agglutinin (SAG), lung glycoprotein-340 (gp-340) and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) are three names for identical proteins encoded by the dmbt1 gene. DMBT1/SAG/gp-340 belongs to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins, a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. On the one hand, DMBT1 may represent an innate defence factor acting as a pattern recognition molecule. It interacts with a broad range of pathogens, including cariogenic streptococci and Helicobacter pylori, influenza viruses and HIV, but also with mucosal defence proteins, such as IgA, surfactant proteins and MUC5B. Stimulation of alveolar macrophage migration, suppression of neutrophil oxidative burst and activation of the complement cascade point further to an important role in the regulation of inflammatory responses. On the other hand, DMBT1 has been demonstrated to play a role in epithelial and stem cell differentiation. Inactivation of the gene coding for this protein may lead to disturbed differentiation, possibly resulting in tumour formation. These data strongly point to a role for DMBT1 as a molecule linking innate immune processes with regenerative processes.

Rouzbahman M, Serra S, Adsay NV, et al.
Oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the biliary tract: a clinicopathological, mucin core and Wnt pathway protein analysis of four cases.
Pathology. 2007; 39(4):413-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Oncocytic change in papillary neoplasms of the biliary tract is a very uncommon finding with little known about pathogenesis, immunophenotype and prognosis, especially in comparison to similar lesions in the pancreatic ductal system. We report four cases of oncocytic biliary intraductal papillary neoplasms (IPNs), highlighting the clinicopathological characteristics of these tumours, the immunohistochemical profile with regard to Wnt pathway proteins and mucin core protein (MUC) status, and compare these findings with the oncocytic variant of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas.
METHODS: Four cases of oncocytic IPN of the extrapancreatic, biliary tree (two with accompanying invasive carcinomas) were examined for mucin profiles and Wnt signalling proteins. The cases were stained for: beta-catenin, c-myc, glutathione synthase kinase (GSK), E-cadherin, cyclin D1, and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6, using standard immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: The cases occurred in three males and one female, ranging in age from 59 to 81 years. The lesions caused obstructive symptoms related to the biliary tree as well as non-specific abdominal symptoms. Typically, cystic lesions were noted grossly. All four of the IPNs were composed of distinctive oncocytic cells. The invasive carcinomas accompanying two of the cases were also composed of oncocytes. None of the cases showed aberrant expression of the Wnt signalling proteins, although cyclin D1 was markedly over-expressed in all four cases. Three of four cases showed the following mucin profile: MUC3, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6 positive.
CONCLUSIONS: The Wnt pathway proteins (especially beta-catenin and E-cadherin) are expressed normally in oncocytic variants of intraductal papillary neoplasms of the biliary tree, and the mucin profile is similar to their counterparts in the pancreas.

Vincent A, Perrais M, Desseyn JL, et al.
Epigenetic regulation (DNA methylation, histone modifications) of the 11p15 mucin genes (MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6) in epithelial cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(45):6566-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human genes MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6 are clustered on chromosome 11 and encode large secreted gel-forming mucins. The frequent occurrence of their silencing in cancers and the GC-rich structure of their promoters led us to study the influence of epigenetics on their expression. Pre- and post-confluent cells were treated with demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, trichostatin A. Mapping of methylated cytosines was performed by bisulfite-treated genomic DNA sequencing. Histone modification status at the promoters was assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our results indicate that MUC2 was regulated by site-specific DNA methylation associated with establishment of a repressive histone code, whereas hypermethylation of MUC5B promoter was the major mechanism responsible for its silencing. DNA methyltransferase 1 was identified by small interfering RNA approach as a regulator of MUC2 and MUC5B endogenous expression that was potentiated by HDAC2. MUC2 and MUC5B epigenetic regulation was cell-specific, depended on cell differentiation status and inhibited their activation by Sp1. The expression of MUC5AC was rarely influenced by epigenetic mechanisms and methylation of MUC6 promoter was not correlated to its silencing. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the important role for methylation and/or histone modifications in regulating the 11p15 mucin genes in epithelial cancer cells.

Partheen K, Levan K, Osterberg L, Horvath G
Expression analysis of stage III serous ovarian adenocarcinoma distinguishes a sub-group of survivors.
Eur J Cancer. 2006; 42(16):2846-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is difficult to predict the clinical outcome for patients with ovarian cancer. However, the use of biomarkers as additional prognostic factors may improve the outcome for these patients. In order to find novel candidate biomarkers, differences in gene expressions were analysed in 54 stage III serous ovarian adenocarcinomas with oligonucleotide microarrays containing 27,000 unique probes. The microarray data was verified with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the genes TACC1, MUC5B and PRAME. Using hierarchical cluster analysis we detected a sub-group that included 60% of the survivors. The gene expressions in tumours from patients in this sub-group of survivors were compared with the remaining tumours, and 204 genes were found to be differently expressed. We conclude that the sub-group of survivors might represent patients with favourable tumour biology and sensitivity to treatment. A selection of the 204 genes might be used as a predictive model to distinguish patients within and outside of this group. Alternative chemotherapy strategies could then be offered as first-line treatment, which may lead to improvements in the clinical outcome for these patients.

Mahfouz ME, Elsheikh MN, Ghoname NF
Molecular profile of the antrochoanal polyp: up-regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor beta in maxillary sinus mucosa.
Am J Rhinol. 2006 Jul-Aug; 20(4):466-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Various pathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed to explain the development of antrochoanal polyps (ACPs); however, the cause is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression and the potential role of a battery of molecular markers in the development of ACPs. A prospective controlled study of a case series was performed.
METHODS: Tissue samples of maxillary sinus mucosa were obtained from 14 patients with ACPs, 17 patients with chronic nonpolypoid maxillary sinusitis, and 4 patients with normal maxillary sinus mucosa; RNAs were extracted from the sinus mucosa, and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor P, and mucin genes (MUC), MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC8, to investigate their expression.
RESULTS: The expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor beta was significantly higher in ACPs than in chronic rhinosinusitis and healthy mucosa. Meanwhile, the levels of expression of MUC genes were higher in ACPs and chronic rhinosinusitis compared with healthy mucosa.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that ACPs may represent an inflammatory reaction caused by overproduction of tissue-derived growth factors in an inductive environment.

Leteurtre E, Zerimech F, Piessen G, et al.
Relationships between mucinous gastric carcinoma, MUC2 expression and survival.
World J Gastroenterol. 2006; 12(21):3324-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the expression of the four secreted gel-forming mucins (MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6) in a series of gastric carcinomas, classified according Lauren's, Mulligan's, WHO and Goseki's classifications, with special attention to all the different components (major and minor) present in tumors and to follow up clinical data.
METHODS: Expression of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6 was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.
RESULTS: Expression of secreted gel-forming mucins in gastric carcinoma was particularly complex, each mucin being not restricted to any histopathological type even considering all components (major and minor) present in a given tumor. There was a worst survival in patients with a higher content of mucus (Goseki II or IV) and high positive MUC2 expression.
CONCLUSION: Complexity of mucin gene expression patterns in gastric cancer may reflect a precise state of differentiation at the cell level not recognized in used morphologic classification systems. High expression of MUC2 was nevertheless associated with mucinous subtype of the WHO classification and with group II of Goseki's classification identified by the major component of a particular tumor. The quantity and quality of mucus were related to survival.

Hebbar V, Damera G, Sachdev GP
Differential expression of MUC genes in endometrial and cervical tissues and tumors.
BMC Cancer. 2005; 5:124 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mucin glycoprotein's are major components of mucus and are considered an important class of tumor associated antigens. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human MUC genes (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5B, MUC5AC and MUC8) in human endometrium and cervix, and to compare and quantitate the expression of MUC genes in normal and cancerous tissues.
METHODS: Slot blot techniques were used to study the MUC gene expression and quantitation.
RESULTS: Of the five-mucin genes studied, MUC1, MUC5B and MUC8 showed high expression levels in the normal and cancerous endometrial and cervical tissues, MUC2 and MUC5AC showed considerably lower expression. Statistically, higher levels of MUC1, MUC5B and MUC8 were observed in endometrial adenocarcinomas compared to normal tissues. In contrast, only MUC1 levels increased with no significant changes in expression of MUC5B and MUC8 in cervical tumors over normal cervical tissues.
CONCLUSION: Endometrial tumors showed increased expression of MUC1, MUC5B and MUC8 over normal tissues. Only MUC1 appears to be increase, in cervical tumors. All the studied tissues showed high and consistent expression of MUC8 mRNA. Low to neglible levels of MUC2 and MUC5AC were observed in all studied endometrial and cervical tissues.

Adsay NV, Basturk O, Cheng JD, Andea AA
Ductal neoplasia of the pancreas: nosologic, clinicopathologic, and biologic aspects.
Semin Radiat Oncol. 2005; 15(4):254-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most pancreatic neoplasia are of ductal lineage, characterized by tubule (gland), cyst, papilla, or mucin formation and expression of mucin-related glycoproteins and oncoproteins (eg, MUC1, CA19-9, CEA, DUPAN), as well as some subsets of cytokeratin (eg, CK19). Mutations of k-ras oncogene and DPC4 are also common in ductal neoplasia and generally not seen in nonductal tumors. A variety of pancreatic neoplasia fall under the heading of ductal neoplasia. Invasive ductal adenocarcinoma (DA) is the most important and constitutes the vast majority (>85%) of pancreatic tumors. DA is characterized by insidious infiltration and rapid dissemination, despite its relatively well-differentiated histologic appearance. In some variants of DA such as undifferentiated or sarcomatoid, evidence of ductal differentiation may be lacking or only focal. The presumed precursors of DA are microscopic intraductal proliferative changes that are now termed pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). PanINs comprise a neoplastic transformation ranging from early mucinous change (PanIN-1A) to frank CIS (PanIN-3). A similar (in situ) neoplastic spectrum also characterizes intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms, which are cystic ductal-mucinous tumors with varying degrees of papilla formation, and may be associated with invasive carcinoma. As such, these can be regarded as mass-forming preinvasive neoplasia. Some intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are associated with invasive carcinoma of the colloid type. Colloid carcinoma of the pancreas appears to be a clinicopathologically distinct tumor with indolent behavior. Whereas most ductal pancreatic neoplasia are characterized by some degree of mucin formation, serous tumors, of which serous (microcystic) adenoma is the sole example, lack mucin formation, presumably because they recapitulate centroacinar ducts. They are typically benign tumors. It is recognized now that pancreatic carcinoma, like other malignant processes, is a genetic disease produced by progressive mutations in cancer-related genes. These alterations can be categorized as "early" such as k-ras mutation, HER-2/neu, PSCA, MUC5, and fascin overexpression; "intermediate" such as p16 inactivation, MUC1, and cyclin D1 overexpression; and finally as "late" such as p53 and DPC4 inactivation, BRCA2 mutation, and overexpression of ki-67, 14-3-3sigma, and mesothelin. Ductal neoplasia is the most important category among pancreatic tumors. It is important to appreciate the different types of ductal tumors because they vary greatly in their clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of ductal carcinogenesis will help develop more efficient prevention and therapy of these tumors.

Sóñora C, Mazal D, Berois N, et al.
Immunohistochemical analysis of MUC5B apomucin expression in breast cancer and non-malignant breast tissues.
J Histochem Cytochem. 2006; 54(3):289-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
A deregulation of several MUC genes (MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, and MUC6) was previously demonstrated in breast carcinomas. Considering that recently we found the "non-mammary" MUC5B mRNA in primary breast tumors (Berois et al. 2003), we undertook the present study to evaluate the expression profile of MUC5B protein product in breast tissues, using LUM5B-2 antisera raised against sequences within the non-glycosylated regions of this apomucin. Expression of MUC5B by breast cancer cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, and Western blot on MCF-7 cancer cells. Using an immunohistochemical procedure, MUC5B apomucin was detected in 34/42 (81%) primary breast tumors, in 13/14 (92.8%) samples of non-malignant breast diseases, in 8/19 (42.1%) samples of normal-appearing breast epithelia adjacent to cancer, and in 0/5 normal control breast samples. The staining pattern of MUC5B was very different when comparing breast cancer cells (cytoplasmic) and non-malignant breast cells (predominantly apical and in the secretory material). We analyzed MUC5B mRNA expression using RT-PCR in bone marrow aspirates from 22/42 patients with breast cancer to compare with MUC5B protein expression in the primary tumors. Good correlation was observed because the six MUC5B-positive bone marrow samples also displayed MUC5B expression in the tumor. Our results show, for the first time at the protein level, that MUC5B apomucin is upregulated in breast cancer. Its characterization could provide new insights about the glycobiology of breast cancer cells.

Bax DA, Haringsma J, Einerhand AW, et al.
MUC4 is increased in high grade intraepithelial neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus and is associated with a proapoptotic Bax to Bcl-2 ratio.
J Clin Pathol. 2004; 57(12):1267-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with Barrett's oesophagus (BO) are at risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Because the pattern of mucosal mucins changes during neoplastic progression, it may serve as a marker of intraepithelial neoplasia.
AIMS: To determine the expression pattern of mucins in neoplastic BO epithelium (high grade dysplasia) and correlate it with the expression of apoptosis markers Bax and Bcl-2.
METHODS: Thirty seven patients with BO were studied: 16 without intraepithelial neoplasia, six with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGN), and 15 with infiltrating adenocarcinoma. Biopsies were obtained from squamous epithelium, Barrett's epithelium, and (when present) foci of suspected HGN or adenocarcinoma. MUC1-4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, Bax, and Bcl-2 mRNA were determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 protein was determined by immunoblotting.
RESULTS: Mucin expression varied between neoplastic progression stages in BO. Mucin mRNA levels were low in squamous epithelium, except for MUC4, and were at least four times higher in BO and HGN (p<0.001), but less so in adenocarcinoma. MUC4 expression was significantly lower in BO than in normal squamous epithelium, whereas in HGN and adenocarcinoma, levels were significantly higher than in BO (p = 0.037). The Bax:Bcl-2 ratio was increased in HGN compared with BO (p = 0.04). MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 protein values correlated with mRNA data.
CONCLUSIONS: Mucin expression varies during the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in BO. MUC4 could serve as a tumour marker in this process. In contrast to animal studies, upregulation of MUC4 in HGN is associated with increased apoptosis, suggesting that MUC4 plays a minor role in apoptosis regulation in BO.

Yuan ZL, Guan YJ, Wang L, et al.
Central role of the threonine residue within the p+1 loop of receptor tyrosine kinase in STAT3 constitutive phosphorylation in metastatic cancer cells.
Mol Cell Biol. 2004; 24(21):9390-400 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) RET, MET, and RON all carry the Met(p+1loop)-->Thr point mutation (i.e., 2B mutation), leading to the formation of tumors with high metastatic potential. Utilizing a novel antibody array, we identified constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 in cells expressing the 2B mutation but not wild-type RET. MET or RON with the 2B mutation also constitutively phosphorylated STAT3. Members of the EPH, the only group of wild-type RTK that carry Thr(p+1loop) residue, are often expressed unexpectedly in different types of cancers. Ectopic expression of wild-type but not Thr(p+1loop)-->Met substituted EPH family members constitutively phosphorylated STAT3. In both RTK(Metp+1loop) with 2B mutation and wild-type EPH members the Thr(p+1loop) residue is required for constitutive kinase autophosphorylation and STAT3 recruitment. In multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN-2B) patients expressing RET(M918T), nuclear enrichment of STAT3 and elevated expression of CXCR4 was detected in metastatic thyroid C-cell carcinoma in the liver. In breast adenocarcinoma cell lines expressing multiple EPH members, STAT3 constitutively bound to the promoters of MUC1, MUC4, and MUC5B genes. Inhibiting STAT3 expression resulted in reduced expression of these metastasis-related genes and inhibited mobility. These findings provide insight into Thr(p+1loop) residue in RTK autophosphorylation and constitutive activation of STAT3 in metastatic cancer cells.

Oien KA, McGregor F, Butler S, et al.
Gastrokine 1 is abundantly and specifically expressed in superficial gastric epithelium, down-regulated in gastric carcinoma, and shows high evolutionary conservation.
J Pathol. 2004; 203(3):789-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Through previous large-scale gene expression profiling we identified a transcript that was abundant in normal stomach and down-regulated in gastric cancer. Genes expressed at similar levels included gastrin, MUC5 and pS2, which are important in gastric function. We aimed to characterise this candidate, gastrokine 1 (GKN1), at mRNA, DNA, protein and tissue levels. The gene was studied in human, mouse, rat and cow, and was highly conserved across these species. The mRNA transcripts averaged 750 bp in length. The human, mouse and rat genes all contained six exons spanning 6 kb, and were located on chromosomes 2, 6 and 4 respectively. The full-length translation products were 183-185 amino acids long, reducing to the mature protein of 18 kDa following signal peptide cleavage; these predictions were confirmed by Western blotting. Tagged gastrokine 1 yielded granular cytoplasmic staining with perinuclear accentuation, representing the Golgi apparatus, in keeping with secretion or expression on the extracellular surface. Gene expression in tissues was profiled extensively by Northern blotting, in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. Gastrokine 1 was highly expressed in normal stomach, where it was located in the superficial/foveolar gastric epithelium, but was absent from gastric carcinomas. Outwith the stomach, gastrokine 1 was found only in epithelia showing gastric metaplasia eg Barrett's oesophagus, the ulcer-associated cell lineage and ovarian mucinous neoplasms. In conclusion, we have characterised gastrokine 1, previously known as CA11, AMP-18 or foveolin. Its abundance in, and specificity for, native or metaplastic gastric epithelium, down-regulation in gastric carcinoma and evolutionary conservation suggest that this gene is physiologically important in the stomach. The function of gastrokine 1 is unknown but a role in mucosal protection is postulated.

Kim H, Seo JH, Kim KH
The effect of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase on mucin gene expression and apoptosis in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003; 1010:90-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The loss of mucus coat continuity and apoptosis have been shown in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-infected gastric tissues. Blockade of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) produced reversal in the LPS-induced reduction in mucin synthesis and apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells. This study investigates whether H. pylori induces apoptosis, alterations in mucin gene (MUC) expression, and p38 MAPK activation in human gastric epithelial AGS cells. After treatment of AGS cells with H. pylori at the ratio of 1:300, apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation and DNA laddering. MUC expression was assessed by RT-PCR. p38 MAPK activation and mucin protein level, using anti-mucin antibody for MUC5/6, were determined by Western blot analysis. As a result, H. pylori induced apoptosis and loss of mucin, which was supported by reduced mRNA expression of MUC5AC by H. pylori in AGS cells. MUC7/8 expression and p38 MAPK activation were induced in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. In conclusion, H. pylori induces p38 MAPK activation, wh3.ich may be the underlying mechanism of alterations in MUC expression and apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells.

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