Gene Summary

Gene:MTA2; metastasis associated 1 family, member 2
Aliases: PID, MTA1L1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that has been identified as a component of NuRD, a nucleosome remodeling deacetylase complex identified in the nucleus of human cells. It shows a very broad expression pattern and is strongly expressed in many tissues. It may represent one member of a small gene family that encode different but related proteins involved either directly or indirectly in transcriptional regulation. Their indirect effects on transcriptional regulation may include chromatin remodeling. It is closely related to another member of this family, a protein that has been correlated with the metastatic potential of certain carcinomas. These two proteins are so closely related that they share the same types of domains. These domains include two DNA binding domains, a dimerization domain, and a domain commonly found in proteins that methylate DNA. One of the proteins known to be a target protein for this gene product is p53. Deacetylation of p53 is correlated with a loss of growth inhibition in transformed cells supporting a connection between these gene family members and metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:metastasis-associated protein MTA2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MTA2 (cancer-related)

Uraki S, Sugimoto K, Shiraki K, et al.
Human β-defensin-3 inhibits migration of colon cancer cells via downregulation of metastasis-associated 1 family, member 2 expression.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(3):1059-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
The innate immune system plays an important role as the first line of defense against many types of microbes. Accumulating reports suggest that human β-defensins (hBDs) are expressed by and have certain roles in some cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of hBD-3 in colon cancer cells. The expression of hBD-3 was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of colon cancer cell lines and immunohistochemical staining of colon cancer tissues. The effect of hBD-3 on proliferation of colon cancer was assessed using the MTT assay and a real-time cell analyzer, and the effect of hBD-3 on the migration of colon cancer cells was also examined. The results showed that hBD-3 is not expressed in colon cancer cells but is produced by tumor-infiltrating monocytes. Migration of colon cancer cells was significantly inhibited by hBD-3 in a dose-dependent manner, although proliferation of colon cancer cells was not affected by administration of hBD-3. Moreover, reduced expression of metastasis-associated 1 family, member 2 (MTA2) mRNA in colon cancer cells was associated with exposure to hBD-3. In conclusion, progression of colon cancer was inhibited by hBD-3 in a paracrine fashion. Therefore, hBD-3 may be a potent new agent for treating colon cancer.

Huang KC, Yang KC, Lin H, et al.
Analysis of schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma genetic network with corresponding modularity and pathways: novel insights to the immune system.
BMC Genomics. 2013; 14 Suppl 5:S10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenic patients show lower incidences of cancer, implicating schizophrenia may be a protective factor against cancer. To study the genetic correlation between the two diseases, a specific PPI network was constructed with candidate genes of both schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma. The network, designated schizophrenia-hepatocellular carcinoma network (SHCN), was analysed and cliques were identified as potential functional modules or complexes. The findings were compared with information from pathway databases such as KEGG, Reactome, PID and ConsensusPathDB.
RESULTS: The functions of mediator genes from SHCN show immune system and cell cycle regulation have important roles in the eitology mechanism of schizophrenia. For example, the over-expressing schizophrenia candidate genes, SIRPB1, SYK and LCK, are responsible for signal transduction in cytokine production; immune responses involving IL-2 and TREM-1/DAP12 pathways are relevant for the etiology mechanism of schizophrenia. Novel treatments were proposed by searching the target genes of FDA approved drugs with genes in potential protein complexes and pathways. It was found that Vitamin A, retinoid acid and a few other immune response agents modulated by RARA and LCK genes may be potential treatments for both schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing specific mediator genes in the SHCN which may suppress tumors. We also show that the schizophrenic protein interactions and modulation with cancer implicates the importance of immune system for etiology of schizophrenia.

Li FY, Chaigne-Delalande B, Su H, et al.
XMEN disease: a new primary immunodeficiency affecting Mg2+ regulation of immunity against Epstein-Barr virus.
Blood. 2014; 123(14):2148-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that infects and persists in 95% of adults worldwide and has the potential to cause fatal disease, especially lymphoma, in immunocompromised hosts. Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) that predispose to EBV-associated malignancies have provided novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of immune defense against EBV. We have recently characterized a novel PID now named "X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, EBV infection, and neoplasia" (XMEN) disease characterized by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1), chronic high-level EBV with increased EBV-infected B cells, and heightened susceptibility to EBV-associated lymphomas. The genetic etiology of XMEN disease has revealed an unexpected quantitative role for intracellular free magnesium in immune functions and has led to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the clinical presentation, genetic mutation spectrum, molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations for this previously unrecognized disease.

Zhou C, Ji J, Cai Q, et al.
MTA2 promotes gastric cancer cells invasion and is transcriptionally regulated by Sp1.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12(1):102 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MTA2 gene belongs to metastasis associated family, and is highly expressed in some solid tumors, including gastric cancer. Its biological function in gastric cancer is currently undefined.
METHODS: Metastasis-associated tumor gene family 2 (MTA2) and transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression were detected in 127 gastric cancer samples by immunohistochemistry staining. SGC-7901 and AGS gastric cancer cell lines transfected by MTA2 shRNA was used for biological function investigation. Binding and regulation activities of Sp1 on MTA2 promoter were investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter gene.
RESULTS: The expression rate of MTA2 in gastric cancer tissues was 55.9% (71/127), and its expression was closely related to the depth of tumor invasion, lymph nodes metastasis, and TNM staging. MTA2 knockdown in human SGC-7901 and AGS gastric cancer cells significantly inhibited migration and invasion in vitro, and disrupted structure of cytoskeleton. MTA2 knockdown also attenuated xenografts growth and lung metastasis in nude mice model. MTA2 expression was positively correlated with transcription factor Sp1 in gastric cancer tissues (r = 0.326, P < 0.001). Sp1 bound to human MTA2 gene promoter at region from -1043 bp to -843 bp. Transcriptional activity of MTA2 promoter could be enhanced by Sp1 overexpression.
CONCLUSIONS: MTA2 knockdown impairs invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells, and attenuates xenografts growth in vivo. Sp1 regulates MTA2 expression at transcriptional level.

Rasmussen CB, Faber MT, Jensen A, et al.
Pelvic inflammatory disease and risk of invasive ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors.
Cancer Causes Control. 2013; 24(7):1459-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors.
METHODS: In a population-based case-control study in Denmark, we included 554 women with invasive ovarian cancer, 202 with ovarian borderline tumors, and 1,564 controls aged 35-79 years. The analyses were performed in multiple logistic regression models.
RESULTS: We found a significantly increased risk of ovarian borderline tumors among women with a history of PID (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.08-2.08) but no apparent association between PID and risk of invasive ovarian cancer (OR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.65-1.05). We found no effect of age at time of first PID or time since first PID on the risk for either condition.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a history of PID is associated with an increased risk of ovarian borderline tumors, which may support the hypothesis that inflammation is an etiological factor. The lack of an association between previous PID and invasive ovarian cancer may indicate an etiological difference between ovarian borderline tumors and invasive ovarian cancer. However, an important limitation of the study is the use of self-reported PID.

Seibold P, Hall P, Schoof N, et al.
Polymorphisms in oxidative stress-related genes and mortality in breast cancer patients--potential differential effects by radiotherapy?
Breast. 2013; 22(5):817-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
We assessed whether variants in 22 oxidative stress-related genes are associated with mortality of breast cancer patients and whether the associations differ according to radiotherapy. Using a prospective cohort of 1348 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for 109 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Validation of results was attempted using two Scandinavian studies. Eleven SNPs in MT2A, NFE2L2, NQO1, PRDX1, and PRDX6 were significantly associated with overall mortality after a median follow-up of 5.7 years. Three SNPs in NQO1 (rs2917667) and in PRDX6 (rs7314, rs4916362) were consistently associated with increased risk of dying across all three study populations (pooled: HRNQO1_rs2917667 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44, p = 0.051; HRPRDX6_rs7314 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.35, p = 0.056, HRPRDX6_rs4916362 1.14 95% CI 1.00-1.32, p = 0.062). Potential effect modification by radiotherapy was found for CAT_rs769218. In conclusion, genetic variants in NQO1 and PRDX6 may modify breast cancer prognosis.

Isaksson HS, Sorbe B, Nilsson TK
Whole blood RNA expression profiles in ovarian cancer patients with or without residual tumors after primary cytoreductive surgery.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 27(5):1331-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Significant improvements in the treatment results of ovarian cancer have been achieved during the last decades, but further improvements require additional methods identifying signs of the disease and its biological behavior, preferably by a simple blood test. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes may express genes that carry such clinical information. Therefore, we studied the relative gene expressions of 168 cancer- and metastasis-specific genes in blood samples from ovarian cancer patients with different prognoses after primary cytoreductive surgery. Total RNA was extracted from whole blood and the relative gene expression profile of 168 genes were analyzed using real-time qPCR assays. Two groups of patients were analyzed; one group with residual tumor mass after primary surgery, and one group where the tumor was macroscopically radically resected, resulting in no visible tumor mass left behind. The group with the remaining tumor mass after surgery showed significantly different gene expression profiles compared to the group with no remaining tumor mass. Differences were noted for the metastasis associated 1 family, member 2 gene (MTA2), the TNF, α-catenin, interleukin 1β, the KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor and the matrix metallo-proteinase 10 genes. All genes were downregulated with a fold-change between 1.15 to 1.57; there were no upregulated genes. Thus, a signature of genes involved in metastasis, invasion and inflammation was found to be significantly downregulated in native unstimulated blood leukocytes from ovarian cancer patients with a poor prognosis. Preoperatively it may serve as a guide to the biology of the tumor and postoperatively in the optimization of adjuvant treatment of ovarian cancer patients.

Menashe I, Figueroa JD, Garcia-Closas M, et al.
Large-scale pathway-based analysis of bladder cancer genome-wide association data from five studies of European background.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29396 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
Pathway analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) offer a unique opportunity to collectively evaluate genetic variants with effects that are too small to be detected individually. We applied a pathway analysis to a bladder cancer GWAS containing data from 3,532 cases and 5,120 controls of European background (n = 5 studies). Thirteen hundred and ninety-nine pathways were drawn from five publicly available resources (Biocarta, Kegg, NCI-PID, HumanCyc, and Reactome), and we constructed 22 additional candidate pathways previously hypothesized to be related to bladder cancer. In total, 1421 pathways, 5647 genes and ∼90,000 SNPs were included in our study. Logistic regression model adjusting for age, sex, study, DNA source, and smoking status was used to assess the marginal trend effect of SNPs on bladder cancer risk. Two complementary pathway-based methods (gene-set enrichment analysis [GSEA], and adapted rank-truncated product [ARTP]) were used to assess the enrichment of association signals within each pathway. Eighteen pathways were detected by either GSEA or ARTP at P≤0.01. To minimize false positives, we used the I(2) statistic to identify SNPs displaying heterogeneous effects across the five studies. After removing these SNPs, seven pathways ('Aromatic amine metabolism' [P(GSEA) = 0.0100, P(ARTP) = 0.0020], 'NAD biosynthesis' [P(GSEA) = 0.0018, P(ARTP) = 0.0086], 'NAD salvage' [P(ARTP) = 0.0068], 'Clathrin derived vesicle budding' [P(ARTP) = 0.0018], 'Lysosome vesicle biogenesis' [P(GSEA) = 0.0023, P(ARTP)<0.00012], 'Retrograde neurotrophin signaling' [P(GSEA) = 0.00840], and 'Mitotic metaphase/anaphase transition' [P(GSEA) = 0.0040]) remained. These pathways seem to belong to three fundamental cellular processes (metabolic detoxification, mitosis, and clathrin-mediated vesicles). Identification of the aromatic amine metabolism pathway provides support for the ability of this approach to identify pathways with established relevance to bladder carcinogenesis.

Greenblum SI, Efroni S, Schaefer CF, Buetow KH
The PathOlogist: an automated tool for pathway-centric analysis.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2011; 12:133 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The PathOlogist is a new tool designed to transform large sets of gene expression data into quantitative descriptors of pathway-level behavior. The tool aims to provide a robust alternative to the search for single-gene-to-phenotype associations by accounting for the complexity of molecular interactions.
RESULTS: Molecular abundance data is used to calculate two metrics--'activity' and 'consistency'--for each pathway in a set of more than 500 canonical molecular pathways (source: Pathway Interaction Database, The tool then allows a detailed exploration of these metrics through integrated visualization of pathway components and structure, hierarchical clustering of pathways and samples, and statistical analyses designed to detect associations between pathway behavior and clinical features.
CONCLUSIONS: The PathOlogist provides a straightforward means to identify the functional processes, rather than individual molecules, that are altered in disease. The statistical power and biologic significance of this approach are made easily accessible to laboratory researchers and informatics analysts alike. Here we show as an example, how the PathOlogist can be used to establish pathway signatures that robustly differentiate breast cancer cell lines based on response to treatment.

Wendl MC, Wallis JW, Lin L, et al.
PathScan: a tool for discerning mutational significance in groups of putative cancer genes.
Bioinformatics. 2011; 27(12):1595-602 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
MOTIVATION: The expansion of cancer genome sequencing continues to stimulate development of analytical tools for inferring relationships between somatic changes and tumor development. Pathway associations are especially consequential, but existing algorithms are demonstrably inadequate.
METHODS: Here, we propose the PathScan significance test for the scenario where pathway mutations collectively contribute to tumor development. Its design addresses two aspects that established methods neglect. First, we account for variations in gene length and the consequent differences in their mutation probabilities under the standard null hypothesis of random mutation. The associated spike in computational effort is mitigated by accurate convolution-based approximation. Second, we combine individual probabilities into a multiple-sample value using Fisher-Lancaster theory, thereby improving differentiation between a few highly mutated genes and many genes having only a few mutations apiece. We investigate accuracy, computational effort and power, reporting acceptable performance for each.
RESULTS: As an example calculation, we re-analyze KEGG-based lung adenocarcinoma pathway mutations from the Tumor Sequencing Project. Our test recapitulates the most significant pathways and finds that others for which the original test battery was inconclusive are not actually significant. It also identifies the focal adhesion pathway as being significantly mutated, a finding consistent with earlier studies. We also expand this analysis to other databases: Reactome, BioCarta, Pfam, PID and SMART, finding additional hits in ErbB and EPHA signaling pathways and regulation of telomerase. All have implications and plausible mechanistic roles in cancer. Finally, we discuss aspects of extending the method to integrate gene-specific background rates and other types of genetic anomalies.
AVAILABILITY: PathScan is implemented in Perl and is available from the Genome Institute at:

Barone I, Brusco L, Gu G, et al.
Loss of Rho GDIα and resistance to tamoxifen via effects on estrogen receptor α.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011; 103(7):538-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogen receptor (ER) α is a successful therapeutic target in breast cancer, but patients eventually develop resistance to antiestrogens such as tamoxifen.
METHODS: To identify genes whose expression was associated with the development of tamoxifen resistance and metastasis, we used microarrays to compare gene expression in four primary tumors from tamoxifen-treated patients whose breast cancers did not recur vs five metastatic tumors from patients whose cancers progressed during adjuvant tamoxifen treatment. Because Rho guanine dissociation inhibitor (GDI) α was underexpressed in the tamoxifen-resistant group, we stably transfected ERα-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells with a plasmid encoding a short hairpin (sh) RNA to silence Rho GDIα expression. We used immunoblots and transcription assays to examine the role of Rho GDIα in ER-related signaling and growth of cells in vitro and as xenografts in treated nude mice (n = 8-9 per group) to examine the effects of Rho GDIα blockade on hormone responsiveness and metastatic behavior. The time to tumor tripling as the time in weeks from randomization to a threefold increase in total tumor volume over baseline was examined in treated mice. The associations of Rho GDIα and MTA2 levels with tamoxifen resistance were examined in microarray data from patients. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Rho GDIα was expressed at lower levels in ERα-positive tumors that recurred during tamoxifen treatment than in ERα-positive tamoxifen-sensitive primary tumors. MCF-7 breast cancer cells in which Rho GDIα expression had been silenced were tamoxifen-resistant, had increased Rho GTPase and p21-activated kinase 1 activity, increased phosphorylation of ERα at serine 305, and enhanced tamoxifen-induced ERα transcriptional activity compared with control cells. MCF-7 cells in which Rho GDIα expression was silenced metastasized with high frequency when grown as tumor xenografts. When mice were treated with estrogen or estrogen withdrawal, tripling times for xenografts from cells with Rho GDIα silencing were similar to those from vector-containing control cells; however, tripling times were statistically significantly faster than control when mice were treated with tamoxifen (median tripling time for tumors with Rho GDIα small interfering RNA = 2.34 weeks; for control tumors = not reached, hazard ratio = 4.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 15.96, P = .040 [adjusted for multiple comparisons, P = .119]). Levels of the metastasis-associated protein MTA2 were also increased upon Rho GDIα silencing, and combined Rho GDIα and MTA2 levels were associated with recurrence in 250 tamoxifen-treated patients.
CONCLUSION: Loss of Rho GDIα enhances metastasis and resistance to tamoxifen via effects on both ERα and MTA2 in models of ERα-positive breast cancer and in tumors of tamoxifen-treated patients.

Kowarsch A, Preusse M, Marr C, Theis FJ
miTALOS: analyzing the tissue-specific regulation of signaling pathways by human and mouse microRNAs.
RNA. 2011; 17(5):809-19 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are involved in various cellular and phenotypic processes. A number of studies have shown that miRNA expression is induced by signaling pathways. Moreover, miRNAs emerge as regulators of signaling pathways. Here, we present the miTALOS web resource, which provides insight into miRNA-mediated regulation of signaling pathways. As a novel feature, miTALOS considers the tissue-specific expression signatures of miRNAs and target transcripts to improve the analysis of miRNA regulation in biological pathways. MiTALOS identifies potential pathway regulation by (i) an enrichment analysis of miRNA targets genes and (ii) by using a proximity score to evaluate the functional role of miRNAs in biological pathways by their network proximity. Moreover, miTALOS integrates five different miRNA target prediction tools and two different signaling pathway resources (KEGG and NCI). A graphical visualization of miRNA targets in both KEGG and NCI PID signaling pathways is provided to illustrate their respective pathway context. We perform a functional analysis on prostate cancer-related miRNAs and are able to infer a model of miRNA-mediated regulation on tumor proliferation, mobility and anti-apoptotic behavior. miTALOS provides novel features that accomplish a substantial support to systematically infer regulation of signaling pathways mediated by miRNAs. The web-server is freely accessible at

Dai SD, Wang Y, Zhang JY, et al.
Upregulation of δ-catenin is associated with poor prognosis and enhances transcriptional activity through Kaiso in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2011; 102(1):95-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
δ-Catenin is the only member of the p120 catenin (p120ctn) subfamily that its primary expression is restricted to the brain. Since δ-catenin is upregulated in human lung cancer, the effects of δ-catenin overexpression in lung cancer still need to be clarified. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the expression of δ-catenin and Kaiso, a δ-catenin-binding transcription factor, in 151 lung cancer specimens. A correlation between cytoplasmic δ-catenin and Kaiso expression was also associated with high TNM stage, lymph node metastases and poor prognosis. Co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the interactions of δ-catenin and Kaiso in lung cancer cells. In addition, gene transfection and RNAi technology were used to demonstrate that increased δ-catenin expression was promoted, whereas its knockdown suppressed its lung cancer invasive ability. In addition, methylation-specific PCR and ChIP assay demonstrated that δ-catenin could regulate MTA2 via Kaiso in a methylation-dependent manner, while it could regulate cyclin D1 and MMP7 expression through Kaiso in a sequence-specific manner. In conclusion, a δ-catenin/Kaiso pathway exists in lung cancer cells. Increased δ-catenin expression is critical for maintenance of the malignant phenotype of lung cancer, making δ-catenin a candidate target protein for future cancer therapeutics.

Fu J, Qin L, He T, et al.
The TWIST/Mi2/NuRD protein complex and its essential role in cancer metastasis.
Cell Res. 2011; 21(2):275-89 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) converts epithelial tumor cells into invasive and metastatic cancer cells, leading to mortality in cancer patients. Although TWIST is a master regulator of EMT and metastasis for breast and other cancers, the mechanisms responsible for TWIST-mediated gene transcription remain unknown. In this study, purification and characterization of the TWIST protein complex revealed that TWIST interacts with several components of the Mi2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (Mi2/NuRD) complex, MTA2, RbAp46, Mi2 and HDAC2, and recruits them to the proximal regions of the E-cadherin promoter for transcriptional repression. Depletion of these TWIST complex components from cancer cell lines that depend on TWIST for metastasis efficiently suppresses cell migration and invasion in culture and lung metastasis in mice. These findings not only provide novel mechanistic and functional links between TWIST and the Mi2/NuRD complex but also establish new essential roles for the components of Mi2/NuRD complex in cancer metastasis.

Yang W, Cai Q, Lui VW, et al.
Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals molecular networks regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor level in head and neck cancer.
J Proteome Res. 2010; 9(6):3073-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in up to 90% of head and neck cancer (HNC), where increased expression levels of EGFR correlate with poor prognosis. To date, EGFR expression levels have not predicted the clinical response to the EGFR-targeting therapies. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-EGFR-induced antitumor effects may shed some light on the mechanisms of HNC resistance to EGFR-targeting therapeutics and provide novel targets for improving the treatment of HNC. Here, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis to determine the molecular networks regulated by EGFR levels in HNC by specifically knocking-down EGFR and employing stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Following data normalization to minimize systematic errors and Western blotting validation, 12 proteins (e.g., p21, stratifin, and maspin) and 24 proteins (e.g., cdc2 and MTA2) were found to be significantly upregulated or downregulated by EGFR knockdown, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these proteins were mainly involved in long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis and beta-oxidation, cholesterol biosynthesis, cell proliferation, DNA replication, and apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis confirmed that G(2)/M phase progression was significantly inhibited by EGFR knockdown, a hypothesis generated from network modeling. Further investigation of these molecular networks may not only enhance our understanding of the antitumor mechanisms of EGFR targeting but also improve patient selection and provide novel targets for better therapeutics.

Li Y, Vandenboom TG, Wang Z, et al.
miR-146a suppresses invasion of pancreatic cancer cells.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(4):1486-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
The aggressive course of pancreatic cancer is believed to reflect its unusually invasive and metastatic nature, which is associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression and NF-kappaB activation. MicroRNAs (miRNA) have been implicated in the regulation of various pathobiological processes in cancer, including metastasis in pancreatic cancer and in other human malignancies. In this study, we report lower expression of miR-146a in pancreatic cancer cells compared with normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. Reexpression of miR-146a inhibited the invasive capacity of pancreatic cancer cells with concomitant downregulation of EGFR and the NF-kappaB regulatory kinase interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1). Cellular mechanism studies revealed crosstalk between EGFR, IRAK-1, IkappaBalpha, NF-kappaB, and MTA-2, a transcription factor that regulates metastasis. Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with the natural products 3,3'-diinodolylmethane (DIM) or isoflavone, which increased miR-146a expression, caused a downregulation of EGFR, MTA-2, IRAK-1, and NF-kappaB, resulting in an inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell invasion. Our findings reveal DIM and isoflavone as nontoxic activators of a miRNA that can block pancreatic cancer cell invasion and metastasis, offering starting points to design novel anticancer agents.

Bui-Nguyen TM, Pakala SB, Sirigiri RD, et al.
NF-kappaB signaling mediates the induction of MTA1 by hepatitis B virus transactivator protein HBx.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(8):1179-89 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), a master chromatin modifier, has been shown to regulate cancer progression and is widely upregulated in human cancer, including hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Here we provide evidence that hepatitis B virus transactivator protein HBx stimulates the expression of MTA1 but not of MTA2 or MTA3. The underlying mechanism of HBx stimulation of MTA1 involves HBx targeting of transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and the recruitment of HBx/p65 complex to the NF-kappaB consensus motif on the relaxed MTA1 gene chromatin. We also discovered that MTA1 depletion in HBx-expressing cells severely impairs the ability of HBx to stimulate NF-kappaB signaling and the expression of target proinflammatory molecules. Furthermore, the presence of HBx in HBx-infected HCCs correlated well with increased MTA1 and NF-kappaB-p65. Collectively, these findings revealed a previously unrecognized integral role of MTA1 in HBx stimulation of NF-kappaB signaling and consequently, the expression of NF-kappaB targets gene products with functions in inflammation and tumorigenesis.

Toh Y, Nicolson GL
The role of the MTA family and their encoded proteins in human cancers: molecular functions and clinical implications.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2009; 26(3):215-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
MTA (metastasis-associated gene) is a newly discovered family of cancer progression-related genes and their encoded products. MTA1, the first gene found in this family, has been repeatedly reported to be overexpressed along with its protein product MTA1 in a wide range of human cancers. In addition, the expression of MTA1/MTA1 correlates with the clinicopathological properties (malignant properties) of human cancers. MTA proteins are transcriptional co-repressors that function in histone deacetylation and are involved in the NuRD complex, which contains nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylating molecules. MTA1 expression correlates with tumor formation in the mammary gland. In addition, MTA1 converts breast cancer cells to a more aggressive phenotype by repression of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha trans-activation function through deacetylation of the chromatin in the ER-responsive element of ER-responsive genes. Furthermore, MTA1 plays an essential role in c-MYC-mediated cell transformation. Another member of this family, MTA3, is induced by estrogen and represses the expression of the transcriptional repressor Snail, a master regulator of "epithelial to mesenchymal transitions", resulting in the expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin and maintenance of a differentiated, normal epithelial phenotype in breast cells. In addition, tumor suppressor p53 protein is deacetylated and inactivated by both MTA1 and MTA2, leading to inhibition of growth arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, a hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is also deacetylated and stabilized by MTA1, resulting in angiogenesis. Thus, MTA proteins, especially MTA1, represent a possible set of master co-regulatory molecules involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of various malignant tumors. MTA proteins are proposed to be important new tools for clinical application in cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Manavathi B, Singh K, Kumar R
MTA family of coregulators in nuclear receptor biology and pathology.
Nucl Recept Signal. 2007; 5:e010 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/04/2015 Related Publications
Nuclear receptors (NRs) rely on coregulators (coactivators and corepressors) to modulate the transcription of target genes. By interacting with nucleosome remodeling complexes, NR coactivators potentiate transcription, whereas corepressors inhibit transcription of the target genes. Metastasis-associated proteins (MTA) represent an emerging family of novel NR coregulators. In general, MTA family members form independent nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complexes and repress the transcription of different genes by recruiting histone deacetylases onto their target genes. However, MTA1 also acts as a coactivator in a promoter-context dependent manner. Recent findings that repression of estrogen receptor transactivation functions by MTA1, MTA1s, and MTA2 and regulation of MTA3 by estrogen signaling have indicated the significance of these proteins in NR signaling. Here, we highlight the action of MTA proteins on NR signaling and their roles in pathophysiological conditions.

Singh RR, Kumar R
MTA family of transcriptional metaregulators in mammary gland morphogenesis and breast cancer.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2007; 12(2-3):115-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since breast cancer and its associated metastasis are a global health problem and a major cause of mortality among women, research efforts to understand the development, morphogenesis, and functioning of the mammary gland are a high priority. Myriad signaling pathways, transcription factors, and associated transcriptional coregulators have been identified in both normal functioning and neoplastic transformation of the mammary gland. The discovery of the metastasis tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) gene, its overexpression in cancer and metastasis and its subsequent identification as an integral part of the chromatin remodeling complex heralded extensive research on its physiological role. Subsequent identification of additional gene family members, namely MTA1s, MTA2, and MTA3, and their functions in the cell has resulted in the establishment of the significance of the MTA family. The role of these proteins in modulating hormonal responses in normal mammary glands and in breast cancer has resulted in their identification as important molecular markers and potential therapeutic targets.

Ji Y, Zhang P, Lu Y, Ma D
Expression of MTA2 gene in ovarian epithelial cancer and its clinical implication.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2006; 26(3):359-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to investigate the roles of MTA2 in the pathogenesis of ovarian epithelial cancer, the expression of MTA2 in 4 ovarian cell lines were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western-blot assays. MTA2 expression in normal, borderline, benign and malignant epithelial ovarian tissues was immunohistochemically examined. The expression of MTA2 mRNA and protein was detected in all of 4 cell lines of ovarian epithelial cancer. The expression of MTA2 mRNA and protein was higher in strong migration cell lines than in weak migration ones. In borderline and malignant ovarian tissues tested, MTA2 staining was dramatically stronger than in normal and benign tissues (P < 0.01). The expression levels in malignant ovarian tissues were significantly higher than that in borderline epithelial ovarian tissues (P < 0.01). The expression of MTA2 was correlated with clinical stage, histopathological grade and lymph node metastasis. It was concluded that the high expression of MTA2 was associated with more aggressive behaviors of epithelial ovarian cancer. MTA2 provides a novel indicator of ovarian cancer.

Giannini R, Cavallini A
Expression analysis of a subset of coregulators and three nuclear receptors in human colorectal carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2005 Nov-Dec; 25(6B):4287-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
In human colorectal tissue samples, the gene expressions of 4 coactivators, p300, pCAF, TIF-2 and TRAP 220, and 7 corepressors, N-CoR, REA, MTA1, MTA1L1, HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3, linked to estrogen receptors (ER), were revealed by traditional RT-PCR. Cofactors ERalpha, ERbeta and ERRalpha mRNA levels were then measured in 40 tumor tissue samples matched with respective normal mucosa by real-time PCR. The decline of mRNA levels of all coactivators and the increase of NCoR, HDAC1, HDAC2 and MTA1 were observed from normal to tumor tissue, whereas REA, HDAC3 and MTA1L1 expressions were similar in both tissue compartments. The gene expression of ERbeta correlated with those of p300, TIF-2 and REA in normal mucosa, and with that of REA in tumor tissue only. No association was found between ERalpha and coregulators and between each coregulator and different clinical parameters. Our findings suggest that the co-induction of ERbeta and some cofactors may play an important role during the development of human colorectal carcinoma.

Fujita N, Kajita M, Taysavang P, Wade PA
Hormonal regulation of metastasis-associated protein 3 transcription in breast cancer cells.
Mol Endocrinol. 2004; 18(12):2937-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis-associated protein 3 (MTA3) is a cell type-specific subunit of the Mi-2/NuRD transcriptional corepressor complex. In breast cancer cells, MTA3 and the Mi-2/NuRD complex mediate repression of Snail, a transcription factor that promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Thus, MTA3 functions to maintain a differentiated, epithelial status in breast cancer. Interestingly, in mammary epithelial cells, MTA3 biosynthesis requires both functional estrogen receptor (ER) and estradiol. Here we have investigated the molecular basis for estrogen and ER-dependent expression of MTA3 in breast cancer cells. Molecular dissection of the MTA3 promoter using transient transfection assays identified a composite element required for high-level transcription consisting of an SP1 site in close proximity to a consensus estrogen response element half-site. Depletion of either SP1 or ER-alpha by RNA interference led to loss of MTA3 transcript in multiple breast cancer cell lines, indicating a requirement for both transcription factors in expression of endogenous MTA3. The MTA3 gene thus joins a growing list of loci regulated by both SP1 and ER.

Kumar R, Wang RA, Bagheri-Yarmand R
Emerging roles of MTA family members in human cancers.
Semin Oncol. 2003; 30(5 Suppl 16):30-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis-associated genes (MTAs) represent a rapidly growing novel gene family. At present, there are three different known genes (MTA1, MTA2, and MTA3) and six reported isoforms (MTA1, MTA1s, MTA1-ZG29p, MTA2, MTA3, MTA3L). MTA1, MTA2, and MTA3 are components of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation complex, which is associated with adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation. MTA proteins, as a part of the NuRD complex (nuclear remodeling and deacetylation complex), are thought to modulate transcription by influencing the status of chromatin remodeling. MTA1 overexpression is closely correlated with an aggressive course in several human carcinomas. Recent studies have shown that growth factor stimulation of breast cancer cells induces the expression of MTA1 and its interaction with and repression of the estrogen receptor (ER) transactivation function, leading to enhanced anchorage-independent growth in vitro and hormone independence. Furthermore, the status of the ER pathway modulates the expression of MTA3 as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast tumors. MTA1 expression is not restricted to tumors; however, several normal mouse tissues and organs also express substantial levels of MTA1. Thus, MTA1 may play a role in both the physiologic and the pathologic states of cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans, MTA1-like genes regulate cell polarity, migration, embryonic patterning, and vulva development. In addition, two naturally occurring variants of MTA1, MTA1-ZG29p, and MTA1s have also been identified. ZG29p is an N-terminal truncated form of MTA1 and is present in the zymogen granules of the pancreas. In contrast, MTA1s is the C-terminal truncated form present in the cytoplasm. MTA1s binds and inhibits the nuclear functions of the ER by sequestering it to cytoplasm, stimulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Furthermore, breast tumors with no or low ER in the nucleus exhibit elevated levels of MTA1s and cytoplasmic subcellular localization of the ER. This article reviews the current status of MTA biochemistry and its implications for tumor biology.

Girault I, Lerebours F, Amarir S, et al.
Expression analysis of estrogen receptor alpha coregulators in breast carcinoma: evidence that NCOR1 expression is predictive of the response to tamoxifen.
Clin Cancer Res. 2003; 9(4):1259-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Dysregulated expression of steroid receptor transcriptional coactivators and corepressors has been implicated in tamoxifen resistance, especially in estrogen receptor (ER) alpha-positive breast cancer patients. Therefore, expression analysis of these ERalpha coregulators may identify new predictors of the response to tamoxifen treatment.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We measured mRNA levels of 16 coactivator and 11 corepressor genes with a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method in 14 ERalpha-positive breast tumors. Three selected coactivator genes (TIF2, AIB1, and GCN5L2) and two corepressor genes (NCOR1 and MTA1L1) were additionally investigated in a well-characterized series of ERalpha-positive unilateral invasive primary breast tumors from 99 postmenopausal patients who only received tamoxifen as adjuvant hormone therapy after primary surgery. We sought relationships between mRNA levels of the coregulators and those of molecular markers, including ERalpha, ERbeta, CCND1, and ERBB2.
RESULTS: ERalpha coregulator expression was unrelated to age, histological grade, lymph node status, and macroscopic tumor size. The relationship between mRNA expression of the coregulators, and ERalpha and beta only showed a significant positive correlation between GCN5L2 and ERalpha (P = 0.015). mRNA levels of CCND1 correlated with those of all of the coregulators studied (P < 0.05 or trend), whereas ERBB2 mRNA levels only correlated with AIB1 mRNA levels (P = 0.011). Low NCOR1 expression (versus intermediate and high) was associated with significantly shorter relapse-free survival (log-rank test; P = 0.0076). The prognostic significance of low NCOR1 expression persisted in Cox multivariate regression analysis (P = 0.043).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to NCOR1 as a promising independent predictor of tamoxifen resistance in patients with ERalpha-positive breast tumors.

Nicolson GL, Nawa A, Toh Y, et al.
Tumor metastasis-associated human MTA1 gene and its MTA1 protein product: role in epithelial cancer cell invasion, proliferation and nuclear regulation.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2003; 20(1):19-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Using differential cDNA library screening techniques based on metastatic and nonmetastatic rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines, we previously cloned and sequenced the metastasis-associated gene mta1. Using homology to the rat mta1 gene, we cloned the human MTA1 gene and found it to be over-expressed in a variety of human cell lines (breast, ovarian, lung, gastric and colorectal cancer but not melanoma or sarcoma) and cancerous tissues (breast, esophageal, colorectal, gastric and pancreatic cancer). We found a close similarity between the human MTA1 and rat mta1 genes (88% and 96% identities of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences, respectively). Both genes encode novel proteins that contain a proline rich region (SH3-binding motif), a putative zinc finger motif, a leucine zipper motif and 5 copies of the SPXX motif found in gene regulatory proteins. Using Southern blot analysis the MTA1 gene was highly conserved, and using Northern blot analysis MTA1 transcripts were found in virtually all human cell lines (melanoma, breast, cervix and ovarian carcinoma cells and normal breast epithelial cells). However, the expression level of the MTA1 gene in normal breast epithelial cells was approximately 50% of that found in rapidly growing adenocarcinoma and atypical epithelial cell lines. Experimental inhibition of MTA1 protein expression using antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides resulted in inhibition of growth and invasion of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with relatively high MTA1 expression. Furthermore, the MTA1 protein was localized in the nuclei of cells transfected with a mammalian expression vector containing a full-length MTA1 gene. Although some MTA1 protein was found in the cytoplasm, the vast majority of MTA1 protein was localized in the nucleus. Examination of recombinate MTA1 and related MTA2 proteins suggests that MTA1 protein is a histone deacetylase. It also appears to behave like a GATA-element transcription factor, since transfection of a GATA-element reporter into MTA1-expressing cells resulted in 10-20-fold increase in reporter expression over poorly MTA1-expressing cells. Since it was reported that nucleosome remodeling histone deacetylase complex (NuRD complex) involved in chromatin remodeling contains MTA1 protein and a MTA1-related protein (MTA2), we examined NuRD complexes for the presence of MTA1 protein and found an association of this protein with histone deacetylase. The results suggest that the MTA1 protein may serve multiple functions in cellular signaling, chromosome remodeling and transcription processes that are important in the progression, invasion and growth of metastatic epithelial cells.

Ohga S, Nomura A, Takada H, Hara T
Immunological aspects of Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2002; 44(3):203-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of ubiquitous gamma herpes viruses, which primarily induces acute infectious mononucleosis (IM) or subclinical infection in susceptible subjects. The host reactions account for the clinical manifestation of IM. This virus also contributes to the development of lymphoid or epithelial malignancies. The outgrowth of EBV-infected B-cells is first controlled by interferon (IFN)-gamma and natural killer (NK) cells, and later by EBV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). To overcome the host responses and establish the persistent infection, EBV conducts the protean strategies of immune evasion. Several EBV genes modulate apoptotic signals and cytokine balances to persist B-cell infection without insulting the host. Uncontrolled lymphoproliferation occurs as EBV(+) B-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD)/lymphoma in AIDS, posttransplant, or primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). On the other hand, EBV(+) T/NK cells are involved in EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) or chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) in children having no underlying immunodeficiencies, and at times lead to the clonal evolution of T/NK-cell LPD/lymphomas. Recent advance in molecular techniques has enabled us to analyze the clonality of EBV-infected lymphocytes and to quantify the gene expression of EBV and cytokines. Dominant autocrine loop of T helper (Th) 2 and Th1 may exert in EBV(+) B-LPD and T-LPD, respectively. Intensive studies on the immunological interface between effector components and EBV(+) target cells will provide more information on clarifying the pathogenesis of EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies, as well as on exploiting the therapeutic and preventive strategies for the formidable EBV-associated disease in childhood.

Toh Y, Kuninaka S, Endo K, et al.
Molecular analysis of a candidate metastasis-associated gene, MTA1: possible interaction with histone deacetylase 1.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2000; 19(1):105-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously identified a novel rat candidate metastasis-associated gene, mta1, based on its differential expression in highly metastatic cells compared to nonmetastatic cells. Furthermore, we showed that overexpression of its human counterpart, MTA1, correlated with the invasiveness or lymph node metastasis of gastric, colorectal and esophageal carcinomas. The aim of this study was to analyze the domains of the MTA1 and investigate the function(s) of this protein. Structural analysis revealed that the MTA1 protein contained a GATA-like zinc-finger domain, a leucine zipper domain, a SANT domain similar to the DNA binding domain of myb-related proteins, a src homology 3-binding domain important in protein-protein interactions, two highly acidic regions characteristic of the acidic activation domains of many transcription factors, and nuclear localization signals. Immunofluorescence staining of COS-7 cells transfected with a myc-epitope-tagged MTA1 expression vector clearly showed nuclear localization of MTA1. Coimmunoprecipitation of myc-tagged MTA1 and FLAG-tagged histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), followed by western blot analysis using anti-myc and anti-FLAG monoclonal antibodies showed that MTA1 physically bound with HDAC1 in COS-7 cells. Together with the recent finding that the NURD (nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities) complex contains an MTA1-related gene product, named MTA2, MTA1 may be another component of this complex and be involved in the alteration of chromatin structure and transcription repression.

Mok SC, Chan WY, Wong KK, et al.
DOC-2, a candidate tumor suppressor gene in human epithelial ovarian cancer.
Oncogene. 1998; 16(18):2381-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Using RNA fingerprinting (RAP) strategy and Northern blot analysis, we identified a differentially expressed sequence DOC-2 which is detectable in all normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell cultures but not in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissues. Subsequent cloning of DOC-2 from a cDNA library generated from the HOSE cells was carried out using the 3' and 5' RACE approach. A 3268 base pair full length cDNA of DOC-2 was isolated and sequenced. The predicted protein has a length of 770 amino acids. Homology search of all NCBI sequences indicated that the amino acid sequence of DOC-2 shares 93% homology with the mouse p96/mDab2 phosphoprotein and has a phosphotyrosine interacting domain (PID) and multiple SH3 binding motifs. Chromosomal localization by FISH showed that the DOC-2 gene is located on 5p13. Western blot analysis showed that the 105 kDa DOC-2 protein was down-regulated in all the carcinoma cell lines. In-situ immunohistochemistry performed on normal ovaries, and benign, borderline and invasive ovarian tumor tissues showed down regulation of DOC-2 protein particularly in serous ovarian tumor tissues. When DOC-2 was transfected into the ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV3, the stable transfectants showed significantly reduced growth rate and ability to form tumors in nude mice. These data suggest that down-regulation of DOC-2 may play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis.

Choo KB, Chen CM, Han CP, et al.
Molecular analysis of cellular loci disrupted by papillomavirus 16 integration in cervical cancer: frequent viral integration in topologically destabilized and transcriptionally active chromosomal regions.
J Med Virol. 1996; 49(1):15-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
To discern the structural features of cellular loci that are disrupted by type 16 human papillomavirus (HPV-16) integration in cervical cancer, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based strategy was employed for direct amplification and sequence analysis of four such cellular loci in cancer biopsy samples. One of the HPV-16-disrupted loci was found to be the microtubule-associated protein (MAP-2) gene and the other three loci were uncharacterized and were designated PID-1 to -3 (for papillomavirus integration-disrupted). The junctional sequences of the viral integration sites in the four loci analyzed are bracketed by long tracts of homogeneous purine or pyrimidine or alternating purine-pyrimidine which are known to destabilize the B-form conformation of the DNA structure. Using a panel of human/hamster hybrid cell DNAs and PCR analysis, the four loci were assigned to chromosomes 2 (MAP-2), 9 (PID-1), 1 (PID-2) and 8 (PID-3), respectively. These chromosomes carry numerous other previously determined viral integration and chromosomal fragile sites and the myc oncogenes. The PID-1 locus was further found in Southern analysis to be rearranged and amplified in another cervical cancer biopsy and a cervical carcinoma cell line (CaSki). On Northern analysis, the PID-1 and -3 probes detected a 3.0- and a 3.6-kb transcript, respectively, in normal cervical cells and in cervical cancer cell lines. The findings suggest that HPV-16 genome integrates frequently into topologically destabilized and transcriptionally active chromosomal sites. It remains to be elucidated whether the MAP-2 and the PID loci contribute to the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.

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