Locus Summary

Gene:MIR106B; microRNA 106b
Aliases: MIRN106B, mir-106b
Summary:microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:miRBase, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

MicroRNA Function

Numbers shown below represent number of publications held in OncomiRDB database for Oncogenic and Tumor-Suppressive MicroRNAs.

TissueTarget Gene(s)Regulator(s)MIR106B Function in CancerEffect
prostate (3)
-prostate cancer (3)
CASP7 (1)
CDKN1A (1)
E2F1 (1)
increase cell adhesion (1)
promote cell growth (1)
override radiation-induced cell cycle G2/M arrest (1)
override radiation-induced cell growth inhibition (1)
oncogenic (2)
liver (2)
-hepatocellular carcinoma (2)
APC (1)
E2F1 (1)
induce cell proliferation (1)
induce anchorage-independent cell growth (1)
promote cell cycle G1/S transition (1)
promote cell proliferation (1)
oncogenic (2)
blood (2)
-Hodgkin's lymphoma (1)
-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (1)
CDKN1A (1)
ITCH (1)
E2F1 (1)
MYC (1)
promote cell cycle progression (1)
oncogenic (1)
breast (1)
-breast cancer (1)
ZBTB4 (1)
colorectum (1)
-colon cancer (1)
CDKN1A (1)
promote cell proliferation (1)
oncogenic (1)
uterus (1)
-leiomyoma (1)
F3 (1)
IL8 (1)
MCM7_intron (1)
inhibit cell proliferation (1)
tumor-suppressive (1)
stomach (1)
-gastric cancer (1)
CDKN1A (1)
increase cell cycle G1/S transition (1)
oncogenic (1)
head and neck (1)
-laryngeal carcinoma (1)
RB1 (1)
reduce cell cycle G0/G1 arrest (1)
oncogenic (1)

Source: OncomiRDB Wang D. et al. Bioinformatics 2014, 30(15):2237-2238.

Latest Publications: MIR106B (cancer-related)

Liu L, Wu SQ, Zhu X, et al.
Analysis of ceRNA network identifies prognostic circRNA biomarkers in bladder cancer.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bladder cancer remains a very challenging disease to treat with the high rates of recurrence and progression associated with current therapies. Although the association between bladder cancer pathology and circRNAs remains undetermined, circRNAs signatures may be useful as prognostic and predictive factors and clinical tools for assessing disease state and outcome. This study investigates if these circRNAs can be used as biomarkers for bladder cancer diagnosis. Using bioinformatics method to analysis GEO databases (GSE37815, GSE39093, GSE97239, and GSE92675) for differentially expressed RNAs in bladder cancer and normal bladder tissues were screened from. The related volcanic maps and the interaction network maps of differentially expressed RNAs were drawn, and the mRNA-miRNA and miRNA-circRNA interaction were predicted to establish mRNA-miRNA-circRNA competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network. The differential circRNAs related to prognosis of bladder cancer patients were screened based on the influence of miRNA interacting with the circRNA above on survival rate. The expression of miRNA (hsa-mir-214), circRNA (hsa_circ_0076704, hsa_circ_0081963, hsa_circ_0001361) in bladder cancer tissues, adjacent tissues, bladder cancer cells and normal bladder epithelial cells were validated by qRT-PCR. Kaplan Meier curve analysis confirmed the relationship between circRNA (hsa_circ_0076704) and overall survival and prognosis of bladder cancer patients. Through database screening and analysis, we found 19231 differentially expressed genes, 847 differentially expressed miRNAs, 7282 differentially expressed circRNAs. The establishment of ceRNA network consisted of 28 DERNAs (differentially- expressed RNAs), 12 Demi-RNAs and 12 DEcircRNAs. Further prognostic analysis showed that circRNA interacted miRNA hsa-miR-106b, hsa-miR-145 and hsa-miR-214 were associated with overall survival in patients with bladder cancer (P < 0.05). Among them, hsa_circ_0076704, hsa_circ_0081963 and hsa_circ_0001361 are potential circRNA related to OS in bladder cancer and expressed in bladder cancer. The expression of hsa-mir-214 was contrary. Further Kaplan Meier survival analysis showed that hsa_circ_0076704 had significant prognostic value (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hsa_circ_0076704 is independent prognostic factor for bladder cancer.

Zhuang M, Zhao S, Jiang Z, et al.
MALAT1 sponges miR-106b-5p to promote the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer via SLAIN2 enhanced microtubules mobility.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 41:286-298 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The low expression of miR93/25 (members of miR-106b~25 cluster) promoted the invasion and metastasis of colon cancer cells, which predicted poor survival. However, the role of miR-106b-5p, the member of miR-106b~25 cluster, in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear.
METHODS: Bioinformatics methods were used to predict the potential pairs of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA. In situ hybridization and qPCR were used to evaluate the expression of MALAT1 and miR-106b-5p in the paraffin-embedded normal and CRC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test was used for survival analyses. Immunohistochemistry staining was applied to investigate the expression of SLAIN2. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay was applied to observe the microtubule (MT) mobility. In vitro and in vivo invasion and metastasis assays were used to explore the function of MALAT1/miR-106b-5p/SLAIN2 in the progression of CRC.
FINDINGS: miR-106b-5p was identified as a suppressor in CRC. Functionally, ectopic or silencing the expression of miR-106b-5p inhibited or promoted the invasion and metastasis of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. The long non-coding RNA MALAT1 regulated the miR-106b-5p expression and further mediated the mobility of SLAIN2-related MTs by functioning as a competing endogenous RNA in vitro and in vivo, which resulted in the progression of CRC. Clinically, low miR-106b-5p expression predicted poor survival of CRC patients, especially in combination with high MALAT1/ SLAIN2 expression.
INTERPRETATION: miR-106b-5p served as a suppressor in combination with MALAT1/miR-106b-5p/SLAIN2, which might be a group of potential prognostic biomarkers in the prognosis of CRC. FUND: This work was supported by National Program Project for Precision Medicine in National Research and Development Plan of China (2016YFC0905300), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81572930), National Key Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2016YFC0905303, 2016YFC1303200), Beijing Science and Technology Program (D17110002617004), Non-profit Central Research Institute Fund of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (2018PT32012), CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (CIFMS) (2016-I2M-1-001), Incentive Fund for Academic Leaders of Oncology Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (RC2016003), and Beijing Hope Run Special Fund from Cancer Foundation of China (LC2017A19). The project of Shanghai Jiaotong Univversity (YG2017QN30).

Gao J, Liu L, Li G, et al.
LncRNA GAS5 confers the radio sensitivity of cervical cancer cells via regulating miR-106b/IER3 axis.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2019; 126:994-1001 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the biological role of growth arrest special 5 (GAS5) in the radio sensitivity of cervical cancer (CC).
METHODS: The expressions of GAS5, miR-106b and immediate early response 3 (IER3) were detected in CC tissues and CC cell lines. RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assays were performed to test the interaction of GAS5 and miR-106b. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the regulatory relationship between miR-106b and IER3. The nude mouse model of CC was established for verifying the effects of GAS5 on the resistance of CC to radiation therapy in vivo.
RESULTS: GAS5 and IER3 were low expressed in the radio-resistant human CC tissues and SiHa cells, while miR-106b expression was highly expressed. Overexpression of IER3 or GAS5 enhanced radio-sensitivity in SiHa cells, while knockdown of IER3 or GAS5 decreased radio-sensitivity in ME180 cells. Moreover, GAS5 served as a miR-106b sponge, and miR-106b negatively regulated IER3 expression. Besides, GAS5 could regulate IER3 expression through miR-106b, and GAS5 enhanced the radio-sensitivity in CC cells through inhibiting miR-106b both in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Overexpression of GAS5 enhanced the sensitivity of CC cells to radiation treatment via up-regulating IER3 through miR-106b.

Mello JBH, Barros-Filho MC, Abreu FB, et al.
MicroRNAs involved in the HMGA2 deregulation and its co-occurrence with MED12 mutation in uterine leiomyoma.
Mol Hum Reprod. 2018; 24(11):556-563 [PubMed] Related Publications
STUDY QUESTION: Can the mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) mutation and high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression co-occurrence be explained by the alternative mechanism of HMGA2 dysregulation in uterine leiomyomas (UL)?
SUMMARY ANSWER: The co-occurrence of MED12 mutation and HMGA2 overexpression, and a negative correlation of five validated or predicted microRNAs that target HMGA2 were reported.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The recent stratification of UL, according to recurrent and mutually exclusive genomic alterations affecting HMGA2, MED12, fumarate hydratase (FH) and collagen type IV alpha 5-alpha 6 (COL4A5-COL4A6) pointed out the involvement of distinct molecular pathways. However, the mechanisms of regulation involving these drivers are poorly explored.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A total of 78 UL and 34 adjacent normal myometrium (NM) tissues was collected from 56 patients who underwent hysterectomies at a single institution. The patients were treated at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu, SP, Brazil, from October 1995 to February 2004.
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Gene expression profiling was evaluated from fresh frozen tissues and compared with MED12 mutations at exon 2. In addition, RT-qPCR was applied to evaluate the expression levels of HMGA2 and their predictive miRNA regulators: hsa-let-7a, miR-26a, miR-26b, mir-93 and mir-106b.
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: An unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed two main clusters with one of them (26 of 42 UL) showing an enrichment of MED12 mutated cases (18 of 26 UL). Increased expression levels of HMGA2 were observed in both clusters, including cases with MED12 mutation (cluster 1:18 UL). A significant HMGA2 overexpression (P < 0.001) in UL in comparison with NM was found. Five miRNAs predicted to regulate HMGA2 were significantly downregulated (P < 0.001) and negatively correlated to HMGA2 expression levels (P < 0.05) in UL.
LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: An in vivo functional study was not performed to validate the microRNAs and HMGA2 interaction due to technical limitations.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: HMGA2 overexpression was detected in a significant number of MED12 mutated ULs, suggesting that these alterations coexist. Furthermore, five miRNAs were described as potential regulators of HMGA2 expression in UL.
LARGE-SCALE DATA: Data available in the Gene Expression Omnibus GSE42939.
STUDY FUNDING AND COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported by grants from Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (# 2008/58835-2) and Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa (# 485032/2007-4), Brazil. The authors declared having no conflicts of interest.

Dalmasso B, Hatse S, Brouwers B, et al.
Age-related microRNAs in older breast cancer patients: biomarker potential and evolution during adjuvant chemotherapy.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1014 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cellular function and have been associated with both aging and cancer, but the impact of chemotherapy on age-related miRNAs has barely been studied. Our aim was to examine whether chemotherapy accelerates the aging process in elderly breast cancer patients using miRNA expression profiling.
METHODS: We monitored age-related miRNAs in blood of women, aged 70 or older, receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (docetaxel and cyclophosphamide, TC) for invasive breast cancer (chemo group, CTG, n = 46). A control group of older breast cancer patients without chemotherapy was included for comparison (control group, CG, n = 43). All patients underwent geriatric assessment at inclusion (T0), after 3 months (T1) and 1 year (T2). Moreover, we analysed the serum expression of nine age-related miRNAs (miR-20a, miR-30b, miR-34a, miR-106b, miR-191, miR-301a, miR-320b, miR-374a, miR-378a) at each timepoint.
RESULTS: Except for miR-106b, which behaved slightly different in CTG compared to CG, all miRNAs showed moderate fluctuations during the study course with no significant differences between groups. Several age-related miRNAs correlated with clinical frailty (miR-106b, miR-191, miR-301a, miR-320b, miR-374a), as well as with other biomarkers of aging, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) (miR-106b, miR-301a, miR-374a-5p, miR-378a-3p). Moreover, based on their 'aging miRNA' profiles, patients clustered into two distinct groups exhibiting significantly different results for several biological/clinical aging parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: These results further corroborate our earlier report, stating that adjuvant TC chemotherapy does not significantly boost aging progression in elderly breast cancer patients. Our findings also endorsed specific age-related miRNAs as promising aging/frailty biomarkers in oncogeriatric populations.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00849758 . Registered on 20 February 2009. This clinical trial was registered prospectively.

Grolmusz VK, Kövesdi A, Borks K, et al.
Prognostic relevance of proliferation-related miRNAs in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
Eur J Endocrinol. 2018; 179(4):219-228 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs) are rare tumors arising from the endocrine pancreas; however, their prognosis differs significantly upon their proliferative state, which is characterized by histopathological grading. MiRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs posttranscriptionally regulating gene expression. Our aim was to identify miRNAs with altered expression upon proliferation which can be used as prognostic biomarkers in PanNENs.
Methods: MiRNA expression profiles of 40 PanNENs were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and were reanalyzed upon tumor grades (discovery cohort). Results of the reanalysis were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis of five miRNAs on an independent validation cohort of 63 primary PanNEN samples. Cox proportional hazards survival regression models were fit for both univariate and multivariate analysis to determine the miRNAs’ effect on progression-free and overall survival.
Results: Nineteen miRNAs displayed differential expression between tumor grades. The altered expression of three out of five chosen miRNAs was successfully validated; hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-10a and hsa-miR-106b were upregulated in more proliferative PanNENs compared to Grade 1 tumors. In univariate analysis, higher expression of tissue hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-10a and hsa-miR-106b of primary PanNENs predicted worse progression-free and overall survival; however, multivariate analysis only confirmed the expression of hsa-miR-21 as an independent prognostic factor.
Conclusions: The expression of hsa-miR-106b, hsa-miR-10a and especially hsa-miR-21 has prognostic relevance regarding progression-free and overall survival in patients with PanNENs.

Mehlich D, Garbicz F, Włodarski PK
The emerging roles of the polycistronic miR-106b∼25 cluster in cancer - A comprehensive review.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:1183-1195 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by inhibiting translation and decreasing the stability of the targeted transcripts. Over the last two decades, miRNAs have been recognized as important regulators of cancer cell biology, acting either as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. The polycistronic miR-106b∼25 cluster, located within an intron of MCM7 gene, consists of three highly conserved miRNAs: miR-25, miR-93 and miR-106b. A constantly growing body of evidence indicates that these miRNAs are overexpressed in numerous human malignancies and regulate multiple cellular processes associated with cancer development and progression, including: cell proliferation and survival, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and immune evasion. Furthermore, recent studies revealed that miR-106b∼25 cluster miRNAs modulate cancer stem cells characteristics and might promote resistance to anticancer therapies. In light of these novel discoveries, miRNAs belonging to the miR-106b∼25 cluster have emerged as key oncogenic drivers as well as potential biomarkers and plausible therapeutic targets in different tumor types. Herein, we comprehensively review novel findings on the roles of miR-106b∼25 cluster in human cancer, and provide a broad insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying its oncogenic properties.

Liu S, Tian Y, Zhu C, et al.
High miR-718 Suppresses Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) Expression and Correlates to Unfavorable Prognosis in Gastric Cancer.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:5840-5850 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a kind of phosphatase which has been demonstrated to suppress progression of gastric cancer. Many micro-RNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-106b, miR-93, and miR-200c, could inhibit expression of PTEN in cell lines; and many miRNAs including miR-21, miR-22, miR-18a, and miR-222 are related to the progression and prognosis of gastric cancer. However, among these miRNAs, the clinical significance of miR-718 has not yet been elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of PTEN and miR-718 in 141 gastric cancer tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR respectively. The correlation between PTEN, miR-718, and the clinicopathological factors was analyzed by χ² test. The prognostic significance of PTEN and miR-718 was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to evaluate the regulation of PTEN by miR-718. The effect of miR-718 on gastric cancer proliferation and invasion was investigated by MTT assay and Transwell assay. RESULTS Low expression of PTEN and high expression of miR-718 were both significantly associated with unfavorable prognosis, and both were identified as biomarkers predicting poorer prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. Increased miR-718 expression could decrease PTEN expression, thus enhancing phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling. Moreover, the abilities of proliferation and invasion of gastric cells transfected with miR-718 were promoted significantly compared with those transfected with control miRNA. CONCLUSIONS Low expression of PTEN and increased expression of miR-718 in gastric cancer tissues were both independent unfavorable prognostic factors of gastric cancer. Upregulation of miR-718 could increase PI3K/Akt signaling by directly downregulating PTEN, thus promoting the proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells.

Liu Z, Huang S, Cao Y, et al.
YAP1 inhibits circRNA-000425 expression and thus promotes oncogenic activities of miR-17 and miR-106.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(4):2370-2375 [PubMed] Related Publications
YAP1, a vital effector of Hippo pathway, promotes cancer development via transcriptionally regulating a batch of target genes involved in various signaling pathways, including proliferation, apoptosis, and cell drug sensitivity. Recently, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been shown to control gene expression post-transcriptionally and become a new layer of gene regulation. However, whether circRNAs play roles in YAP1-induced tumorigenesis is still largely elusive. Here, we identify circRNA-000425 as a new inhibitory target of YAP1, and also find that it binds to miR-17/miR-106b, and thus suppresses cancer cell growth induced by these miRNAs. circRNA-000425 is revealed as a YAP1 target through circRNA microarray analysis of RNAs extracted from cells treated with or without YAP1 siRNAs, and further confirmed by RT-q-PCR and ChIP assays. Interestingly, bioinformatics analysis, luciferase assay, and RT-q-PCR results showed that circRNA-000425 binds to miR-17 and miR-106b, but not let-7a, and rescues the inhibitory effect of miR-17/miR-106 on the expressions of both p21 and BIM. In addition, colony formation and MTT assay showed that circRNA-000425 inhibits cancer cell growth induced by miR-17. These findings reveal a mechanism by which YAP1 promotes oncogenic activities of miR-17 and miR-106b through transcriptionally inhibiting circRNA-000425 expression.

Dankert JT, Wiesehöfer M, Czyrnik ED, et al.
The deregulation of miR-17/CCND1 axis during neuroendocrine transdifferentiation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0200472 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate carcinoma contain foci of neuroendocrine transdifferentiation, resulting in an increase of androgen-independent neuroendocrine-like (NE) tumor cells, whose number significantly correlates with tumor aggressiveness and thus lower survival rate. Neuroendocrine transdifferentiation of prostate cancer cells and a potential role of miRNAs within this process are poorly understood. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. The aim of this project was to identify new genes and miRNAs involved in neuroendocrine transdifferentiation. LNCaP prostate cancer cells were differentiated to NE-like cancer cells and microarray analyses were performed. Microarray results have been validated for the eight most deregulated mRNAs and microRNAs via qRT-PCR and analyzed with different algorithms to predict new targets for deregulated microRNAs. The induced CyclinD1 gene could be validated as new target gene for the repressed miR-17 family containing miR-17, miR-20a, miR-20b, miR-106a and miR-106b via reporter gene assays and Western Blot. Functional analysis of miR-17 family shows a high influence on cell proliferation, colony forming ability and apoptosis in LNCaP cells. Our data demonstrate wide changes in mRNA and microRNA expression during neuroendocrine transdifferentiation of LNCaP cells and confirm new mRNA-miRNA interactions with potential roles in NE-transdifferentiation of prostate carcinoma.

Lee E, Collazo-Lorduy A, Castillo-Martin M, et al.
Identification of microR-106b as a prognostic biomarker of p53-like bladder cancers by ActMiR.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(44):5858-5872 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancers can be categorized into subtypes according to gene expression patterns. P53-like muscle-invasive bladder cancers are generally resistant to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but exhibit heterogeneous clinical outcomes with a prognosis intermediate to that of the luminal and basal subtypes. The optimal approach to p53-like tumors remains poorly defined and better means to risk-stratify such tumors and identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in cancer, both in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. In the past few years, miRNA expression signatures have been reported as prognostic biomarkers in different tumor types including bladder cancer. However, miRNA's expression does not always correlate well with its activity. We previously developed ActMiR, a computational method for explicitly inferring miRNA activities. We applied ActMiR to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) bladder cancer data set and identified the activities of miR-106b-5p and miR-532-3p as potential prognostic markers of the p53-like subtype, and validated them in three independent bladder cancer data sets. Especially, higher miR-106b-5p activity was consistently associated with better survival in these data sets. Furthermore, we experimentally validated causal relationships between miR-106-5p and its predicted target genes in p53-like cell line HT1197. HT1197 cells treated with the miR-106b-5p-specific inhibitor were more invasive while cells treated with the miR-106b-5p-specific mimic were less invasive than corresponding controls. Altogether, our results suggest that miR-106b-5p activity can categorize p53-like bladder tumors into more and less-favorable prognostic groups, which provides critical information for personalizing treatment option for p53-like bladder cancers.

Kim HG, Jung GY, Park SB, et al.
Assessment of the effects of prostaglandins on myometrial and leiomyoma cells in vitro through microRNA profiling.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(2):2499-2505 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is well known that prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGF2α are secreted in copious amounts from the menstruating uterus. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PGs affect the growth of uterine leiomyomas (ULs) to the same extent as estrogen or progesterone (P4). The present study evaluated the expression of eight microRNAs (miRNAs) by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) through treatment with estradiol (E2), P4, PGE2, PGF2α and each antagonist or cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) inhibitor of cultured leiomyoma and myometrial cells (LC and MC, respectively). The eight miRNAs were divided into two groups according to their primary biological action, namely apoptosis‑regulating miRNAs (let‑7a, miR‑21, miR‑26a and miR‑200a) and inflammation‑regulating miRNAs (miR‑29b, miR‑93, miR‑106b and miR‑100b). PGE2 induced significantly higher expression of the 3 anti‑apoptotic miRs, let‑7a, miR‑16a and miR‑200a, in LC when compared with the non‑treated control or E2. PGE2 significantly promoted a greater expression of let‑7a and miR‑26a in LC when compared with P4. Overall, PGE2 exerted the highest anti‑apoptotic and anti‑inflammatory effect in LC, which was comparable with E2. It was not observed among the inflammation‑regulating miRNAs in LC. PGF2α did not exert effects as prominent as those of PGE2. In MC, PGs and sex steroids exerted no similar effects on MC compared with LC. The present study demonstrated that PGE2 levels during menstruation may affect the growth of preexisting ULs without affecting the normal myometrium. Therefore, the control of secretion of PGs from the menstruating uterus or the administration of antagonists may be an alternative therapy for inhibiting the growth of ULs.

Zhu HR, Huang RZ, Yu XN, et al.
Microarray Expression Profiling of microRNAs Reveals Potential Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Tohoku J Exp Med. 2018; 245(2):89-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a major health problem for delayed diagnosis, inefficient surveillance and poor prognosis. Recent studies have indicated that non-coding RNAs contribute to the development of new strategies for diagnosis and treatment of HCC. In the present study, we employed 18 pairs of HCC and matched non-tumor tissues for the identification of differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in HCC, among which 7 paired specimens were selected randomly for microarray detection. Totally, twenty-three miRNAs were screened out to have statistically significant differences with the threshold of P < 0.01 and fold-change ≥ 2.0 or ≤ 0.5 using miRNA microarray. In the validation stage, two miRNAs exhibited higher expression levels in the HCC tissues compared with those in the matched non-tumor tissues, whereas the expression levels of ten miRNAs were lower in the HCC tissues than those in the matched non-tumor tissues. In further analysis, eight miRNAs, including miR-4270, miR-125b-5p, miR-199a-3p, miR-10a-5p, miR-424-5p, miR-195-5p, miR-106b-5p and miR-3651, were retained, when another constraint about the signal intensity of microarray probes was established. Among these miRNAs, our study was the first to show the higher expression level of miR-3651 and the lower expression level of miR-4270 in HCC. The areas under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve values of miR-3651 and miR-4270 were 0.730 and 0.967, respectively, indicating their potential diagnostic values. Our results may help provide the context for expanded interpretations of miRNA studies involved in the progression of liver disease, potentially serving as a diagnostic tool of HCC.

LArki P, Ahadi A, Zare A, et al.
Up-Regulation of miR-21, miR-25, miR-93, and miR-106b in Gastric Cancer
Iran Biomed J. 2018; 22(6):367-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Differential expression profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) could be a diagnosis signature for monitoring gastric cancer (GC) progression. In this study, we focus on the comparison of expression levels of miR-21, miR-25, miR-93, miR-106b, and miR-375 during the sequential pattern of GC development, including normal gastric, gastric dysplasia, and GC sample.
Methods: We used SYBR Green-based quantitative-PCR to quantify miRNAs expression.
Results: Our analysis revealed the increased expression levels of miR-21 (p = 0.034), miR-25 (p = 0.0003), miR-93 (p = 0.0406), and miR-106b (p = 0.023) in GC samples. In addition, GC patients with positive lymph node metastasis showed the up-regulation of miR-25, miR-93, and miR-106b (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Our findings suggested that the expression of miR-21, miR-25, miR-93, and miR-106b altered in GC, and some of them may be further investigated as biomarkers for GC early detection and prognosis prediction.

Guarnieri AL, Towers CG, Drasin DJ, et al.
The miR-106b-25 cluster mediates breast tumor initiation through activation of NOTCH1 via direct repression of NEDD4L.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(28):3879-3893 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-initiating cells (TIC) represent a subset of tumor cells with increased self-renewal capability. TICs display resistance to frontline cancer treatment and retain the ability to repopulate a tumor after therapy, leading to cancer relapse. NOTCH signaling has been identified as an important driver of the TIC population, yet mechanisms governing regulation of this pathway in cancer remain to be fully elucidated. Here we identify a novel mechanism of NOTCH regulation and TIC induction in breast cancer via the miR-106b-25 miRNA cluster. We show that the miR-106b-25 cluster upregulates NOTCH1 in multiple breast cancer cell lines, representing both estrogen receptor (ER+) and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) through direct repression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, NEDD4L. We further show that upregulation of NOTCH1 is necessary for TIC induction downstream of miR-106b-25 in both ER + and TNBC breast cancer cells, and that re-expression of NEDD4L is sufficient to reverse miR106b-25-mediated NOTCH1 upregulation and TIC induction. Importantly, we demonstrate a significant positive correlation between miR-106b-25 and NOTCH1 protein, yet a significant inverse correlation between miR-106b-25 and NEDD4L mRNA in human breast cancer, suggesting a critical role for the miR106b-25/NEDD4L/NOTCH1 axis in the disease. Further, we show for the first time that NEDD4L expression alone is significantly associated with a better relapse-free prognosis for breast cancer patients. These data expand our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying NOTCH activation and TIC induction in breast cancer, and may provide new avenues for the development of therapies targeting this resistant subset of tumor cells.

Liu X, Wang S, Xu J, et al.
Extract of Stellerachamaejasme L(ESC) inhibits growth and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma via regulating microRNA expression.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018; 18(1):99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs(miRNAs)are involved in the initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. ESC, an extract of Stellerachamaejasme L, had been confirmed as a potential anti-tumor extract of Traditional Chinese Medicine. In light of the important role of miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma, we questioned whether the inhibitory effects of ESC on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were associated with miRNAs.
METHODS: The proliferation inhibition of ESC on HCC cells was measured with MTT assay. The migration inhibition of ESC on HCC cells was measured with transwell assay. The influences of ESC on growth and metastasis inhibition were evaluated with xenograft tumor model of HCC. Protein expressions were measured with western blot and immunofluorescence methods and miRNA profiles were detected with miRNA array. Differential miRNA and target mRNAs were verified with real-time PCR.
RESULTS: The results showed that ESC could inhibit proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC cells in vitro and tumor growth and metastasis in xenograft models in vivo. miRNA array results showed that 69 differential miRNAs in total of 429 ones were obtained in MHCC97H cells treated by ESC. hsa-miR-107, hsa-miR-638, hsa-miR-106b-5p were selected to be validated with real-time PCR method in HepG2 and MHCC97H cells. Expressions of hsa-miR-107 and hsa-miR-638 increased obviously in HCC cells treated by ESC. Target genes of three miRNAs were also validated with real-time PCR. Interestingly, only target genes of hsa-miR-107 changed greatly. ESC downregulated the MCL1, SALL4 and BCL2 gene expressions significantly but did not influence the expression of CACNA2D1.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggested ESC regressed growth and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma via regulating microRNAs expression and their corresponding target genes.

Gruszka R, Zakrzewska M
The Oncogenic Relevance of miR-17-92 Cluster and Its Paralogous miR-106b-25 and miR-106a-363 Clusters in Brain Tumors.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The fundamental function of ribonucleic acids is to transfer genetic information from DNA to protein during translation process, however, this is not the only way connecting active RNA sequences with essential biological processes. Up until now, many RNA subclasses of different size, structure, and biological function were identified. Among them, there are non-coding single-stranded microRNAs (miRNAs). This subclass comprises RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in length that modulate the activity of well-defined coding RNAs and play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes. miRNA genes are located both in exons, introns, and also within non-translated regions. Several miRNAs that are transcribed from the adjacent miRNA genes are called cluster. One of the largest ones is miR-17-92 cluster known as OncomiR-1 due to its strong link to oncogenesis. Six miRNAs from the OncomiR-1 have been shown to play important roles in various physiological cellular processes but also through inhibition of cell death in many cancer-relevant processes. Due to the origin and similarity of the sequence, miR-17-92 cluster and paralogs, miR-106b-25 and miR-106a-363 clusters were defined. Here we discuss the oncogenic function of those miRNA subgroups found in many types of cancers, including brain tumors.

Li SG, Shi QW, Yuan LY, et al.
C-Myc-dependent repression of two oncogenic miRNA clusters contributes to triptolide-induced cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triptolide is a structurally unique diterpene triepoxide with potent antitumor activity. However,the effect and mechanism of triptolide on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not well studied.
METHODS: Cells were treated with triptolide, and the anti-HCC activity of triptolide was evaluated using flow cytometry, western blot, and xenograft studies. MicroRNA microarray and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to identify differential microRNAs induced by triptolide. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was employed to study the interaction between c-Myc and genomic regions of miR106b-25. MicroRNAs overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed to determine the role of these microRNAs in triptolide-induced apoptosis.
RESULTS: Triptolide inhibited cell proliferation and induced marked apoptosis in multiple HCC cell lines with different p53 status. Several signaling molecules involved in different pathways were altered after the treatment of triptolide. Xenograft tumor volume was significantly reduced in triptolide-treated group compared with vehicle control group. Two miRNA clusters, miR-17-92 and miR-106b-25, were significantly suppressed by triptolide, which resulted in the upregulation of their common target genes, including BIM, PTEN, and p21. In HCC samples, high levels of these miRNA clusters correlated with shorter recurrence free survival. Triptolide inhibited the expression of theses miRNAs in a c-Myc-dependent manner, which enhanced triptolide-induced cell death. We further showed that triptolide down-regulated the expression of c-Myc through targeting ERCC3, a newly identified triptolide-binding protein.
CONCLUSIONS: The triptolide-induced modulation of c-Myc/miRNA clusters/target genes axis enhances its potent antitumor activity, which indicates that triptolide serves as an attractive chemotherapeutic agent against HCC.

Huang C, Hu G
Shikonin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in endometrioid endometrial cancer cells via modulating
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone isolated from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, which exerts anticancer effects in various cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of shikonin against endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) have not yet been fully elucidated. Herein, we investigated anticancer effects of shikonin on EEC cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanism. We observed that shikonin inhibits proliferation in human EEC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, shikonin-induced apoptosis was characterized by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins cleaved-Caspase-3 and Bax, and the down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Microarray analyses demonstrated that shikonin induces many miRNAs' dysregulation, and

Wehrkamp CJ, Natarajan SK, Mohr AM, et al.
miR-106b-responsive gene landscape identifies regulation of Kruppel-like factor family.
RNA Biol. 2018; 15(3):391-403 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA dysregulation is a common feature of cancer and due to the promiscuity of microRNA binding this can result in a wide array of genes whose expression is altered. miR-106b is an oncomiR overexpressed in cholangiocarcinoma and its upregulation in this and other cancers often leads to repression of anti-tumorigenic targets. The goal of this study was to identify the miR-106b-regulated gene landscape in cholangiocarcinoma cells using a genome-wide, unbiased mRNA analysis. Through RNA-Seq we found 112 mRNAs significantly repressed by miR-106b. The majority of these genes contain the specific miR-106b seed-binding site. We have validated 11 genes from this set at the mRNA level and demonstrated regulation by miR-106b of 7 proteins. Combined analysis of our miR-106b-regulated mRNA data set plus published reports indicate that miR-106b binding is anchored by G:C pairing in and near the seed. Novel targets Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) and KLF6 were verified both at the mRNA and at the protein level. Further investigation showed regulation of four other KLF family members by miR-106b. We have discovered coordinated repression of multiple members of the KLF family by miR-106b that may play a role in cholangiocarcinoma tumor biology.

Lindahl LM, Besenbacher S, Rittig AH, et al.
Prognostic miRNA classifier in early-stage mycosis fungoides: development and validation in a Danish nationwide study.
Blood. 2018; 131(7):759-770 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most frequent form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The disease often takes an indolent course, but in approximately one-third of the patients, the disease progresses to an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. At the time of diagnosis, it is impossible to predict which patients develop severe disease and are in need of aggressive treatment. Accordingly, we investigated the prognostic potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) at the time of diagnosis in MF. Using a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction platform, we analyzed miRNA expression in diagnostic skin biopsies from 154 Danish patients with early-stage MF. The patients were subdivided into a discovery cohort (n = 82) and an independent validation cohort (n = 72). The miRNA classifier was built using a LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) Cox regression to predict progression-free survival (PFS). We developed a 3-miRNA classifier, based on miR-106b-5p, miR-148a-3p, and miR-338-3p, which successfully separated patients into high-risk and low-risk groups of disease progression. PFS was significantly different between these groups in both the discovery cohort and the validation cohort. The classifier was stronger than existing clinical prognostic factors and remained a strong independent prognostic tool after stratification and adjustment for these factors. Importantly, patients in the high-risk group had a significantly reduced overall survival. The 3-miRNA classifier is an effective tool to predict disease progression of early-stage MF at the time of diagnosis. The classifier adds significant prognostic value to existing clinical prognostic factors and may facilitate more individualized treatment of these patients.

Wei K, Pan C, Yao G, et al.
MiR-106b-5p Promotes Proliferation and Inhibits Apoptosis by Regulating BTG3 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 44(4):1545-1558 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNAs have been validated to play a crucial role in tumorigenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although miR-106b-5p has been reported to play a vital role in various malignancies the physiological function of miR-106b-5p in NSCLC still remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-106b-5p in NSCLC.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was conducted to estimate the expression of miR-106b-5p and BTG3 in both NSCLC tissues and cell lines. The effects of miR-106b-5p on proliferation were determined in vitro using CCK-8 proliferation assays, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, colony formation assays and cell-cycle assays and the in vivo effects were evaluated by a mouse tumorigenicity model. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle was investigated by flow cytometric analysis in vitro. The molecular mechanism underlying the relevance between miR-106b-5p and BTG3 was confirmed by luciferase assay and western blot.
RESULTS: In current study, we found a relatively higher miR-106b-5p and lower BTG3 expression in NSCLC specimens and cell lines. BTG3 was verified as a direct target of miR-106b-5p by luciferase assay. In vitro, over-expression of miR-106b-5p promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis by down-regulating BTG3 expression. In vivo, miR-106b-5p promoted xenograft tumor formation.
CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed for the first time that miR-106b-5p plays a tumorigenesis role in NSCLC progression by down-regulating BTG3 expression, which may lead to a novel insight to the potential biomarker and novel therapeutic strategies for NSCLC patients.

Song CJ, Chen H, Chen LZ, et al.
The potential of microRNAs as human prostate cancer biomarkers: A meta-analysis of related studies.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(3):2763-2786 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PC) is a very important kind of male malignancies. When PC evolves into a stage of hormone resistance or metastasis, the fatality rate is very high. Currently, discoveries and advances in miRNAs as biomarkers have opened the potential for the diagnosis of PC, especially early diagnosis. miRNAs not only can noninvasively or minimally invasively identify PC, but also can provide the data for optimization and personalization of therapy. Moreover, miRNAs have been shown to play an important role to predict prognosis of PC. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to integrate the currently published expression profile data of miRNAs in PC, and evaluate the value of miRNAs as biomarkers for PC. All of relevant records were selected via electronic databases: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and CNKI based on the assessment of title, abstract, and full text. we extracted mean ± SD or fold change of miRNAs expression levels in PC versus BPH or normal controls. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS), were also calculated to detect the relationship between high miRNAs expression and PC prognosis. Selected 104 articles were published in 2007-2017. According to the inclusion criteria, 104 records were included for this meta-analysis. The pooled or stratified analyze showed 10 up-regulated miRNAs (miR-18a, miR-34a, miR-106b, miR-141, miR-182, miR-183, miR-200a/b, miR-301a, and miR-375) and 14 down-regulated miRNAs (miR-1, miR-23b/27b, miR-30c, miR-99b, miR-139-5p, miR-152, miR-187, miR-204, miR-205, miR-224, miR-452, miR-505, and let-7c) had relatively good diagnostic and predictive potential to discriminate PC from BPH/normal controls. Furthermore, high expression of miR-32 and low expression of let-7c could be used to differentiate metastatic PC from local/primary PC. Additional interesting findings were that the expression profiles of five miRNAs (miR-21, miR-30c, miR-129, miR-145, and let-7c) could predict poor RFS of PC, while the evaluation of miR-375 was associated with worse OS. miRNAs are important regulators in PC progression. Our results indicate that miRNAs are suitable for predicting the different stages of PC. The detection of miRNAs is an effective way to control patient's prognosis and evaluate therapeutic efficacy. However, large-scale detections based on common clinical guidelines are still necessary to further validate our conclusions, due to the bias induced by molecular heterogeneity and differences in study design and detection methods.

Samal J, Kandpal M, Vivekanandan P
HBeAg-induced miR-106b promotes cell growth by targeting the retinoblastoma gene.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):14371 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic HBV infection is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The association between hepatitis B "e" antigen (HBeAg) and HCC is well-established by epidemiological studies. Nonetheless, the biological role of HBeAg in HCC remains enigmatic. We investigate the role of HBeAg in HBV-related HCC. Our findings suggest that HBeAg enhances cell proliferation and accelerates progression from G0/G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle in Huh7 cells. Examination of host gene expression and miRNA expression profiles reveals a total of 21 host genes and 12 host miRNAs that were differentially regulated in cells expressing HBeAg. Importantly, HBeAg induced the expression of miR-106b, an oncogenic miRNA. Interestingly, HBeAg-expression results in a significant reduction in the expression of retinoblastoma (Rb) gene, an experimentally validated target of miR-106b. Inhibition of miR-106b significantly increased the expression of the Rb gene, resulting in reduced cell proliferation and slowing of cell cycle progression from the G0/G1 phase to S phase. These observations suggest that the up-regulation of miR-106b by HBeAg contributes to the pathogenesis of HBV-related HCC by down-regulating the Rb gene. Our results highlight a role for HBeAg in HCC and provide a novel perspective on the molecular mechanisms underlying HBV-related HCC.

Shen N, Jiang L, Li Q, et al.
The epigenetic effect of microRNA in BCR-ABL1‑positive microvesicles during the transformation of normal hematopoietic transplants.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(5):3278-3284 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetics have been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the progression of multiple cancers. Our previous study has demonstrated that microvesicles (MVs) derived from K562 cells could malignantly transform normal hematopoietic cells. The aim of this section was to elucidate the epigenetic effects of RNA in K562-MVs. We altered some epigenetic RNAs (miR-106a-5p, miR-106b-5p and lincPOU3F3) in K562-MVs and followed the process of transformation. Global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) levels were observed respectively. Our findings revealed that increased miR-106a/b in K562-MVs accelerated the transformation process (8.33±0.94 vs. 13.29±1.28 days; P<0.01) whereas decreased lincPOU3F3 delayed the transformation (17.83±0.29 days; P<0.05). The targets of miR-106a/b and lincPOU3F3 in the recipient cells were DNMT3a and DNMT3b. We found that lincPOU3F3 directly increased the DNMT3a/b while miR-106a/b only in part by targeting RB. However, global DNA methylation and special gene methylation was altered due to the concurrent regulation of DNMT3a and DNMT3b. Consequently, we demonstrated that tumor-derived MVs represent a notable intercellular epigenetic communication between cancer cells and recipient cells.

Tetik Vardarlı A, Düzgün Z, Erdem C, et al.
Matrine induced G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2018; 18(2):141-149 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Matrine, a natural product extracted from the root of Sophora flavescens, is a promising alternative drug in different types of cancer. Here, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of matrine on human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line, CCRF-CEM. Cell viability and IC50 values were determined by WST-1 cell cytotoxicity assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rates were analyzed by flow cytometry. Expression patterns of 44 selected miRNAs and 44 RNAs were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using the Applied Biosystems 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR System. Matrine inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis of CCRF-CEM cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that matrine-treated CCRF-CEM cells significantly accumulated in the G0/G1 phase compared with the untreated control cells. hsa-miR-376b-3p (-37.09 fold, p = 0.008) and hsa-miR-106b-3p (-16.67 fold, p = 0.028) expressions were decreased, whereas IL6 (95.47 fold, p = 0.000011) and CDKN1A (140.03 fold, p = 0.000159) expressions were increased after matrine treatment. Our results suggest that the downregulation of hsa-miR-106b-3p leads to the upregulation of target p21 gene, CDKN1A, and plays a critical role in the cell cycle progression by arresting matrine-treated cells in the G0/G1 phase.

Ashmawy AM, Elgeshy KM, Abdel Salam ET, et al.
Crosstalk between liver-related microRNAs and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Arab J Gastroenterol. 2017; 18(3):144-150 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with highest incidence in Asia and Africa. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding single stranded RNA, which not only post transcriptionally regulate gene expression but also respond to signaling molecules to affect cell functions such as Wnt/β-catenin signaling specifically in HCC. The goal of this study is to investigate the crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin signaling proteins and microRNAs expression in HCC patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fresh tissue samples of 30 primary HCC patients and 10 control subjects were included. Expression level of 13 different miRNAs (miR-10a- miR-106b- miR-99a- miR-148a- miR-125b- miR-30e- miR-183- miR-155- miR-199a- miR-199a3p- miR-24- miR-122 and miR-215) were examined using real-time PCR assay. Five proteins involved in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway (β-catenin, APC, c-myc, survivin and cyclin D1) were analysed by immunohistochemistry technique. The correlation between miRNAs expression levels with protein expressions was assessed.
RESULTS: Up-regulation of miR-155 and miR-183 was reported in HCC patients compared to normal controls and this up-regulation was significantly correlated with liver cirrhosis in the case of miR-155 (p<0.05) referring to their oncogenic activity. Down-regulation was observed for 11 miRNAs in HCC indicating their tumour suppression activity. MiRNA-10a, miR-30e, miR-215, miR-125b and miR-148a were significantly correlated with the expression of important players in Wnt/β-catenin pathway including β-catenin, APC and c-myc (p<0.05). Detailed analysis revealed that miR-215 is associated with the grade of the disease and miR-125b is associated with HCV infection.
CONCLUSION: Collectively, our data showed potential role of miR-10a, miR-30e, miR-215, miR-125b and miR-148a as important mediators in HCC progression. Furthermore, their association with Wnt/β-catenin cascade proteins could be exploited to develop new therapeutic target strategies in HCC.

Yang G, Fu Y, Zhang L, et al.
miR106b regulates retinoblastoma Y79 cells through Runx3.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(5):3039-3043 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are increasingly recognized as important regulators of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-106b in the regulation of Y79 retinoblastoma. Y79 cells were transfected with antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) against miR-106b (ASO-miR-106b) or ASO-control. After transfection, the levels of miR-106b were monitored with real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The effects of ASO-miR-106b transfection on cell viability was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) analysis at 24, 48 and 72 h after transfection. Subsequently, the cells were stained with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) and subjected to flow cytometry to assess cell apoptosis. Transwell assay was used to analyze cell migration. Changes in Runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3) mRNA and proteins levels were also evaluated. miR-106b was downregulated by ASO-miR-106b at 48 and 72 h after transfection, accompanied by a decrease in cell viability and proliferation, as well as an increase in cell apoptosis. Transwell analysis indicated that cells treated with ASO-miR-106b exhibited significantly lower cell migratory abilities. The mRNA and protein level of Runx3 were upregulated after transfection. These results demonstrated that suppression of miR-106b inhibited Y79 cell proliferation and migration. The upregulation of Runx3 after miR-106b suppression ascertained that Runx3 is a tumor-suppressor in retinoblastoma and is a target of miR-106b.

Liu Y, Zong ZH, Guan X, et al.
The role of long non-coding RNA PCA3 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tumorigenesis and progression.
Gene. 2017; 633:42-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Ovarian carcinoma is one of the highest incidence of tumors in women, and the generation, development and prognosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) remains an open field of study. The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma is an emerging area of research.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: LncRNA PCA3 expression was determined in EOC and normal ovarian tissues by RT-PCR. Phenotypes indicative of tumor progression and aggressiveness, including cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and expression of related molecules, were analysed in EOC cell following knockdown of lncRNA PCA3 by transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA).
RESULTS: Expression of lncRNA PCA3 in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues was higher than in normal ovarian tissue. We discovered that knockdown of lncRNA PCA3 in EOC cells by siRNA transfection significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Bioinformatic predictions and dual-luciferase reporter assays indicate that the 3'UTR of PCA3 has potential binding sites for miR-106b-5p. Knockdown of the lncRNA PCA3 by siRNA resulted in up-regulated miR-106b expression. In addition, knockdown of PCA3 also reduced protein expression of Ras homolog gene family member C (RhoC), Bcl/xl, P70 ribosomal S6 kinase (P70S6K), and Matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2), which are regulated by miR-106b.
CONCLUSIONS: Research results show that lncRNA PCA3 may coordinate EOC tumorigenesis through disrupting miR-106b regulated gene expression. PCA3 may be a novel and important diagnostic biomarker and a valuable marker for prediction in the clinical care of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

Yu S, Qin X, Chen T, et al.
MicroRNA-106b-5p regulates cisplatin chemosensitivity by targeting polycystic kidney disease-2 in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Anticancer Drugs. 2017; 28(8):852-860 [PubMed] Related Publications
Systemic therapy with cytotoxic agents remains one of the main treatment methods for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, that, when combined with other drugs, is an effective treatment for NSCLC. However, effective cancer therapy is hindered by a patient's resistance to cisplatin. Unfortunately, the potential mechanism underlying such resistance remains unclear. In this study, we explored the mechanism of microRNA-106b-5p (miR-106b-5p), which is involved in the resistance to cisplatin in the A549 cell line of NSCLC. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression of miR-106-5p in the A549 and the A549/DDP cell line of NSCLC. The cell counting kit-8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell cycle and cell apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assays and western blot were performed to confirm whether polycystic kidney disease-2 (PKD2) is a direct target gene of miR-106b-5p. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the distribution of PKD2 expression in patients who are sensitive and resistant to cisplatin. The experiments indicated that the expression of miR-106b-5p was significantly decreased in A549/DDP compared with that in A549. MiR-106b-5p affected the tolerance of cells to cisplatin by negatively regulating PKD2. Upregulation of miR-106b-5p or downregulation of PKD2 expression can cause A549/DDP cells to become considerably more sensitive to cisplatin. The results showed that miR-106b-5p enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin by targeting the expression of PKD2. These findings suggest that the use of miR-106b-5p may be a promising clinical strategy in the treatment of NSCLC.

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