Research IndicatorsGraph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: LSP1 (cancer-related)
We evaluated whether 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies interact with one another and with reproductive and menstrual risk factors in association with breast cancer risk. DNA samples and information on parity, breastfeeding, age at menarche, age at first birth, and age at menopause were collected through structured interviews from 1,484 breast cancer cases and 1,307 controls who participated in a population-based case-control study conducted in three US states. A polygenic score was created as the sum of risk allele copies multiplied by the corresponding log odds estimate. Logistic regression was used to test the associations between SNPs, the score, reproductive and menstrual factors, and breast cancer risk. Nonlinearity of the score was assessed by the inclusion of a quadratic term for polygenic score. Interactions between the aforementioned variables were tested by including a cross-product term in models. We confirmed associations between rs13387042 (2q35), rs4973768 (SLC4A7), rs10941679 (5p12), rs2981582 (FGFR2), rs3817198 (LSP1), rs3803662 (TOX3), and rs6504950 (STXBP4) with breast cancer. Women in the score's highest quintile had 2.2-fold increased risk when compared to women in the lowest quintile (95 % confidence interval: 1.67-2.88). The quadratic polygenic score term was not significant in the model (p = 0.85), suggesting that the established breast cancer loci are not associated with increased risk more than the sum of risk alleles. Modifications of menstrual and reproductive risk factors associations with breast cancer risk by polygenic score were not observed. Our results suggest that the interactions between breast cancer susceptibility loci and reproductive factors are not strong contributors to breast cancer risk.
Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene-environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4 × 10(-6)) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1 × 10(-4)). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01-1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96-1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16-1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85-0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14-1.85) in those who drank ≥ 20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3 × 10(-5)), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11-1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92-1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.
Fernandez-Navarro P, Pita G, Santamariña C, et al.Association analysis between breast cancer genetic variants and mammographic density in a large population-based study (Determinants of Density in Mammographies in Spain) identifies susceptibility loci in TOX3 gene.
Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(2):474-81 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) is regarded as an intermediate phenotype in breast cancer development. This association study investigated the influence of 14 breast cancer susceptibility loci identified through previous genome-wide association studies on MD among the participants in the "Determinants of Density in Mammographies in Spain" (DDM-Spain) study.
METHODS: Our study covered a total of 3348 Caucasian women aged 45-68years, recruited from seven Spanish breast cancer screening centres having DNA available. Mammographic density was blindly assessed by a single reader using a semiquantitative scale. Ordinal logistic models, adjusted for age, body mass index and menopausal status, were used to estimate the association between each genotype and MD.
RESULTS: Evidence of association with MD was found for variant rs3803662 (TOX3) (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.13, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.03-1.25), and marginal evidence of association for susceptibility loci rs3817198 (LSP1) (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.00-1.20) and rs2981582 (FGFR2) (OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.84-1.01). Two other loci were associated with MD solely among pre-menopausal women, namely, rs4973768 (SLC4A7) (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.70-1.00) and rs4415084 (MEPS30) (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.00-1.49).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings lend some support to the hypothesis which links these susceptibility loci to MD.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of breast cancer and parity and age at first childbirth are well established and important risk factors for breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the interaction between these environmental factors and genetic variants on breast cancer risk.
METHODS: The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) included 17 035 female participants, from which 728 incident breast cancer cases were matched to 1448 controls. The associations between 14 SNPs and breast cancer risk were investigated in different strata of parity and age at first childbirth. A logistic regression analysis for the per allele risk, adjusted for potential confounders yielded odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
RESULTS: Six of the previously identified SNPs showed a statistically significant association with breast cancer risk: rs2981582 (FGFR2), rs3803662 (TNRC9), rs12443621 (TNRC9), rs889312 (MAP3K1), rs3817198 (LSP1) and rs2107425 (H19). We could not find any statistically significant interaction between the effects of tested SNPs and parity/age at first childbirth on breast cancer risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study are in agreement with previous studies of null interactions between tested SNPs and parity/age at first childbirth with regard to breast cancer risk.
Recent genome-wide association studies identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated these and 62 other SNPs for their prognostic relevance. Confirmed BC risk SNPs rs17468277 (CASP8), rs1982073 (TGFB1), rs2981582 (FGFR2), rs13281615 (8q24), rs3817198 (LSP1), rs889312 (MAP3K1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs13387042 (2q35), rs4973768 (SLC4A7), rs6504950 (COX11) and rs10941679 (5p12) were genotyped for 25 853 BC patients with the available follow-up; 62 other SNPs, which have been suggested as BC risk SNPs by a GWAS or as candidate SNPs from individual studies, were genotyped for replication purposes in subsets of these patients. Cox proportional hazard models were used to test the association of these SNPs with overall survival (OS) and BC-specific survival (BCS). For the confirmed loci, we performed an accessory analysis of publicly available gene expression data and the prognosis in a different patient group. One of the 11 SNPs, rs3803662 (TOX3) and none of the 62 candidate/GWAS SNPs were associated with OS and/or BCS at P<0.01. The genotypic-specific survival for rs3803662 suggested a recessive mode of action [hazard ratio (HR) of rare homozygous carriers=1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35, P=0.0002 and HR=1.29; 95% CI: 1.12-1.47, P=0.0003 for OS and BCS, respectively]. This association was seen similarly in all analyzed tumor subgroups defined by nodal status, tumor size, grade and estrogen receptor. Breast tumor expression of these genes was not associated with prognosis. With the exception of rs3803662 (TOX3), there was no evidence that any of the SNPs associated with BC susceptibility were associated with the BC survival. Survival may be influenced by a distinct set of germline variants from those influencing susceptibility.
Tissues from 98 human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) obtained from hepatic resections were subjected to somatic copy number variation (CNV) analysis. Most of these HCCs were discovered in livers resected for orthotopic transplantation, although in a few cases, the tumors themselves were the reason for the hepatectomies. Genomic analysis revealed deletions and amplifications in several genes, and clustering analysis based on CNV revealed five clusters. The LSP1 gene had the most cases with CNV (46 deletions and 5 amplifications). High frequencies of CNV were also seen in PTPRD (21/98), GNB1L (18/98), KIAA1217 (18/98), RP1-1777G6.2 (17/98), ETS1 (11/98), RSU1 (10/98), TBC1D22A (10/98), BAHCC1 (9/98), MAML2 (9/98), RAB1B (9/98), and YIF1A (9/98). The existing literature regarding hepatocytes or other cell types has connected many of these genes to regulation of cytoskeletal architecture, signaling cascades related to growth regulation, and transcription factors directly interacting with nuclear signaling complexes. Correlations with existing literature indicate that genomic lesions associated with HCC at the level of resolution of CNV occur on many genes associated directly or indirectly with signaling pathways operating in liver regeneration and hepatocyte growth regulation.
Among US Latinas and Mexican women, those with higher European ancestry have increased risk of breast cancer. We combined an admixture mapping and genome-wide association mapping approach to search for genomic regions that may explain this observation. Latina women with breast cancer (n= 1497) and Latina controls (n= 1272) were genotyped using Affymetrix and Illumina arrays. We inferred locus-specific genetic ancestry and compared the ancestry between cases and controls. We also performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association analyses in regions of interest. Correction for multiple-hypothesis testing was conducted using permutations (P(corrected)). We identified one region where genetic ancestry was significantly associated with breast cancer risk: 6q25 [odds ratio (OR) per Indigenous American chromosome 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.85, P= 1.1 × 10(-5), P(corrected)= 0.02]. A second region on 11p15 showed a trend towards association (OR per Indigenous American chromosome 0.77, 95% CI: 0.68-0.87, P= 4.3 × 10(-5), P(corrected)= 0.08). In both regions, breast cancer risk decreased with higher Indigenous American ancestry in concordance with observations made on global ancestry. The peak of the 6q25 signal includes the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene and 5' region, a locus previously implicated in breast cancer. Genome-wide association analysis found that a multi-SNP model explained the admixture signal in both regions. Our results confirm that the association between genetic ancestry and breast cancer risk in US Latinas is partly due to genetic differences between populations of European and Indigenous Americans origin. Fine-mapping within the 6q25 and possibly the 11p15 loci will lead to the discovery of the biologically functional variant/s behind this association.
Sueta A, Ito H, Kawase T, et al.A genetic risk predictor for breast cancer using a combination of low-penetrance polymorphisms in a Japanese population.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 132(2):711-21 [PubMed
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified genetic variants associated with breast cancer. Most GWASs to date have been conducted in women of European descent, however, and the contribution of these variants as predictors in Japanese women is unknown. Here, we analyzed 23 genetic variants identified in previous GWASs and conducted a case-control study with 697 case subjects and 1,394 age- and menopausal status-matched controls. We fit conditional regression models with genetic variants and conventional risk factors. In addition, we created a polygenetic risk score, using those variants with a statistically significant association with breast cancer risk, and also evaluated the contribution of these genetic predictors using the c statistic. Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed significant associations with breast cancer risk. A dose-dependent association was observed between the risk of breast cancer and the genetic risk score, which was an aggregate measure of alleles in seven selected variants, namely FGFR2-rs2981579, TOX3/TNRC9-rs3803662, C6orf97-rs2046210, 8q24-rs13281615, SLC4A7-rs4973768, LSP1-rs38137198, and CASP8-rs10931936. Compared to women with scores of 3 or less, odds ratios (ORs) for women with scores of 4-5, 6-7, 8-9, and 10 or more were 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.80), 1.71 (1.26-2.30), 3.01 (1.97-4.58), and 8.69 (2.75-27.5), respectively (P (trend) = 1.9 × 10(-9)). The c statistic for a model including the genetic risk score in addition to the conventional risk factors was 0.6933, versus 0.6652 with the conventional risk factors only (P = 1.3 × 10(-4)). Population-attributable fraction of the risk score was 33.0%. In conclusion, we identified a genetic risk predictor of breast cancer in a Japanese population. Risk models which include a genetic risk score are possibly useful in distinguishing women at high risk of breast cancer from those at low risk, particularly in the context of targeted prevention.
Mulligan AM, Couch FJ, Barrowdale D, et al.Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumour subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2.
Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13(6):R110 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers defined by estrogen (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumour.
METHODS: We used genotype data on up to 11,421 BRCA1 and 7,080 BRCA2 carriers, of whom 4,310 had been affected with breast cancer and had information on either ER or PR status of the tumour, to assess the associations of 12 loci with breast cancer tumour characteristics. Associations were evaluated using a retrospective cohort approach.
RESULTS: The results suggested stronger associations with ER-positive breast cancer than ER-negative for 11 loci in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Among BRCA1 carriers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2981582 (FGFR2) exhibited the biggest difference based on ER status (per-allele hazard ratio (HR) for ER-positive = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.56 vs HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.98 for ER-negative, P-heterogeneity = 6.5 × 10-6). In contrast, SNP rs2046210 at 6q25.1 near ESR1 was primarily associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. In BRCA2 carriers, SNPs in FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, SLC4A7/NEK10, 5p12, 2q35, and 1p11.2 were significantly associated with ER-positive but not ER-negative disease. Similar results were observed when differentiating breast cancer cases by PR status.
CONCLUSIONS: The associations of the 12 SNPs with risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers differ by ER-positive or ER-negative breast cancer status. The apparent differences in SNP associations between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, and non-carriers, may be explicable by differences in the prevalence of tumour subtypes. As more risk modifying variants are identified, incorporating these associations into breast cancer subtype-specific risk models may improve clinical management for mutation carriers.
Fanale D, Amodeo V, Corsini LR, et al.Breast cancer genome-wide association studies: there is strength in numbers.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(17):2121-8 [PubMed
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Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease that exhibits familial aggregation. Family linkage studies have identified high-penetrance genes, BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN and TP53, that are responsible for inherited BC syndromes. Moreover, a combination of family-based and population-based approaches indicated that genes involved in DNA repair, such as CHEK2, ATM, BRIP and PALB2, are associated with moderate risk. Therefore, all of these known genes account for only 25% of the familial aggregation cases. Recently, genome wide association studies (GWAS) in BC revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five novel genes associated to susceptibility: TNRC9, FGFR2, MAP3K1, H19 and lymphocyte-specific protein 1 (LSP1). The most strongly associated SNP was in intron 2 of the FGFR2 gene that is amplified and overexpressed in 5-10% of BC. rs3803662 of TNRC9 gene has been shown to be the SNP with the strongest association with BC, in particular, this polymorphism seems to be correlated with bone metastases and estrogen receptor positivity. Relevant data indicate that SNP rs889312 in MAP3K1 is correlated with BC susceptibility only in BRCA2 mutation carriers, but is not associated with an increased risk in BRCA1 carriers. Finally, different SNPs in LSP1 and H19 and in minor genes probably were associated with BC risk. New susceptibility allelic variants associated with BC risk were recently discovered including potential causative genes involved in regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, metabolism and mitochondrial functions. In conclusion, the identification of disease susceptibility loci may lead to a better understanding of the biological mechanism for BC to improve prevention, early detection and treatment.
Riaz M, Berns EM, Sieuwerts AM, et al.Correlation of breast cancer susceptibility loci with patient characteristics, metastasis-free survival, and mRNA expression of the nearest genes.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 133(3):843-51 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To understand the biology of low-risk breast cancer alleles, and to investigate whether these loci also contribute to disease progression that was once established, we examined the association of SNPs tagging the low-risk breast cancer loci in or near FGFR2, LSP1, MAP3K1, H19, TOX3, POU5F1P1, MYC, and 2q35, with clinical, pathological characteristics, prognosis, and mRNA expression of the nearest genes. Tumor DNA samples of 2,480 breast cancer patients were available. Out of this cohort, 1,290 patients with lymph-node negative disease who did not receive adjuvant systemic therapy, the SNP status was associated with metastasis-free survival (MFS). In 1,401 patients, the mRNA expression levels of FGFR2, LSP1, MAP3K1, H19, TOX3, POU5F1P1, and MYC were determined and correlated with SNP genotypes. The SNP rs2981582 in FGFR2 was significantly associated with positive ER and PgR status (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively). No other significant associations with patient or tumor characteristics were observed. Only rs2107425 near H19 was significantly associated with shorter MFS in uni- and multi-variate analysis (HR: 1.53, CI: 1.12-2.08, P = 0.006 and HR: 1.59, CI: 1.16-2.20, P = 0.004, respectively), with the more aggressive minor allele displaying a recessive trait. The minor allele of SNP rs3803662 located near the TOX3 gene was associated with lower mRNA expression of this gene. In conclusion, except for the association of rs13283662 with TOX3 gene expression indicating a tumor suppressor role of TOX3, our findings suggest that breast cancer low-risk loci generally do not affect expression of the nearest gene in breast tumor tissue. Also the prognosis of patients is largely not affected by low-risk breast cancer loci except for the SNP near H19. How, this SNP affects prognosis warrants further study as it does not operate through altering H19 mRNA expression.
Peng S, Lü B, Ruan W, et al.Genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: evidence from meta-analyses, pooled analyses, and genome-wide association studies.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 127(2):309-24 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To address the association between variants and breast cancer, an increasing number of articles on genetic association studies, genome-wide association studies (GWASs), and related meta- and pooled analyses have been published. Such studies have prompted an updated assessment of the associations between gene variants and breast cancer risk. We searched PubMed, Medline, and Web of Science and retrieved a total of 87 meta- and pooled analyses, which addressed the associations between 145 gene variants and breast cancer. Analyses met the following criteria: (1) breast cancer was the outcome, (2) the articles were all published in English, and (3) in the recent published meta- and pooled analyses, the analyses with more subjects were selected. Among the 145 variants, 46 were significantly associated with breast cancer and the other 99 (in 62 genes) were not significantly associated with breast cancer. The summary ORs for the 46 significant associations (P < 0.05) were further assessed by the method of false-positive report probability (FPRP). Our results demonstrated that 10 associations were noteworthy: CASP8 (D302H), CHEK2 (*1100delC), CTLA4 (+49G>A), FGFR2 (rs2981582, rs1219648, and rs2420946), HRAS (rare alleles), IL1B (rs1143627), LSP1 (rs3817198), and MAP3K1 (rs889312). In addition, eight GWASs were identified, in which 25 loci were obtained (14 in nine genes, six near a gene or genes, and five intergenic loci). Of the 25 SNPs, 20 were noteworthy: C6orf97 (rs2046210 and rs3757318), FGFR2 (rs2981579, rs1219648, and rs2981582), LSP1 (rs909116), RNF146 (rs2180341), SLC4A7 (rs4973768), MRPS30 (rs7716600), TOX3 (rs3803662 and rs4784227), ZNF365 (rs10995190), rs889312, rs614367, rs13281615, rs13387042, rs11249433, rs1011970, rs614367, and rs1562430. In summary, in this review of genetic association studies, 31.7% of the gene-variant breast cancer associations were significant, and 21.7% of these significant associations were noteworthy. However, in GWASs, 80% of the significant associations were noteworthy.
Jiang Y, Han J, Liu J, et al.Risk of genome-wide association study newly identified genetic variants for breast cancer in Chinese women of Heilongjiang Province.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 128(1):251-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Recent genome-wide association studies have identified seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer, but mainly in Europeans. In this study, the authors evaluated the effect of these loci on breast cancer and its disease characteristics in women from northeast of China, Heilongjiang Province. Seven SNPs were successfully genotyped in 492 breast cancer patients and 510 healthy controls using the SNaPshot method. The associations between SNPs and breast cancer were examined by logistic regression. The associations between SNPs and disease characteristics were examined by the chi-square test or one-way ANOVA as needed. The authors confirmed the effects of the allele A for rs2046210 at 6q25 on increased breast cancer risk in the population, with odds ratio 1.417 (P = 2×10⁻⁴). However, no significant association was detected between SNPs from TNCR9, LSP1, MAP3K1, 2q35, and 8q24 and breast cancer. Analyses of the disease characteristics showed that SNP rs2046210 was associated with age at menopause (P = 0.001). MAP3K1 SNP rs889312 and LSP1 SNP rs3817198 were associated with HER2 status in the patient cohort (P = 0.036 and P = 0.005, respectively). And SNP rs3817198 was also associated with the combined status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 (P = 0.012). SNP rs13281615 was associated with age at menarche (P = 0.023), and SNP rs3803662 was associated with average duration of breastfeeding (P = 0.036). All other disease characteristics, including tumor grade, clinical stage, and the status of estrogen receptor or P53, were not significantly associated with any of these variants. These results suggested that the rs2046210 was associated with breast cancer in a Northern Chinese population, and some SNPs were also associated with breast cancer characteristics.
Milne RL, Gaudet MM, Spurdle AB, et al.Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the breast cancer association consortium: a combined case-control study.
Breast Cancer Res. 2010; 12(6):R110 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
METHODS: We evaluated two-way interactions between each of age at menarche, ever having had a live birth, number of live births, age at first birth and body mass index (BMI) and each of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (10q26-rs2981582 (FGFR2), 8q24-rs13281615, 11p15-rs3817198 (LSP1), 5q11-rs889312 (MAP3K1), 16q12-rs3803662 (TOX3), 2q35-rs13387042, 5p12-rs10941679 (MRPS30), 17q23-rs6504950 (COX11), 3p24-rs4973768 (SLC4A7), CASP8-rs17468277, TGFB1-rs1982073 and ESR1-rs3020314). Interactions were tested for by fitting logistic regression models including per-allele and linear trend main effects for SNPs and risk factors, respectively, and single-parameter interaction terms for linear departure from independent multiplicative effects.
RESULTS: These analyses were applied to data for up to 26,349 invasive breast cancer cases and up to 32,208 controls from 21 case-control studies. No statistical evidence of interaction was observed beyond that expected by chance. Analyses were repeated using data from 11 population-based studies, and results were very similar.
CONCLUSIONS: The relative risks for breast cancer associated with the common susceptibility variants identified to date do not appear to vary across women with different reproductive histories or body mass index (BMI). The assumption of multiplicative combined effects for these established genetic and other risk factors in risk prediction models appears justified.
Chen MB, Li C, Shen WX, et al.Association of a LSP1 gene rs3817198T>C polymorphism with breast cancer risk: evidence from 33,920 cases and 35,671 controls.
Mol Biol Rep. 2011; 38(7):4687-95 [PubMed
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Published data on the association between lymphocyte-specific protein 1 (LSP1) rs3817198T>C polymorphism and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of the LSP1 gene and risk of breast cancer to obtain the most reliable estimate of the association. PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases were searched. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled to assess the strength of the association between the LSP1 rs3817198T>C polymorphism and risk of breast cancer. A total of seven eligible studies including 33,920 cases and 35,671 controls based on the search criteria were involved in this meta-analysis. The distributions of genotypes in the controls were all in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We observed that the LSP1 rs3817198T>C polymorphism was significantly correlated with breast cancer risk when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (the allele contrast model: OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.08; the homozygote codominant: OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.01-1.28). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significant association was observed in Caucasians for CC versus TT homozygote codominant model (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.03-1.52) and for the recessive model (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.02-1.47). There was significant association observed in Africans for CC versus TT homozygote codominant model (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.22-0.92) and for the recessive model (OR = 0.43; 95% CI=0.22-0.88). Also, significant association was observed in mixed ethnicities for CC versus TT homozygote codominant model (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.05-1.19). When stratified by study design, statistically significantly elevated risk was found in nested case-control studies (CC vs. TT: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05-1.19). But no significant association was observed for all comparison models between LSP1 rs3817198T>C polymorphism and breast cancer risk in hospital-based and people-based studies. When stratified by BRCA1 mutation carriers status, statistically significantly elevated risk was found in this meta-analysis (the allele contrast model: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01-1.14; the dominant model: OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.00-1.18). And significant association was found in the BRCA2 mutation carriers in the allele contrast (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03-1.20), the homozygote codominant (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.04-1.47), the heterozygote codominant (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.25) and the dominant models (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03-1.27). There was significant association between LSP1 rs3817198T>C polymorphism and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 positive cohort in all comparison models (the allele contrast model: OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.03-1.13; CC vs. TT: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.05-1.29; TC vs. TT: OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01-1.16; the dominant model: OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.03-1.17; the recessive model: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01-1.23). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the LSP1 rs3817198T>C polymorphism is a low-penetrant risk factor for developing breast cancer but may not be in Africans.
Antoniou AC, Beesley J, McGuffog L, et al.Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(23):9742-54 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10(-11) - 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers.
BACKGROUND: Information is scarce about the combined effects on breast cancer incidence of low-penetrance genetic susceptibility polymorphisms and environmental factors (reproductive, behavioural, and anthropometric risk factors for breast cancer). To test for evidence of gene-environment interactions, we compared genotypic relative risks for breast cancer across the other risk factors in a large UK prospective study.
METHODS: We tested gene-environment interactions in 7610 women who developed breast cancer and 10 196 controls without the disease, studying the effects of 12 polymorphisms (FGFR2-rs2981582, TNRC9-rs3803662, 2q35-rs13387042, MAP3K1-rs889312, 8q24-rs13281615, 2p-rs4666451, 5p12-rs981782, CASP8-rs1045485, LSP1-rs3817198, 5q-rs30099, TGFB1-rs1982073, and ATM-rs1800054) in relation to prospectively collected information about ten established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, breastfeeding, menopausal status, age at menopause, use of hormone replacement therapy, body-mass index, height, and alcohol consumption).
FINDINGS: After allowance for multiple testing none of the 120 comparisons yielded significant evidence of a gene-environment interaction. By contrast with previous suggestions, there was little evidence that the genotypic relative risks were affected by use of hormone replacement therapy, either overall or for oestrogen-receptor-positive disease. Only one of the 12 polymorphisms was correlated with any of the ten other risk factors: carriers of the high-risk C allele of MAP3K1-rs889312 were significantly shorter than non-carriers (mean height 162.4 cm [95% CI 162.1-162.7] vs 163.1 cm [162.9-163.2]; p=0.01 after allowance for multiple testing).
INTERPRETATION: Risks of breast cancer associated with low-penetrance susceptibility polymorphisms do not vary significantly with these ten established environmental risk factors.
FUNDING: Cancer Research UK and the UK Medical Research Council.
Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Shetty PB, Guan X, et al.FGFR2 and other loci identified in genome-wide association studies are associated with breast cancer in African-American and younger women.
Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31(8):1417-23 [PubMed
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Twenty-nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from previously published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and multiple ancestry informative markers were genotyped in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) (742 African-American (AA) cases, 1230 White cases; 658 AA controls, 1118 White controls). In the entire study population, 9/10 SNPs in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) were significantly associated with breast cancer after adjusting for age, race and European ancestry [odds ratios (OR) range 1.17-1.81]. Associations were observed for SNPs in FGFR2, LSP1, H19, TLR1/TLR6 and RELN for AA; FGFR2, TNRC9, H19 and MAP3K1 for Whites; FGFR2, TNRC9, Msc5A1 and chromosome 8q for women > or =50 years old and FGFR2 and TNRC9 for women <50 years old. FGFR2 haplotypes based upon rs11200014, rs2981579, rs1219648 and rs2420946 were associated with increased risk of breast cancer, including the GTGT haplotype in AAs [OR = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.56] and younger women of either race [OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.78) and the ATGT haplotype in Whites (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.15-1.46). Recent GWAS hits for breast cancer in Europeans and Whites (i.e. women of European descent) thus showed evidence of replication among AAs and Whites in the CBCS. Several new haplotypes were associated with breast cancer in AA and younger women, particularly the FGFR2 GTGT haplotype. These results highlight the need to conduct GWAS among younger women and in a variety of racial-ethnic populations.
Odefrey F, Stone J, Gurrin LC, et al.Common genetic variants associated with breast cancer and mammographic density measures that predict disease.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(4):1449-58 [PubMed
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Mammographic density for age and body mass index (BMI) is a heritable risk factor for breast cancer. We aimed to determine if recently identified common variants associated with small gradients in breast cancer risk are associated with mammographic density. We genotyped 497 monozygotic and 330 dizygotic twin pairs and 634 of their sisters from 903 families for 12 independent variants. Mammographic dense area, percent dense area, and nondense area were measured by three observers using a computer-thresholding technique. Associations with mammographic density measures adjusted for age, BMI, and other determinants were estimated (a) cross-sectionally using a multivariate normal model for pedigree analysis (P(x)), (b) between sibships, and (c) within sibships using orthogonal transformations of outcomes and exposures. A combined test of association (P(c)) was derived using the independent estimates from b and c. We tested if the distributions of P values across variants differed from the uniform distribution (P(u)). For dense area and percent dense area, the distributions of P(c) values were not uniform (both P(u) <0.007). Consistent with their breast cancer associations, rs3817198 (LSP1) and rs13281615 (8q) were associated with dense area and percent dense area (all P(x) and P(c) <0.05), and rs889312 (MAP3K1), rs2107425 (H19), and rs17468277 (CASP8) were marginally associated with dense area (some P(x) or P(c) <0.05). All associations were independent of menopausal status. At least two common breast cancer susceptibility variants are associated with mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer. These findings could help elucidate how those variants and mammographic density measures are associated with breast cancer susceptibility.
Rivera P, Melin M, Biagi T, et al.Mammary tumor development in dogs is associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(22):8770-4 [PubMed
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Breast cancer is a major contributor to overall morbidity and mortality in women. Several genes predisposing to breast cancer have been identified, but the majority of risk factors remain unknown. Even less is known about the inherited risk factors underlying canine mammary tumors (CMT). Clear breed predispositions exist, with 36% of English springer spaniels (ESS) in Sweden being affected. Here, we evaluate 10 human breast cancer genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ERBB2, FGFR2, LSP1, MAP3K1, RCAS1, TOX3, and TP53) for association with CMTs. Sixty-three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; four to nine SNPs per gene) were genotyped by iPLEX in female ESS dogs, 212 CMT cases and 143 controls. Two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, were significantly associated with CMT (Bonferroni corrected P = 0.005 and P = 0.0001, respectively). Borderline association was seen for FGFR2. Benign and malignant cases were also analyzed separately. Those findings supported the association to BRCA1 and BRCA2 but with a stronger association to BRCA1 in malignant cases. Both BRCA1 and BRCA2 showed odds ratios of approximately 4. In conclusion, this study indicates that BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of CMT in ESS, suggesting that dogs may serve as a good model for human breast cancer.
Hemminki K, Müller-Myhsok B, Lichtner P, et al.Low-risk variants FGFR2, TNRC9 and LSP1 in German familial breast cancer patients.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 126(12):2858-62 [PubMed
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To validate common low-risk variants predisposing for breast cancer (BC) in a large set of BRCA1/2 negative familial or genetically enriched cases from Germany, we genotyped 1,415 cases and 1,830 healthy women by MALDI-TOF in 105 candidate SNPs. Significantly higher ORs than previously reported for heterozygous unselected cases were found for the minor allele in FGFR2 (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.30-1.59, p-value = 1.24 x 10(-12)) and for TNRC9 (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.19-1.46, p-value = 1.54 x 10(-7)). Most intriguing, however, were the ORs for homozygous carriers from high-risk families for FGFR2 (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.68-2.51, LSP1 (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.28-0.86) and TNRC9 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.27-2.07). Moreover, the additional validation of 99 CGEMS-SNPs identified putative novel susceptibility alleles within the LSP1 gene (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.61-0.87, p-value = 5.23 x 10(-4)). Finally, we provide evidence for the first time that a low-risk variant located at 6q22.33 (rs6569479) is associated with estrogen receptor negative BC in familial cases (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06-1.66; p-value = 0.012). Our data confirm the impact of the previously identified susceptibility loci and provide preliminary evidence for novel susceptibility loci in familial BC cases and correlate them to specific histopathological subtypes defined by estrogen receptor status.
BACKGROUND: A number of susceptibility genes are common to breast and pancreatic cancer. Recently, several breast cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies. Here we evaluated possible associations between these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and pancreatic cancer risk.
METHODS: Ten SNPs from FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, H19, LSP1, chromosome 8q24, CASP8, and LUM were investigated for associations with pancreatic cancer risk following genotyping in 1,143 Caucasian individuals with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 1,097 unaffected controls from a clinic-based pancreatic cancer case-control study.
RESULTS: CASP8 rs1045485 [odds ratio (OR), 0.78; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.65-0.9; P = 0.005] and MAP3K1 rs889312 (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.97; P = 0.017) showed evidence of association with risk of pancreatic cancer. The CASP8 rs1045485 association was evident in ever smokers (P = 0.002), but not in nonsmokers (P = 0.55), and the effect was strongest in heavy smokers (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29-0.93; P = 0.03). In contrast the MAP3K1 rs889312 association was only evident in nonsmokers (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64-0.95; P = 0.01). In addition, evaluation of the influence of the 10 SNPs on survival detected significant associations between outcome for locally advanced pancreatic cancer cases and both 8q rs6983561 (P = 0.045) and LUM rs2268578 (P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION: Association studies in a large pancreatic case-control study indicate that SNPs associated with breast cancer may also be associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility and survival.
Latif A, Hadfield KD, Roberts SA, et al.Breast cancer susceptibility variants alter risks in familial disease.
J Med Genet. 2010; 47(2):126-31 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Recent candidate and genome-wide association studies have identified variants altering susceptibility to breast cancer.
OBJECTIVE: To establish the relevance of these variants to breast cancer risk in familial breast cancer cases both with and without BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations.
METHODS: A cohort of unrelated individuals with breast cancer due to the presence of either BRCA1 (121) or BRCA2 mutations (109) and individuals with familial breast cancer not due to BRCA1/2 mutations (722) were genotyped using Taqman SNP Genotyping Assays. Allele frequencies were compared with an ethnically and gender-matched group (436).
RESULTS: A synonymous variant (Ser51) in TOX3 (previously TNRC9) was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR=1.82, p<0.001) in BRCA2 mutation carriers. The associations for FGFR2 (OR=1.20, p=0.046), TOX3 (OR=1.5, p<0.001), MAP3K1 (OR=1.26 p=0.03), CASP8 (OR=0.73 p=0.02) and the chromosome 8-associated SNP (OR=1.31, p=0.004) were replicated in individuals without BRCA1/2 mutations. In addition, homozygote carriers of MAP3K1 variants were shown to have a significantly lower Manchester Score (mean 13.8-17.6, p=0.003), whereas individuals carrying one or two copies of the FGFR2 variant had a higher Manchester Score (mean 17.5-17.9, p=0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that susceptibility variants in FGFR2, TOX3 and MAP3K1 and on chromosome 8q are all associated with increased risk of cancer in individuals with a family history of breast cancer, whereas CASP8 is protective in this context. The level of risk is dependent on the strength of the family history and the presence of a BRCA1/2 mutation and contributes to the understanding of the use of these variants in clinical risk prediction.
BACKGROUND: Low-risk breast cancer susceptibility alleles or SNPs confer only modest breast cancer risks ranging from just over 1.0 to 1.3 fold. Yet, they are common among most populations and therefore are involved in the development of essentially all breast cancers. The mechanism by which the low-risk SNPs confer breast cancer risks is currently unclear. The breast cancer association consortium BCAC has hypothesized that the low-risk SNPs modulate expression levels of nearby located genes.
METHODS: Genotypes of five low-risk SNPs were determined for 40 human breast cancer cell lines, by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic templates. We have analyzed expression of the four genes that are located nearby the low-risk SNPs, by using real-time RT-PCR and Human Exon microarrays.
RESULTS: The SNP genotypes and additional phenotypic data on the breast cancer cell lines are presented. We did not detect any effect of the SNP genotypes on expression levels of the nearby-located genes MAP3K1, FGFR2, TNRC9 and LSP1.
CONCLUSION: The SNP genotypes provide a base line for functional studies in a well-characterized cohort of 40 human breast cancer cell lines. Our expression analyses suggest that a putative disease mechanism through gene expression modulation is not operative in breast cancer cell lines.
INTRODUCTION: Common variants that alter breast cancer risk are being discovered. Here, we determine how these variants influence breast cancer prognosis, risk and tumour characteristics.
METHODS: We selected 1,001 women with early onset nonfamilial invasive breast cancer from the Prospective study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer (POSH) cohort and genotyped 206 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 30 candidate genes. After quality control, 899 cases and 133 SNPs remained. Survival analyses were used to identify SNPs associated with prognosis and determine their interdependency with recognized prognostic factors. To identify SNPs that alter breast cancer risk, association tests were used to compare cases with controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. To search for SNPs affecting tumour biology, cases were stratified into subgroups according to oestrogen receptor (ER) status and grade and tested for association.
RESULTS: We confirmed previous associations between increased breast cancer risk and SNPs in CASP8, TOX3 (previously known as TNRC9) and ESR1. Analysis of prognosis identified eight SNPs in six genes (MAP3K1, DAPK1, LSP1, MMP7, TOX3 and ESR1) and one region without genes on 8q24 that are associated with survival. For MMP7, TOX3 and MAP3K1 the effects on survival are independent of the main recognized clinical prognostic factors. The SNP in 8q24 is more weakly associated with independent effects on survival. Once grade and pathological nodal status (pN stage) were taken into account, SNPs in ESR1 and LSP1 showed no independent survival difference, whereas the effects of the DAPK1 SNP were removed when correcting for ER status. Interestingly, effects on survival for SNPs in ESR1 were most significant when only ER-positive tumours were examined. Stratifying POSH cases by tumour characteristics identified SNPs in FGFR2 and TOX3 associated with ER-positive disease and SNPs in ATM associated with ER-negative disease.
CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that several SNPs are associated with survival. In some cases this appears to be due to an effect on tumour characteristics known to have a bearing on prognosis; in other cases the effect appears to be independent of these prognostic factors. These findings require validation by further studies in similar patient groups.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world. Except for the high breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers as well as the risk for breast cancer in certain rare syndromes caused by mutations in TP53, STK11, PTEN, CDH1, NF1 or NBN, familial clustering of breast cancer remains largely unexplained. Despite significant efforts, BRCA3 could not be identified, but several reports have recently been published on genes involved in DNA repair and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with an increased breast cancer risk. Although candidate gene approaches demonstrated moderately increased breast cancer risks for rare mutations in genes involved in DNA repair (ATM, CHEK2, BRIP1, PALB2 and RAD50), genome-wide association studies identified several SNPs as low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms within genes as well as in chromosomal loci with no known genes (FGFR2, TOX3, LSP1, MAP3K1, TGFB1, 2q35 and 8q). Some of these low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms also act as modifier genes in BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers. This review not only outlines the recent key developments and potential clinical benefit for preventive management and therapy but also discusses the current limitations of genetic testing of variants associated with intermediate and low breast cancer risk.
Recent genome-wide scans identified several novel breast cancer risk alleles, including variants of the FGFR2, MAP3K1 and LSP1 genes, and a study of associations between these alleles and characteristics of breast cancer patients reported a borderline significant correlation between the number of FGFR2 minor alleles and family history of breast/ovarian cancer. Given these results and similarities in the etiology of breast and ovarian cancer, we examined the association between 7 novel breast cancer susceptibility alleles and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in 2 large study populations. Our analysis included 1,173 cases and 1,201 controls from a New England-based Case-Control study and 210 cases and 603 controls from the prospective Nurses' Health Study. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the minor allele at each locus, compared to individuals with the wild-type genotype. We examined the associations separately in each population and, after testing for heterogeneity in the results, pooled the estimates using a random effects model. There was no clear association between these polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk in either population. The pooled per allele OR for FGFR2 was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.95-1.18) for rs1219648 and 1.04 (95% CI=0.93-1.15) for rs2981582. We had more than 80% power to detect a log-additive OR of 1.16-1.18 per allele at the alpha=0.05 level in the pooled analysis. Our results do not provide strong support for an association between these breast cancer susceptibility alleles and epithelial ovarian cancer risk.
One purpose for seeking common alleles that are associated with disease is to use them to improve models for projecting individualized disease risk. Two genome-wide association studies and a study of candidate genes recently identified seven common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with breast cancer risk in independent samples. These seven SNPs were located in FGFR2, TNRC9 (now known as TOX3), MAP3K1, LSP1, CASP8, chromosomal region 8q, and chromosomal region 2q35. I used estimates of relative risks and allele frequencies from these studies to estimate how much these SNPs could improve discriminatory accuracy measured as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). A model with these seven SNPs (AUC = 0.574) and a hypothetical model with 14 such SNPs (AUC = 0.604) have less discriminatory accuracy than a model, the National Cancer Institute's Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT), that is based on ages at menarche and at first live birth, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast biopsy examinations (AUC = 0.607). Adding the seven SNPs to BCRAT improved discriminatory accuracy to an AUC of 0.632, which was, however, less than the improvement from adding mammographic density. Thus, these seven common alleles provide less discriminatory accuracy than BCRAT but have the potential to improve the discriminatory accuracy of BCRAT modestly. Experience to date and quantitative arguments indicate that a huge increase in the numbers of case patients with breast cancer and control subjects would be required in genome-wide association studies to find enough SNPs to achieve high discriminatory accuracy.
Recently, genome-wide association studies of breast cancer revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes with novel association to susceptibility. While there is little doubt that the novel susceptibility markers produced from such highly powered studies are true, the mechanisms by which they cause the susceptibility remain undetermined. We have looked at the expression levels of the identified genes in tumours and found that they are highly significantly differentially expressed between the five established breast cancer subtypes. Also, a significant association between SNPs in these genes and their expression in tumours was seen as well as a significantly different frequency of the SNPs between the subtypes. This suggests that the observed genes are associated with different breast cancer subtypes, and may exert their effect through their expression in the tumours. Thus, future studies stratifying patients by their molecular subtypes may give much more power to classic case control studies, and genes of no or borderline significance may appear to be high-penetrant for certain subtypes and, therefore, be identifiable.
Huijts PE, Vreeswijk MP, Kroeze-Jansema KH, et al.Clinical correlates of low-risk variants in FGFR2, TNRC9, MAP3K1, LSP1 and 8q24 in a Dutch cohort of incident breast cancer cases.
Breast Cancer Res. 2007; 9(6):R78 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: Seven SNPs in five genomic loci were recently found to confer a mildly increased risk of breast cancer.
METHODS: We have investigated the correlations between disease characteristics and the patient genotypes of these SNPs in an unselected prospective cohort of 1,267 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer.
RESULTS: Heterozygote carriers and minor allele homozygote carriers for SNP rs889312 in the MAP3K1 gene were less likely to be lymph node positive at breast cancer diagnosis (P = 0.044) relative to major allele homozygote carriers. Heterozygote carriers and minor allele homozygote carriers for SNP rs3803662 near the TNCR9 gene were more likely to be diagnosed before the age of 60 years (P = 0.025) relative to major allele homozygote carriers. We also noted a correlation between the number of minor alleles of rs2981582 in FGFR2 and the average number of first-degree and second-degree relatives with breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer (P = 0.05). All other disease characteristics, including tumour size and grade, and oestrogen or progesterone receptor status, were not significantly associated with any of these variants.
CONCLUSION: Some recently discovered genomic variants associated with a mildly increased risk of breast cancer are also associated with breast cancer characteristics or family history of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. These findings provide interesting new clues for further research on these low-risk susceptibility alleles.