Gene Summary

Gene:LMNA; lamin A/C
Summary:The nuclear lamina consists of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. The lamin family of proteins make up the matrix and are highly conserved in evolution. During mitosis, the lamina matrix is reversibly disassembled as the lamin proteins are phosphorylated. Lamin proteins are thought to be involved in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression. Vertebrate lamins consist of two types, A and B. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Mutations in this gene lead to several diseases: Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, familial partial lipodystrophy, limb girdle muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LMNA (cancer-related)

Iwanishi M, Kusakabe T, Azuma C, et al.
Clinical characteristics in two patients with partial lipodystrophy and Type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a novel heterozygous missense mutation in the insulin receptor gene.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019; 152:79-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The present report aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics in a girl at the age of 12 and her mother with partial lipodystrophy and Type A insulin resistance syndrome.
METHODS: We examined fat distribution in the patients using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography. We performed genetic analysis to examine the causal gene for lipodystrophy and insulin resistance.
RESULTS: Both patients had partial lipodystrophy and a novel heterozygous missense mutation (Asn
CONCLUSIONS: This case might help to understand the mechanisms insulin receptor dysfunction that cause lipodystrophy.

Rusak A, Jablonska K, Piotrowska A, et al.
Correlation of Expression of CHI3L1 and Nogo-A and their Role in Angiogenesis in Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2341-2350 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Chitinase 3 like 1 (CHI3L1) is a secretion glycoprotein. Elevated levels of this protein are observed in cancer diseases. The biological role of CHI3L1 is not yet fully known, but the connection between CHI3L1 and angiogenesis has been shown. Recent reports also describe the association of Nogo isoforms and Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) with a proliferative potential, cancer cell invasiveness, and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of CHI3L1, Nogo-A, Nogo-A/B, and NgBR and correlate them with clinical-pathological data, to study their role in angiogenesis in invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 77 IDC cases were used in the study. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the level of expression of CHI3L1, Nogo-A, Nogo-A/B, NgBR and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFA, VEGFC and VEGFD). The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis including clinicalpathological data.
RESULTS: A statistically significant positive correlation of CHI3L1 and Nogo-A expression (r=0.474, p>0.0001) and a positive correlation of Nogo-A and VEGFC expression (r=0.280, p=0.013) were found.
CONCLUSION: CHI3L1 and Nogo-A are important in angiogenesis in IDC.

Aras S, Maroun MC, Song Y, et al.
Mitochondrial autoimmunity and MNRR1 in breast carcinogenesis.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):411 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies function as markers of tumorigenesis and have been proposed to enhance early detection of malignancies. We recently reported, using immunoscreening of a T7 complementary DNA (cDNA) library of breast cancer (BC) proteins with sera from patients with BC, the presence of autoantibodies targeting several mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded subunits of the electron transport chain (ETC) in complexes I, IV, and V.
METHODS: In this study, we have characterized the role of Mitochondrial-Nuclear Retrograde Regulator 1 (MNRR1, also known as CHCHD2), identified on immunoscreening, in breast carcinogenesis. We assessed the protein as well as transcript levels of MNRR1 in BC tissues and in derived cell lines representing tumors of graded aggressiveness. Mitochondrial function was also assayed and correlated with the levels of MNRR1. We studied the invasiveness of BC derived cells and the effect of MNRR1 levels on expression of genes associated with cell proliferation and migration such as Rictor and PGC-1α. Finally, we manipulated levels of MNRR1 to assess its effect on mitochondria and on some properties linked to a metastatic phenotype.
RESULTS: We identified a nuclear DNA (nDNA)-encoded mitochondrial protein, MNRR1, that was significantly associated with the diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast by autoantigen microarray analysis. In focusing on the mechanism of action of MNRR1 we found that its level was nearly twice as high in malignant versus benign breast tissue and up to 18 times as high in BC cell lines compared to MCF10A control cells, suggesting a relationship to aggressive potential. Furthermore, MNRR1 affected levels of multiple genes previously associated with cancer metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: MNRR1 regulates multiple genes that function in cell migration and cancer metastasis and is higher in cell lines derived from aggressive tumors. Since MNRR1 was identified as an autoantigen in breast carcinogenesis, the present data support our proposal that both mitochondrial autoimmunity and MNRR1 activity in particular are involved in breast carcinogenesis. Virtually all other nuclear encoded genes identified on immunoscreening of invasive BC harbor an MNRR1 binding site in their promoters, thereby placing MNRR1 upstream and potentially making it a novel marker for BC metastasis.

Li JP, Zhang XM, Zhang Z, et al.
Association of p53 expression with poor prognosis in patients with triple-negative breast invasive ductal carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(18):e15449 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TP53 gene is mutated in approximately 80% of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, the prognostic significance of immunohistochemical (IHC)-detected p53 protein expression remains controversial in TNBC. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the association between IHC-detected p53 expression and the prognosis in a cohort of 278 patients with stage I-III triple-negative breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), who received surgery at the department of breast surgery in the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University from 2010-01 to 2012-12. We found a positive expression ratio of IHC-detected p53 in triple-negative breast IDC of 58.6% (163/278). Furthermore, levels of expression were significantly associated with vessel tumor emboli and higher histologic grade (P = .038, P = .043, respectively), with the highest expression level observed in G3 breast cancer (64.7%). Additionally, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that p53 expression indicated worse overall survival (OS) in the whole cohort (79.6% vs 89.6%, Log-rank test P = .025) as well as in stratified prognostic stage II patients (90.8% vs 100%, Log-rank test P = .027). The mortality risk of p53 expression patients was 2.22 times higher than that of p53 negative patients (HR: 2.222; 95%CI: 1.147-4.308). In addition, p53 expression was also associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS) (76.7% vs 86.8%, P = .020). Cox proportional hazard ratio model showed p53 expression was an independent risk factor for OS (P = .018) and DFS (P = .018) after controlling for tumor size, lymph node status, and vessel tumor emboli. Altogether, our data showed that IHC-detected p53 expression is a promising prognostic candidate for poor survival in triple-negative breast IDC patients. However, more studies are needed to determine if p53 may be applied to clinical practice as a biomarker and/or novel therapeutic target for TNBC.

Asiaf A, Ahmad ST, Malik AA, et al.
Association of Protein Expression and Methylation of DAPK1 with Clinicopathological Features in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Patients from Kashmir
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(3):839-848 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aims: Death-associated protein kinase-1 (DAPK1) is a pro-apoptotic Ser/Thr kinase that participates in cell apoptosis and tumor suppression. DAPK1 is frequently lost in many different tumor types including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the promoter methylation status of DAPK1 and a possible correlation with the expression of DAPK1 and standard clinicopathological features in invasive ductal breast carcinoma patients (IDC). Methods: Methylation Specific PCR (MSP) was carried out to investigate the promoter methylation status of DAPK1 from 128 breast cancer patients. The effect of promoter methylation on protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (n=128) and western blotting (n=56). Results: We found significant difference in DAPK1 promoter methylation frequency among breast tumors when compared with the corresponding normal tissues. Hypermethylation of DAPK1 is significantly correlated with the loss of DAPK1 protein expression (P < .001, rs= -0.361). The loss of DAPK1 protein was significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negativity (p= 0.003), triple negative breast cancer (TNB) (p= 0.024) and advanced tumor stages (P = 0.001). Moreover, age at diagnosis (p= 0.041), tumor stage (p= 0.034), ER negativity (p= 0.004) and TNB cancers (p=0.003) correlated significantly with the hypermethylation of the DAPK1 promoter. Coclusion: This study indicates that DAPK1 is methylated in IDC and promoter hypermethylation could be attributed to silencing of DAPK1 gene expression in breast cancer. Thus, we consider DAPK1 inactivation by promoter hypermethylation likely plays a role in the development and progression of breast cancer.

Myers MB, McKim KL, Banda M, et al.
Low-Frequency Mutational Heterogeneity of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Subtypes: Information to Direct Precision Oncology.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Information regarding the role of low-frequency hotspot cancer-driver mutations (CDMs) in breast carcinogenesis and therapeutic response is limited. Using the sensitive and quantitative Allele-specific Competitor Blocker PCR (ACB-PCR) approach, mutant fractions (MFs) of six CDMs (

Liu Y, Pandey PR, Sharma S, et al.
ID2 and GJB2 promote early-stage breast cancer progression by regulating cancer stemness.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 175(1):77-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer which could progress to or recur as invasive breast cancer. The underlying molecular mechanism of DCIS progression is yet poorly understood, and appropriate biomarkers to distinguish benign form of DCIS from potentially invasive tumor are urgently needed.
METHODS: To identify the key regulators of DCIS progression, we performed gene-expression analysis of syngeneic breast cancer cell lines MCF10A, DCIS.com, and MCF10CA and cross-referenced the targets with patient cohort data.
RESULTS: We identified ID2 as a critical gene for DCIS initiation and found that ID2 promoted DCIS formation by enhancing cancer stemness of pre-malignant cells. ID2 also plays a pivotal role in survival of the aggressive cancer cells. In addition, we identified INHBA and GJB2 as key regulators for the transition of benign DCIS to aggressive phenotype. These two genes regulate migration, colonization, and stemness of invasive cancer cells. Upregulation of ID2 and GJB2 predicts poor prognosis after breast-conserving surgery. Finally, we found a natural compound Helichrysetin as ID2 inhibitor which suppresses DCIS formation in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that ID2 is a key driver of DCIS formation and therefore is considered to be a potential target for prevention of DCIS, while INHBA and GJB2 play vital roles in progression of DCIS to IDC and they may serve as potential prognosis markers.

Liu Y, Ide Y, Inuzuka M, et al.
BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Japanese women with ductal carcinoma in situ.
Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(3):e493 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is considered a component of the clinical spectrum of breast cancer even in those with BRCA1/2 mutation. The aim of this study was to report the feature of DCIS raised in Japanese women with BRCA1/2 mutations.
METHODS: A total of 325 Japanese women with breast cancer (BC) (with or without invasive cancer) were referred for genetic counseling and underwent genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Showa University Hospital between December 2011 and August 2016. And 49 of them who were pathologically diagnosed as DCIS were included in this study. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the associations between potential predictive factors and BRCA status. A Cox proportional hazards model is used to predictive value of parameters for Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and contralateral breast tumor recurrence (CBTR).
RESULTS: (a) Of 325 patients (with or without invasive cancer), 19.1% (62/325) tested positive for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. And 18.4% (9/49) was positive for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in DCIS, compared with 19.2% (53/276) in IDC (p = 1.000). Among BRCA mutations, 14.5% (9/62) had DCIS compared with nonmutations (15.2%, 40/263). Incidence of DCIS was 3.0% (1/33) of BRCA1 mutations and 27.5% (8/29) of BRCA2 mutation (p = 0.009). (b) Median age of diagnosis in BRCA mutation carriers was 39 years, compared with 46 years in noncarriers. Age, Family history (FH) of BC, FH of first or second BC and total number of relatives with BC diagnosis (DX) has significant difference between BRCA mutation carriers and noncarriers in univariate analysis. In a multivariate logistic model, total relatives with BC DX ≥ 2 (odds ratio [OR], 5.128; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.266-20.763; p = 0.022), age at diagnosis ≤35 years (OR 0.149, 95% CI 0.023-0.954, p = 0.045) and ER+/HER2+ status (OR 5.034, 95% CI 1.092-23.210, p = 0.038) remained as independent significant predictors for BRCA mutation. Ki67 index (cut off by 14% or 30%) did not differ between BRCA mutation carriers and noncarriers (p = 0.459 and p = 0.651). (c) There was a significant difference in ER-positive tumors among BRCA2 carriers and noncarriers (p = 0.042). Subgroup analysis showed BRCA2 carriers tend to be of higher grade (Grade 2 and 3), more frequently ER+/PR+ (p = 0.041) and lower proliferation (Ki67 index) than noncarriers, whereas differences in nuclear grade and ki67 index were not found significantly in our study. (d) BRCA mutation was not associated with an increased risk of IBTR and CBTR.
CONCLUSION: DCIS is equally as prevalent in patients who were BRCA mutation carriers as in high familial-risk women who were noncarriers, but occurs at earlier age. BRCA2 carriers have higher incidence in DCIS than that of BRCA1 carriers, and tend to be higher grade and more frequently ER positive and lower proliferation. Total relatives with BC DX ≥2, age at diagnosis ≤35 years and ER+/HER2+ might be independent predictors for BRCA mutation in Japanese women with DCIS and patients of these risk factors should be recommended to receive genetic counseling and BRCA testing.

Peng JH, Zhang X, Song JL, et al.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduces the expression rates of ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, and P53 of invasive ductal carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(2):e13554 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
To analyze whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) changes the expression rates of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) markers: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), Ki67, and P53.This was a retrospective study of 112 IDC patients who underwent NAC (docetaxel+epirubicin/pirarubicin+cyclophosphamide) but without pathological complete response (pCR) in 2012 to 2013 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. The IDC subtypes and tumor protein markers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Specific changes in tumor protein markers before/after NAC were compared.The decrease in the positive rate of Ki-67 was the most significant, from 75.9% before NAC to 41.1% after NAC (P < .001). The positive rate of HER2 decreased from 42.0% before NAC to 32.1% after NAC (P = .04). The positive rate of ER decreased from 66.1% before NAC to 56.2% after NAC (P = .04). Increased number of metastatic lymph nodes (P = .006) and body mass index (BMI) (P = .028) seemed to be related to conversion of PR (positive to negative). There was statistical association between the Ki-67 (positive to negative) with the age greater or equal to 50 (P = .015). The BMI greater or equal to 24 (P = .021), age greater or equal to 50 (P = .047), and blood type A (P = .038) were independently associated with conversion of P53 (positive to negative). The BMI greater or equal to 24 (P = .004), number of metastatic lymph nodes greater or equal to 1 (P = .029) and TNM stages I-II (P = .008) were statistically associated with change of HER2 (positive to negative).In patients without pCR, NAC leads to changes in Ki-67, HER2, and hormone receptor (HR) expression. Age, BMI, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and TNM stage are associated with some changes of markers.

Zhu L, Chen K
Clinicopathological features, treatment patterns, and prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: an NCDB analysis.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast is a rare malignancy. The clinicopathological features, treatment patterns and prognosis of SCC of the breast is still unclear.
METHODS: In this study, we performed a 1:4 SCC-IDC (infiltrating ductal carcinoma) matching analysis of patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2014, using the data from the national cancer database. We used Chi-square test to compare the clinicopathological features and treatment patterns between SCC (n = 686) and IDC (n = 2744) patients. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox-regression to estimate the survival of SCC and IDC patients.
RESULTS: We observed that SCC patients are more likely to have T3-4, grade III, and ER negative diseases, when compared to IDC patients. Breast conserving surgery (BCS) (58.3% vs 65.4%, p = 0.048), as well as radiotherapy after BCS (65.3% vs. 83.0%, p < 0.001), was less performed in SCC patients. Among low-risk patients, chemotherapy was used more often for SCC patients (42.9%) than for IDC (18.7%) patients (p = 0.002). In HR-positive patients, endocrine therapy was used less often for SCC patients (51.6%) than for IDC patients (70.5%) (p < 0.001). SCC (vs. IDC) was associated with no responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (20% vs. 5.05%, p = 0.019). Adjusted analysis confirmed that SCC (vs. IDC) was associated with worse OS (HR = 1.40, 95%CI 1.17-1.67, P < 0.01), after a median follow-up of 58.3 months. In SCC patients, HR status is not prognostic of OS, but endocrine therapy was significantly associated with improved OS in HR-positive SCC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that SCC is associated with poorer clinicopathological features, no responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and worse clinical outcomes than IDC. The treatment patterns for SCC and IDC are different. Endocrine therapy is necessary for HR-positive SCC patients.

Alhudiri IM, Nolan CC, Ellis IO, et al.
Expression of Lamin A/C in early-stage breast cancer and its prognostic value.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 174(3):661-668 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Lamins A/C, a major component of the nuclear lamina, play key roles in maintaining nuclear integrity, regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Reduced lamin A/C expression in cancer has been reported to be a sign of poor prognosis. However, its clinical significance in breast cancer remains to be defined. This study aimed to evaluate expression and prognostic significance of lamin A/C in early-stage breast cancer.
METHODS: Using immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays, expression of lamin A/C was evaluated in a large well-characterised series of early-stage operable breast cancer (n = 938) obtained from Nottingham Primary Breast Carcinoma Series. Association of lamin A/C expression with clinicopathological parameters and outcome was evaluated.
RESULTS: Positive expression rate of lamin A/C in breast cancer was 42.2% (n = 398). Reduced/loss of expression of lamin A/C was significantly associated with high histological grade (p < 0.001), larger tumour size (p = 0.004), poor Nottingham Prognostic Index score (p < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.014) and development of distant metastasis (p = 0.027). Survival analysis showed that reduced/loss of expression of lamin A/C was significantly associated with shorter breast cancer-specific survival (p = 0.008).
CONCLUSION: This study suggests lamin A/C plays a role in breast cancer and loss of its expression is associated with variables of poor prognosis and shorter outcome.

Bertagnolo V, Grassilli S, Volinia S, et al.
Ectopic expression of PLC-β2 in non-invasive breast tumor cells plays a protective role against malignant progression and is correlated with the deregulation of miR-146a.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(5):708-721 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Cells in non-invasive breast lesions are widely believed to possess molecular alterations that render them either susceptible or refractory to the acquisition of invasive capability. One such alteration could be the ectopic expression of the β2 isoform of phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C (PLC-β2), known to counteract the effects of hypoxia in low-invasive breast tumor-derived cells. Here, we studied the correlation between PLC-β2 levels and the propensity of non-invasive breast tumor cells to acquire malignant features. Using archival FFPE samples and DCIS-derived cells, we demonstrate that PLC-β2 is up-regulated in DCIS and that its forced down-modulation induces an epithelial-to-mesenchymal shift, expression of the cancer stem cell marker CD133, and the acquisition of invasive properties. The ectopic expression of PLC-β2 in non-transformed and DCIS-derived cells is, to some extent, dependent on the de-regulation of miR-146a, a tumor suppressor miRNA in invasive breast cancer. Interestingly, an inverse relationship between the two molecules, indicative of a role of miR-146a in targeting PLC-β2, was not detected in primary DCIS from patients who developed a second invasive breast neoplasia. This suggests that alterations of the PLC-β2/miR-146a relationship in DCIS may constitute a molecular risk factor for the appearance of new breast lesions. Since neither traditional classification systems nor molecular characterizations are able to predict the malignant potential of DCIS, as is possible for invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), we propose that the assessment of the PLC-β2/miR-146a levels at diagnosis could be beneficial for identifying whether DCIS patients may have either a low or high propensity for invasive recurrence.

Kretschmer N, Deutsch A, Durchschein C, et al.
Comparative Gene Expression Analysis in WM164 Melanoma Cells Revealed That
Molecules. 2018; 23(11) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Skin cancer is currently diagnosed as one in every three cancers. Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, is responsible for 79% of skin cancer deaths and the incidence is rising faster than in any other solid tumor type. Previously, we have demonstrated that dimethylacrylshikonin (DMAS), isolated from the roots of

Yuniarti L, Mustofa M, Aryandono T, Haryana SM
Synergistic Action of 1,2-Epoxy-3 (3- (3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)- 4H-1-benzopiyran-4-on) Propane with Doxorubicin and Cisplatin through Increasing of p53, TIMP-3, and MicroRNA-34a in Cervical Cancer Cell Line (HeLa)
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(10):2955-2962 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Objective: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with a high mortality rate especially in developing countries. Insufficient treatment for cervical cancer, multiple side effects, and high drug prices encourage researchers to look for effective and selective cancer drugs with appropriate molecular targets. This study explored the cytotoxicity of (1,2-epoxy-3(3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-on) propane (EPI) synthesized from clove leaves oil on HeLa cells, its combination with doxorubicin (DOX) and cisplatin (CIS), and also their influence on p53, TIMP-3, and miR-34a as therapeutic targets. Materials and Methods: This research was an experimental in vitro study on cervical cancer uteri culture. The cytotoxicity was analyzed by MTT assay. The drug combination synergisms were indicated by the combination index (CI) (using CompuSyn 1.4). HeLa cells in 32 wells were divided into eight groups as negative control, which were given EPI ½IC50, EPI IC50, EPI 2IC50, DOX IC50, combination of EPI+DOX, CIS, and the combination of EPI+CIS. The p53 and TIMP-3 concentrations were measured using ELISA, and expressions of miR-34a with qRT-PCR. One-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were performed to determine the mean difference of all variables between the study groups. Results: IC50 for EPI was 33.24 (±3.01) μg/ml, while DOX and CIS were 4.8 μg/ml (±0.1), and 23.34 μg/ml (±3.01), respectively, while CI values for EPI-DOX were <0.1 and for EPI-CIS <0.9. Expression of p53 in group 6 (1.67±0.31) μg/ml and 8 (1.18±0.18) μg/ml, TIMP-3 6 (3.81±0.49) μg/ml and 8 (2.93±0.42) μg/ml were significantly higher compared to the control group (p<0.05). All treatment groups showed significantly increased miR-34a expressions compared to the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The combinations showed a very strong synergism and a moderate slight synergism for EPI-DOX and EPI-CIS. Both combinations were able to increase the expressions of p53, TIMP-3 proteins, and MiR-34a in the HeLa cells.

Kitamura M, Nakayama T, Mukaisho KI, et al.
Progression Potential of Ductal Carcinoma in situ Assessed by Genomic Copy Number Profiling.
Pathobiology. 2019; 86(2-3):92-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is heterogeneous in terms of the risk of progression to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). To treat DCIS appropriately for its progression risk, we classified individual DCIS by its profile of genomic changes into 2 groups and correlated them with clinicopathological progression factors.
METHODS: We used surgically resected, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of 22 DCIS and 30 IDC lesions. We performed immunohistochemical intrinsic subtyping, array-based comparative genomic hybridization, and unsupervised clustering.
RESULTS: The samples were divided into 2 major clusters, A and B. Cluster A showed a greater number of gene and chromosome copy number alterations, a larger IDC/DCIS ratio, a higher frequency of nonluminal subtype, a lower frequency of luminal subtype, and a higher nuclear grade, when compared with cluster B. However, there was no difference in the frequencies of lymph node metastasis between clusters A and B. We identified 9 breast-cancer-related genes, including TP53 and GATA3, that highly contributed to the discrimination of A and B clusters.
CONCLUSION: Classification of breast tumors into rapidly progressive cluster A and the other (cluster B) may contribute to select the treatment appropriate for their progression risk.

Gaowa S, Futamura M, Tsuneki M, et al.
Possible role of p53/Mieap-regulated mitochondrial quality control as a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(12):3910-3920 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Mitochondria-eating protein (Mieap), encoded by a p53-target gene, plays an important role in mitochondrial quality control (MQC). Mieap has been reported to have a critical role in tumor suppression in colorectal cancer. Here, we investigated its role as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer. The enforced expression of exogenous Mieap in breast cancer cells induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, with activation of both caspase-3/7 and caspase-9. Immunohistochemistry revealed endogenous Mieap in the cytoplasm in 24/75 (32%) invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), 15/27 (55.6%) cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 16/18 (88.9%) fibroadenomas (FA) (IDC vs DCIS; P = 0.0389, DCIS vs FA; P = 0.0234, IDC vs FA; P < 0.0001). In IDC, the Mieap promoter was methylated in 6/46 (13%) cases, whereas p53 was mutated in 6/46 (13%) cases. Therefore, the p53/Mieap-regulated MQC pathway was inactivated in 12/46 IDC (26.1%). Interestingly, all tumors derived from the 12 patients with Mieap promoter methylation or p53 mutations pathologically exhibited more aggressive and malignant breast cancer phenotypes. Impairment of p53/Mieap-regulated MQC pathway resulted in significantly shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.021), although p53 status is more prognostic in DFS than Mieap promoter methylation. These results indicate that p53/Mieap-regulated MQC has a critical role in tumor suppression in breast cancer, possibly in part through mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

Schultz S, Bartsch H, Sotlar K, et al.
Progression-specific genes identified in microdissected formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue containing matched ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal breast cancers.
BMC Med Genomics. 2018; 11(1):80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The transition from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive breast carcinoma (IBC) is an important step during breast carcinogenesis. Understanding its molecular changes may help to identify high-risk DCIS that progress to IBC. Here, we describe a transcriptomic profiling analysis of matched formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) DCIS and IBC components of individual breast tumours, containing both tumour compartments. The study was performed to validate progression-associated transcripts detected in an earlier gene profiling project using fresh frozen breast cancer tissue. In addition, FFPE tissues from patients with pure DCIS (pDCIS) were analysed to identify candidate transcripts characterizing DCIS with a high or low risk of progressing to IBC.
METHODS: Fifteen laser microdissected pairs of DCIS and IBC were profiled by Illumina DASL technology and used for expression validation by qPCR. Differential expression was independently validated using further 25 laser microdissected DCIS/IBC sample pairs. Additionally, laser microdissected epithelial cells from 31 pDCIS were investigated for expression of candidate transcripts using qPCR.
RESULTS: Multiple statistical calculation methods revealed 1784 mRNAs which are differentially expressed between DCIS and IBC (P < 0.05), of which 124 have also been identified in the gene profiling project using fresh frozen breast cancer tissue. Nine mRNAs that had been selected from the gene list obtained using fresh frozen tissues by applying pathway and network analysis (MMP11, GREM1, PLEKHC1, SULF1, THBS2, CSPG2, COL10A1, COL11A1, KRT14) were investigated in tissues from the same 15 microdissected specimens and the 25 independent tissue samples by qPCR. All selected transcripts were also detected in tumour cells from pDCIS. Expression of MMP11 and COL10A1 increased significantly from pDCIS to DCIS of DCIS/IBC mixed tumours.
CONCLUSION: We confirm differential expression of progression-associated transcripts in FFPE breast cancer samples which might mediate the transition from DCIS to IBC. MMP11 and COL10A1 may characterize pure DCIS with a high risk developing IDC.

Thiele JA, Hosek P, Kralovcova E, et al.
lncRNAs in Non-Malignant Tissue Have Prognostic Value in Colorectal Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer related death in Europe, clinically relevant biomarkers for therapy guidance and prognosis are insufficiently reliable. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNAs over 200 nucleotides long that are not translated into proteins but can influence biological processes. There is emerging evidence for their involvement in solid cancer as oncogenes, tumour suppressors or regulators of cell proliferation and metastasis development. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prognostic effect of selected lncRNAs in a retrospective study on CRC patients from the Czech Republic. We used a quantitative PCR approach to measure the expression in paired non-malignant and tumour tissue samples of CRC patients of nine lncRNAs previously shown to be involved in cancer progression-

Shah S, Brock EJ, Jackson RM, et al.
Downregulation of Rap1Gap: A Switch from DCIS to Invasive Breast Carcinoma via ERK/MAPK Activation.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(9):951-963 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
Diagnosis of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) presents a challenge since we cannot yet distinguish those cases that would remain indolent and not require aggressive treatment from cases that may progress to invasive ductal cancer (IDC). The purpose of this study is to determine the role of Rap1Gap, a GTPase activating protein, in the progression from DCIS to IDC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of samples from breast cancer patients shows an increase in Rap1Gap expression in DCIS compared to normal breast tissue and IDCs. In order to study the mechanisms of malignant progression, we employed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model that more accurately recapitulates both structural and functional cues of breast tissue. Immunoblotting results show that Rap1Gap levels in MCF10.Ca1D cells (a model of invasive carcinoma) are reduced compared to those in MCF10.DCIS (a model of DCIS). Retroviral silencing of Rap1Gap in MCF10.DCIS cells activated extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), induced extensive cytoskeletal reorganization and acquisition of mesenchymal phenotype, and enhanced invasion. Enforced reexpression of Rap1Gap in MCF10.DCIS-Rap1GapshRNA cells reduced Rap1 activity and reversed the mesenchymal phenotype. Similarly, introduction of dominant negative Rap1A mutant (Rap1A-N17) in DCIS-Rap1Gap shRNA cells caused a reversion to nonmalignant phenotype. Conversely, expression of constitutively active Rap1A mutant (Rap1A-V12) in noninvasive MCF10.DCIS cells led to phenotypic changes that were reminiscent of Rap1Gap knockdown. Thus, reduction of Rap1Gap in DCIS is a potential switch for progression to an invasive phenotype. The Graphical Abstract summarizes these findings.

Zhou N, Schäfer R, Li T, et al.
A primary undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the lumbosacral region harboring a LMNA-NTRK1 gene fusion with durable clinical response to crizotinib: a case report.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):842 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High-grade spindle cell sarcomas are a subtype of rare, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPSs) for which diagnosis is difficult and no specific treatment strategies have been established. The limited published data on UPSs suggest an aggressive clinical course, high rates of local recurrence and distant metastasis, and poor prognosis.
CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present the unusual case of a 45-year-old male patient with a lumbosacral UPS extending into the sacrum. An initial diagnosis of a low-grade malignant spindle cell tumor was based on a tumor core biopsy. After complete extensive resection, the diagnosis of an UPS of the lumbosacral region was confirmed by excluding other types of cancers. Despite treatment with neoadjuvant radiotherapy, extensive resection, and adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient presented with multiple pulmonary metastases 3 months after surgery. The patient then began treatment with crizotinib at an oral dose of 450 mg per day, based on the detection of a LMNA-NTRK1 fusion gene in the tumor by next-generation sequencing. Over 18 months of follow-up through July 2018, the patient maintained a near-complete clinical response to crizotinib.
CONCLUSIONS: The LMNA-NTRK1 fusion was likely the molecular driver of tumorigenesis and metastasis in this patient, and the observed effectiveness of crizotinib treatment provides clinical validation of this molecular target. Molecular and cytogenetic evaluations are critical to accurate prognosis and treatment planning in cases of UPS, especially when treatment options are limited or otherwise exhausted. Molecularly targeted therapy of these rare but aggressive lesions represents a novel treatment option that may lead to fewer toxic side effects and better clinical outcomes.

Hashemi-Sadraei N, Müller-Greven GM, Abdul-Karim FW, et al.
Expression of LC3B and FIP200/Atg17 in brain metastases of breast cancer.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 140(2):237-248 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Macroautophagy/autophagy is considered to play key roles in tumor cell evasion of therapy and establishment of metastases in breast cancer. High expression of LC3, a residual autophagy marker, in primary breast tumors has been associated with metastatic disease and poor outcome. FIP200/Atg17, a multi-functional pro-survival molecule required for autophagy, has been implicated in brain metastases in experimental models. However, expression of these proteins has not been examined in brain metastases from patients with breast cancer.
METHODS: In this retrospective study, specimens from 44 patients with brain metastases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast (IDC), unpaired samples from 52 patients with primary IDC (primary-BC) and 16 matched-paired samples were analyzed for LC3 puncta, expression of FIP200/Atg17, and p62 staining.
RESULTS: LC3-puncta
CONCLUSIONS: These results support assessments of precision medicine-guided targeting of autophagy in treatment of brain metastases in breast cancer patients.

Tadros AB, Wen HY, Morrow M
Breast Cancers of Special Histologic Subtypes Are Biologically Diverse.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2018; 25(11):3158-3164 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Cancers classified as "special histologic subtypes" are felt to have a good prognosis. We used the 21-gene Oncotype DX Breast Recurrence Score
METHODS: 610,350 tumor specimens examined in the Genomic Health clinical laboratory from 2/2004 to 8/2017 were included. Specimen histology was classified centrally using a single H&E slide and World Health Organization criteria. RS distribution (low < 18, intermediate 18-30, and high ≥ 31) was compared among histologic subtypes.
RESULTS: Median patient age was 60 years (IQR 51-67); 80% were node negative. Most patients had low RS results (59.2%); only 9.5% had high results. The lowest mean RS was seen in the papillary subtype (11); the highest in the IDC group (18.4). Mean RS for all special subtypes was lower than that of IDC patients. When the high RS threshold was decreased from 31 to 25, as used in the TAILORx and RxPONDER trials, the number of high RS-result patients increased from 9.5% to 16.8%. Patients with ILC had a lower mean RS result than patients with IDC, 16.5 versus 18.4.
CONCLUSION: There is substantial diversity in predicted prognosis among patients with cancers classified as special histologic subtypes, with 12-25% having intermediate RS results and 0.5-9% having high RS results. Pending further definition of the role of chemotherapy for patients with intermediate RS results by TAILORx and RxPONDER, the RS result may help to inform systemic therapy decisions in these patients.

Graff-Baker AN, Orozco JIJ, Marzese DM, et al.
Epigenomic and Transcriptomic Characterization of Secondary Breast Cancers.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2018; 25(10):3082-3087 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Molecular alterations impact tumor prognosis and response to treatment. This study was designed to identify transcriptomic and epigenomic signatures of breast cancer (BC) tumors from patients with any prior malignancy.
METHODS: RNA-sequencing and genome-wide DNA methylation profiles from BCs were generated in the Cancer Genome Atlas project. Patients with secondary breast cancer (SBC) were separated by histological subtype and matched to primary breast cancer controls to create two independent cohorts of invasive ductal (IDC, n = 36) and invasive lobular (ILC, n = 40) carcinoma. Differentially expressed genes, as well as differentially methylated genomic regions, were integrated to identify epigenetically regulated abnormal gene pathways in SBCs.
RESULTS: Differentially expressed genes were identified in IDC SBCs (n = 727) and in ILC SBCs (n = 261; Wilcoxon's test; P < 0.05). In IDC SBCs, 105 genes were upregulated and hypomethylated, including an estrogen receptor gene, and 73 genes were downregulated and hypermethylated, including genes involved in antigen presentation and interferon response pathways (HLA-E, IRF8, and RELA). In ILC SBCs, however, only 17 genes were synchronously hypomethylated and upregulated, whereas 46 genes hypermethylated and downregulated. Interestingly, the SBC gene expression signatures closely corresponded with each histological subtype with only 1.51% of genes overlapping between the two histological subtypes.
CONCLUSIONS: Differential gene expression and DNA methylation signatures are seen in both IDC and ILC SBCs, including genes that are relevant to tumor growth and proliferation. Differences in gene expression signatures corresponding with each histological subtype emphasize the importance of disease subtype-specific evaluations of molecular alterations.

Kylmä AK, Jouhi L, Listyarifah D, et al.
Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like protease as associated with HPV-negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(1):89-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: An opportunistic oral pathogen, Treponema denticola (Td), has been linked to orodigestive carcinogenesis, but its role in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has remained open. We evaluated the presence of Td chymotrypsin-like protease (Td-CTLP) in a series of 201 unselected consecutive OPSCC patients, and the relation of the Td-CTLP to human papillomavirus (HPV) status, to expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 5, 7, and 9, and to clinical parameters and patient outcome.
METHODS: Clinicopathological data came from hospital registries. The expression of cell surface-bound Td-CTLP was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Immunoexpression of TLRs 5, 7, and 9, and HPV status we studied earlier in this patient series.
RESULTS: We detected Td-CTLP in 81% of the OPSCC, and especially in HPV-negative tumours (48% of all OPSCCs). Among the HPV-positive tumours (52% of all OPSCCs), low Td-CTLP expression associated with low TLR 5 and high TLR 7 expression. Among those HPV-negative, higher TLR 5 and lower TLR 7 expression associated with high Td-CTLP expression. Strong Td-CTLP expression associated with poor disease-specific survival, but no similar association among HPV-positive and HPV-negative subgroups emerged.
CONCLUSIONS: Td-CTLP was highly expressed in OPSCC and was associated with the HPV status of tumour tissue.

Rusak A, Jablonska K, Piotrowska A, et al.
The Role of CHI3L1 Expression in Angiogenesis in Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(6):3357-3366 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: An increased level of chitinase 3 like 1 protein (CHI3L1) expression is observed in patients with cancer and may have potential prognostic value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CHI3L1 in angiogenesis in invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) (n=110).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of CHI3L1, CD31, CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA, VEGFC and VEGFD). Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot were used to determine the level of CHI3L1 mRNA and protein.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positive correlation between CHI3L1 expression and angiogenesis markers: CD31 (r=0.34, p=0.0003), CD34 (r=0.24, p=0.012), VEGFD (r=0.24, p=0.013). Higher CHI3L1 expression in estrogen receptor-negative (p=0.041) and progesterone receptor-negative (p=0.014) cancer was observed. Higher CHI3L1 expression was reported in cancer tissues in comparison to non-malignant breast lesions.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest a potential role of CHI3L1 in angiogenesis in IDC and may suggest its involvement in cancer progression.

Da Ros L, Moretti A, Querzoli P, et al.
HER2-Positive Lobular Versus Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast: Pattern of First Recurrence and Molecular Insights.
Clin Breast Cancer. 2018; 18(5):e1133-e1139 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Infiltrating lobular carcinoma (ILC) represents about 10% of breast cancer and rarely shows overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). We compared biological and clinical characteristics of HER2-positive ILC versus HER2-positive infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 328 patients with HER2-positive pure ductal or lobular breast carcinoma, comparing clinical and biological data at diagnosis as well as outcome between the 2 histologies. A gene-mutation analysis was performed in a subset of patients.
RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-one patients (88.7%) had IDC and 37 patients (11.3%) ILC. ILC resulted more frequently in multicenter (24.3% vs. 6.5%, P < .0001) and node-positive (54.1% vs. 45%, P = .013) disease of lower proliferative activity (Mib1 < 20%: 51.4% vs. 22.3%, P < .0001) and lower histologic grade (grade 3: 32.4% vs. 57.4%, P = .038). Disease recurred in 57 patients (17.4%) and involved the bone in 40% of ILC patients (vs. 17% of IDC patients) and the viscera in 30% of ILC patients (vs. 59.6% of IDC patients). No difference in the recurrence rate between the 2 histologies was observed in patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab (12.5% of ILC patients and 8.3% of IDC patients). Exploratory molecular analysis revealed a higher frequency of mutations in ILC, with more cases of multiple mutations.
CONCLUSION: HER2-positive ILC shows different biological behavior than IDC, with a possible higher mutation load. Despite lower proliferation activity and estrogen receptor expression in ILC breast cancer, trastuzumab is clearly an effective therapy for this histologic subtype.

Bharti R, Dey G, Das AK, Mandal M
Differential expression of IL-6/IL-6R and MAO-A regulates invasion/angiogenesis in breast cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 118(11):1442-1452 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are mitochondrial enzymes functioning in oxidative metabolism of monoamines. The action of MAO-A has been typically described in neuro-pharmacological domains. Here, we have established a co-relation between IL-6/IL-6R and MAO-A and their regulation in hypoxia induced invasion/angiogenesis.
METHODS: We employed various in-vitro and in-vivo techniques and clinical samples.
RESULTS: We studied a co-relation among MAO-A and IL-6/IL-6R and tumour angiogenesis/invasion in hypoxic environment in breast cancer model. Activation of IL-6/IL-6R and its downstream was found in hypoxic cancer cells. This elevation of IL-6/IL-6R caused sustained inhibition of MAO-A in hypoxic environment. Inhibition of IL-6R signalling or IL-6R siRNA increased MAO-A activity and inhibited tumour angiogenesis and invasion significantly in different models. Further, elevation of MAO-A with 5-azacytidine (5-Aza) modulated IL-6 mediated angiogenesis and invasive signatures including VEGF, MMPs and EMT in hypoxic breast cancer. High grade invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) clinical specimen displayed elevated level of IL-6R and depleted MAO-A expression. Expression of VEGF and HIF-1α was unregulated and loss of E-Cadherin was observed in high grade IDC tissue specimen.
CONCLUSIONS: Suppression of MAO-A by IL-6/IL-6R activation promotes tumour angiogenesis and invasion in hypoxic breast cancer environment.

Nindrea RD, Harahap WA, Aryandono T, Lazuardi L
Association of BRCA1 Promoter Methylation with Breast Cancer in Asia: A Meta- Analysis
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(4):885-889 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the degree of association of BRCA1 promoter methylation with breast cancer in Asia. Methods: The study sample for the present meta-analysis was provided by published research articles on associations of BRCA1 promoter methylation with breast cancer in Asia accessed through databases on PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO published between 1997 and November 2017. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were calculated with fixed and random-effect models. Data were processed using Review Manager 5.3 (RevMan 5.3). Results: Of a total of 475 articles, 11 studies were included in our systematic review with meta-analysis of relevant data. The results showed a highly significant association between BRCA1 promoter methylation with breast cancer in Asia (OR = 8.78 [95% CI 4.15-18.56, p < 0.00001]). Conclusion: This analysis confirmed association between BRCA1 promoter methylation and breast cancer in Asia. BRCA1 promoter assessment might be a predictive or diagnostic aid for breast cancer prediction.

Swellam M, El Magdoub HM, Hassan NM, et al.
Potential diagnostic role of circulating MiRNAs in breast cancer: Implications on clinicopathological characters.
Clin Biochem. 2018; 56:47-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating miRNAs are stable in body fluids and resembles their levels in cancer tissue/cells. They have been expressed in many cancers among them is breast cancer. Authors aimed to investigate the expression levels of three circulating oncomiRNAs (miRNA-21, miRNA-222 and miRNA-373) in serum samples as a minimally non-invasive method for early detection of breast cancer, and study their relation with clinicopathological characters.
METHODS: MiRNAs expression levels were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in serum samples from three groups: primary breast cancer patients (n = 137), benign breast lesion patients (n = 60), and healthy individuals as control group (n = 38). Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS.
RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between the expression levels of the studied miRNAs in the investigated groups, as their median levels were increased in breast cancer patients followed by benign group patients then the healthy individuals. MiRNA-373 reported the highest diagnostic efficacy as compared to miRNA-21 and miRNA-222 with high area under the curve (AUC equals 0.987). The relation between tested miRNAs and clinicopathological factors revealed significant difference with clinical stages and histological grades. Level of miRNA-21 and miRNA-373 were statistically significantly higher in invasive duct carcinoma (IDC) as compared to non-IDC. Similarly, their levels were increased in lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01). MiRNA-222 and miRNA-373 were significantly increased in positive PgR and positive Her-2/neu status, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Assessment of miRNAs in serum samples can be applied as minimally non-invasive markers for early detection of breast cancer, and as discriminator between different clinicopathological characters.

Kassardjian A, Shintaku PI, Moatamed NA
Expression of immune checkpoint regulators, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), in female breast carcinomas.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0195958 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint regulators, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed cell death protein-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) have emerged as promising new targets for cancer therapeutics. While tumor expression of PD-L1 has been shown to have objective responses to anti-PD-L1 immunotherapies, the clinical implications of CTLA-4 expression in tumor cells or immune cells in the tumor microenvironment is still controversial. We investigated the expression of CTLA-4 and PD-L1 in human breast tumors and provided a scoring system for the systematic evaluation of CTLA-4 staining.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for PD-L1 and CTLA-4 expression was performed on a tissue microarray of 102 cores, which included normal and neoplastic breast tissues. Neoplastic cores were divided into four groups: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive tubular carcinoma (ITC). PD-L1 and CTLA-4 expressions were scored based on a system which accounted for the percentage and intensity of positivity and results provided in conjunction with available clinical and demographic data.
RESULTS: Overall, CTLA-4 was over-expressed in 49 of 93 (52.7%) breast tumors. Subcategorically, CTLA-4 was positive in 3 of 8 (37.5%) ductal carcinoma in situ, 40 of 73 (55%) of invasive ductal carcinomas, 4 of 10 (40%) of invasive lobular carcinomas and 2 of 2 (100%) of invasive tubular carcinomas. All 6 normal breast tissues were interpreted as negative for CTLA-4 staining. Only 4.1% of the invasive ductal carcinomas were positive for PD-L1 reactivity and the remaining carcinomas stained negative.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a significant overexpression of CTLA-4 in >50% of breast carcinomas with no such overexpression of CTLA-4 in benign breast tissues. PDL-1 staining is seen in only a small number of invasive ductal carcinomas (4.1%). These findings suggest the need for further investigation of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-L1 immunotherapies and their efficacy in the treatment of breast carcinomas with overexpression of these immune modulators. In addition, the proposed scoring system will facilitate a more systematic correlation between tumor reactivity and clinical outcome which can be applied to all intracytoplasmic tumor markers.

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