Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: AFF3 (cancer-related)
BACKGROUND: Although tamoxifen is a highly effective drug for treating estrogen receptor-positive (ER
METHODS: We investigated AFF3 expression in breast cancer cells and in clinical breast cancer specimens with western blot and Real-time PCR. We also examined the effects of AFF3 knockdown and overexpression on breast cancer cells using luciferase, tetrazolium, colony formation, and anchorage-independent growth assays in vitro and with nude mouse xenografting in vivo.
RESULTS: AFF3 was overexpressed in tamoxifen-resistant tumors. AFF3 overexpression in breast cancer cells resulted in tamoxifen resistance, whereas RNA interference-mediated gene knockdown reversed this phenotype. Furthermore, AFF3 upregulation led to estrogen-independent growth in the xenograft assays. Mechanistic investigations revealed that AFF3 overexpression activated the ER signaling pathway and transcriptionally upregulated a subset of ER-regulated genes. Clinical analysis showed that increased AFF3 expression in ER
CONCLUSIONS: These studies establish AFF3 as a key mediator of estrogen-independent growth and tamoxifen resistance and as a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target.
Chen Y, Wang X, Wang G, et al.Integrating multiple omics data for the discovery of potential Beclin-1 interactions in breast cancer.
Mol Biosyst. 2017; 13(5):991-999 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Breast cancer has been reported as one of the most frequently diagnosed malignant diseases and the leading cause of cancer death in women all around the world. Furthermore, this complicated cancer is divided into multiple subtypes which present different clinical symptoms and need correspondingly directed therapy. We took BECN1, a core gene in autophagy performing a tumor inhibitory effect, as a starting point. The study in this paper aims to identify genes related to breast cancer and its multiple subtypes by integrating multiple omics data using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), which is a statistical method that can integrate more than two types of omics data. All the data is obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) platform which stores clinical and molecular tumor data. The model constructed is based on three kinds of data including mRNA-gene expression with a dependent variable level, DNA methylation and copy number alterations as independent variables. Finally, we propose four subnets of four subtypes of breast cancer, and consider as a result of microarray analysis that AFF3 is associated with BECN1 in breast cancer, and may be a potential therapeutic target. This finding may provide some potential targeted therapeutics for the four different subtypes of breast cancer at the genetic level. In conclusion, finding out the major role Beclin-1 plays in breast cancer subtypes is of great value. The results obtained are instructive for further research and may provide excellent results in clinical applications, as well as testing in animal experiments, and may also indicate a new method to perform bioinformatics analysis.
RNA binding proteins (RBPs) have been implicated in cancer development. An integrated bioinformatics analysis of RBPs (n = 1756) in various datasets (n = 11) revealed several genetic and epigenetically altered events among RBPs in glioblastoma (GBM). We identified 13 mutated and 472 differentially regulated RBPs in GBM samples. Mutations in AHNAK predicted poor prognosis. Copy number variation (CNV), DNA methylation and miRNA targeting contributed to RBP differential regulation. Two sets of differentially regulated RBPs that may be implicated in initial astrocytic transformation and glioma progression were identified. We have also identified a four RBP (NOL3, SUCLG1, HERC5 and AFF3) signature, having a unique expression pattern in glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), to be an independent poor prognostic indicator in GBM. RBP risk score derived from the signature also stratified GBM into low-risk and high-risk groups with significant survival difference. Silencing NOL3, SUCLG1 and HERC5 inhibited GSC maintenance. Gene set enrichment analysis of differentially regulated genes between high-risk and low-risk underscored the importance of inflammation, EMT and hypoxia in high-risk GBM. Thus, we provide a comprehensive overview of genetic and epigenetic regulation of RBPs in glioma development and progression.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2, FGF4, FGF7 and FGF20 are representative paracrine FGFs binding to heparan-sulfate proteoglycan and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), whereas FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 are endocrine FGFs binding to Klotho and FGFRs. FGFR1 is relatively frequently amplified and overexpressed in breast and lung cancer, and FGFR2 in gastric cancer. BCR-FGFR1, CNTRL-FGFR1, CUX1-FGFR1, FGFR1OP-FGFR1, MYO18A-FGFR1 and ZMYM2-FGFR1 fusions in myeloproliferative neoplasms are non-receptor-type FGFR kinases, whereas FGFR1-TACC1, FGFR2-AFF3, FGFR2-BICC1, FGFR2-PPHLN1, FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 and FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in solid tumors are transmembrane-type FGFRs with C-terminal alterations. AZD4547, BGJ398 (infigratinib), Debio-1347 and dovitinib are FGFR1/2/3 inhibitors; BLU9931 is a selective FGFR4 inhibitor; FIIN-2, JNJ-42756493, LY2874455 and ponatinib are pan-FGFR inhibitors. AZD4547, dovitinib and ponatinib are multi-kinase inhibitors targeting FGFRs, colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)R2, and others. The tumor microenvironment consists of cancer cells and stromal/immune cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), endothelial cells, M2-type tumor-associating macrophages (M2-TAMs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells. FGFR inhibitors elicit antitumor effects directly on cancer cells, as well as indirectly through the blockade of paracrine signaling. The dual inhibition of FGF and CSF1 or VEGF signaling is expected to enhance the antitumor effects through the targeting of immune evasion and angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. Combination therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (FGFR or CSF1R inhibitors) and immune checkpoint blockers (anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies) may be a promising choice for cancer patients. The inhibition of FGF19-FGFR4 signaling is associated with a risk of liver toxicity, whereas the activation of FGF23-FGFR4 signaling is associated with a risk of heart toxicity. Endocrine FGF signaling affects the pathophysiology of cancer patients who are prescribed FGFR inhibitors. Whole-genome sequencing is necessary for the detection of promoter/enhancer alterations of FGFR genes and rare alterations of other genes causing FGFR overexpression. To sustain the health care system in an aging society, a benefit-cost analysis should be performed with a focus on disease-free survival and the total medical cost before implementing genome-based precision medicine for cancer patients.
Hofvander J, Tayebwa J, Nilsson J, et al.RNA sequencing of sarcomas with simple karyotypes: identification and enrichment of fusion transcripts.
Lab Invest. 2015; 95(6):603-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Gene fusions are neoplasia-associated mutations arising from structural chromosomal rearrangements. They have a strong impact on tumor development and constitute important diagnostic markers. Malignant soft tissue tumors (sarcomas) constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with >50 distinct subtypes, each of which is rare. In addition, there is considerable morphologic overlap between sarcomas and benign lesions. Several subtypes display distinct gene fusions, serving as excellent biomarkers. The development of methods for deep sequencing of the complete transcriptome (RNA-Seq) has substantially improved the possibilities for detecting gene fusions. With the aim of identifying new gene fusions of biological and clinical relevance, eight sarcomas with simple karyotypes, ie, only one or a few structural rearrangements, were subjected to massively parallel paired-end sequencing of mRNA. Three different algorithms were used to identify fusion transcripts from RNA-Seq data. Three novel (KIAA2026-NUDT11, CCBL1-ARL1, and AFF3-PHF1) and two previously known fusions (FUS-CREB3L2 and HAS2-PLAG1) were found and could be verified by other methods. These findings show that RNA-Seq is a powerful tool for detecting gene fusions in sarcomas but also suggest that it is advisable to use more than one algorithm to analyze the output data as only two of the confirmed fusions were reported by more than one of the gene fusion detection software programs. For all of the confirmed gene fusions, at least one of the genes mapped to a chromosome band implicated by the karyotype, suggesting that sarcomas with simple karyotypes constitute an excellent resource for identifying novel gene fusions.
Intrinsic and acquired resistance to the monoclonal antibody drug trastuzumab is a major problem in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms could help to develop new agents. Our intention was to detect genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting trastuzumab efficiency in cell culture. Three HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines with different resistance phenotypes were analyzed. We chose BT474 as model of trastuzumab sensitivity, HCC1954 as model of intrinsic resistance, and BTR50, derived from BT474, as model of acquired resistance. Based on RNA-Seq data, we performed differential expression analyses on these cell lines with and without trastuzumab treatment. Differentially expressed genes between the resistant cell lines and BT474 are expected to contribute to resistance. Differentially expressed genes between untreated and trastuzumab treated BT474 are expected to contribute to drug efficacy. To exclude false positives from the candidate gene set, we removed genes that were also differentially expressed between untreated and trastuzumab treated BTR50. We further searched for SNPs in the untreated cell lines which could contribute to trastuzumab resistance. The analysis resulted in 54 differentially expressed candidate genes that might be connected to trastuzumab efficiency. 90% of 40 selected candidates were validated by RT-qPCR. ALPP, CALCOCO1, CAV1, CYP1A2 and IGFBP3 were significantly higher expressed in the trastuzumab treated than in the untreated BT474 cell line. GDF15, IL8, LCN2, PTGS2 and 20 other genes were significantly higher expressed in HCC1954 than in BT474, while NCAM2, COLEC12, AFF3, TFF3, NRCAM, GREB1 and TFF1 were significantly lower expressed. Additionally, we inferred SNPs in HCC1954 for CAV1, PTGS2, IL8 and IGFBP3. The latter also had a variation in BTR50. 20% of the validated subset have already been mentioned in literature. For half of them we called and analyzed SNPs. These results contribute to a better understanding of trastuzumab action and resistance mechanisms.
The elongation stage of transcription is highly regulated in metazoans. We previously purified the AFF1- and AFF4-containing super elongation complex (SEC) as a major regulator of development and cancer pathogenesis. Here, we report the biochemical isolation of SEC-like 2 (SEC-L2) and SEC-like 3 (SEC-L3) containing AFF2 and AFF3 in association with P-TEFb, ENL/MLLT1, and AF9/MLLT3. The SEC family members demonstrate high levels of polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain kinase activity; however, only SEC is required for the proper induction of the HSP70 gene upon stress. Genome-wide mRNA-Seq analyses demonstrated that SEC-L2 and SEC-L3 control the expression of different subsets of genes, while AFF4/SEC plays a more dominant role in rapid transcriptional induction in cells. MYC is one of the direct targets of AFF4/SEC, and SEC recruitment to the MYC gene regulates its expression in different cancer cells, including those in acute myeloid or lymphoid leukemia. These findings suggest that AFF4/SEC could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of leukemia or other cancers associated with MYC overexpression.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to better understand how mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion proteins deregulate the expression of genes critical for leukemia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The transforming domain of one of the most common MLL fusion partners, AF9, was immunopurified after expression in myeloblastic M1 cells, and associating proteins were identified by mass spectrometric analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine how binding of associating proteins compare across Hoxa9 and Meis1 in cell lines with and without MLL fusion proteins and how binding is altered during gene down-regulation and differentiation.
RESULTS: Consistent with earlier purifications of ENL and AF4 from 293 cells, the 90 amino acid C-terminal domain of AF9 associates with many other MLL translocation partners including Enl, Af4, Laf4, Af5q31, Ell, and Af10. This complex, termed elongation assisting proteins (EAPs), also contains the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain kinase Cdk9/Cyclin T1/T2 (pTEFb) and the histone H3 lysine 79 methyltransferase Dot1L. Myeloid cells transformed by MLL fusions show higher levels and a broader distribution of EAP components at genes critical for leukemia. Inhibition of EAP components pTEFb and Dot1l show that both contribute significantly to activation of Hoxa9 and Meis1 expression. EAP is dynamically associated with the Hoxa9 and Meis1 loci in hematopoietic cells and rapidly dissociates during induction of differentiation. In the presence of MLL fusion proteins, its dissociation is prevented.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that MLL fusion proteins deregulate genes critical for leukemia by excessive recruitment and impaired dissociation of EAP from target loci.
Zhang L, Zhong K, Dai Y, Zhou HGenome-wide analysis of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation by ChIP-chip in gastric cancer patients.
J Gastroenterol. 2009; 44(4):305-12 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) is a posttranslational modification that is highly correlated with genomic silencing. In gastric cancer (GC), global and gene-specific DNA methylation changes have been demonstrated to occur. However, to date, our understanding of the alterations in H3K27me3 in GC is incomplete. This study aimed to investigate the variations in H3K27me3 in CpG island regions between gastric cancerous and matched non-cancerous tissues.
METHODS: H3K27me3 variations were analyzed in eight pairs of GC and adjacent normal tissues, from eight GC patients, using a chromatin immunoprecipitation linked to the microarray (ChIP-chip) approach. ChIP-real time PCR was used to validate the microrray results. In addition, DNA methylation status also was further analyzed by methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: One hundred twenty-eight (119 increased and 9 decreased H3K27me3) genes displaying significant H3K27me3 differences were found between GC and adjacent normal tissues. The results of ChIP-real time PCR coincided well with those of microarray. Aberrant DNA methylation can also be found on selected randomly positive genes (MMP15, UNC5B, SHH, AFF3, and RB1).
CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that there are significant alterations of H3K27me3 in gastric cancerous tissues, which may help clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of GC. Such novel findings show the significance of H3K27me3 as a potential biomarker or promising target for epigenetic-based GC therapies.
Impera L, Albano F, Lo Cunsolo C, et al.A novel fusion 5'AFF3/3'BCL2 originated from a t(2;18)(q11.2;q21.33) translocation in follicular lymphoma.
Oncogene. 2008; 27(47):6187-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma is the second most frequent type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in adults. The basic molecular defect consists of the t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation, juxtaposing the B-cell lymphoma protein 2 gene BCL2 to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus IGH@, and leading to the antiapoptotic BCL2 protein overproduction. Variations in the t(14;18) are rare and can be classified into two categories: (i) simple variants, involving chromosomes 18 and 2, or 22, in which the fusion partner of BCL2 is the light-chain IGK@ or IGL@; (ii) complex variant translocations occurring among chromosomes 14, 18 and other chromosomes. We report a follicular lymphoma case showing BCL2 overexpression, detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR, consequently to the formation of a novel fusion gene between the 5' of the lymphoid nuclear transcriptional activator gene AFF3 at 2q11.2, and the 3' of BCL2. This case shows evidence, for the first time, of BCL2 overexpression consequently to the fusion of BCL2 to a non-IG partner locus.
Chinen Y, Taki T, Nishida K, et al.Identification of the novel AML1 fusion partner gene, LAF4, a fusion partner of MLL, in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(2;21)(q11;q22) by bubble PCR method for cDNA.
Oncogene. 2008; 27(15):2249-56 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The AML1 gene is frequently rearranged by chromosomal translocations in acute leukemia. We identified that the LAF4 gene on 2q11.2-12 was fused to the AML1 gene on 21q22 in a pediatric patient having T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with t(2;21)(q11;q22) using the bubble PCR method for cDNA. The genomic break points were within intron 7 of AML1 and of LAF4, resulting in the in-frame fusion of exon 7 of AML1 and exon 8 of LAF4. The LAF4 gene is a member of the AF4/FMR2 family and was previously identified as a fusion partner of MLL in B-precursor ALL with t(2;11)(q11;q23), although AML1-LAF4 was in T-ALL. LAF4 is the first gene fused with both AML1 and MLL in acute leukemia. Almost all AML1 translocations except for TEL-AML1 are associated with myeloid leukemia; however, AML1-LAF4 was associated with T-ALL as well as AML1-FGA7 in t(4;21)(q28;q22). These findings provide new insight into the common mechanism of AML1 and MLL fusion proteins in the pathogenesis of ALL. Furthermore, we successfully applied bubble PCR to clone the novel AML1-LAF4 fusion transcript. Bubble PCR is a powerful tool for detecting unknown fusion transcripts as well as genomic fusion points.
Bitoun E, Oliver PL, Davies KEThe mixed-lineage leukemia fusion partner AF4 stimulates RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation and mediates coordinated chromatin remodeling.
Hum Mol Genet. 2007; 16(1):92-106 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AF4 gene, frequently translocated with mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) in childhood acute leukemia, encodes a putative transcriptional activator of the AF4/LAF4/FMR2 (ALF) protein family previously implicated in lymphopoiesis and Purkinje cell function in the cerebellum. Here, we provide the first evidence for a direct role of AF4 in the regulation of transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). We demonstrate that mouse Af4 functions as a positive regulator of Pol II transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) kinase and, in complex with MLL fusion partners Af9, Enl and Af10, as a mediator of histone H3-K79 methylation by recruiting Dot1 to elongating Pol II. These pathways are interconnected and tightly regulated by the P-TEFb-dependent phosphorylation of Af4, Af9 and Enl which controls their transactivation activity and/or protein stability. Consistently, increased levels of phosphorylated Pol II and methylated H3-K79 are observed in the ataxic mouse mutant robotic, an over-expression model of Af4. Finally, we confirm the functional relevance of Af4, Enl and Af9 to the regulation of gene transcription as their over-expression strongly stimulates P-TEFb-dependent transcription of a luciferase reporter gene. Our findings uncover a central role for these proteins in the regulation of transcriptional elongation and coordinated histone methylation, providing valuable insight into their contribution to leukemogenesis and neurodegeneration. Since these activities likely extend to the entire ALF protein family, this study also significantly inputs our understanding of the molecular basis of FRAXE mental retardation syndrome in which FMR2 expression is silenced.
To MD, Faseruk SA, Gokgoz N, et al.LAF-4 is aberrantly expressed in human breast cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2005; 115(4):568-74 [PubMed
] Related Publications
LAF-4, which encodes a nuclear protein with transactivation potential, is fused to the MLL gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We identified LAF-4 as a gene that is transcriptionally deregulated in breast tumors and thus may have a pathological role in mammary tumorigenesis. In line with the previous finding that LAF-4 expression is tissue specific, we did not detect any LAF-4 mRNA in normal mammary epithelial cell lines. However, 2 of 5 breast cancer cell lines were found to express LAF-4 at both the RNA and protein levels. In 2 of 9 primary tumor-normal pairs, the expression of LAF-4 was clearly elevated in the tumor tissue. Using RNA in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that LAF-4 is expressed in mammary tumor cells but not in normal acini. In a group of 64 primary human breast tumors, we found that LAF-4 was overexpressed in approximately 20% of the cases. Although epigenetic changes may be involved in altered expression of some genes, differences in LAF-4 expression were not associated with DNA methylation of the predicted promoter region. Our results suggest that LAF-4 may be a proto-oncogene that is transcriptionally activated in some cases of breast cancer.
Davies FE, Dring AM, Li C, et al.Insights into the multistep transformation of MGUS to myeloma using microarray expression analysis.
Blood. 2003; 102(13):4504-11 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To define specific pathways important in the multistep transformation process of normal plasma cells (PCs) to monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM), we have applied microarray analysis to PCs from 5 healthy donors (N), 7 patients with MGUS, and 24 patients with newly diagnosed MM. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using 125 genes with a large variation across all samples defined 2 groups: N and MGUS/MM. Supervised analysis identified 263 genes differentially expressed between N and MGUS and 380 genes differentially expressed between N and MM, 197 of which were also differentially regulated between N and MGUS. Only 74 genes were differentially expressed between MGUS and MM samples, indicating that the differences between MGUS and MM are smaller than those between N and MM or N and MGUS. Differentially expressed genes included oncogenes/tumor-suppressor genes (LAF4, RB1, and disabled homolog 2), cell-signaling genes (RAS family members, B-cell signaling and NF-kappaB genes), DNA-binding and transcription-factor genes (XBP1, zinc finger proteins, forkhead box, and ring finger proteins), and developmental genes (WNT and SHH pathways). Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of MM by gene expression profiling has demonstrated sequential genetic changes from N to malignant PCs and highlighted important pathways involved in the transformation of MGUS to MM.
Hiwatari M, Taki T, Taketani T, et al.Fusion of an AF4-related gene, LAF4, to MLL in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(2;11)(q11;q23).
Oncogene. 2003; 22(18):2851-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We showed that the LAF4 gene on 2q11.2-12 was fused to the MLL gene on 11q23 in a pediatric patient with CD10 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) having t(2;11)(q11;q23). The LAF4 gene, which encodes a lymphoid nuclear protein of 1227 amino acids with transactivation potential, is thought to have a role in early lymphoid development. The LAF4 protein was homologous to AF4 and AF5q31 proteins that are fused to MLL in infant early pre-B ALL and the breakpoint of LAF4 was located within the region homologous to the transactivation domain of AF4 and AF5q31. Expression of the 8.5-kb LAF4 transcript was detected in the adult heart, brain, and placenta and in the fetal brain. LAF4 expression was found to be higher in ALL cell lines than in AML and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-lymphocyte cell lines. These findings suggest that LAF4, AF4 and AF5q31 might define a new family particularly involved in the pathogenesis of 11q23-associated ALL.
Imamura T, Morimoto A, Ikushima S, et al.A novel infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line with MLL-AF5q31 fusion transcript.
Leukemia. 2002; 16(11):2302-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by the presence of the proB phenotype (CD10(-)/CD19(+)), poor prognosis and frequent rearrangement of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene. The most frequent rearrangement is t(4;11)(q21;q23), the role of whose product, the MLL-AF4 fusion transcript, has been extensively studied in leukemogenesis. In a cell line of infant leukemia with MLL rearrangement denoted KP-L-RY, panhandle PCR amplification of cDNA revealed the presence of a fusion transcript, MLL-AF5q31, indicating that AF5q31 is also a partner gene of MLL. In this fusion transcript the MLL exon 6 is fused in frame to the 5' side of the putative transactivation domain of AF5q31. The AF5q31 protein is a member of the AF4/LAF4/FMR2-related family of proteins, which have been suggested to play a role in hematopoietic cell growth and differentiation. The MLL-AF5q31 fusion transcript, although probably rare, appears to be associated with the pathogenesis of infant ALL like MLL-AF4. Co-expression of HoxA9 and Meis1 genes in the KP-L-RY cell line indicated possible functional similarity between MLL-AF4 and MLL-AF5q31. Further understanding of the function of AF5q31 as well as the specific leukemogenic mechanism of MLL-AF5q31 awaits future studies.
von Bergh AR, Beverloo HB, Rombout P, et al.LAF4, an AF4-related gene, is fused to MLL in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002; 35(1):92-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with MLL gene rearrangements is characterized by a proB phenotype and a poor clinical outcome. We analyzed an infant proB ALL with t(2;11)(p15;p14) and an MLL rearrangement on Southern blot analysis. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase-PCR identified the LAF4 gene mapped on chromosome region 2q11.2-q12 as a fusion partner of the MLL gene. The LAF4 gene was identified previously by its high sequence homology to the AF4 protein and encodes a protein of 1,227 amino acids. The t(4;11)(q21;q23), creating the MLL-AF4 chimeric transcripts, is the predominant 11q23 chromosome translocation in infant ALL and is associated with an extremely poor prognosis. Our findings further suggest that fusion of MLL to one of the AF4 family members (AF4/LAF4/AF5Q31) might determine a proB-cell phenotype in infant leukemia.
Taki T, Kano H, Taniwaki M, et al.AF5q31, a newly identified AF4-related gene, is fused to MLL in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia with ins(5;11)(q31;q13q23).
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999; 96(25):14535-40 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with MLL gene rearrangements is characterized by early pre-B phenotype (CD10(-)/CD19(+)) and poor treatment outcome. The t(4;11), creating MLL-AF4 chimeric transcripts, is the predominant 11q23 chromosome translocation in infant ALL and is associated with extremely poor prognosis as compared with other 11q23 translocations. We analyzed an infant early preB ALL with ins(5;11)(q31;q13q23) and identified the AF5q31 gene on chromosome 5q31 as a fusion partner of the MLL gene. The AF5q31 gene, which encoded a protein of 1,163 aa, was located in the vicinity of the cytokine cluster region of chromosome 5q31 and contained at least 16 exons. The AF5q31 gene was expressed in fetal heart, lung, and brain at relatively high levels and fetal liver at a low level, but the expression in these tissues decreased in adults. The AF5q31 protein was homologous to AF4-related proteins, including AF4, LAF4, and FMR2. The AF5q31 and AF4 proteins had three homologous regions, including the transactivation domain of AF4, and the breakpoint of AF5q31 was located within the region homologous to the transactivation domain of AF4. Furthermore, the clinical features of this patient with the MLL-AF5q31 fusion transcript, characterized by the early pre-B phenotype (CD10(-)/CD19(+)) and poor outcome, were similar to those of patients having MLL-AF4 chimeric transcripts. These findings suggest that AF5q31 and AF4 might define a new family particularly involved in the pathogenesis of 11q23-associated-ALL.
Nilson I, Reichel M, Ennas MG, et al.Exon/intron structure of the human AF-4 gene, a member of the AF-4/LAF-4/FMR-2 gene family coding for a nuclear protein with structural alterations in acute leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 1997; 98(1):157-69 [PubMed
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The AF-4 gene on human chromosome 4q21 is involved in reciprocal translocations to the ALL-1 gene on chromosome 11q23, which are associated with acute lymphoblastic leukaemias. A set of recombinant phage carrying genomic fragments for the coding region and flanking sequences of the AF-4 gene were isolated. Phage inserts were assembled into four contigs with 21 exons, and an intron phase map was produced enabling the interpretation of translocation-generated fusion proteins. The gene contains two alternative first exons, 1a and 1b, both including a translation initiation codon. The translocation breakpoint cluster region is flanked by exons 3 and 6 and two different polyadenylation signals were identified. Polyclonal antisera directed against three different portions of the AF-4 protein were produced and used to detect a 116 kD protein in cellular extracts of human B-lymphoblastoid and proB cell lines. In mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells the AF-4 antigen was predominantly located in the nucleus. The AF-4 gene is a member of the AF-4, LAF-4 and FMR-2 gene family. The members of this family encode serine-proline-rich proteins with properties of nuclear transcription factors. Comparison of AF-4 protein coding sequences with the LAF-4 and FMR-2 sequences revealed five highly conserved domains of potential functional relevance.
Ma C, Staudt LMLAF-4 encodes a lymphoid nuclear protein with transactivation potential that is homologous to AF-4, the gene fused to MLL in t(4;11) leukemias.
Blood. 1996; 87(2):734-45 [PubMed
] Related Publications
A novel human gene, LAF-4, was isolated from a subtracted cDNA library that showed strong sequence similarity to AF-4, a gene that is translocated in t(4;11)(q21;q23) acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs). In t(4;11) ALL, the AF-4 gene at 4q21 is translocated into the MLL locus at 11q23, resulting in the expression of an MLL/AF-4 fusion protein that is the presumptive oncoprotein. AF-4 and LAF-4 are homologous throughout their coding regions, yet neither protein is related to previously cloned genes. Human LAF-4 readily hybridized with genes in mouse and chicken, thus showing that this gene family has been highly conserved during vertebrate evolution. In mouse tissues, LAF-4 mRNA was found to be present at highest levels in lymphoid tissues, present at lower levels in brain and lung, and absent from other tissues. In human and mouse lymphoid cell lines, LAF-4 expression was highest in pre-B cells, intermediate in mature B cells, and absent in plasma cells, thus pointing to a potential regulatory role for LAF-4 in lymphoid development. Antibodies to LAF-4 showed it to be a nuclear protein that showed an uneven, granular immunofluorescence pattern. In vitro-translated LAF-4 was able to bind strongly to double-stranded DNA cellulose. Furthermore, both LAF-4 and AF-4 had domains that activated transcription strongly when fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain. Interestingly, the AF-4 transactivation domain is retained in the MLL/AF-4 fusion protein; thus, it may contribute to the transforming potential of the oncoprotein. Therefore, the cloning of LAF-4 has defined a new family of potential regulatory proteins that may function in lymphoid development and oncogenesis.