Gene Summary

Gene:IL16; interleukin 16
Aliases: LCF, NIL16, PRIL16, prIL-16
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a pleiotropic cytokine that functions as a chemoattractant, a modulator of T cell activation, and an inhibitor of HIV replication. The signaling process of this cytokine is mediated by CD4. The product of this gene undergoes proteolytic processing, which is found to yield two functional proteins. The cytokine function is exclusively attributed to the secreted C-terminal peptide, while the N-terminal product may play a role in cell cycle control. Caspase 3 is reported to be involved in the proteolytic processing of this protein. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: IL16 (cancer-related)

Zhuo M, Zhuang X, Tang W, et al.
The Impact of
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:8305745 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung carcinoma is the most common cancer and cause of cancer deaths among both males and females in China. Previously, genetic variants located in gene untranslated region have been well established as interfering factors in mRNA translation and confirmed playing critical roles in lung oncogenesis. However, the correlation between polymorphisms in gene 3' untranslated region and lung cancer risk is less reported in China Han population. In this study, polymorphisms in 3'-untranslated region of

Lee HJ, Bahr JM, Bitterman P, et al.
Polycystic Ovarian Condition May Be a Risk Factor for Ovarian Tumor Development in the Laying Hen Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer.
J Immunol Res. 2018; 2018:2590910 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic inflammation and long-standing oxidative stress are potential predisposing factors for developing malignancies, including ovarian cancer (OVCA). Information on the association of ovarian chronic abnormal conditions, including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), with the development of OVCA is unknown. The goal of this study was to examine if polycystic ovarian conditions are associated with OVCA development. In the exploratory study, 3-4-year-old laying hens were randomly selected and examined for the presence of polycystic ovaries with cancer (PCOC). In the prospective study, hens were monitored by ultrasound scanning to detect the incidence of a polycystic ovaries and subsequent development of OVCA. Tissues from normal ovaries and PCOC were examined for macrophage infiltration, expression of interleukin-16, and superoxide dismutase 2. The exploratory study detected spontaneous PCOC at early and late stages in hens. PCOC in hens were accompanied with influx of macrophages (17.33 ± 2.26 in PCOC at the early stage and 24.24 ± 2.5 in PCOC at the late stage in 20 mm

Li L, Peng M, Xue W, et al.
Integrated analysis of dysregulated long non-coding RNAs/microRNAs/mRNAs in metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):372 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), largely remains a primary cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The molecular mechanisms in LUAD metastasis have not been completely uncovered.
METHODS: In this study, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs), miRNAs (DEMs) and lncRNAs (DELs) underlying metastasis of LUAD from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Intersection mRNAs were used to perform gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and co-expression network analysis. In addition, survival analyses of intersection mRNAs were conducted. Finally, intersection mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs were subjected to construct miRNA-mRNA-lncRNA network.
RESULTS: A total of 1015 DEGs, 54 DEMs and 22 DELs were identified in LUAD metastasis and non-metastasis samples. GO and KEGG pathway analysis had proven that the functions of intersection mRNAs were closely related with many important processes in cancer pathogenesis. Among the co-expression interactions network, 22 genes in the co-expression network were over the degree 20. These genes imply that they have connections with many other gene nodes. In addition, 14 target genes (ARHGAP11A, ASPM, HELLS, PRC1, TMPO, ARHGAP30, CD52, IL16, IRF8, P2RY13, PRKCB, PTPRC, SASH3 and TRAF3IP3) were found to be associated with survival in patients with LUAD significantly (log-rank P < 0.05). Two lncRNAs (LOC96610 and ADAM6) acting as ceRNAs were identified based on the miRNA-mRNA-lncRNA network.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results may provide a novel perspective to develop a multiple gene diagnostic tool for LUAD prognosis, which might also provide potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for LUAD.

Mazzio EA, Soliman KFA
Whole-transcriptomic Profile of SK-MEL-3 Melanoma Cells Treated with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor: Trichostatin A.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2018 Sep-Oct; 15(5):349-364 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma cells can rapidly acquire phenotypic properties making them resistant to radiation and mainline chemotherapies such as decarbonize or kinase inhibitors that target RAS-proto-oncogene independent auto-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/through dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK). Both drug resistance and inherent transition from melanocytic nevi to malignant melanoma involve the overexpression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and a B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) mutation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this work, the effects of an HDAC class I and II inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on the whole transcriptome of SK-MEL-3 cells carrying a BRAF mutation was examined.
RESULTS: The data obtained show that TSA was an extremely potent HDAC inhibitor within SK-MEL-3 nuclear lysates, where TSA was then optimized for appropriate sub-lethal concentrations for in vitro testing. The whole-transcriptome profile shows a basic phenotype dominance in the SK-MEL-3 cell line for i) synthesis of melanin, ii) phagosome acidification, iii) ATP hydrolysis-coupled proton pumps and iv) iron transport systems. While TSA did not affect the aforementioned major systems, it evoked a dramatic change to the transcriptome: reflected by a down-regulation of 810 transcripts and up-regulation of 833, with fold-change from -15.27 to +31.1 FC (p<0.00001). Largest differentials were found for the following transcripts: Up-regulated: Tetraspanin 13 (TSPAN13), serpin family i member 1 (SERPINI1), ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit beta 2 (ATP1B2), nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyl transferase 2 (NMNAT2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-like (PDGFRL), cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 1 (CYP1A1), prostate androgen-regulated mucin-like protein 1 (PARM1), secretogranin II (SCG2), SYT11 (synaptotagmin 11), rhophilin associated tail protein 1 like (ROPN1L); down-regulated: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3), carbonic anhydrase 14 (CAXIV), BCL2-related protein A1 (BCL2A1), protein kinase C delta (PRKCD), transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 1 (TRPM1), ubiquitin associated protein 1 like (UBAP1L), glutathione peroxidase 8 (GPX8), interleukin 16 (IL16), tumor protein p53 (TP53), and serpin family H member 1 (SERPINH1). There was no change to any of the HDAC transcripts (class I, II and IV), the sirtuin HDAC family (1-6) or the BRAF proto-oncogene v 599 transcripts. However, the data showed that TSA down-regulated influential transcripts that drive the BRAF-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 oncogenic pathway (namely PRKCD and MYC proto-oncogene which negatively affected the cell-cycle distribution. Mitotic inhibition was corroborated by functional pathway analysis and flow cytometry confirming halt at the G
CONCLUSION: TSA does not alter HDAC transcripts nor BRAF itself, but down-regulates critical components of the MAPK/MEK/BRAF oncogenic pathway, initiating a mitotic arrest.

Moirangthem A, Wang X, Yan IK, Patel T
Network analyses-based identification of circular ribonucleic acid-related pathways in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2018; 40(9):1010428318795761 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circular ribonucleic acids are non-coding ribonucleic acids that can be identified from genome sequencing studies. Although they can be readily detected, their regulation and functional role in human diseases such as cancer are unknown. Using a systematic approach, we analyzed ribonucleic acid-sequencing data from a well-characterized cohort of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma to identify genetic pathways related to circular ribonucleic acids. Although the expression of most circular ribonucleic acids was similar in both the cancer and non-cancer tissues, expression of circ2174 was significantly increased in cancer tissues. Network analysis of co-related genes identified several pathways associated with circ2174, and common regulatory mediators between genes in these pathways and circ2174. Among these, alterations in several genes involved in interleukin-16 signaling responses such Lck, interleukin-16, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1-beta were the most prominent. Octamer transcription factor (Oct)-2 was identified as a signal transducer that was common to both circ2174 and interleukin-16. Circ2174 has sequence complementarity to miR149 which can target Oct-2. These data suggest a mechanism whereby circ2174 can act as a sponge to regulate the expression of miR149, and thereby modulate Oct-2 and interleukin-16 signaling pathways in cholangiocarcinoma.

Jarzabek MA, Proctor WR, Vogt J, et al.
Interrogation of transcriptomic changes associated with drug-induced hepatic sinusoidal dilatation in colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0198099 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Drug-related sinusoidal dilatation (SD) is a common form of hepatotoxicity associated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy used prior to resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Recently, hepatic SD has also been associated with anti-delta like 4 (DLL4) cancer therapies targeting the NOTCH pathway. To investigate the hypothesis that NOTCH signaling plays an important role in drug-induced SD, gene expression changes were examined in livers from anti-DLL4 and oxaliplatin-induced SD in non-human primate (NHP) and patients, respectively. Putative mechanistic biomarkers of bevacizumab (bev)-mediated protection against oxaliplatin-induced SD were also investigated. RNA was extracted from whole liver sections or centrilobular regions by laser-capture microdissection (LCM) obtained from NHP administered anti-DLL4 fragment antigen-binding (F(ab')2 or patients with CRLM receiving oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with or without bev. mRNA expression was quantified using high-throughput real-time quantitative PCR. Significance analysis was used to identify genes with differential expression patterns (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). Eleven (CCL2, CCND1, EFNB2, ERG, ICAM1, IL16, LFNG, NOTCH1, NOTCH4, PRDX1, and TGFB1) and six (CDH5, EFNB2, HES1, IL16, MIK67, HES1 and VWF) candidate genes were differentially expressed in the liver of anti-DLL4- and oxaliplatin-induced SD, respectively. Addition of bev to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy resulted in differential changes in hepatic CDH5, HEY1, IL16, JAG1, MMP9, NOTCH4 and TIMP1 expression. This work implicates NOTCH and IL16 pathways in the pathogenesis of drug-induced SD and further explains the hepato-protective effect of bev in oxaliplatin-induced SD observed in CRLM patients.

Yang H, Han Y, Wu L, Wu C
Diagnostic and prognostic value of serum interleukin‑16 in patients with gastric cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(6):9143-9148 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the major leading causes of cancer‑associated mortality worldwide. Serum biomarkers have a vital role in diagnosis and prognosis of GC, and interleukin (IL)‑16 may serve as a useful biomarker with prognostic value for human cancers. The current study aimed to evaluate the expression level of serum IL‑16 in patients with GC, and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of IL‑16. ELISA was performed determine the serum IL‑16 levels in patients with GC and healthy controls. Receiver operator curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic potential value of serum IL‑16 in GC diagnosis. Migration and invasion assays were performed using cells with IL‑16 small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown. The results demonstrated that serum IL‑16 levels were significantly higher in GC samples than in healthy controls, and increased serum IL‑16 levels were significantly associated with tumor recurrence and poor prognosis. Knockdown of IL‑16 significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of GC cells. In conclusion, the current results indicate that serum IL‑16 levels may have diagnostic and prognostic value for patient with GC.

Pérez-Ramírez C, Alnatsha A, Cañadas-Garre M, et al.
Cytokine single-nucleotide polymorphisms and risk of non-small-cell lung cancer.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2017; 27(12):438-444 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer, particularly the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtype, is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Several functional polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes, such as IL1B, IL6, IL12A, IL13 and IL16, have been associated with the risk of NSCLC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ILs gene polymorphisms and the risk of developing NSCLC.
PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was carried out, including 174 NSCLC cases and 298 controls of Spanish origin. IL1B (rs1143634), IL1B (rs12621220), IL1B (rs1143623), IL1B (rs16944), IL1B (rs1143627), IL12A (rs662959), IL13 (rs1881457), IL6 (rs1800795) and IL16 (rs7170924) gene polymorphisms were analysed by TaqMan.
RESULTS: The genotypic logistic regression model adjusted by smoking status showed that the IL1B rs1143634-TT genotype was associated with a lower risk of NSCLC (P=0.04312; odds ratio=0.226; 95% confidence interval=0.044-0.840). No other gene polymorphisms showed an association with NSCLC in any of the models tested.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, IL1B rs1143634 was significantly associated with a higher risk of NSCLC. No influence of IL1B rs12621220, rs1143623, rs16944, rs1143627, IL12A rs662959, IL13 rs1881457 and IL16 rs7170924 on the risk of developing NSCLC was found in our study.

Pérez-Ramírez C, Cañadas-Garre M, Alnatsha A, et al.
Interleukins as new prognostic genetic biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer.
Surg Oncol. 2017; 26(3):278-285 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Surgery is the standard treatment for early-stage NSCLC, and platinum-based chemotherapy remains as the treatment of choice for advanced-stage NSCLC patients with naïve EGFR status. However, overall 5-years relative survival rates are low. Interleukins (ILs) are crucial for processes associated with tumor development. In NSCLC, IL1B, IL6, IL12A, IL13 and IL16 gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual variation in terms of patient survival. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between IL gene polymorphisms and survival in NSCLC patients.
METHODS: A prospective cohorts study was performed, including 170 NSCLC patients (114 Stage IIIB-IV, 56 Stage I-IIIA). IL1B (C > T; rs1143634), IL1B (C > T; rs12621220), IL1B (C > G; rs1143623), IL1B (A > G; rs16944), IL1B (C > T; rs1143627), IL6 (C > G; rs1800795), IL12A (C > T; rs662959), IL13 (A > C; rs1881457) and IL16 (G > T; rs7170924) gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR Real-Time.
RESULTS: Patients with IL16 rs7170924-GG genotype were in higher risk of death (p = 0.0139; HR = 1.82; CI
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that IL16 rs7170924-GG and IL12A rs662959-TT genotypes predict higher risk of death and progression, respectively, in NSCLC patients. No influence of IL1B rs12621220, IL1B rs1143623, IL1B rs16944, IL1B rs1143627, IL6 rs1800795, IL13 rs1881457 on NSCLC clinical outcomes was found in our patients.

Abaji R, Gagné V, Xu CJ, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing identified genetic risk factors for asparaginase-related complications in childhood ALL patients.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(27):43752-43767 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Allergy, pancreatitis and thrombosis are common side-effects of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment that are associated with the use of asparaginase (ASNase), a key component in most ALL treatment protocols. Starting with predicted functional germline variants obtained through whole-exome sequencing (WES) data of the Quebec childhood ALL cohort we performed exome-wide association studies with ASNase-related toxicities. A subset of top-ranking variants was further confirmed by genotyping (N=302) followed by validation in an independent replication group (N=282); except for thrombosis which was not available for that dataset. SNPs in 12 genes were associated with ASNase complications in discovery cohort including 3 that were associated with allergy, 3 with pancreatitis and 6 with thrombosis. The risk was further increased through combined SNPs effect (p≤0.002), suggesting synergistic interactions between the SNPs identified in each of the studied toxicities. Interestingly, rs3809849 in the MYBBP1A gene was associated with allergy (p= 0.0006), pancreatitis (p=0.002), thrombosis (p=0.02), event-free survival (p=0.02) and overall survival (p=0.003). Furthermore, rs11556218 in IL16 and rs34708521 in SPEF2 were both associated with thrombosis (p=0.01 and p=0.03, respectively) and pancreatitis (p=0.02). The association of SNPs in MYBBP1A, SPEF2 and IL16 geneswith pancreatitis was replicated in the validation cohort (p ≤0.05) as well as in combined cohort (p=0.0003, p=0.008 and p=0.02, respectively). The synergistic effect of combining risk loci had the highest power to predict the development of pancreatitis in both cohorts and was further potentiated in the combined cohort (p=1x10-8).The present work demonstrates that using WES data is a successful "hypothesis-free" strategy for identifying significant genetic markers modulating the effect of the treatment in childhood ALL.

Templin J, Atanackovic D, Hasche D, et al.
Oscillating expression of interleukin-16 in multiple myeloma is associated with proliferation, clonogenic growth, and PI3K/NFKB/MAPK activation.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(30):49253-49263 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematologic malignancy emerging from a plasma cell clone located in the bone marrow and is characterized by a high rate of fatal relapses after initially effective treatment. We have previously identified Interleukin-16 (IL-16) as an important factor promoting the proliferation of MM cells. We demonstrate here an upregulated, periodic expression, and secretion of IL-16 by MM cells leading to high extracellular IL-16 levels. The level of IL-16 released from a given MM cell line correlated with its proliferative activity. Establishing an inducible knockdown system and performing gene expression arrays we observed an association between IL-16 expression and activation of PI3, NFκB and MAP kinase pathways and, specifically, genes involved in tumor cell proliferation. Functional assays showed that IL-16 knockdown reduced the proliferative activity with a significant delay in cell cycle progression to G2 phase of conventional MM cells and completely suppressed the growth of clonogenic MM cells, which are suspected to be responsible for the high relapse rates in MM. Overall, our results demonstrate that tumor-regenerating MM cells may be particularly susceptible to IL-16 neutralization, suggesting an important role of anti-IL-16 therapies in the treatment of MM, particularly in combination with existing strategies targeting the bulk of myeloma cells.

Tang YJ, Wang JL, Xie KG, Lan CG
Association of interleukin 16 gene polymorphisms and plasma IL16 level with osteosarcoma risk.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:34607 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interleukin (IL) 16 plays a key role in inflammatory diseases as well as in tumorigenesis of osteosarcoma (OS). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of IL16 polymorphisms and plasma IL16 level with OS risk in a Chinese population. We genotyped IL16 rs4778889, rs11556218, and rs4072111 in 358 patients with OS and 402 controls using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Plasma IL16 level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rs11556218 was associated with an increased risk of OS in heterozygote comparison (adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI, 1.23-2.21, P < 0.001), dominant model (adjusted OR = 1.66, 95% CI, 1.24-2.21, P < 0.001), and allele comparison (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95% CI, 1.14-1.81, P = 0.002). Moreover, rs11556218 TG/GG genotypes were associated with higher levels of IL16 as compared to TT genotype (P = 0.03). However, no significant association of rs4778889 and rs4072111 and OS was found. These findings suggest that rs11556218 TG/GG genotypes may be associated with increased susceptibility to OS, probably by increasing the production of IL16 level.

Pérez-Ramírez C, Cañadas-Garre M, Alnatsha A, et al.
Pharmacogenetic predictors of toxicity to platinum based chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Pharmacol Res. 2016; 111:877-884 [PubMed] Related Publications
Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for NSCLC patients with EGFR wild-type, and as alternative to failure to EGFR inhibitors. However, this treatment is aggressive and most patients experience grade 3-4 toxicities. ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC5, XRCC1, MDM2, ABCB1, MTHFR, MTR, SLC19A1, IL6 and IL16 gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual variation in toxicity to chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these polymorphisms on platinum-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients. A prospective cohorts study was conducted, including 141 NSCLC patients. Polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR Real-Time with Taqman(®) probes and sequencing. Patients with ERCC1 C118T-T allele (p=0.00345; RR=26.05; CI95%=4.33, 515.77) and ERCC2 rs50872-CC genotype (p=0.00291; RR=4.06; CI95%=1.66, 10.65) had higher risk of general toxicity for platinum-based chemotherapy. ERCC2 Asp312Asn G-alelle, ABCB1 C1236T-TT and the IL1B rs12621220-CT/TT genotypes conferred a higher risk to present multiple adverse events. The subtype toxicity analysis also revealed that ERCC2 rs50872-CC genotype (p=0.01562; OR=3.23; CI95%=1.29, 8.82) and IL16 rs7170924-T allele (p=0.01007; OR=3.19; CI95%=1.35, 7.97) were associated with grade 3-4 hematological toxicity. We did not found the influence of ERCC1 C8092A, ERCC2 Lys751Gln, ERCC2 Asp312Asn, ERCC5 Asp1104His, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, MDM2 rs1690924, ABCB1 C3435T, ABCB1 Ala893Ser/Thr, MTHFR A1298C, MTHFR C677T, IL1B rs1143623, IL1B rs16944, and IL1B rs1143627 on platinum-based chemotherapy toxicity. In conclusion, ERCC1 C118T, ERCC2 rs50872, ERCC2 Asp312Asn, ABCB1 C1236T, IL1B rs12621220 and IL16 rs7170924 polymorphisms may substantially act as prognostic factors in NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

Liu FT, Zhu PQ, Ou YX, et al.
Positive association between IL-16 rs1131445 polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Minerva Med. 2016; 107(2):84-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The association between IL-16 rs1131445 polymorphism and cancer risk is not consistent or even contradictory, this meta-analysis aims to investigate the role of IL-16 gene rs1131445 polymorphisms in the risk of cancer.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive online search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and CNKI databases to identify eligible studies. The case-control studies related IL-16 rs1131445 C/T polymorphism with the cancer susceptibility were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extracting the basic data information and quality of literature evaluation, the meta-analysis was performed by using STATA 12.0 software, with calculating odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, and further subgroup analysis, literature publication bias test and sensitivity analysis.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: There are totally 1677 cases and 1989 non-tumor controls finally involved. Meta-analysis showed that there are statistical correlations between the IL-16 rs1131445 C/T polymorphism and the cancer risk in Asian populations (TS vs. C, OR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.73-0.88; TT vs. TC, OR=0.75, 95%CI: 0.65-0.87; TT vs. CC, OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.56-0.84; CC+TC vs. TT, OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.19-1.55; CC vs. TC+TT, OR=1.27, 95%CI: 1.05-1.53) (all P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: IL-16 rs1131445 C/T polymorphism is related to the susceptibility to cancer in Asians, suggesting that the C allelic gene of rs1131445 is significantly associated with an increasing cancer risk.

Robles AI, Traverso G, Zhang M, et al.
Whole-Exome Sequencing Analyses of Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated Colorectal Cancers.
Gastroenterology. 2016; 150(4):931-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A long duration of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) increases the risk for colorectal cancer. Mutation analysis of limited numbers of genes has indicated that colorectal tumors that develop in patients with IBD differ from those of patients without IBD. We performed whole-exome sequencing analyses to characterize the genetic landscape of these tumors.
METHODS: We collected colorectal tumor and non-neoplastic tissues from 31 patients with IBD and colorectal cancer (15 with ulcerative colitis, 14 with Crohn's disease, and 2 with indeterminate colitis) and performed whole-exome sequencing analyses of the microdissected tumor and matched nontumor tissues. We identified somatic alterations by comparing matched specimens. The prevalence of mutations in sporadic colorectal tumors was obtained from previously published exome-sequencing studies.
RESULTS: Two specimens had somatic mutations in the DNA proofreading or mismatch repair genes POLE, MLH1, and MSH6 and the tumor cells had a hypermutable phenotype. The remaining tumors had, on average, 71 alterations per sample. TP53 was the most commonly mutated gene, with prevalence similar to that of sporadic colorectal tumors (63% of cases). However, tumors from the patients with IBD had a different mutation spectrum. APC and KRAS were mutated at significantly lower rates in tumors from patients with IBD than in sporadic colorectal tumors (13% and 20% of cases, respectively). Several genes were mutated more frequently or uniquely in tumors from patients with IBD, including SOX9 and EP300 (which encode proteins in the WNT pathway), NRG1 (which encodes an ERBB ligand), and IL16 (which encodes a cytokine). Our study also revealed recurrent mutations in components of the Rho and Rac GTPase network, indicating a role for noncanonical WNT signaling in development of colorectal tumors in patients with IBD.
CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal tumors that develop in patients with IBD have distinct genetic features from sporadic colorectal tumors. These findings could be used to develop disease-specific markers for diagnosis and treatment of patients with IBD and colorectal cancer.

Kashfi SM, Behboudi Farahbakhsh F, Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E, et al.
Interleukin-16 polymorphisms as new promising biomarkers for risk of gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):2119-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is the second cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Interleukin (IL)-16 has a vital role in the development and homeostasis of the immune system. In the present study, we evaluated an exon variant rs4072111 C/T polymorphism and 3' UTR variant rs1131445 C/T within the miRNA binding with gastric cancer susceptibility in Iranian population. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples according to phenol chloroform extraction. The genotypes of IL-16 polymorphisms rs1131445 T/C and rs4072111 T/C were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. In this case control study, a total of 256 patients with gastric cancer (238 cases (92.9 %) non-cardia and 18 cases (7.1 %) cardia) and 300 healthy control subjects were evaluated. In the present study, we found a significant association between rs4072111 of IL-16 gene and risk of GC in Iranian population. Individuals with CT genotype showed a significant association with 1.79-fold increased risk of GC (P = 0.008; adjusted OR 1.792; 95 % CI 1.164-2.759). The significant association was also detected for T allele of rs4072111 and increased risk of GC (P < 0.001; adjusted OR 1.981; 95 % CI 1.354-2.900). We also observed statistically a significant relationship between rs1131445 of IL-16 CT genotype and GC risk. Carriers of IL-16 CT genotype compared with TT genotype had 1.44 times higher increased likelihood of GC (P = 0.048; adjusted OR 1.445; 95 % CI 1.003-2.084). After stratification according to gender, we observed that in rs1131445, CT and CC male carriers had a higher risk of GC than females (P = 0.08; adjusted OR 1.608; 95 % CI 0.945-2.737 and P = 0.08; adjusted OR 2.186; 95 % CI 0.897-5.325, respectively). We also observed that for male carriers with C allele in rs1131445, there was a 1.53-fold higher risk of GC risk than female subjects (P = 0.029; adjusted OR 1.53; 95 % CI 1.04.4-2.248). We found that the rs1131445 T/C and rs4072111 T/C variants of IL-16 were significantly associated with increased risk of GC in Iranian population.

Liu Y, Zhou R, Sulman EP, et al.
Genetic Modulation of Neurocognitive Function in Glioma Patients.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(14):3340-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Accumulating evidence supports the contention that genetic variation is associated with neurocognitive function in healthy individuals and increased risk for neurocognitive decline in a variety of patient populations, including cancer patients. However, this has rarely been studied in glioma patients.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To identify the effect of genetic variants on neurocognitive function, we examined the relationship between the genotype frequencies of 10,967 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 580 genes related to five pathways (inflammation, DNA repair, metabolism, cognitive, and telomerase) and neurocognitive function in 233 newly diagnosed glioma patients before surgical resection. Four neuropsychologic tests that measured memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised), processing speed (Trail Making Test A), and executive function (Trail Making Test B, Controlled Oral Word Association) were examined.
RESULTS: Eighteen polymorphisms were associated with processing speed and 12 polymorphisms with executive function. For processing speed, the strongest signals were in IRS1 rs6725330 in the inflammation pathway (P = 2.5 × 10(-10)), ERCC4 rs1573638 in the DNA repair pathway (P = 3.4 × 10(-7)), and ABCC1 rs8187858 in metabolism pathway (P = 6.6 × 10(-7)). For executive function, the strongest associations were in NOS1 rs11611788 (P = 1.8 × 10(-8)) and IL16 rs1912124 (P = 6.0 × 10(-7)) in the inflammation pathway, and POLE rs5744761 (P = 6.0 × 10(-7)) in the DNA repair pathway. Joint effect analysis found significant gene polymorphism-dosage effects for processing speed (Ptrend = 9.4 × 10(-16)) and executive function (Ptrend = 6.6 × 10(-15)).
CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in inflammation, DNA repair, and metabolism pathways are associated with neurocognitive function in glioma patients and may affect clinical outcomes.

Nan H, Hutter CM, Lin Y, et al.
Association of aspirin and NSAID use with risk of colorectal cancer according to genetic variants.
JAMA. 2015; 313(11):1133-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
IMPORTANCE: Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer.
OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic markers that may confer differential benefit from aspirin or NSAID chemoprevention, we tested gene × environment interactions between regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to risk of colorectal cancer.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Case-control study using data from 5 case-control and 5 cohort studies initiated between 1976 and 2003 across the United States, Canada, Australia, and Germany and including colorectal cancer cases (n=8634) and matched controls (n=8553) ascertained between 1976 and 2011. Participants were all of European descent.
EXPOSURES: Genome-wide SNP data and information on regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs and other risk factors.
RESULTS: Regular use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs was associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.64-0.74]; P = 6.2 × 10(-28)) compared with nonregular use. In the conventional logistic regression analysis, the SNP rs2965667 at chromosome 12p12.3 near the MGST1 gene showed a genome-wide significant interaction with aspirin and/or NSAID use (P = 4.6 × 10(-9) for interaction). Aspirin and/or NSAID use was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs2965667-TT genotype (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.61-0.70]; P = 7.7 × 10(-33)) but with a higher risk among those with rare (4%) TA or AA genotypes (prevalence, 35% vs 29%; OR, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.27-2.81]; P = .002). In case-only interaction analysis, the SNP rs16973225 at chromosome 15q25.2 near the IL16 gene showed a genome-wide significant interaction with use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs (P = 8.2 × 10(-9) for interaction). Regular use was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs16973225-AA genotype (prevalence, 28% vs 38%; OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.62-0.71]; P = 1.9 × 10(-30)) but was not associated with risk of colorectal cancer among those with less common (9%) AC or CC genotypes (prevalence, 36% vs 39%; OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.78-1.20]; P = .76).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this genome-wide investigation of gene × environment interactions, use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs was associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer, and this association differed according to genetic variation at 2 SNPs at chromosomes 12 and 15. Validation of these findings in additional populations may facilitate targeted colorectal cancer prevention strategies.

Woods NT, Monteiro AN, Thompson ZJ, et al.
Interleukin polymorphisms associated with overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Mol Carcinog. 2015; 54 Suppl 1:E172-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Biomarkers based on germline DNA variations could have translational implications by identifying prognostic factors and sub-classifying patients to tailored, patient-specific treatment. To investigate the association between germline variations in interleukin (IL) genes and lung cancer outcomes, we genotyped 251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 33 different IL genes in 651 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Analyses were performed to investigate overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence. Our analyses revealed 24 different IL SNPs significantly associated with one or more of the lung cancer outcomes of interest. The GG genotype of IL16:rs7170924 was significantly associated with disease-free survival (HR = 0.65; 95% CI 0.50-0.83) and was the only SNP that produced a false discovery rate (FDR) of modest confidence that the association is unlikely to represent a false-positive result (FDR = 0.142). Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were used to identify potential higher-order interactions. We restricted the CART analyses to the five SNPs that were significantly associated with multiple endpoints (IL1A:rs1800587, IL1B:rs1143634, IL8:s12506479, IL12A:rs662959, and IL13:rs1881457) and IL16:rs7170924 which had the lowest FDR. CART analyses did not yield a tree structure for overall survival; separate CART tree structures were identified for recurrence, based on three SNPs (IL13:rs1881457, IL1B:rs1143634, and IL12A:rs662959), and for disease-free survival, based on two SNPs (IL12A:rs662959 and IL16:rs7170924), which may suggest that these candidate IL SNPs have a specific impact on lung cancer progression and recurrence. These data suggest that germline variations in IL genes are associated with clinical outcomes in NSCLC patients.

Luo QS, Wang JL, Deng YY, et al.
Interleukin-16 polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of glioma.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2014; 18(10):711-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that interleukin (IL)-16 is overexpressed in human and rat gliomas. Potential links between IL-16 polymorphisms and glioma risk are currently unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between IL-16 polymorphisms and glioma risk.
METHODS: We examined IL-16 gene polymorphisms (i.e., rs 4778889, rs 11556218, and rs 4072111) in 216 patients with glioma and 275 controls in a Chinese population. Genotypes were determined using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to evaluate the effect of the IL-16 polymorphisms on glioma risk.
RESULTS: The rs 11556218TG genotype is associated with an increased risk of glioma compared with the TT genotype (OR=1.76; 95% CI, 1.22-2.54; p=0.002). Similarly, the rs 11556218G allele is associated with an increased risk of glioma compared with the T allele (OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.06-1.87; p=0.017). However, no significant association was observed between the IL-16 rs 4778889 and rs 4072111 polymorphisms and the risk of glioma.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the IL-16 rs 11556218 polymorphism may be used as a susceptibility marker for glioma.

Kushlinskii NE, Timofeev YS, Solov'ev YN, et al.
Components of the RANK/RANKL/OPG system, IL-6, IL-8, IL-16, MMP-2, and calcitonin in the sera of patients with bone tumors.
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2014; 157(4):520-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Serum levels of sRANKL, RANK, OPG, IL-8, IL-6, IL-16, MMP-2, and calcitonin were measured by ELISA in patients with malignant, borderline, and benign bone tumors and in healthy individuals (control). Serum levels of RANK, OPG, IL-8, IL-6, and the OPG/sRANKL ratio were significantly higher, while the level of MMP-2 was significantly lower in patients with bone tumors than in controls. Serum concentration of IL-16 in osteosarcoma patients was significantly lower than in chondrosarcoma patients. No significant differences between bone sarcomas of different differentiation were detected for any of the studied markers. Calcitonin level depended on the tumor location and type.

Mi Y, Wang L, Zong L, et al.
Genetic variants in microRNA target sites of 37 selected cancer-related genes and the risk of cervical cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86061 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in putative microRNA binding sites (miRSNPs) modulate cancer susceptibility via affecting miRNA binding. Here, we sought to investigate the association between miRSNPs and cervical cancer risk.
METHODS: We first genotyped 41 miRSNPs of 37 cancer-related genes in 338 patients and 334 controls (Study 1), and replicated the significant associations in 502 patients and 600 controls (Study 2). We tested the effects of miRSNPs on microRNA-mRNA interaction by luciferase reporter assay.
RESULTS: Five SNPs displayed notable association with cervical cancer risk in Study 1. Only IL-16 rs1131445 maintained a significant association with cervical cancer (CT/CC vs. TT, adjusted OR = 1.51, P = 0.001) in Study 2. This association was more evident in the combined data of two studies (adjusted OR = 1.49, P = 0.00007). We also found that miR-135b mimics interacted with IL-16 3'-UTR to reduce gene expression and that the rs1131445 T to C substitution within the putative binding site impaired the interaction of miR-135b with IL-16 3'-UTR. An ELISA indicated that the serum IL-16 of patients with cervical cancer was elevated (vs. controls, P = 0.001) and correlated with the rs1131445 genotype. Patients who carried the rs1131445 C allele had higher serum IL-16 than non-carriers (P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: These results support our hypothesis that miRSNPs constitute a susceptibility factor for cervical cancers. rs1131445 affects IL-16 expression by interfering with the suppressive function of miR135b and this variant is significantly associated with cervical cancer risk.

Yellapa A, Bitterman P, Sharma S, et al.
Interleukin 16 expression changes in association with ovarian malignant transformation.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 210(3):272.e1-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Long-term unresolved inflammation has been suggested as a risk factor for the development of various malignancies. The goal of this study was to examine whether the expression of interleukin (IL)-16, a proinflammatory cytokine, changes in association with ovarian cancer (OVCA) development.
STUDY DESIGN: In an exploratory study, changes in IL-16 expression in association with OVCA development and progression were determined using ovarian tissues and serum samples from healthy subjects (n = 10) and patients with benign (n = 10) and malignant ovarian tumors at early (n = 8) and late (n = 20) stages. In the prospective study, laying hens, a preclinical model of spontaneous OVCA, were monitored (n = 200) for 45 weeks with serum samples collected at 15-week interval. Changes in serum levels of IL-16 relative to OVCA development were examined.
RESULTS: The frequency of IL-16-expressing cells increased significantly in patients with OVCA (P < .001) compared to healthy subjects and patients with benign ovarian tumors. The concentration of serum IL-16 was higher in patients with benign tumors (P < .05) than in healthy subjects and increased further in patients with early-stage (P < .05) and late-stage (P < .03) OVCA. Increase in tissue expression and serum levels of IL-16 in patients with early and late stages of OVCA were positively correlated with the increase in ovarian tumor-associated microvessels. Prospective monitoring showed that serum levels of IL-16 increase significantly (P < .002) even before ovarian tumors become grossly detectable in hens.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that tissue expression and serum levels of IL-16 increase in association with malignant ovarian tumor development and progression.

Zhao Y, Tao L, Wang B, et al.
Interleukin-16 gene polymorphisms rs4778889, rs4072111, rs11556218, and cancer risk in Asian populations: a meta-analysis.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2014; 18(3):174-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Some polymorphisms of the interleukin-16 (IL-16) gene are associated with various cancers. To resolve inconsistencies in published data, we performed a meta-analysis of studies of IL-16 polymorphisms and cancer risk.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven eligible studies pooling 1678 cases and 1937 controls were quantitatively analyzed to evaluate three IL-16 polymorphisms (rs4778889, rs4072111, rs11556218) and cancer risk. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for controls was evaluated by goodness-of-fit chi-squared tests. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each genetic model and allelic comparison. Data were pooled using fixed- or random-effects models depending on heterogeneity across studies.
RESULTS: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the IL-16 polymorphism rs11556218 was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to cancer in several models, including allelic contrast (OR=1.307; 95% CI, 1.108-1.541), heterozygote contrast (OR=1.650; 95% CI, 1.424-1.911), and dominant model (OR=1.605; 95% CI, 1.391-1.845). The result remained consistent after adjustment for age and gender. No significant association was found between IL-16 polymorphisms rs4778889 rs4072111 and cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS: The rs11556218 T/G polymorphism of the IL-16 gene was significantly associated with elevated cancer risk in Asian populations. Our results warrant larger, better-designed studies, including a greater ethnic variety.

Zhang T, Wang H
Variants of interleukin-16 associated with gastric cancer risk.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(9):5269-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: We conducted a case-control matched study to investigate the role of IL-16 gene polymorphisms, rs4072111, rs1131445, rs4778889 and rs11556218, in the risk of gastric cancer in a Chinese population, also performing subgroup analysis by subsites.
METHODS: To test the hypothesis of involvement, we analyzed the four SNPs of IL16 in 347 cancer patients and 368 controls. Demographic data and other information were collected using a newly designed questionnaire. Genotyping of IL16 (rs4072111, rs1131445, rs4778889 and rs11556218) was performed in a 384-well plate format on the MassARRAY® platform.
RESULTS: In our study, we found the gastric cancer patients were more likely to be male and have a family history of cancer (P < 0.05). We found the rs4778889 CC and rs11556218 GG genotype was significantly associated with 1.97 and 1.84-fold increased risk of non-cardia gastric cancer, while we did not find significant association between the four IL-16 SNPs and cardia gastric cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study indicated that IL-16 rs4778889 CC and rs11556218 GG genotypes are associated with an increased risk of non-cardia gastric cancer in a Chinese population. Our results offer insights into the influence of IL-16 on development of gastric cancer.

Qin X, Peng Q, Lao X, et al.
The association of interleukin-16 gene polymorphisms with IL-16 serum levels and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a Chinese population.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(3):1917-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin (IL)-16 plays a fundamental role in inflammatory diseases, as well as in the development and progression of tumors. Genetic variation in DNA sequence of IL16 gene may lead to altered cytokine production and/or activity, and this variation may modulate an individual's susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). To test this hypothesis, we investigated the association of IL16 gene polymorphisms and serum IL-16 levels with NPC risk in a Chinese population. We analyzed IL16 gene rs11556218 T/G, rs4778889 T/C, and rs4072111 C/T polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing, and serum IL-16 levels were measured by ELISA. The IL16 rs11556218 T/G polymorphism was significantly associated with the susceptibility to NPC patients. The TG genotype was associated with a significantly higher risk of NPC as compared with the TT genotype (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.04-4.01; p = 0.037). Patients carrying the G allele had a significantly higher risk for developing NPC compared with individuals carrying the T allele (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.07-3.01; p = 0.027). The serum IL-16 levels were increased in NPC patients compared with controls (p < 0.01); the genotypes carrying the IL16 rs11556218 G variant allele were associated with increased serum IL-16 levels compared with the homozygous wild-type genotype in NPC patients (all p values <0.01). Our data suggested that IL16 rs11556218 T/G polymorphism was associated with increased susceptibility to NPC through increasing the production of serum IL-16 levels.

Hughes L, Ruth K, Rebbeck TR, Giri VN
Genetic variation in IL-16 miRNA target site and time to prostate cancer diagnosis in African-American men.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013; 16(4):308-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Men with a family history of prostate cancer and African-American men are at high risk for prostate cancer and in need of personalized risk estimates to inform screening decisions. This study evaluated genetic variants in genes encoding microRNA (miRNA) binding sites for informing of time to prostate cancer diagnosis among ethnically diverse, high-risk men undergoing prostate cancer screening.
METHODS: The Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP) is a longitudinal screening program for high-risk men. The eligibility includes men aged between 35 and 69 years with a family history of prostate cancer or African descent. Participants with 1 follow-up visit were included in the analyses (n=477). Genetic variants in genes encoding miRNA binding sites (ALOX15 (arachidonate 15-lipooxygenase), IL-16, IL-18 and RAF1 (v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1)) previously implicated in prostate cancer development were evaluated. Genotyping methods included Taqman SNP Genotyping Assay or pyrosequencing. Cox models were used to assess time to prostate cancer diagnosis by risk genotype.
RESULTS: Among 256 African Americans with one follow-up visit, the TT genotype at rs1131445 in IL-16 was significantly associated with earlier time to prostate cancer diagnosis vs the CC/CT genotypes (P=0.013), with a suggestive association after correction for false discovery (P=0.065). Hazard ratio after controlling for age and PSA for TT vs CC/CT among African Americans was 3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.26-7.12). No association with time to diagnosis was detected among Caucasians by IL-16 genotype. No association with time to prostate cancer diagnosis was found for the other miRNA target genotypes.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in IL-16 encoding miRNA target site may be informative of time to prostate cancer diagnosis among African-American men enrolled in prostate cancer risk assessment, which may inform individualized prostate cancer screening strategies in the future.

Richmond J, Tuzova M, Cruikshank W, Center D
Regulation of cellular processes by interleukin-16 in homeostasis and cancer.
J Cell Physiol. 2014; 229(2):139-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-16 (IL-16) is generated as a precursor molecule that is cleaved by caspase-3 to produce a pro-IL-16 molecule that functions as a regulator of T cell growth, and a secreted peptide that functions as a CD4 and/or CD9 ligand for induction of cell motility and activation. IL-16 has been predominantly studied as a contributing factor in the orchestration of an immune response; however, more recently IL-16 bioactivity has been closely associated with the progression of a number of different cancers. While the association between IL-16 plasma levels and tumor progression has been reported for many types of cancer, the mechanism for IL-16 involvement has been partially elucidated for three of the cancer types, cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), multiple myeloma (MM), and breast cancer. The mechanism for promoting cell growth is different in each of these cancers and involves a sequence mutation in the pro-molecule facilitating decreased p27(KIP1) levels in CTCL; over expression of the secreted IL-16 molecule to induce proliferation in CTCL T cells, and plasma cells in MM; and increased secreted IL-16 acting to recruit CD4+ pro-tumor macrophages in breast cancer. This article will review the cellular process for generating IL-16, the biological activities for both the pro- and secreted forms of the protein, and then the mechanism by which these forms contribute to cancer progression. As a soluble cytokine the ability to reduce or eliminate IL-16 synthesis through siRNA approaches or bioactivity through the use of neutralizing antibody treatment may represent a novel therapeutic approach.

Milke L, Schulz K, Weigert A, et al.
Depletion of tristetraprolin in breast cancer cells increases interleukin-16 expression and promotes tumor infiltration with monocytes/macrophages.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(4):850-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) destabilizes target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) containing AU-rich elements within their 3' untranslated region. Thereby, it controls the expression of multiple inflammatory and tumor-associated transcripts. Moreover, a loss of TTP in tumors predicts disease-associated survival. Although tumor intrinsic functions of TTP have previously been studied, the impact of TTP on the interaction of tumors with their microenvironment remains elusive. As immune cell infiltration into tumors is a critical determinant for tumor progression, this study aimed at determining the influence of tumor cell TTP on the interaction between tumor and immune cells, specifically monocytes (MO)/macrophages (MΦ). Knockdown (k/d) of TTP in T47D breast cancer cells enhanced tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo and increased infiltration of MO into 3D tumor spheroids in vitro and of MΦ into tumor xenografts in vivo. Enhanced migration of MO toward supernatants of TTP-deficient tumor spheroids was determined as the underlying principle. Interestingly, we noticed interleukin-16 (IL-16) mRNA stabilization when TTP was depleted. In line, IL-16 protein levels were elevated in TTP-deficient spheroids and their supernatants as well as in TTP k/d tumor xenografts and critically contributed to the enhanced chemotactic behavior. In summary, we show that the loss of TTP in tumors not only affects tumor cell proliferation and survival but also enhances infiltration of MO/MΦ into the tumors, which is typically associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, we identified IL-16 as a critical TTP-regulated chemotactic factor that contributes to MO/MΦ migration.

Azimzadeh P, Romani S, Mohebbi SR, et al.
Association of polymorphisms in microRNA-binding sites and colorectal cancer in an Iranian population.
Cancer Genet. 2012; 205(10):501-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are agents of post-transcriptional gene expression, and they can affect many functions of an individual cell or tissue from extracellular matrix production to inflammatory processes and tumor development. We aimed to determine the possible role of miRNA-binding site polymorphisms located in five cancer-related genes: IL-16, CDKN2A (p16), RAF1, PTGER4, and ITGB4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk modification in an Iranian population. This study was performed on 643 individuals (249 CRC cases and 394 healthy controls). We selected five cancer-related genes (IL-16, CDKN2A (p16), RAF1, PTGER4, and ITGB4) and investigated the genotypes of the 3' untranslated region miRNA-binding site polymorphisms in these genes in our study population. The restriction fragment length polymorphism results were confirmed by a direct sequencing method. We found a statistically significant difference between the rs1131445 polymorphism of the IL-16 gene and CRC. The frequencies of the genotypes TT, CT, and CC in controls were 51%, 40.4%, and 8.6%, respectively, and in cases were 41.4%, 44.1%, and 14.5%, respectively, which shows a significant association between the CC genotype of the rs1131445 polymorphism and CRC (P = 0.004). The frequency of the C allele in the CRC group was higher than in the controls, and the C allele of the rs1131445 polymorphism was found to be in association with CRC (P = 0.009). These associations remained significant after Bonferroni's correction for multiple testing. We found that the AA genotype of the rs743554 polymorphism in the ITGB4 gene and the T allele of the rs1051208 polymorphism of the RAF1 gene were associated with the risk of CRC in females; however, after Bonferroni's correction we found that they were non-significant. Finally, we can conclude that a significant relationship exists between the miRNA-binding site polymorphism of the IL-16 gene and CRC risk in the Iranian population.

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