Gene Summary

Gene:IL13; interleukin 13
Aliases: P600, IL-13
Summary:This gene encodes an immunoregulatory cytokine produced primarily by activated Th2 cells. This cytokine is involved in several stages of B-cell maturation and differentiation. It up-regulates CD23 and MHC class II expression, and promotes IgE isotype switching of B cells. This cytokine down-regulates macrophage activity, thereby inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This cytokine is found to be critical to the pathogenesis of allergen-induced asthma but operates through mechanisms independent of IgE and eosinophils. This gene, IL3, IL5, IL4, and CSF2 form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 5q, with this gene particularly close to IL4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IL13 (cancer-related)

Rudnicka K, Backert S, Chmiela M
Genetic Polymorphisms in Inflammatory and Other Regulators in Gastric Cancer: Risks and Clinical Consequences.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2019; 421:53-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of a chronic inflammatory response, which may induce peptic ulcers, gastric cancer (GC), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Chronic H. pylori infection promotes the genetic instability of gastric epithelial cells and interferes with the DNA repair systems in host cells. Colonization of the stomach with H. pylori is an important cause of non-cardia GC and gastric MALT lymphoma. The reduction of GC development in patients who underwent anti-H. pylori eradication schemes has also been well described. Individual susceptibility to GC development depends on the host's genetic predisposition, H. pylori virulence factors, environmental conditions, and geographical determinants. Biological determinants are urgently sought to predict the clinical course of infection in individuals with confirmed H. pylori infection. Possible candidates for such biomarkers include genetic aberrations such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in various cytokines/growth factors (e.g., IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A/B, IFN-γ, TNF, TGF-β) and their receptors (IL-RN, TGFR), innate immunity receptors (TLR2, TLR4, CD14, NOD1, NOD2), enzymes involved in signal transduction cascades (PLCE1, PKLR, PRKAA1) as well as glycoproteins (MUC1, PSCA), and DNA repair enzymes (ERCC2, XRCC1, XRCC3). Bacterial determinants related to GC development include infection with CagA-positive (particularly with a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation motifs) and VacA-positive isolates (in particular s1/m1 allele strains). The combined genotyping of bacterial and host determinants suggests that the accumulation of polymorphisms favoring host and bacterial features increases the risk for precancerous and cancerous lesions in patients.

Matsui S, Okabayashi K, Tsuruta M, et al.
Interleukin-13 and its signaling pathway is associated with obesity-related colorectal tumorigenesis.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(7):2156-2165 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been on the rise, which is linked to the increasing prevalence of obesity, based on global epidemiological evidence. Although chronic inflammation is implicated in tumor development, the mechanisms underlying obesity-associated CRC remain unknown. Here, we sought to identify the inflammatory cytokines and their roles in obesity-related colorectal tumorigenesis using cytokine array analyses in a mouse model. Colorectal tumorigenesis was induced through i.p. injection of azoxymethane once a week for 6 weeks in 6-week-old female WT C57Black/6J mice and the obesity diabetes model mouse KK/TaJcl, KK-Ay/TaJcl. The formation of aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumors were more frequent in obese mice compared with WT mice, and both serum interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-13 receptor (R) expression in the normal intestinal mucosal epithelium were significantly increased in the obese mice. Furthermore, addition of IL-13 to a human CRC cell line and a human colon organoid culture altered the phenotype of intestinal epithelial cells. Knockdown experiments further revealed that IL-13Rα1 dominantly induced mucosal proliferation. Collectively, These results suggest an association between anti-inflammatory cytokines and colorectal carcinogenesis, and provide new research directions for cancer prevention strategies. In particular, inflammation provoked by obesity, notably by increased expression of the cytokine IL-13, could play an important role in the carcinogenesis of obesity-related CRC.

Ni M, Qin B, Xie L, et al.
IL-13 Contributes to Drug Resistance of NK/T-Cell Lymphoma Cells by Regulating ABCC4.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:2606834 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Extranodal natural killer/T (NK/T) cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL), represents a rare subtype of T-cell lymphomas with aggressive clinical behavior and is relatively resistant to chemotherapy. However, there is relatively poor understanding of molecular pathogenesis of multidrug resistance in ENKTL. Here, we aimed to explore the biological roles and potential mechanism of IL-13 and ABCC4 in multidrug resistance of NK/T-cell lymphoma.
Methods: ELISA analysis was used to determine the level of serum IL-13 and immunohistochemical analysis was applied to detect the ABCC4 expression level in patients with human NK/T-cell lymphoma. Western blot assay was employed to measure the expression of ABCC4 in cells. Lenti-sh-ABCC4 viruses were constructed to knock down ABCC4 in YTS cells. CCK-8 assay and flow cytometric analysis were performed to detect the effects of IL-13 and ABCC4 on cell proliferation and apoptosis. CCK-8 assay was conducted to detect the effect of IL-13 and ABCC4 on cell sensitivity to adriamycin (ADM) in YTS cells.
Results: Levels of serum IL-13 and ABCC4 expression were observed to be upregulated in patients with human NK/T-cell lymphoma. Moreover, ABCC4 protein expression was also increased in NK/T-cell lymphoma YTS cells compared to the normal NK cells. Interestingly, IL-13 promoted ABCC4 expression in YTS cells. IL-13 promoted proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of YTS cells and reversed the effects of ABCC4 knockdown on promotive proliferation and inhibitory apoptosis. In addition, IL-13 enhanced YTS cell chemotherapy resistance to ADM by promoting ABCC4 expression.
Conclusion: Our findings concluded that IL-13 inhibited chemotherapy sensitivity of NK/T-cell lymphoma cells by regulating ABCC4, disrupting which may effectively improve the therapy protocols against resistant NK/T-cell lymphoma.

Bhardwaj R, Suzuki A, Leland P, et al.
Identification of a novel role of IL-13Rα2 in human Glioblastoma multiforme: interleukin-13 mediates signal transduction through AP-1 pathway.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):369 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previously, we have demonstrated that Interleukin 13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13Rα2) is overexpressed in approximate 78% Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) samples. We have also demonstrated that IL-13Rα2 can serve as a target for cancer immunotherapy in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. However, the significance of overexpression of IL-13Rα2 in GBM and astrocytoma and signaling through these receptors is not known. IL-13 can signal through IL-13R via JAK/STAT and AP-1 pathways in certain cell lines including some tumor cell lines. Herein, we have investigated a role of IL-13/IL-13Rα2 axis in signaling through AP-1 transcription factors in human glioma samples in situ.
METHODS: We examined the activation of AP-1 family of transcription factors (c-Jun, Fra-1, Jun-D, c-Fos, and Jun-B) after treating U251, A172 (IL-13Rα2 +ve) and T98G (IL-13Rα2 -ve) glioma cell lines with IL-13 by RT-qPCR, and immunocytochemistry (ICC). We also performed colorimetric ELISA based assay to determine AP-1 transcription factor activation in glioma cell lines. Furthermore, we examined the expression of AP-1 transcription factors in situ in GBM and astrocytoma specimens by multiplex-immunohistochemistry (IHC). Student t test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis of the results.
RESULTS: We have demonstrated up-regulation of two AP-1 transcription factors (c-Jun and Fra-1) at mRNA and protein levels upon treatment with IL-13 in IL-13Rα2 positive but not in IL-13Rα2 negative glioma cell lines. Both transcription factors were also overexpressed in patient derived GBM specimens, however, in contrast to GBM cell lines, c-Fos is also overexpressed in patient derived specimens. Astrocytoma specimens showed lesser extent of immunostaining for IL-13Rα2 and three AP-1 factors compared to GBM specimens. By transcription factor activation assay, we demonstrated that AP-1 transcription factors (C-Jun and Fra-1) were activated upon treatment of IL-13Rα2 + GBM cell lines but not IL-13Rα2 - GBM cell line with IL-13. Our results demonstrate functional activity of AP-1 transcription factor in GBM cell lines in response to IL-13.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that IL-13/IL-13Rα2 axis can mediate signal transduction in situ via AP-1 pathway in GBM and astrocytoma and may serve as a new target for GBM immunotherapy.

Lin Y, Yuan Q, Qian F, et al.
Polymorphism rs4787951 in IL-4R contributes to the increased risk of renal cell carcinoma in a Chinese population.
Gene. 2019; 685:242-247 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Interleukins are important molecules involved in tumor formation. In this study, the association between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4R was assessed.
METHODS: We recruited 620/623 cases/controls and conducted a case-control study. Five tagSNPs (i.e., IL-4R rs8832, IL-4R rs4787951, IL-13 rs1881457, IL-13 rs2066960 and IL-13 rs2069744) were selected. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained to appraise the association between SNPs and RCC susceptibility. Luciferase report assay and EMSA were conducted to investigate whether SNPs could affect binding affinity of transcription factors to target genes.
RESULTS: IL-4R rs4787951T>C was significantly associated with RCC susceptibility. Individuals carrying CC genotypes had a significant increment in RCC risk compared with TT genotype carriers (adjusted OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.07-2.28, P = 0.020). By stratified analyses, more pronounced association was found in the female, diabetic or without smoking, drinking and hypertension group. Besides, SNP rs4787951 could influence the binding affinity of IL-4R to transcription factors. Sequence surrounding allele T was prone to bind transcription factor NFATc.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that IL-4R rs4787951T>C was associated with susceptibility of RCC and could be a predictive biomarker for RCC risk.

Orciani M, Caffarini M, Torresetti M, et al.
Breast Implant Texturization Does Not Affect the Crosstalk Between MSC and ALCL Cells.
Inflammation. 2019; 42(2):721-730 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the last decade, there has been a growing interest about the possible association between anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and breast implants (BIA-ALCL). Many variables, such as breast implants texturization, have been investigated. Breast implants often lead to the formation of a periprosthetic capsule, characterized by inflammation. The presence of the inflamed capsule has been found in the majority of patients with BIA-ALCL. Inflammation may be sustained or counteracted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by the secretion of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. MSCs were isolated from three capsules surrounding micro-textured (micro-MSCs) and from three capsules surrounding macro-textured (macro-MSCs) implants; after characterization, MSCs were co-cultured with KI-JK cells (a cell line derived from the cutaneous form of ALCL). The secretion of cytokines related to inflammation, the proliferation rate, and the expression of genes referred to pro-tumoral mechanisms were evaluated. Co-cultures of KI-JK cells with micro- or macro-MSCs gave the same results about the secretion of cytokines (increase of IL10, G-CSF, and TGF-β1 and decrease of IL4, IL5, IL12, IL13, IL17A, IFN-γ (p < 0.05) with respect to mock sample), expression of selected genes (increase for ACVR1, VEGF, TGF-βR2, CXCL12, and MKi67 (p < 0.05) with respect to control sample), and the proliferation rate (no variation between mock and co-cultured samples). Our results suggest that MSCs derived from capsules surrounding micro- and macro-textured implants display the same effects on the ALCL cells.

Gohar MK, Ammar MG, Alnagar AA, Abd-ElAziz HA
Serum IgE and Allergy Related Genotypes of IL-4R α and IL-13 Genes: Association with Glioma Susceptibility and Glioblastoma Prognosis.
Egypt J Immunol. 2018; 25(1):19-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas are the commonest type of primary brain tumor in adult. Glioblastoma maltiforms (GBM) is the malignant form with poor prognosis. Certain genotypes of inflammatory gene which associated with asthma and allergic conditions (IL-4R α and IL- 13) are inversely associated with glioma risk. We studied the relation between allergic conditions and serum level of IgE and glioma risk. We also examined the role of SNP of inflammatory genes IL-4 R α (rs 1801275) and IL-13 (rs 1800925) in development of glioma and to find out factors which can modify the prognosis of glioblastoma. This study included 98 Egyptian glioma cases and 98 healthy controls. Full history and clinical data were taken; total serum IgE were assayed, genotyping of IL-4 R α (rs 1801275) and IL-13 (rs 1800925) genes was carried out by restriction digestion after genes amplification. In cases group histopathological examination and tumor grading were done. Past history of allergic condition and elevated serum levels of IgE were more frequent in controls than in cases group (P< 0.05). Genotypes AA and AG of IL- 4R α were significantly frequent in cases and A allele were considered risk factor for glioma OR 2.31(1.53- 3.48), P < 0.001. We also found that C allele of IL-13 is risk factor for glioma susceptibility with p value = 0.006. Longer median survival period in glioblastoma were associated with elevated serum IgE level and who were AA genotypes of IL-4 R α. We conclude an inverse relation between glioma risk, and allergy biomarker IgE and allergy related (IL-4R α; rs 1801275) gene polymorphisms. GBM patients with IL-4Rα AA genotype, have longest survival. Chemotherapy and gross total resection improve GBM prognosis.

Shamoun L, Skarstedt M, Andersson RE, et al.
Association study on IL-4, IL-4Rα and IL-13 genetic polymorphisms in Swedish patients with colorectal cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2018; 487:101-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and interleukin 13 (IL-13) are anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines which share a common cellular receptor IL4Rα and are involved in the same signaling pathways. Our purpose was to assess whether genetic variants within IL-4, IL-13 and IL-4Rα are associated with the risk or clinical outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in 466 patients with CRC and 445 healthy controls. The selected SNPs were IL-4 SNP rs2243250, IL-4Rα SNP rs1801275 and IL-13 SNP rs1800925.
RESULTS: We found that the genotype variant T/T in IL-13 gene was associated with a higher risk of CRC. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cancer specific survival differed between C/C and CT + TT for IL-4 SNP. Moreover, the carriers of the T allele were associated with the highest risk of CRC death with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.57, 95% CI 1.06-2.36, p = .024. The observed effect of the T allele was restricted to stage III patients.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate IL-13 SNP rs1800925 as a risk factor for CRC and that IL-4 SNP rs2243250 could be a useful prognostic marker in the follow-up and clinical management of patients with CRC especially in stage III disease.

Geng B, Pan J, Zhao T, et al.
Chitinase 3-like 1-CD44 interaction promotes metastasis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through β-catenin/Erk/Akt signaling in gastric cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):208 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Enzymatically inactive chitinase-like protein CHI3L1 drives inflammatory response and promotes tumor progression. However, its role in gastric cancer (GC) tumorigenesis and metastasis has not yet been fully elucidated. We determined the significance of CHI3L1 expression in patients with GC. We also explored an as-yet unknown receptor of CHI3L1 and investigated the involved signaling in GC metastasis.
METHODS: CHI3L1 expression was evaluated by immunoblotting, tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry analysis (n = 100), and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (n = 150). The interactions between CD44 and CHI3L1 or Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13Rα2) were analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence co-localization assay, ELISA, and bio-layer interferometry. The roles of CHI3L1/CD44 axis in GC metastasis were investigated in GC cell lines and experimental animal model by gain and loss of function.
RESULTS: CHI3L1 upregulation occurred during GC development, and positively correlated with GC invasion depth, lymph node status, and tumor staging. Mechanically, CHI3L1 binding to CD44 activated Erk and Akt, along with β-catenin signaling by phosphorylating β-catenin at Ser552 and Ser675. CD44 also interacted with IL-13Rα2 to form a complex. Notably, CD44v3 peptide and protein, but not CD44v6 peptide or CD44s protein, bound to both CHI3L1 and IL-13Rα2. Our in vivo and in vitro data further demonstrated that CHI3L1 promoted GC cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: CHI3L1 binding to CD44v3 activates Erk, Akt, and β-catenin signaling, therefore enhances GC metastasis. CHI3L1 expression is a novel biomarker for the prognosis of GC, and these findings have thus identified CHI3L1/CD44 axis as a vital pathway and potential therapeutic target in GC.

Xu F, Cui WQ, Wei Y, et al.
Astragaloside IV inhibits lung cancer progression and metastasis by modulating macrophage polarization through AMPK signaling.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):207 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in cancer progression and metastasis, making M2 polarization of TAMs an ever more appealing target for therapeutic intervention. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), a saponin component isolated from Astragali radix, has been reported to inhibit the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer, but its effects on TAMs during lung cancer progression have not been investigated.
METHODS: Human THP-1 monocytes were induced to differentiate into M2 macrophages through treatments with IL-4, IL-13, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). We used the lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299 cultured in conditioned medium from M2 macrophages (M2-CM) to investigate the effects of AS-IV on tumor growth, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of lung cancer cells. Macrophage subset distribution, M1 and M2 macrophage-associated markers, and mRNA expression were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. The activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways that mediate M2-CM-promoted tumor migration was detected using western blotting.
RESULTS: Here we found that AS-IV significantly inhibited IL-13 and IL-4-induced M2 polarization of macrophages, as illustrated by reduced expression of CD206 and M2-associated genes, and that AS-IV suppressed the M2-CM-induced invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of A549 and H1299 cells. In vivo experiments demonstrated that AS-IV greatly inhibited tumor growth and reduced the number of metastases of Lewis lung cancer. The percentage of M2 macrophages was decreased in tumor tissue after AS-IV treatment. Furthermore, AS-IV inhibited AMPKα activation in M2 macrophages, and silencing of AMPKα partially abrogated the inhibitory effect of AS-IV.
CONCLUSIONS: AS-IV reduced the growth, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of lung cancer by blocking the M2 polarization of macrophages partially through the AMPK signaling pathway, which appears to play an important role in AS-IV's ability to inhibit the metastasis of lung cancer.

Zhang Y, Li C, Zhang M, Li Z
IL-13 and IL-13Rα1 are overexpressed in extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma and mediate tumor cell proliferation.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(4):2715-2720 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is a rare but aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Multi-agent chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy are used to treat this disease, but the prognosis remains poor. Interleukin 13 and its receptors (IL-13Rs) are correlated with the pathogenesis and progression of various malignances. However, their roles in NKTCL have not been evaluated. In this study, we examined the roles of IL-13 and IL-13Rs in NKTCL and the underlying mechanisms. We found significantly higher serum IL-13 levels (p < 0.001) and IL-13Rα1 expression in tumor tissues (36 of 40, p < 0.001) in patients with NKTCL than in control cohort. IL-13 secretion was observed in tumor tissues (30 of 40, p < 0.001) and several cell lines of NKTCL. However, we did not detect significant associations between clinical characteristics and the expression levels of IL-13 or IL-13Rs. In vitro, IL-13 activated Stat6 and promoted cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, blocking IL-13 exerted a negative effect on tumor cell growth. We conclude that IL-13 functions as an autocrine growth factor in NKTCL and contributes to its pathogenesis. Blocking IL-13 is thus a potential therapeutic approach for NKTCL.

Pastuszak-Lewandoska D, Domańska-Senderowska D, Antczak A, et al.
The Expression Levels of IL-4/IL-13/STAT6 Signaling Pathway Genes and SOCS3 Could Help to Differentiate the Histopathological Subtypes of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.
Mol Diagn Ther. 2018; 22(5):621-629 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 signaling pathway and the SOCS3 gene, one of its main regulators, constitute an important link between the inflammation process in the epithelial cells and inflammatory-related tumorigenesis. The present study is the first to evaluate IL-4, IL-13, STAT6, and SOCS3 mRNA expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) histopathological subtypes.
METHODS: Gene expression levels were assessed using TaqMan
RESULTS: Increased expression of IL-4, IL-13, and STAT6 was observed in all histopathological NSCLC subtypes (squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], adenocarcinoma [AC], and large cell carcinoma [LCC]). Significantly higher expression of IL-13 and STAT6 (p = 0.019 and p = 0.008, respectively) was found in SCC than in LCC. No statistically significant differences were found for IL-4. Significantly higher SOCS3 expression was found in LCC than in AC (p = 0.027). A negative correlation (rho = -0.519) was observed for the STAT6 and SOCS3 genes in SCC (p = 0.005). No associations were found between gene expression and tumor staging (post-operative Tumor Node Metastasis [pTNM], American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC]), patients' age, sex, or history of smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: As the number of LCC cases in our study was quite low, the statistically significant results obtained should be confirmed in a larger group of patients, particularly as the relationships identified between increased IL-4, IL-13, and STAT6 mRNA expression and decreased SOCS3 expression suggest that these genes may serve as potential diagnostic markers for differentiating between NSCLC histopathological subtypes.

Dhabal S, Das P, Biswas P, et al.
Regulation of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) expression, activity, and function in IL-13-stimulated monocytes and A549 lung carcinoma cells.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(36):14040-14064 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is a mitochondrial flavoenzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and inflammation and also in many neurological disorders. MAO-A also has been reported as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling cytokine-induced MAO-A expression in immune or cancer cells remain to be identified. Here, we show that MAO-A expression is co-induced with 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) in interleukin 13 (IL-13)-activated primary human monocytes and A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. We present evidence that

Bonaventure A, Orsi L, Rudant J, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of Th2 interleukins, history of asthma or eczema and childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia: Findings from the ESCALE study (SFCE).
Cancer Epidemiol. 2018; 55:96-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the putative role of allergy in the aetiology of childhood leukaemia have reported contradictory results. The present study aimed to analyse the relation between a medical history of asthma or eczema and childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) in light of potential candidate gene-environment interactions.
METHODS: Analyses were based on a subset of 434 cases of ALL and 442 controls successfully genotyped and of European ancestry children enrolled in a French population-based case-control study conducted in 2003-2004. Information about medical history was obtained during a standardized interview with the mothers. Candidate polymorphisms in genes of the Th2 cytokines IL4, IL10, IL13 and IL4-receptor, were genotyped or imputed.
RESULTS: None of the variant alleles were directly associated with childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia. A medical history of asthma or eczema was reported more often in the control group (OR = 0.7 [0.5-1.0]). This association was mostly seen in the group of children not carrying the IL13-rs20541 variant allele (Interaction Odds Ratio IOR 1.9, p-interaction = 0.07) and in those carrying the IL10 triple variant haplotype (IOR 0.5, p-interaction = 0.04). No interaction was observed with the candidate polymorphisms in IL4 and IL4R.
CONCLUSION: This study provides a new insight into the relationship between allergic symptoms and childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia, by suggesting this inverse association could be limited to children carrying certain genetic polymorphisms. If confirmed, these results could help better understand the biological mechanisms involved in the development of childhood acute lymphoid leukaemia.

Zhang J, Cao D, Yu S, et al.
Amphotericin B suppresses M2 phenotypes and B7-H1 expression in macrophages to prevent Raji cell proliferation.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):467 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Macrophages in the tumor microenvironment play a critical role in tumorigenesis and anti-cancer drug resistance. Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with dense macrophage infiltration. However, the role for macrophages in BL remains largely unknown.
METHODS: B7-H1, a transmembrane glycoprotein in the B7 family, suppresses T cell activation and proliferation and induces the apoptosis of activated T cells. The expression of B7-H1 in BL clinical tissues was determined by streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry. The mutual regulation between macrophages and BL Raji cells was investigated in a co-culture system. The cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution of Raji cells were determined using BrdU staining coupled with flow cytometry. CD163, CD204 and B7-H1 expression was assessed by flow cytometry and Western blot. Cell invasion was analyzed by Transwell assay. The expression of cytokines was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunofluorescence and allogeneic T-cell proliferation assays were used to compare the expression of B7-H1, p-STAT6, or p-STAT3 and CD3+ T cell proliferation treated with or without amphotericin B.
RESULTS: B7-H1 was highly expressed in tumor infiltration macrophages in most clinical BL tissues. In vitro, Raji cells synthesized IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 to induce CD163, CD204 and B7-H1 expression in co-cultured macrophages, which in turn promoted Raji cell proliferation and invasion. Interestingly, antifungal agent amphotericin B not only inhibited STAT6 phosphorylation to suppress the M2 polarization of macrophages, but also promoted CD3+ T cell proliferation by regulating B7-H1 protein expression in macrophages.
CONCLUSION: Amphotericin B might represent a novel immunotherapeutic approach to treat patients with BL.

Berlow NE, Svalina MN, Quist MJ, et al.
IL-13 receptors as possible therapeutic targets in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(4):e0193565 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a universally fatal childhood cancer of the brain. Despite the introduction of conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, improvements in survival have been marginal and long-term survivorship is uncommon. Thus, new targets for therapeutics are critically needed. Early phase clinical trials exploring molecularly-targeted therapies against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and novel immunotherapies targeting interleukin receptor-13α2 (IL-13Rα2) have demonstrated activity in this disease. To identify additional therapeutic markers for cell surface receptors, we performed exome sequencing (16 new samples, 22 previously published samples, total 38 with 26 matched normal DNA samples), RNA deep sequencing (17 new samples, 11 previously published samples, total 28 with 18 matched normal RNA samples), and immunohistochemistry (17 DIPG tissue samples) to examine the expression of the interleukin-4 (IL-4) signaling axis components (IL-4, interleukin 13 (IL-13), and their respective receptors IL-4Rα, IL-13Rα1, and IL-13Rα2). In addition, we correlated cytokine and receptor expression with expression of the oncogenes EGFR and c-MET. In DIPG tissues, transcript-level analysis found significant expression of IL-4, IL-13, and IL-13Rα1/2, with strong differential expression of IL-13Rα1/2 in tumor versus normal brain. At the protein level, immunohistochemical studies revealed high content of IL-4 and IL-13Rα1/2 but notably low expression of IL-13. Additionally, a strong positive correlation was observed between c-Met and IL-4Rα. The genomic and transcriptional landscape across all samples was also summarized. These data create a foundation for the design of potential new immunotherapies targeting IL-13 cell surface receptors in DIPG.

Zhang Y, He S, Mei R, et al.
miR‑29a suppresses IL‑13‑induced cell invasion by inhibiting YY1 in the AKT pathway in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(6):2613-2623 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
IL‑13 is a proinflammatory cytokine associated with multiple pathological conditions and the promotion of metastasis in lung cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that IL‑13 and YY1 are associated with PI3K/AKT signaling. In addition, miR‑29a has been found to play a critical role in cell invasion in lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of miR‑29a underlying its involvement in IL‑13‑induced lung cancer cell invasion remains largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of miR‑29a in cell invasion mediated by IL‑13 in lung cancer. By using MTT and wound‑scratch assays, we assessed cell proliferation and migration induced by IL‑13, and identified activation of the PI3K/AKT/YY1 pathway. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT by LY294002 downregulated IL‑13‑induced YY1 expression. Furthermore, we found that miR‑29a directly targets YY1 and suppressed its expression in lung cancer. By using MTT, flow cytometry and Transwell assays, overexpression of miR‑29a restricted both YY1 and N‑cadherin expression, and inhibited IL‑13‑induced invasion of lung cancer A549 cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that PI3K/AKT/YY1 is involved in the regulation of lung cancer cell behavior induced by IL‑13, and miR‑29a represents a promising therapeutic target.

Johansson K, Weidner J, Rådinger M
MicroRNAs in type 2 immunity.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 425:116-124 [PubMed] Related Publications
Type 2 immunity drives the pathology of allergic diseases and is necessary for expulsion of parasitic worms as well as having important implications in tumor progression. Over the last decade, a new research field has emerged describing a significant link between type 2 immunity and cancer development, called AllergoOncology. Thus, type 2 immune responses must be carefully regulated to mediate effective protection against damaging environmental factors, yet avoid excessive activation and immunopathology. Regulation of gene expression by microRNAs is required for normal behavior of most mammalian cells and has been studied extensively in the context of cancer. Although microRNA regulation of the immune system in cancer is well established and includes type 2 immune reactions in the tumor microenvironment, the involvement of microRNAs in these responses initiated by allergens, parasites or other environmental factors is just emerging. In this review, we focus on recent advances which increase the understanding of microRNA-mediated regulation of key mechanisms of type 2 immunity.

Pituch KC, Miska J, Krenciute G, et al.
Adoptive Transfer of IL13Rα2-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Creates a Pro-inflammatory Environment in Glioblastoma.
Mol Ther. 2018; 26(4):986-995 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
In order to fully harness the potential of immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells, pre-clinical studies must be conducted in immunocompetent animal models that closely mimic the immunosuppressive malignant glioma (MG) microenvironment. Thus, the goal of this project was to study the in vivo fate of T cells expressing CARs specific for the MG antigen IL13Rα2 (IL13Rα2-CARs) in immunocompetent MG models. Murine T cells expressing IL13Rα2-CARs with a CD28.ζ (IL13Rα2-CAR.CD28.ζ) or truncated signaling domain (IL13Rα2-CAR.Δ) were generated by retroviral transduction, and their effector function was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. IL13Rα2-CAR.CD28.ζ T cells' specificity toward IL13Rα2 was confirmed through cytokine production and cytolytic activity. In vivo, a single intratumoral injection of IL13Rα2-CAR.CD28.ζ T cells significantly extended the survival of IL13Rα2-expressing GL261 and SMA560 glioma-bearing mice; long-term survivors were resistant to re-challenge with IL13Rα2-negative and IL13Rα2-positive tumors. IL13Rα2-CAR.CD28.ζ T cells proliferated, produced cytokines (IFNγ, TNF-α), and promoted a phenotypically pro-inflammatory glioma microenvironment by inducing a significant increase in the number of CD4

Longo V, Tamma R, Brunetti O, et al.
Mast cells and angiogenesis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Clin Exp Med. 2018; 18(3):319-323 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mast cells are recognized as critical components of the tumor stromal microenvironment in several solid and hematological malignancies, promoting angiogenesis and tumor growth. A correlation between mast cells infiltration, angiogenesis and tumor progression has been reported for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma as well. Mast cells contribute to the aggressiveness of the pancreatic ductal carcinoma enhancing the expression of several pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, platelet-derived growth factor and angiopoietin-1 as well as stimulating the pancreatic cancer cells proliferation by IL-13 and tryptase. The disruption of this pro-angiogenic and proliferative stimulation by inhibiting the mast cells migration and degranulation is under investigation as a potential therapeutic approach in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients. This review will summarize the literature concerning the mast cells infiltration in the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma analyzing its role in angiogenesis and tumor progression.

Rahal OM, Wolfe AR, Mandal PK, et al.
Blocking Interleukin (IL)4- and IL13-Mediated Phosphorylation of STAT6 (Tyr641) Decreases M2 Polarization of Macrophages and Protects Against Macrophage-Mediated Radioresistance of Inflammatory Breast Cancer.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2018; 100(4):1034-1043 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the role of macrophage polarization on the response of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) cells to radiation and whether modulation of macrophage plasticity can alter radiation response.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: The human THP-1 monocyte cell line and primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated into macrophages and polarized to either an "antitumor" (M1) or a "protumor" (M2) phenotype. These polarized macrophages were co-cultured with IBC cells (SUM149, KPL4, MDA-IBC3, or SUM190) without direct contact for 24 hours, then subjected to irradiation (0, 2, 4, or 6 Gy). Interleukin (IL)4/IL13-induced activation of STAT6 signaling was measured by Western blotting of phospho-STAT6 (Tyr641), and expression of M2 polarization gene markers (CD206, fibronectin, and CCL22) was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Expression of M2 polarization markers was higher in M2-polarized macrophages after IL4/IL13 treatment than in control (M0) or M1-polarized macrophages. Co-culture of IBC cell lines with M1-polarized THP-1 macrophages mediated radiosensitivity of IBC cells, whereas co-culture with M2-polarized macrophages mediated radioresistance. Phosphopeptide mimetic PM37, targeting the SH2 domain of STAT6, prevented and reversed IL4/IL13-mediated STAT6 phosphorylation (Tyr641) and decreased the expression of M2 polarization markers. Pretreatment of M2-THP1 macrophages with PM37 reduced the radioresistance they induced in IBC cells after co-culture. Targeted proteomics analysis of IBC KPL4 cells using a kinase antibody array revealed induction of protein kinase C zeta (PRKCZ) in these cells only after co-culture with M2-THP1 macrophages, which was prevented by PM37 pretreatment. KPL4 cells with stable short hairpin RNA knockdown of PRKCZ exhibited lower radioresistance after M2-THP1 co-culture.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that inhibition of M2 polarization of macrophages by PM37 can prevent radioresistance of IBC by down-regulating PRKCZ.

Deng H, Zeng J, Zhang T, et al.
Histone H3.3K27M Mobilizes Multiple Cancer/Testis (CT) Antigens in Pediatric Glioma.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(4):623-633 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lysine to methionine mutations at position 27 (K27M) in the histone H3 (H3.3 and H3.1) are highly prevalent in pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG) that arise in the midline of the central nervous system. H3K27M perturbs the activity of polycomb repressor complex 2 and correlates with DNA hypomethylation; however, the pathways whereby H3K27M drives the development of pediatric HGG remain poorly understood. To understand the mechanism of pediatric HGG development driven by H3.3K27M and discover potential therapeutic targets or biomarkers, we established pediatric glioma cell model systems harboring H3.3K27M and performed microarray analysis. H3.3K27M caused the upregulation of multiple cancer/testis (CT) antigens, such as ADAMTS1, ADAM23, SPANXA1, SPANXB1/2, IL13RA2, VCY, and VCX3A, in pediatric glioma cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis from H3.3K27M cells revealed decreased H3K27me3 levels and increased H3K4me3 levels on the

Yang D, Yuan Y, Zhang S, et al.
Association between IL-13 Gene rs20541 Polymorphism and Glioma Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis.
Oncol Res Treat. 2018; 41(1-2):14-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to estimate the association between IL-13 gene rs20541 (R130Q) polymorphism and the susceptibility of glioma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Potentially eligible studies published before February 1, 2016 were searched in 4 databases including PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, and Ovid. Odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to estimate the strength of relationship between the IL-13 gene rs20541 polymorphism and glioma susceptibility. Stata 11.0 software was used to perform the present meta-analysis.
RESULTS: In total, 10 case-control studies with 13 datasets including 3,123 cases and 5,390 controls were identified. A significant increase in glioma susceptibility was found in the dominant model (AA + AG vs. GG: OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29; P = 0.031). Significantly decreasing glioma susceptibility was found for Asians in the heterozygote comparison (AG vs. GG: OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-0.99; P = 0.042) and the allele contrast genetic model (A vs. G: OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.96; P = 0.028). By contrast, in Caucasians, a significant increase in glioma susceptibility was found in the dominant model (AA + AG vs. GG: OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.41; P = 0.000).
CONCLUSION: There may be a weak association between the IL-13 gene rs20541 polymorphism and glioma susceptibility, and the associations may be different between ethnicities.

Newman JP, Wang GY, Arima K, et al.
Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 cooperates with EGFRvIII signaling to promote glioblastoma multiforme.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8(1):1913 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
The interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 (IL-13Rα2) is a cancer-associated receptor overexpressed in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This receptor is undetectable in normal brain which makes it a highly suitable target for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, the pathological role of this receptor in GBM remains to be established. Here we report that IL-13Rα2 alone induces invasiveness of human GBM cells without affecting their proliferation. In contrast, in the presence of the mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), IL-13Rα2 promotes GBM cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the cytoplasmic domain of IL-13Rα2 specifically binds to EGFRvIII, and this binding upregulates the tyrosine kinase activity of EGFRvIII and activates the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and STAT3 pathways. Our findings support the "To Go or To Grow" hypothesis whereby IL-13Rα2 serves as a molecular switch from invasion to proliferation, and suggest that targeting both receptors with STAT3 signaling inhibitor might be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of GBM.

Han J, Puri RK
Analysis of the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database identifies an inverse relationship between interleukin-13 receptor α1 and α2 gene expression and poor prognosis and drug resistance in subjects with glioblastoma multiforme.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 136(3):463-474 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. A variety of targeted agents are being tested in the clinic including cancer vaccines, immunotoxins, antibodies and T cell immunotherapy for GBM. We have previously reported that IL-13 receptor subunits α1 and α2 of IL-13R complex are overexpressed in GBM. We are investigating the significance of IL-13Rα1 and α2 expression in GBM tumors. In order to elucidate a possible relationship between IL-13Rα1 and α2 expression with severity and prognoses of subjects with GBM, we analyzed gene expression (by microarray) and clinical data available at the public The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database (Currently known as Global Data Commons). More than 40% of GBM samples were highly positive for IL-13Rα2 mRNA (Log2 ≥ 2) while only less than 16% samples were highly positive for IL-13Rα1 mRNA. Subjects with high IL-13Rα1 and α2 mRNA expressing tumors were associated with a significantly lower survival rate irrespective of their treatment compared to subjects with IL-13Rα1 and α2 mRNA negative tumors. We further observed that IL-13Rα2 gene expression is associated with GBM resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. The expression of IL-13Rα2 gene did not seem to correlate with the expression of genes for other chains involved in the formation of IL-13R complex (IL-13Rα1 or IL-4Rα) in GBM. However, a positive correlation was observed between IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα1 gene expression. The microarray data of IL-13Rα2 gene expression was verified by RNA-Seq data. In depth analysis of TCGA data revealed that immunosuppressive genes (such as FMOD, CCL2, OSM, etc.) were highly expressed in IL-13Rα2 positive tumors, but not in IL-13Rα2 negative tumors. These results indicate a direct correlation between high level of IL-13R mRNA expression and poor patient prognosis and that immunosuppressive genes associated with IL-13Rα2 may play a role in tumor progression. These findings have important implications in understanding the role of IL-13R in the pathogenesis of GBM and potentially other cancers.

Brown CE, Aguilar B, Starr R, et al.
Optimization of IL13Rα2-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells for Improved Anti-tumor Efficacy against Glioblastoma.
Mol Ther. 2018; 26(1):31-44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
T cell immunotherapy is emerging as a powerful strategy to treat cancer and may improve outcomes for patients with glioblastoma (GBM). We have developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy targeting IL-13 receptor α2 (IL13Rα2) for the treatment of GBM. Here, we describe the optimization of IL13Rα2-targeted CAR T cells, including the design of a 4-1BB (CD137) co-stimulatory CAR (IL13BBζ) and a manufacturing platform using enriched central memory T cells. Utilizing orthotopic human GBM models with patient-derived tumor sphere lines in NSG mice, we found that IL13BBζ-CAR T cells improved anti-tumor activity and T cell persistence as compared to first-generation IL13ζ-CAR CD8

Bielamowicz K, Fousek K, Byrd TT, et al.
Trivalent CAR T cells overcome interpatient antigenic variability in glioblastoma.
Neuro Oncol. 2018; 20(4):506-518 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain cancer, and is currently incurable. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown promise in GBM treatment. While we have shown that combinatorial targeting of 2 glioma antigens offsets antigen escape and enhances T-cell effector functions, the interpatient variability in surface antigen expression between patients hinders the clinical impact of targeting 2 antigen pairs. This study addresses targeting 3 antigens using a single CAR T-cell product for broader application.
Methods: We analyzed the surface expression of 3 targetable glioma antigens (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2], interleukin-13 receptor subunit alpha-2 [IL13Rα2], and ephrin-A2 [EphA2]) in 15 primary GBM samples. Accordingly, we created a trivalent T-cell product armed with 3 CAR molecules specific for these validated targets encoded by a single universal (U) tricistronic transgene (UCAR T cells).
Results: Our data showed that co-targeting HER2, IL13Rα2, and EphA2 could overcome interpatient variability by a tendency to capture nearly 100% of tumor cells in most tumors tested in this cohort. UCAR T cells made from GBM patients' blood uniformly expressed all 3 CAR molecules with distinct antigen specificity. UCAR T cells mediated robust immune synapses with tumor targets forming more polarized microtubule organizing centers and exhibited improved cytotoxicity and cytokine release over best monospecific and bispecific CAR T cells per patient tumor profile. Lastly, low doses of UCAR T cells controlled established autologous GBM patient derived xenografts (PDXs) and improved survival of treated animals.
Conclusion: UCAR T cells can overcome antigenic heterogeneity in GBM and lead to improved treatment outcomes.

Alexander K, Conley YP, Levine JD, et al.
Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms Associated With Various Domains of Quality of Life in Women With Breast Cancer.
J Pain Symptom Manage. 2018; 55(2):334-350.e3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/09/2019 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Little is known about the phenotypic and molecular characteristics associated with various domains of quality of life (QOL) in women after breast cancer surgery.
OBJECTIVES: In a sample of women with breast cancer (n = 398), purposes were as follows: to identify latent classes with distinct trajectories of QOL from before surgery through six months after surgery and to evaluate for differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as for polymorphisms in cytokine genes, between these latent classes.
METHODS: Latent class analyses were done to identify subgroups of patients with distinct QOL outcomes. Candidate gene analyses were done to identify cytokine gene polymorphisms associated with various domains of QOL (i.e., physical, psychological, spiritual, social).
RESULTS: One latent class was identified for the psychological and spiritual domains. Two latent classes were identified for the social domain and overall QOL scores. Three latent classes were identified for the physical domain. For the physical and social domains, as well as for the overall QOL scores, distinct phenotypic characteristics (i.e., younger age, poorer functional status, higher body mass index, and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy) and a number of cytokine gene polymorphisms (CXCL8, NFKB2, TNFSF, IL1B, IL13, and NFKB1) were associated with membership in the lower QOL classes.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that women experience distinctly different physical well-being, social well-being, and total QOL outcomes during and after breast cancer surgery. The genetic associations identified suggest that cytokine dysregulation influences QOL outcomes. However, specific QOL domains may be impacted by different cytokines.

Pérez-Ramírez C, Alnatsha A, Cañadas-Garre M, et al.
Cytokine single-nucleotide polymorphisms and risk of non-small-cell lung cancer.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2017; 27(12):438-444 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer, particularly the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtype, is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Several functional polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes, such as IL1B, IL6, IL12A, IL13 and IL16, have been associated with the risk of NSCLC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ILs gene polymorphisms and the risk of developing NSCLC.
PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was carried out, including 174 NSCLC cases and 298 controls of Spanish origin. IL1B (rs1143634), IL1B (rs12621220), IL1B (rs1143623), IL1B (rs16944), IL1B (rs1143627), IL12A (rs662959), IL13 (rs1881457), IL6 (rs1800795) and IL16 (rs7170924) gene polymorphisms were analysed by TaqMan.
RESULTS: The genotypic logistic regression model adjusted by smoking status showed that the IL1B rs1143634-TT genotype was associated with a lower risk of NSCLC (P=0.04312; odds ratio=0.226; 95% confidence interval=0.044-0.840). No other gene polymorphisms showed an association with NSCLC in any of the models tested.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, IL1B rs1143634 was significantly associated with a higher risk of NSCLC. No influence of IL1B rs12621220, rs1143623, rs16944, rs1143627, IL12A rs662959, IL13 rs1881457 and IL16 rs7170924 on the risk of developing NSCLC was found in our study.

Pérez-Ramírez C, Cañadas-Garre M, Alnatsha A, et al.
Interleukins as new prognostic genetic biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer.
Surg Oncol. 2017; 26(3):278-285 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Surgery is the standard treatment for early-stage NSCLC, and platinum-based chemotherapy remains as the treatment of choice for advanced-stage NSCLC patients with naïve EGFR status. However, overall 5-years relative survival rates are low. Interleukins (ILs) are crucial for processes associated with tumor development. In NSCLC, IL1B, IL6, IL12A, IL13 and IL16 gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual variation in terms of patient survival. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between IL gene polymorphisms and survival in NSCLC patients.
METHODS: A prospective cohorts study was performed, including 170 NSCLC patients (114 Stage IIIB-IV, 56 Stage I-IIIA). IL1B (C > T; rs1143634), IL1B (C > T; rs12621220), IL1B (C > G; rs1143623), IL1B (A > G; rs16944), IL1B (C > T; rs1143627), IL6 (C > G; rs1800795), IL12A (C > T; rs662959), IL13 (A > C; rs1881457) and IL16 (G > T; rs7170924) gene polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR Real-Time.
RESULTS: Patients with IL16 rs7170924-GG genotype were in higher risk of death (p = 0.0139; HR = 1.82; CI
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that IL16 rs7170924-GG and IL12A rs662959-TT genotypes predict higher risk of death and progression, respectively, in NSCLC patients. No influence of IL1B rs12621220, IL1B rs1143623, IL1B rs16944, IL1B rs1143627, IL6 rs1800795, IL13 rs1881457 on NSCLC clinical outcomes was found in our patients.

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