Gene Summary

Gene:GAPDH; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Aliases: G3PD, GAPD, HEL-S-162eP
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. The product of this gene catalyzes an important energy-yielding step in carbohydrate metabolism, the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The encoded protein has additionally been identified to have uracil DNA glycosylase activity in the nucleus. Also, this protein contains a peptide that has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans. Studies of a similar protein in mouse have assigned a variety of additional functions including nitrosylation of nuclear proteins, the regulation of mRNA stability, and acting as a transferrin receptor on the cell surface of macrophage. Many pseudogenes similar to this locus are present in the human genome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (23)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: GAPDH (cancer-related)

Sun S, Wang N, Sun Z, et al.
MiR-5692a promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis by targeting HOXD8 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J BUON. 2019 Jan-Feb; 24(1):178-186 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a member of the most frequent malignancies in the world and the poor prognosis of HCC is mainly due to lack of early detection and treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-5692a in the progression of HCC and its underlying mechanism.
METHODS: The relative expression of miR-5692a in HCC tissues and cell lines was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay. Cell counting kit-8 assay and colony formation assay were used to determine cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis was carried out to determine cell cycle distribution and apoptotic cells. Bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase reporter assay were employed to predict and verify the potential targets of miR-5692a. Protein expression level of HOXD8 was assessed by western blotting normalized by GAPDH in transfected cells.
RESULTS: The relative expression level of miR-5692a was increased in both HCC tissues and cell lines. According to CCK8 assay and colony formation assay, miR-5692a was considered to promote proliferation in HCC. The consequence of flow cytometric analysis showed that overexpressed miR-5692a accelerated cell cycle and inhibited cell apoptosis. We verified that HOXD8 was a target of miR-5692a via online prediction database and dual luciferase reporter assay. The rescue assay we carried out subsequently validated that miR-5692a functioned as an oncogene by regulating HOXD8 in HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that miR-5692a had an oncogenic role in HCC by targeting HOXD8 which might bring a novel insight into new therapeutic targets and biomarkers in HCC.

Dwivedi D, Kasetty S, Tijare MS, et al.
Effect of Conventional and Microwave Tissue Processing Technique on DNA Integrity: A Comparative Molecular Analysis.
Ethiop J Health Sci. 2018; 28(5):615-624 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Methods of diagnostic molecular biology are routinely applied on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues processed via conventional method. Recently, there has been a growing interest to use microwave technology in histopathology laboratories to overcome the deficiencies of the conventional processing method. Thefore, this study was aimed to compare and analyze the quality and quantity of DNA obtained from tissues processed by conventional and microwave tissue processing techniques and to further ascertain the applicability of the latter for PCR (polymerase chain reaction based research).
Methods: Thirty fresh tissues of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were included, and each sample was cut into two equivalent halves. One tissue half was processed by conventional manual method whereas the other half was processed using a domestic microwave oven. DNA was obtained from all the tissues which were then subjected to Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to evaluate GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) gene expression.
Results: The results revealed better DNA yield from microwave processed tissue while the quality of the DNA was alike from both the techniques.
Conclusion: On the basis of the results obtained, it can be concluded that DNA produced by microwave processed tissues was similar to that obtained by conventional processing technique in terms of quantity and quality. Thus, microwave processed tissue samples can be successfully used for further molecular studies and researches.

Kontos CK, Avgeris M, Vassilacopoulou D, et al.
Molecular Effects of Treatment of Human Colorectal Cancer Cells with Natural and Classical Chemotherapeutic Drugs: Alterations in the Expression of Apoptosis-related BCL2 Family Members, Including BCL2L12.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018; 19(13):1064-1075 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Current chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) include oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and fluorouracil along with leucovorin. Cytotoxicity involves the induction of programmed cell death.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the molecular effects of doxorubicin (a 14-OH derivative of the natural product daunorubicin) and common chemotherapeutic drugs (used in the clinical practice to treat CRC) on the expression of the most prominent members of the BCL2 family, namely BCL2, BAX, BCLX, and MCL1. Moreover, we sought to define the role of BCL2L12, another member of the BCL2 family, the apoptotic role of which is ambiguous.
METHODS: The MTT cell proliferation assay was used to determine the IC50 of each chemotherapeutic drug at 72 hours of treatment of Caco-2 and DLD-1 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Real-time PCR was used to quantify the antiapoptotic BCL2-α, BLCX-L, and MCL1-L transcripts, the proapoptotic BAX, BLCX-S, BLCX-ES, MCL1-S, and MCL1-ES transcripts, and BCL2L12 expression in relation to GAPDH mRNA levels.
RESULTS: We constructed growth curves of Caco-2 and DLD-1 cells and determined the IC50 of each drug at 72 hours of treatment. Significant alterations in the expression levels of the studied BCL2 family genes and/or particular transcripts were observed.
CONCLUSION: The intrinsic apoptotic pathway is activated during treatment of CRC cells with common chemotherapeutic drugs. Moreover, BCL2L12 mRNA expression increases progressively during treatment, similarly to the expression of other BCL2 family genes favoring apoptosis and/or particular proapoptotic transcripts, thus suggesting a proapoptotic role for BCL2L12 in chemotherapy-treated CRC cells.

Butera G, Pacchiana R, Mullappilly N, et al.
Mutant p53 prevents GAPDH nuclear translocation in pancreatic cancer cells favoring glycolysis and 2-deoxyglucose sensitivity.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018; 1865(12):1914-1923 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive and devastating human malignancies. In about 70% of PDACs the tumor suppressor gene TP53 is mutated generally resulting in conformational changes of mutant p53 (mutp53) proteins, which acquire oncogenic functions triggering aggressiveness of cancers and alteration of energetic metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that mutant p53 prevents the nuclear translocation of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) stabilizing its cytoplasmic localization, thus supporting glycolysis of cancer cells and inhibiting cell death mechanisms mediated by nuclear GAPDH. We further show that the prevention of nuclear localization of GAPDH is mediated by both stimulation of AKT and repression of AMPK signaling, and is associated with the formation of the SIRT1:GAPDH complex. By using siRNA-GAPDH or an inhibitor of the enzyme, we functionally demonstrate that the maintenance of GAPDH in the cytosol has a critical impact on the anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic effects driven by mutp53. Furthermore, the blockage of its mutp53-dependent cytoplasmic stabilization is able to restore the sensitivity of PDAC cells to the treatment with gemcitabine. Finally, our data suggest that mutp53-dependent enhanced glycolysis permits cancer cells to acquire sensitivity to anti-glycolytic drugs, such as 2-deoxyglucose, suggesting a potential personalized therapeutic approach in human cancers carrying mutant TP53 gene.

Lemma S, Avnet S, Meade MJ, et al.
Validation of Suitable Housekeeping Genes for the Normalization of mRNA Expression for Studying Tumor Acidosis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Similar to other types of cancer, acidification of tumor microenvironment is an important feature of osteosarcoma, and a major source of cellular stress that triggers cancer aggressiveness, drug resistance, and progression. Among the different effects of low extracellular pH on tumor cells, we have recently found that short-term exposure to acidosis strongly affects gene expression. This alteration might also occur for the most commonly used housekeeping genes (HKG), thereby causing erroneous interpretation of RT-qPCR data. On this basis, by using osteosarcoma cells cultured at different pH values, we aimed to identify the ideal HKG to be considered in studies on tumor-associated acidosis. We verified the stability of 15 commonly used HKG through five algorithms (NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper, ΔCT, coefficient of variation) and found that no universal HKG is suitable, since at least four HKG are necessary for proper normalization. Furthermore, according to the acceptable range of values,

Röhn G, Koch A, Krischek B, et al.
ACTB and SDHA Are Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Human Astrocytomas Using Quantitative RT-PCR.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 17:1533033818802318 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction is frequently used as research tool in experimental oncology. There are some studies of valid endogenous control genes in the field of human glioma research, which, however, only focus on the comparison between normal brain with tumor tissue and malignant transformation toward secondary glioblastomas. Aim of this study was to validate a more general reference gene also suitable for pre- and posttreatment analysis and other evaluations (eg, primary vs secondary glioblastoma).
METHODS: This quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to test a panel of the 6 most suitable reference genes from other studies representing different physiological pathways (ACTB, GAPDH, POLR2A, RPL13A, SDHA, and TBP) in all common glioma groups, namely: diffuse astrocytoma World Health Organization II, anaplastic astrocytoma World Health Organization III, secondary glioblastoma World Health Organization IV with and without chemotherapy, primary glioblastoma, recurrent glioblastoma, and gliomas before and after radiation. Expression stability was tested during the longitudinal course of the disease in 8 single patients.
RESULTS: Evaluation of the expression levels of the 6 target genes showed that ACTB, GAPDH, and RPL13A show higher expression compared to SDHA, POLR2A, and TBP. ACTB, GAPDH, and RPL13A showed different expression levels between astrozytoma grade II and primary glioblastoma. Except for this difference, the candidate genes were not differentially expressed between primary and secondary glioblastomas and between the World Health Organization tumor grades. Furthermore, they remained stable before and after radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Therefore, they are adequate references for glioblastoma gene expression studies. The comparison of all tested genes resulted in SDHA and ACTB as most stable reference genes determined by the NormFinder software. Our data revealed lowest intragroup variation in the SDHA, highest in the RPL13A gene.
CONCLUSIONS: All tested genes may be recommended as universal reference genes for data normalization in gene expression studies under different treatment regimens both in primary glioblastomas and astrocytomas of different grades (World Health Organization grades II-IV), respectively. In summary, ACTB and SDHA exhibited the best stability values and showed the lowest intergroup expression variability.

Zhang J, Ding W, Kuai X, et al.
Dermcidin as a novel binding protein of lncRNA STCAT3 and its effect on prognosis in gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(5):2854-2863 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) perform distinct biological functions by regulating gene expression through various molecular mechanisms under normal physiological and pathological conditions. However, the function of the stomach cancer‑associated transcript‑3 (STCAT3) lncRNA, including its prognostic significance and role as a binding protein in gastric cancer (GC), remain unclear. In the present study, 56 potential binding proteins of STCAT3 were screened using through mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis. Among these, dermcidin, GAPDH, annexin, calmodulin‑like protein, cathepsin‑D and suprabasin were demonstrated to be candidate binding proteins using a literature search. RNA‑protein interaction prediction was used to confirm these six proteins. Finally, dermcidin was identified as the binding protein of STCAT3 by comparing the mRNA and protein levels of the candidate genes and their correlations with STCAT3 in plasmid‑transfected BGC‑823 GC cell lines, as well as by validating the interplay between dermcidin and STCAT3 in other GC cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissues from 98 patients with GC further confirmed the interaction between dermcidin and STCAT3. The results of the present study also revealed that STCAT3 and dermcidin and independent predictors of overall survival in patients with GC. Furthermore STCAT3 and dermcidin are positively correlated with lymph node metastasis and tumor/node/metastasis score. In summary, the present study suggests that dermcidin is a novel binding protein of lncRNA STCAT3, which serves an important role in the progress and clinical outcome of GC.

Sirover MA
Pleiotropic effects of moonlighting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in cancer progression, invasiveness, and metastases.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2018; 37(4):665-676 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) may represent the quintessential example of a moonlighting protein. The latter are a new, intriguing class of cell proteins which exhibit multiple activities in different subcellular locales apart from their initially, well-characterized function. As such, apart from its classical role in energy production, membrane-bound GAPDH is required for membrane fusion, endocytosis and, intriguingly, for iron transport. Cytoplasmic GAPDH regulates mRNA stability and is required for ER to Golgi trafficking. Nuclear GAPDH is involved in apoptosis, transcriptional gene regulation, the maintenance of DNA integrity, as well as nuclear tRNA export. Paradoxically, the etiology of a number of human pathologies is dependent upon GAPDH structure and function. In particular, recent evidence indicates a significant role for moonlighting GAPDH in tumorigenesis. Specifically, these include its role in the survival of tumor cells, in tumor angiogenesis, as well as its control of tumor cell gene expression and posttranscriptional regulation of tumor cell mRNA. Each of these activities correlates with increased tumor progression and, unfortunately, a poor prognosis for the afflicted individual.

Marchwicka A, Marcinkowska E
Regulation of Expression of CEBP Genes by Variably Expressed Vitamin D Receptor and Retinoic Acid Receptor α in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) are potent inducers of differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. During myeloid differentiation specific transcription factors are expressed at crucial developmental stages. However, precise mechanism controlling the diversification of myeloid progenitors is largely unknown, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factors have been characterized as key regulators of the development and function of the myeloid system. Past data point at functional redundancy among C/EBP family members during myeloid differentiation. In this study, we show that in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, high expression of vitamin D receptor gene (

Krencz I, Sebestyen A, Papay J, et al.
In situ analysis of mTORC1/2 and cellular metabolism-related proteins in human Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 79:199-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare progressive cystic lung disease with features of a low-grade neoplasm. It is primarily caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Sirolimus, an inhibitor of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), slows down disease progression in some, but not all patients. Hitherto, other potential therapeutic targets such as mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) and various metabolic pathways have not been investigated in human LAM tissues. The aim of this study was to assess activities of mTORC1, mTORC2 and various metabolic pathways in human LAM tissues through analysis of protein expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of p-S6 (mTORC1 downstream protein), Rictor (mTORC2 scaffold protein) as well as GLUT1, GAPDH, ATPB, GLS, MCT1, ACSS2 and CPT1A (metabolic pathway markers) were performed on lung tissue from 11 patients with sporadic LAM. Immunoreactivity was assessed in LAM cells with bronchial smooth muscle cells as controls. Expression of p-S6, Rictor, GAPDH, GLS, MCT1, ACSS2 and CPT1A was significantly higher in LAM cells than in bronchial smooth muscle cells (P<.01). No significant differences were found between LAM cells and normal bronchial smooth muscle cells in GLUT1 and ATPB expression. The results are uniquely derived from human tissue and indicate that, in addition to mTORC1, mTORC2 may also play an important role in the pathobiology of LAM. Furthermore, glutaminolysis, acetate utilization and fatty acid β-oxidation appear to be the preferred bioenergetic pathways in LAM cells. mTORC2 and these preferred bioenergetic pathways appear worthy of further study as they may represent possible therapeutic targets in the treatment of LAM.

Bhat SA, Mir MUR, Majid S, et al.
Diagnostic utility of glycosyltransferase mRNA expression in gastric cancer.
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2018; 11(3):158-168 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Posttranslational modification of proteins, including glycosylation, is known to differ between normal and tumor cells. Altered glycosyltransferase levels have been observed in tumor tissues and their role in tumor metastasis and invasion has been implicated. In this study the role of altered glycosyltransferase messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in serum of gastric cancer patients as early markers of gastric cancer was evaluated.
METHODS: In this case control study the expression profile of ppGalNAc-T6, GlcNAcT-V, ST3Gal I, ST3 Gal IV, and ST6GalNAc-I in normal healthy control and gastric cancer patients was compared. Serum was isolated from blood samples of gastric cancer patients (n = 200) and controls (n = 200). Following RNA extraction, reverse transcription was carried out and transcript levels of glycosyltransferases were determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and normalized against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression. The amount of target gene, normalized to an endogenous reference gene relative to calibrator was calculated by using ΔΔCT method. Transcript levels in the serum samples of gastric cancer patients were compared with those of controls; also the same was correlated within sex and different stages of disease.
RESULTS: The mRNA expression of ppGalNAc-T6 and ST6GalNAc-I was significantly higher in serum samples of gastric cancer patients on comparison with controls (p = .008), however, there was no significant difference in mRNA expression of GlcNAcT-V, ST3Gal I, and ST3 Gal IV in serum samples of gastric cancer patients and controls (p = .097). In addition, no significant association of mRNA expression of these glycosyltransferases was found within sex and stages in this study.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed the potential of ppGalNAc-T6 and ST6GalNAc-I mRNA transcript levels in serum as markers of gastric cancer. Further studies on the wider range of glycosyltransferases in various cancers are needed to establish signature mRNA batteries as minimally invasive markers of gastric cancer.

Quoc NB, Phuong NDN, Ngan TK, et al.
Expression of Plasma hsa-miR122 in HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) in Vietnamese Patients.
Microrna. 2018; 7(2):92-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world and considered as one of the most susceptible cancers in humans. The microRNA molecule, hsa-miR122, considered as a potential biological marker linked with the injury of hepatocellular tissue, is the most common microRNA in human liver cancer. Understanding the expression profile of hsa-miR122 plays an important role in the diagnosis of HCC.
OBJECTIVE: Identification and comparison of cut-off values of plasma hsa-miR122 expression were conducted in blood samples of healthy control, HBV infected and HBV-related HCC Vietnamese patients.
METHODS AND RESULT: Fifty-two blood samples of healthy control and HBV-related HCC cases, collected between 2015 and 2017 were obtained from Ho Chi Minh City Oncology Hospital, Vietnam. Written informed consent was attained from all patients and the Human Research Ethics Committee, Oncology Hospital (#08/BVUB-HDDD) approved the research protocol. Total RNA was isolated from blood samples with TrizolTM Reagent (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA). To analyze the expression level of hsa-miR122, miRNA specific reverse transcription was performed using Sensi- FASTTM cDNA Synthesis Kit (Bioline, UK) as described by the manufacturer, followed by running RT-qPCR with SensiFASTTMSYBR No-ROX Kit (Bioline, UK). The housekeeping gene, GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) was used for normalization. The presence of hsamiR122 and HBV-DNA was identified in human blood using RT-PCR and LAMP techniques. Downregulation of plasma hsa-miR122 was observed in HBV-related HCC patients with a .Ct value of 7.9 ± 2.1 which was significantly lower than found in healthy control (p<0.01). The loss of hsa-miR122 expression was observed in HBV infected patients. We also identified the difference of diagnostic values of this microRNA in different populations and provided a high diagnostic accuracy of HCC (AUC = 0.984 with sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 94%, respectively).
CONCLUSION: hsa-miR122 was downregulated in HBV-related HCC patients and found to be lower by approximately 10 fold than in healthy control, resulting in a potential biomarker for microRNA based diagnosis of HCC in human blood.

Alotaibi MR, Hassan ZK, Al-Rejaie SS, et al.
Characterization of Apoptosis in a Breast Cancer Cell Line after IL-10 Silencing
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(3):777-783 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Breast cancer is affected by the immune system in that different cytokines play roles in its initiation and progression. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is an immunosuppressive factor involved in tumorigenesis. The present study was conducted to investigate the gene silencing effect of a small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting IL-10 on the apoptotic pathway in breast cancer cell line. Methods: The siRNA targeting IL-10 and a glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) clone were introduced into MDA-MB-231 cells. Real-time PCR assays were used to determine IL-10 and GAPDH gene expression levels, in addition to those for protein kinase B (AKT), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), caspase-3 and caspase-9 genes related to apoptosis. Results: Inhibition of IL-10 by the siRNA accelerated apoptosis and was accompanied by significant increase in caspase-3 and caspase-9 and a significant decrease in PI3K, AKT and Bcl2 expression levels compared to the non-transfected case. Conclusions: In conclusion, the production of IL-10 may represent a new escape mechanism by breast cancer cells to evade destruction by the immune system. IL-10 gene silencing causes down regulation of both PI3K/AKT and Bcl2 gene expression and also increases the Bbc3, BAX caspase3, and caspase 3 cleavage expression levels. IL–10 might represent a promising new target for therapeutic strategies.

Martín-Lorenzo A, Auer F, Chan LN, et al.
Loss of Pax5 Exploits Sca1-BCR-ABL
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(10):2669-2679 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Preleukemic clones carrying

Haynes HR, Killick-Cole CL, Hares KM, et al.
Evaluation of the quality of RNA extracted from archival FFPE glioblastoma and epilepsy surgical samples for gene expression assays.
J Clin Pathol. 2018; 71(8):695-701 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Histopathological tissue samples are being increasingly used as sources of nucleic acids in molecular pathology translational research. This study investigated the suitability of glioblastoma and control central nervous system (CNS) formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue-derived RNA for gene expression analyses.
METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from control (temporal lobe resection tissue) and glioblastoma FFPE tissue samples. RNA purity (260/280 ratios) was determined and RNA integrity number (RIN) analysis was performed. RNA was subsequently used for RT-qPCR for two reference genes,
RESULTS: Reference gene expression was equivalent between control and glioblastoma tissue when using RNA extracted from FFPE tissue, which has key implications for biological normalisation for CNS gene expression studies. There was a significant difference between the mean RIN values of control and glioblastoma FFPE tissue. There was no significant correlation between 260/280 or RIN values versus total RNA yield. The age of the tissue blocks did not influence RNA yield, fragmentation or purity. There was no significant correlation between RIN or 260/280 ratios and mean qPCR cycle threshold for either reference gene.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that routinely available CNS FFPE tissue is suitable for RNA extraction and downstream gene expression studies, even after 60 months of storage. Substantial RNA fragmentation associated with glioblastoma and control FFPE tissue blocks did not preclude downstream RT-qPCR gene expression analyses. Cross validation with both archival and prospectively collated FFPE specimens is required to further demonstrate that CNS tissue blocks can be used in novel translational molecular biomarker studies.

Zhao H, Ma TF, Lin J, et al.
Identification of valid reference genes for mRNA and microRNA normalisation in prostate cancer cell lines.
Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1):1949 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RT-qPCR offers high sensitivity, for accurate interpretations of qPCR results however, normalisation using suitable reference genes is fundamental. Androgens can regulate transcriptional expression including reference gene expression in prostate cancer. In this study, we evaluated ten mRNA and six non-protein coding RNA reference genes in five prostate cell lines under varied dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatments. We validated the effects of DHT-treatments using media containing charcoal-stripped serum prior to DHT stimulation on the test samples by Western blot experiments. Reference gene expression stability was analysed using three programs (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper), and the recommended comprehensive ranking is provided. Our results reveal that ACTB and GAPDH, and miR-16 and miR-1228-3p are the most suitable mRNA and miRNA reference genes across all cell lines, respectively. Considering prostate cancer cell types, ACTB/GAPDH and ACTB/HPRT1 are the most suitable reference gene combinations for mRNA analysis, and miR-16/miR-1228-3p and RNU6-2/RNU43 for miRNA analysis in AR+, and AR- and normal cell lines, respectively. Comparison of relative target gene (PCA3 and miR-141) expression reveals different patterns depending on reference genes used for normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on validation of reference genes under different DHT treatments in prostate cancer cells. This study provides insights for discovery of reliable DHT-regulated genes in prostate cells.

Timirci-Kahraman Ö, Verim A, Farooqi AA, et al.
Expression of miR-373 and its predicted target genes E-cadherin and CD44 in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2017; 63(12):29-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a genomically complex disease that is difficult to target, and efforts have been made to identify new treatment strategies and   molecular markers that might stratify patients and individualize options for treatment. miR-373 has diametrically opposed roles in different stages and types of cancers. miR-373 has been suggested to quantitatively control E-cadherin and CD44 expression. We studied the expression of miR-373, E-cadherin and CD44 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and evaluated the association between the disease and clinical characteristics of patients. Tumor tissues were collected from 24 laryngeal cancer patients. Adjacent normal tissue samples were also obtained as controls. After RNA isolation, we assessed the miR-373, E-cadherin and CD44 levels. As endogenous controls, we used the small RNA U6 and GAPDH TaqMan® to normalize the levels of expression of miR-373, E-cadherin and CD44. The fold change in the expression of the genes in larynx tumor and control tissues was calculated using the 2-ΔΔCT method. miR-373 was significantly upregulated in seventeen tumor samples compared to controls. However, the expression levels of both E-cadherin and CD44 mRNA were found to be significantly downregulated in tumor versus control regions (p=0.026 and p=0.005, respectively). We did not find any significant difference in the expression levels of miR-373, E-cadherin or CD44 and cancer risk factors. miR-373, E-cadherin and CD44 may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of laryngeal cancer. It can be suggested that E-cadherin and CD44 are functional targets of miR-373, but we need further studies to investigate this hypothesis.

Albayrak G, Konac E, Dikmen AU, Bilen CY
Memantine induces apoptosis and inhibits cell cycle progression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2018; 37(9):953-958 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulated cancer cell metabolism plays an important role in cancer progression. Cancer cell metabolism has been in the centre of attention in therapeutical cancer cell targeting. Repurposed chemical agents, such as metformin and aspirin, have been studied extensively as preventive and therapeutic agents. Metformin is Food and Drug administration (FDA)-approved antidiabetic drug cheaper than other chemotherapeutic agents that were shown to have anticancer effects. Memantine is an FDA-approved Alzheimer's drug. Drug repositioning studies offer wide range of benefits, such as reduced time, cost and risk over de novo drug discovery. Therefore, we aimed to target glucose and glutamine metabolism in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells by using metformin and memantine and investigate these agents' effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro. We evaluated the effects of metformin and memantine on the protein expression levels of genes that play significant roles in apoptosis and cell cycle progression (Casp3, Casp9, Bcl-2, Survivin, Bax, c-Myc, HIF1A, CCND1, CDK4 and GAPDH) by Western blotting. Alzheimer's drug memantine exerted cytotoxic effects at 0.25 mM and metformin at 2.5 mM. We identified for the first time that memantine exerts antineoplastic activity (0.25 mM) by triggering Bax-dependent pathway of apoptosis. In addition to that both molecules have shown similar patterns on pro- and anti-apoptotic protein expression levels, such as Bcl-2, Casp3, Survivin and Bax. Our preclinic results indicate that memantine might be used as a new repositioned drug in cancer treatment. Beyond targeting glucose metabolism, glutamine metabolism also holds great promise for a potential treatment option.

Cruz-Bermúdez A, Vicente-Blanco RJ, Laza-Briviesca R, et al.
PGC-1alpha levels correlate with survival in patients with stage III NSCLC and may define a new biomarker to metabolism-targeted therapy.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):16661 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with one-third diagnosed with locally advanced (stage III) disease. Preoperative induction chemo-radiotherapy is key for the treatment of these patients, however conventional cisplatin based approaches has apparently reached a plateau of effectiveness. In the search for new therapies, the targeting of tumor metabolism is revealed as an interesting option to improve the patient's responses. Here we describe the importance of PGC-1alpha and GAPDH/MT-CO1 ratio levels as surrogates of the Warburg effect from a series of 28 stage III NSCLC patients, on PFS, OS and PET uptake. Moreover, our results show a great variability between tumors of different individuals, ranging from very glycolytic to more OXPHOS-dependent tumors, which compromises the success of therapies directed to metabolism. In this sense, using 3 different cell lines, we describe the relevance of Warburg effect on the response to metabolism-targeted therapies. Specifically, we show that the inhibitory effect of metformin on cell viability depends on cell's dependence on the OXPHOS system. The results on cell lines, together with the results of PGC-1alpha and GAPDH/MT-CO1 as biomarkers on patient's biopsies, would point out what type of patients would benefit more from the use of these drugs.

Liu Y, Qin Z, Cai L, et al.
Selection of internal references for qRT-PCR assays of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.
Biosci Rep. 2017; 37(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Selecting internal references is important for normalizing the loading quantity of samples in quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). In the present study, a systematic evaluation of reference genes among nine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines was conducted. After screening the microarray assay data of ten HCC cell lines, 19 candidate reference genes were preselected and then evaluated by qRT-PCR, together with

Norollahi SE, Alipour M, Rashidy-Pour A, et al.
Regulatory Fluctuation of WNT16 Gene Expression Is Associated with Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma.
J Gastrointest Cancer. 2019; 50(1):42-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Gastric cancer is one of the most serious and lethal kinds of cancer in the world. It is a multi-step, multi-factor, and elaborated process that is associated to gene abnormal expression. This study intended to investigate the WNT16 gene's expression in human gastric tumor and the margin tissues of the stomach (normal tissues).
METHODS: Correspondingly, 40 samples (20 tumoral tissues and 20 non tumoral or margins tissues) were investigated in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Sari City, Mazandaran Province, Iran. In this way, real-time PCR, Taqman assay was employed to evaluate the upregulation and downregulation of this gene in both tissues in triplicate form. The GAPDH gene was selected as housekeeping gene.
RESULTS: Conspicuously, the results have shown a remarkable modification in tumoral tissues, and the gene expression increased significantly in tumoral tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: Conclusively, the upregulation of WNTt16 gene expression in tumoral tissues was impressive and the P value was 0.005 and the SE range was 0.064-142.154.

Freitag D, Koch A, Lawson McLean A, et al.
Validation of Reference Genes for Expression Studies in Human Meningiomas under Different Experimental Settings.
Mol Neurobiol. 2018; 55(7):5787-5797 [PubMed] Related Publications
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a sensitive technique for the quantitative analysis of gene expression levels. To compare mRNA transcripts across tumour and non-pathological tissue, appropriate reference genes are required for internal standardisation. Validation of these reference genes in meningiomas has not yet been reported. After mRNA transcription of meningioma (WHO grade I-III) and meningeal tissue from three different experimental sample types (fresh tissue, primary cell cultures and FFPE tissue), 13 candidate reference genes (ACTB, B2M, HPRT, VIM, GAPDH, YWHAZ, EIF4A2, MUC1, ATP5B, GNB2L, TUBB, CYC1, RPL13A) were chosen for quantitative expression analysis. Two statistical algorithms (GeNorm and NormFinder) were used for validation of gene expression stability. All candidate housekeepers tested for stability were checked within and across the three tissue analysis groups. Pearson correlation, the ΔC

de Campos RP, Schultz IC, de Andrade Mello P, et al.
Cervical cancer stem-like cells: systematic review and identification of reference genes for gene expression.
Cell Biol Int. 2018; 42(2):139-152 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Among many factors, the presence of cancer stem cells, a subpopulation of cells inside the tumor, has been associated with a worse prognosis. Considering the importance of gene expression studies to understand the biology of cervical cancer stem cells (CCSC), this work identifies stable reference genes for cervical cancer cell lines SiHa, HeLa, and ME180 as well as their respective cancer stem-like cells. A literature review was performed to identify validated reference genes currently used to normalize RT-qPCR data in cervical cancer cell lines. Then, cell lines were cultured in regular monolayer or in a condition that favors tumor sphere formation. RT-qPCR was performed using five reference genes: ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, and TBP. Stability was assessed to validate the selected genes as suitable reference genes. The evaluation validated B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, and TBP in these experimental conditions. Among them, GAPDH and TBP presented the lowest variability according to the analysis by Normfinder, Bestkeeper, and ΔC

Liberti MV, Dai Z, Wardell SE, et al.
A Predictive Model for Selective Targeting of the Warburg Effect through GAPDH Inhibition with a Natural Product.
Cell Metab. 2017; 26(4):648-659.e8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Targeted cancer therapies that use genetics are successful, but principles for selectively targeting tumor metabolism that is also dependent on the environment remain unknown. We now show that differences in rate-controlling enzymes during the Warburg effect (WE), the most prominent hallmark of cancer cell metabolism, can be used to predict a response to targeting glucose metabolism. We establish a natural product, koningic acid (KA), to be a selective inhibitor of GAPDH, an enzyme we characterize to have differential control properties over metabolism during the WE. With machine learning and integrated pharmacogenomics and metabolomics, we demonstrate that KA efficacy is not determined by the status of individual genes, but by the quantitative extent of the WE, leading to a therapeutic window in vivo. Thus, the basis of targeting the WE can be encoded by molecular principles that extend beyond the status of individual genes.

Li Y, Huang Y, Qi Z, et al.
MiR-338-5p Promotes Glioma Cell Invasion by Regulating TSHZ3 and MMP2.
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2018; 38(3):669-677 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was designed to examine differential expression of miR-338-5p in gliomas and the role of miR-338-5p in glioma cell invasion via its potential target gene TSHZ3 encoding Teashirt zinc finger homobox 3, predicted by bioinformatics, and matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2), the key pro-invasive protease overexpressed in gliomas. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Spearman correlation analysis were used to determine differential expressions of miR-338-5p and TSHZ3 in astrocytic gliomas of different grades (n = 35) and glioblastoma cell lines (U87 and U251) in comparison to non-neoplastic brain (NNB) tissues (n = 6). Western blotting was used to determine the protein levels of TSHZ3 and MMP2 in glioblastoma cell lines and Matrigel invasion assay to examine the role of miR-338-5p in cell invasiveness. The results showed that the expression of miR-338-5p, normalized to hsnRNA U6, was significantly higher in grade III and IV gliomas and glioblastoma cell lines compared to that in NNB and grade II gliomas, whereas TSHZ3 expression, normalized to GAPDH, was inversely related to miR-338-5p (R = -0.636, P < 0.01). Luciferase assays showed TSHZ3 to be a target gene of miR-338-5p. In both U87 and U251 cells, miR-338-5p mimics increased MMP2 and invasiveness of the cells. Overexpression of ectopic TSHZ3 suppressed the cell invasiveness and attenuated the pro-invasive effect of miR-338-5p mimics. Overall, our results showed that miR-338-5p has a function in promoting glioma cell invasion by targeting TSHZ3 suppression on MMP2. In conclusion, miR-338-5p is a possible potential biomarker for the diagnosis and target for therapy of high-grade glioma.

Wang N, Zhang Q, Luo L, et al.
β-asarone inhibited cell growth and promoted autophagy via P53/Bcl-2/Bclin-1 and P53/AMPK/mTOR pathways in Human Glioma U251 cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2018; 233(3):2434-2443 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma is the most common type of primary brain tumor and has an undesirable prognosis. Autophagy plays an important role in cancer therapy, but it is effect is still not definite. P53 is an important tumor suppressor gene and protein that is closely to autophagy. Our aim was to study the effect of β-asarone on inhibiting cell proliferation in human glioma U251 cells and to detect the effect of the inhibition on autophagy through the P53 signal pathway. For cell growth, the cells were divided into four groups: the model, β-asarone, temozolomide (TMZ), and co-administration groups. For cell autoghapy and the P53 pathway, the cells were divided into six groups: the model, β-asarone, 3MA, Rapa, Pifithrin-µ, and NSC groups. The counting Kit-8 assay and flow cytometry (FCM) were then used to measure the cell proliferation and cycle. Electron microscopy was used to observe autophagosome formation. Cell immunohistochemistry/-immunofluorescence, FCM and Western blot (WB) were used to examine the expression of Beclin-1 and P53. The levels of P53 and GAPDH mRNA were detected by RT-PCR. Using WB, we determined autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1, LC3-II/I, and P62 and those of the P53 pathway-related proteins P53, Bcl-2, mTOR, P-mTOR, AMPK, P-AMPK, and GAPDH. We got the results that β-asarone changed the cellular morphology, inhibited cell proliferation, and enhanced the expression of P53, LC3-II/I, Beclin-1, AMPK, and pAMPK while inhibiting the expression of P62, Bcl-2, mTOR, and pmTOR. All the data suggested that β-asarone could reduce the cell proliferation and promote autophagy possible via the P53 pathway in U251 cells.

Jaiswal RK, Kumar P, Sharma A, et al.
Proteomic identification of proteins differentially expressed following overexpression of hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) in cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(7):e0181027 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Reverse transcriptase activity of telomerase adds telomeric repeat sequences at extreme ends of the newly replicated chromosome in actively dividing cells. Telomerase expression is not detected in terminally differentiated cells but is noticeable in 90% of the cancer cells. hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) expression seems to promote invasiveness of cancer cells. We here present proteomic profiles of cells overexpressing or knocked down for hTERT. This study also attempts to find out the potential interacting partners of hTERT in cancer cell lines. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of two different cell lines U2OS (a naturally hTERT negative cell line) and HeLa revealed differential expression of proteins in hTERT over-expressing cells. In U2OS cell line 28 spots were picked among which 23 spots represented upregulated and 5 represented down regulated proteins. In HeLa cells 21 were upregulated and 2 were down regulated out of 23 selected spots under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Some heat shock proteins viz. Hsp60 and Hsp70 and GAPDH, which is a housekeeping gene, were found similarly upregulated in both the cell lines. The upregulation of these proteins were further confirmed at RNA and protein level by real-time PCR and western blotting respectively.

Guan J, Sun J, Sun F, et al.
Hypoxia-induced tumor cell resistance is overcome by synergistic GAPDH-siRNA and chemotherapy co-delivered by long-circulating and cationic-interior liposomes.
Nanoscale. 2017; 9(26):9190-9201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemotherapeutic drug resistance of tumor cells under hypoxic conditions is caused by the inhibition of apoptosis by autophagy and drug efflux via adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent transporter activation, among other factors. Here, we demonstrate that disrupting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression can reduce the autophagy and ATP levels in tumor cells. To test whether GAPDH knockdown is sufficient to overcome drug resistance, a nanocarrier (asymmetry-membrane liposome) was designed to encapsulate GAPDH-siRNA with a low dose of paclitaxel (PTX). Liposomes were prepared using novel cryogenic inner-outer dual reverse phase emulsion liposome manufacturing technology to obtain a high loading of siRNA. The results of dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicated that the liposomes had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 250.5 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.210, which was confirmed by (Transmission Electron Microscope) TEM images. In in vitro tests, the siRNA liposomes presented a high specificity in the suppression of GAPDH expression and significant synergy in cytotoxicity with co-delivery of PTX against tumor cells (HeLa and MCF-7) under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, in vivo studies (a HeLa tumor xenograft model using female BALB/c nude mice) demonstrate that the liposomes could not only increase the concentration of drugs in tumors over time but also successfully boosted the chemotherapeutic efficacy of PTX (synergistic therapy with GAPDH-siRNA). Tumor cells appeared to lose their resistance against PTX therapy, becoming more sensitive to PTX when GAPDH-siRNA was simultaneously administered in long-circulating liposomes. Consequently, the novel delivery of GAPDH-siRNA using nanotargeted liposomes provides a useful and potential tool to overcome multidrug resistant (MDR) tumors and presents a bright prospect compared with the traditional chemotherapeutic strategies in clinic cancer therapy.

Insua YV, Cámara J, Vázquez EB, et al.
Predicting Outcome and Therapy Response in mCRC Patients Using an Indirect Method for CTCs Detection by a Multigene Expression Panel: A Multicentric Prospective Validation Study.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths. Early detection of tumor relapse is crucial for determining the most appropriate therapeutic management. In clinical practice, computed tomography (CT) is routinely used, but small tumor changes are difficult to visualize, and reliable blood-based prognostic and monitoring biomarkers are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to prospectively validate a gene expression panel (composed of

Jogalekar MP, Cooper LG, Serrano EE
Hydrogel Environment Supports Cell Culture Expansion of a Grade IV Astrocytoma.
Neurochem Res. 2017; 42(9):2610-2624 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant astrocytomas are aggressive cancers of glial origin that can develop into invasive brain tumors. The disease has poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. Astrocytoma cell lines of human origin are an important tool in the experimental pathway from bench to bedside because they afford a convenient intermediate system for in vitro analysis of brain cancer pathogenesis and treatment options. We undertook the current study to determine whether hydrogel culture methods could be adapted to support the growth of astrocytoma cell lines, thereby facilitating a system that may be biologically more similar to in vivo tumor tissue. Our experimental protocols enabled maintenance of Grade IV astrocytoma cell lines in conventional monolayer culture and in the extracellular matrix hydrogel, Geltrex

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. GAPDH, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999