FRAT2

Gene Summary

Gene:FRAT2; frequently rearranged in advanced T-cell lymphomas 2
Location:10q24.1
Summary:The protein encoded by this intronless gene belongs to the GSK-3-binding protein family. Studies show that this protein plays a role as a positive regulator of the WNT signaling pathway. It may be upregulated in tumor progression. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:GSK-3-binding protein FRAT2
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (5)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Stomach Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • ras Proteins
  • Chromosome 10
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Western Blotting
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Knockout Mice
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  • Up-Regulation
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • rac GTP-Binding Proteins
  • RTPCR
  • Transcription Factors
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Phosphorylation
  • Cell Line
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • KMT2A
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • RNA Interference
  • T-Cell Lymphoma
  • beta Catenin
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cancer RNA
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • FRAT2
  • Tissue Distribution
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Base Sequence
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Mll protein, mouse
  • Messenger RNA
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FRAT2 (cancer-related)

Walf-Vorderwülbecke V, de Boer J, Horton SJ, et al.
Frat2 mediates the oncogenic activation of Rac by MLL fusions.
Blood. 2012; 120(24):4819-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion genes arise from chromosomal translocations and induce acute myeloid leukemia through a mechanism involving transcriptional deregulation of differentiation and self-renewal programs. Progression of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia is associated with increased activation of Rac GTPases. Here, we demonstrate that MLL fusion oncogenes maintain leukemia-associated Rac activity by regulating Frat gene expression, specifically Frat2. Modulation of FRAT2 leads to concomitant changes in Rac activity, and transformation of Frat knockout hematopoietic progenitor cells by MLL fusions results in leukemias displaying reduced Rac activation and increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. FRAT2 activates Rac through a signaling mechanism that requires glycogen synthase kinase 3 and DVL. Disruption of this pathway abrogates the leukemogenic activity of MLL fusions. This suggests a rationale for the paradoxical requirement of canonical Wnt signaling and glycogen synthase kinase 3 activity for MLL fusion oncogenicity and identifies novel therapeutic targets for this disease.

Lo FY, Chang JW, Chang IS, et al.
The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:235 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis.
METHODS: Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in more patients.
RESULTS: We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1) functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1) involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3) functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1) involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (P<0.001~P=0.06). In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of PAFAH1B1 protein overexpression was 68% in Asian and 70% in Caucasian.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides an invaluable database revealing common and differential imbalance regions at specific chromosomes among Asian and Caucasian lung cancer patients. Four validation methods confirmed our database, which would help in further studies on the mechanism of lung tumorigenesis.

Nguyen AV, Albers CG, Holcombe RF
Differentiation of tubular and villous adenomas based on Wnt pathway-related gene expression profiles.
Int J Mol Med. 2010; 26(1):121-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was undertaken to define whether differences in the expression of Wnt pathway components are present between normal colonic mucosa, early (tubular) adenomas and villous adenomas which have a higher malignant potential. Normal mucosa, tubular adenomas and villous adenomas were obtained from twelve patients. RNA was isolated and utilized for Wnt pathway-specific membrane array expression analysis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) were utilized for confirmatory analyses. Fifteen Wnt pathway-related genes showed differential expression between villous adenomas and normal mucosa and villous and tubular adenomas at a significance level of p<0.01. Genes involved in canonical Wnt (beta-catenin) signaling with increased expression in villous adenomas included wnt1, fz2, csnk2A2, pygo2, pygo1, frat2 and myc, the latter confirmed by qRT-PCR and IHC. Myc protein expression was confined primarily to stromal components of villous adenomas. Genes involved in non-canonical Wnt signaling with increased expression in villous adenomas included rho-u, daam1, damm2, cxxc4 and nlk. Successive increases in the expression of ctnnb1 (beta-catenin) from normal to tubular adenomas to villous adenomas was seen. The Wnt pathway gene expression profile can differentiate between tubular and villous adenomas. These data suggest that Wnt signaling regulation changes during the progression from normal mucosa to tubular adenomas to villous adenomas. Expression of Myc in adenoma stroma suggests a dynamic signaling network within adenomas between mucosal and stromal elements. Inhibition of the Wnt pathway may provide a novel approach for cancer prevention in patients with benign tubular adenomas.

Snow GE, Kasper AC, Busch AM, et al.
Wnt pathway reprogramming during human embryonal carcinoma differentiation and potential for therapeutic targeting.
BMC Cancer. 2009; 9:383 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are classified as seminonas or non-seminomas of which a major subset is embryonal carcinoma (EC) that can differentiate into diverse tissues. The pluripotent nature of human ECs resembles that of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Many Wnt signalling species are regulated during differentiation of TGCT-derived EC cells. This study comprehensively investigated expression profiles of Wnt signalling components regulated during induced differentiation of EC cells and explored the role of key components in maintaining pluripotency.
METHODS: Human embryonal carcinoma cells were stably infected with a lentiviral construct carrying a canonical Wnt responsive reporter to assess Wnt signalling activity following induced differentiation. Cells were differentiated with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) or by targeted repression of pluripotency factor, POU5F1. A Wnt pathway real-time-PCR array was used to evaluate changes in gene expression as cells differentiated. Highlighted Wnt pathway genes were then specifically repressed using siRNA or stable shRNA and transfected EC cells were assessed for proliferation, differentiation status and levels of core pluripotency genes.
RESULTS: Canonical Wnt signalling activity was low basally in undifferentiated EC cells, but substantially increased with induced differentiation. Wnt pathway gene expression levels were compared during induced differentiation and many components were altered including ligands (WNT2B), receptors (FZD5, FZD6, FZD10), secreted inhibitors (SFRP4, SFRP1), and other effectors of Wnt signalling (FRAT2, DAAM1, PITX2, Porcupine). Independent repression of FZD5, FZD7 and WNT5A using transient as well as stable methods of RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited cell growth of pluripotent NT2/D1 human EC cells, but did not appreciably induce differentiation or repress key pluripotency genes. Silencing of FZD7 gave the greatest growth suppression in all human EC cell lines tested including NT2/D1, NT2/D1-R1, Tera-1 and 833K cells.
CONCLUSION: During induced differentiation of human EC cells, the Wnt signalling pathway is reprogrammed and canonical Wnt signalling induced. Specific species regulating non-canonical Wnt signalling conferred growth inhibition when targeted for repression in these EC cells. Notably, FZD7 repression significantly inhibited growth of human EC cells and is a promising therapeutic target for TGCTs.

Katoh M
Networking of WNT, FGF, Notch, BMP, and Hedgehog signaling pathways during carcinogenesis.
Stem Cell Rev. 2007; 3(1):30-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The biological functions of some orthologs within the human genome and model-animal genomes are evolutionarily conserved, but those of others are divergent due to protein evolution and promoter evolution. Because WNT signaling molecules play key roles during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and carcinogenesis, the author's group has carried out a human WNT-ome project for the comprehensive characterization of human genes encoding WNT signaling molecules. From 1996 to 2002, we cloned and characterized WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT9A/WNT14, WNT9B/WNT14B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, FZD1, FZD2, FZD3, FZD4, FZD5, FZD6, FZD7, FZD8, FZD10, FRAT1, FRAT2, NKD1, NKD2, VANGL1, RHOU/ARHU, RHOV/ARHV, GIPC2, GIPC3, FBXW11/betaTRCP2, SOX17, TCF7L1/TCF3, and established a cDNA-PCR system for snap-shot and dynamic analyses on the WNT-transcriptome. In 2003, we identified and characterized PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, DACT1/DAPPER1, DACT2/DAPPER2, DAAM2, and BCL9L. After completion of the human WNT-ome project, we have been working on the stem cell signaling network. WNT signals are transduced to beta-catenin, NLK, NFAT, PKC, JNK and RhoA signaling cascades. FGF20, JAG1 and DKK1 are target genes of the WNT-beta-catenin signaling cascade. Cross-talk of WNT and FGF signaling pathways potentiates beta-catenin and NFAT signaling cascades. BMP signals induce IHH upregulation in co-operation with RUNX. Hedgehog signals induce upregulation of SFRP1, JAG2 and FOXL1, and then FOXL1 induces BMP4 upregulation. The balance between WNT-FGF-Notch and BMP-Hedgehog signaling networks is important for the maintenance of homoestasis among stem and progenitor cells. Disruption of the stem cell signaling network results in pathological conditions, such as congenital diseases and cancer.

Nishigaki M, Aoyagi K, Danjoh I, et al.
Discovery of aberrant expression of R-RAS by cancer-linked DNA hypomethylation in gastric cancer using microarrays.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(6):2115-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although hypomethylation was the originally identified epigenetic change in cancer, it was overlooked for many years in preference to hypermethylation. Recently, gene activation by cancer-linked hypomethylation has been rediscovered. However, in gastric cancer, genome-wide screening of the activated genes has not been found. By using microarrays, we identified 1,383 gene candidates reactivated in at least one cell line of eight gastric cancer cell lines after treatment with 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine and trichostatin A. Of the 1,383 genes, 159 genes, including oncogenes ELK1, FRAT2, R-RAS, RHOB, and RHO6, were further selected as gene candidates that are silenced by DNA methylation in normal stomach mucosa but are activated by DNA demethylation in a subset of gastric cancers. Next, we showed that demethylation of specific CpG sites within the first intron of R-RAS causes activation in more than half of gastric cancers. Introduction of siRNA into R-RAS-expressing cells resulted in the disappearance of the adhered cells, suggesting that functional blocking of the R-RAS-signaling pathway has great potential for gastric cancer therapy. Our extensive gene list provides other candidates for this class of oncogene.

Kirikoshi H, Katoh M
Expression of WNT7A in human normal tissues and cancer, and regulation of WNT7A and WNT7B in human cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2002; 21(4):895-900 [PubMed] Related Publications
WNT signals are transduced through seven-transmembrane-type WNT receptors encoded by Frizzled (FZD) genes to the beta-catenin - TCF pathway, the JNK pathway or the Ca2+-releasing pathway. WNT signaling molecules are potent targets for diagnosis of cancer (susceptibility, metastasis, and prognosis), for prevention and treatment of cancer, and for regenerative medicine or tissue engineering. We have so far cloned and characterized human WNT signaling molecules WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, WNT14, WNT14B/WNT15, FZD1, FZD2, FZD3, FZD4, FZD5, FZD6, FZD7, FZD8, FZD10, FRAT1, FRAT2, NKD1, NKD2, VANGL1/STB2, ARHU/WRCH1, ARHV/WRCH2, GIPC2, GIPC3, betaTRCP2/FBXW1B, SOX17, and TCF-3 using bioinformatics, cDNA-library screening, and cDNA-PCR. Here, expression of WNT7A in human normal tissues and cancer, and regulation of WNT7A and WNT7B in human cancer were investigated. WNT7A was highly expressed in fetal lung, adult testis, lymph node, and peripheral blood leukocytes. WNT7A was relatively highly expressed in temporal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, paracentral gyrus of cerebral cortex, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, medulla oblongata and putamen within adult brain. WNT7A was highly expressed in SW480 (colorectal cancer), BxPC-3 and Hs766T (pancreatic cancer), and was also expressed in MKN7 and MKN45 (gastric cancer). WNT7B rather than WNT7A was expressed in MCF-7 (breast cancer) and NT2 (embryonal tumor). beta-estradiol did not affect expression levels of WNT7A and WNT7B in MCF-7 cells. WNT7B, but not WNT7A, was slightly up-regulated by all-trans retinoic acid in NT2 cells.

Katoh M
WNT3-WNT14B and WNT3A-WNT14 gene clusters (Review).
Int J Mol Med. 2002; 9(6):579-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
WNT signals are transduced to beta-catenin - TCF pathway, JNK pathway, or Ca2+-releasing pathway through WNT receptors. FRAT1, FRAT2, and PAR-1 are positive regulators of WNT - beta-catenin pathway. APC, AXIN, NKD1, NKD2, and Strabismus (STB1, STB2) are negative regulators of WNT - beta-catenin pathway. Here, biological significance of WNT3-WNT14B/WNT15 gene cluster (human chromosome 17q21) and WNT3A-WNT14 gene cluster (human chromosome 1q42) will be reviewed. Total-amino-acid identity between WNT3 and WNT3A is 84.2%, and that between WNT14 and WNT14B is 61.4%. WNT3A and WNT14B show reciprocal regulation by all-trans retinoic acid in NT2 cells and by beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells. Exon-intron structures are well conserved between WNT3-WNT14B gene cluster and WNT3A-WNT14 gene cluster, except for the existence of an additional intron in 3'-UTR of WNT3. Capicua pseudogene and AK024248-related sequence are located within intergenic region of human WNT3A-WNT14 gene cluster, but not within intergenic regions of human WNT3-WNT14B gene cluster and mouse Wnt3a-Wnt14 gene cluster. Integration of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) into mouse Wnt3-Wnt14b gene cluster leads to carcinogenesis. Because these WNT gene clusters might be fragile sites in the human genome, implication of WNT3 or WNT3A in cancer as well as implication of WNT14 or WNT14B in connective tissue disease and congenital joint malformation should be elucidated in the future. WNT3, WNT3A, WNT14, and WNT14B might be applicable to tissue engineering of neuron and joint in the field of regenerative medicine, and as an early diagnostic marker in the field of clinical oncology.

Freemantle SJ, Kerley JS, Olsen SL, et al.
Developmentally-related candidate retinoic acid target genes regulated early during neuronal differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2002; 21(18):2880-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Embryonal carcinoma is a model of embryonic development as well as tumor cell differentiation. In response to all-trans retinoic acid (RA), the human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line, NT2/D1, differentiates toward a neuronal lineage with associated loss of cell growth and tumorigenicity. Through the use of cDNA-based microarrays we sought to identify the early downstream targets of RA during differentiation commitment of NT2/D1 cells. A total of 57 genes were induced and 37 genes repressed by RA. RA regulated genes were restricted at 8 h with 27 genes induced and five repressed. The total number of RA-responsive transcripts increased at 24 and 48 h and their pattern of expression was more symmetrical. For a given time point less than 1% of the 9128 cDNAs on the expression array were regulated by RA. Many of these gene products are associated with developmental pathways including those of TGF-beta (Lefty A, NMA, follistatin), homeo domain (HoxD1, Meis2, Meis1, Gbx2), IGF (IGFBP3, IGFBP6, CTGF), Notch (manic fringe, ADAM11), Hedgehog (patched) and Wnt (Frat2, secreted frizzled-related protein 1) signaling. In addition a large cassette of genes induced by RA at 24-48 h are associated with cell adhesion, cytoskeletal and matrix remodeling, growth suppression and intracellular signaling cascades. The majority of repressed genes are associated with protein/RNA processing, turnover or metabolism. The early induced genes identified may play a regulatory role in RA-mediated growth suppression and terminal differentiation and may have physiologic or pharmacologic importance during normal human development and retinoid-based cancer therapy or prevention.

Saitoh T, Mine T, Katoh M
Molecular cloning and expression of proto-oncogene FRAT1 in human cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2002; 20(4):785-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
FRAT1 and FRAT2 genes, clustered in human chromosome 10q24, are human homologues to mouse proto-oncogene Frat1, which promotes carcinogenesis through activation of the WNT - beta-catenin - TCF signaling pathway. FRAT1 and FRAT2 mRNAs are up-regulated together in a gastric cancer cell line TMK1, and also in 2 out of 10 cases of primary gastric cancer. Here, we isolated FRAT1 cDNA (AB074890), which showed two amino-acid substitutions (Gln57X and His58Asp) compared with human FRAT1 cDNA previously reported by another group (U58975). The Gln57-His58 FRAT1 allele isolated in this study was also identified in human genome draft sequences. FRAT1 mRNA was almost ubiquitously expressed in human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Expression level of FRAT1 mRNA was relatively higher in esophageal cancer cell lines TE2, TE3, TE4, a cervical cancer cell line SKG-IIIa, and breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T-47D. Expression level of FRAT1 mRNA was not significantly changed after all-trans retinoic-acid treatment in NT2 cells with the potential of neuronal differentiation. Expression of FRAT1 mRNA in MCF-7 cells derived from breast cancer was down-regulated by beta-estradiol. This is the first report on isolation of FRAT1 cDNA derived from the more common FRAT1 allele, and also on regulation of FRAT1 mRNA in human cancer cells.

Saitoh T, Katoh M
FRAT1 and FRAT2, clustered in human chromosome 10q24.1 region, are up-regulated in gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2001; 19(2):311-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
FRAT1 and FRAT2 are cancer-associated genes encoding GSK-3beta-binding proteins. Over-expression of FRAT1 or FRAT2 lead to carcinogenesis through activation of WNT--beta-catenin--TCF signaling pathway. We have previously cloned and characterized FRAT2. Here, we found that FRAT1 and FRAT2 genes were clustered in the human chromosome 10q24.1 region. Blast search revealed that FRAT1 and FRAT2 genes, consisting of a single exon, were located together on human genome draft sequences AC006098.1 and AL355490.7, corresponding to the human chromosome 10q24.1 region. FRAT1 and FRAT2 genes were clustered in a tail to tail manner with an interval of about 10.7 kb. The 2.7-kb FRAT1 mRNA was relatively highly expressed in fetal brain, adult spleen, pancreas, HeLa S3 (cervical cancer), and K-562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia). FRAT1 and FRAT2 were co-expressed in 7 gastric cancer cell lines and 10 cases of primary gastric cancer, and were up-regulated together in gastric cancer cell line TMK1 and 2 cases of primary gastric cancer. These results indicated that FRAT1 and FRAT2 genes were up-regulated together in several cases of human gastric cancer. Up-regulation of FRAT1 and FRAT2 in gastric cancer might lead to carcinogenesis through activation of WNT--beta-catenin--TCF signaling pathway.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. FRAT2, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/FRAT2.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 06 August, 2015     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999