Gene Summary

Gene:FLNC; filamin C, gamma
Aliases: ABPA, ABPL, FLN2, MFM5, MPD4, ABP-280, ABP280A
Summary:This gene encodes one of three related filamin genes, specifically gamma filamin. These filamin proteins crosslink actin filaments into orthogonal networks in cortical cytoplasm and participate in the anchoring of membrane proteins for the actin cytoskeleton. Three functional domains exist in filamin: an N-terminal filamentous actin-binding domain, a C-terminal self-association domain, and a membrane glycoprotein-binding domain. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cell Movement
  • Microfilament Proteins
  • KMT2A
  • Contractile Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Disease Progression
  • Breast Cancer
  • Protein Binding
  • Western Blotting
  • Melanoma
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Mutation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • CpG Islands
  • DNA Methylation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cancer DNA
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Transcription
  • Tumor Markers
  • Chromosome 7
  • Caveolin 1
  • Phosphorylation
  • Sulindac
  • Epigenetics
  • Skin Pigmentation
  • Cell Nucleus
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Protein Transport
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Promoter Regions
  • Filamins
  • Signal Transduction
  • RHOA
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Proteomics
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FLNC (cancer-related)

Zhang L, Bartley CM, Gong X, et al.
MEK-ERK1/2-dependent FLNA overexpression promotes abnormal dendritic patterning in tuberous sclerosis independent of mTOR.
Neuron. 2014; 84(1):78-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Abnormal dendritic complexity is a shared feature of many neurodevelopmental disorders associated with neurological defects. Here, we found that the actin-crosslinking protein filamin A (FLNA) is overexpressed in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) mice, a PI3K-mTOR model of neurodevelopmental disease that is associated with abnormal dendritic complexity. Both under- and overexpression of FLNA in wild-type neurons led to more complex dendritic arbors in vivo, suggesting that an optimal level of FLNA expression is required for normal dendritogenesis. In Tsc1(null) neurons, knocking down FLNA in vivo prevented dendritic abnormalities. Surprisingly, FLNA overexpression in Tsc1(null) neurons was dependent on MEK1/2 but not mTOR activity, despite both pathways being hyperactive. In addition, increasing MEK-ERK1/2 activity led to dendritic abnormalities via FLNA, and decreasing MEK-ERK1/2 signaling in Tsc1(null) neurons rescued dendritic defects. These data demonstrate that altered FLNA expression increases dendritic complexity and contributes to pathologic dendritic patterning in TSC in an mTOR-independent, ERK1/2-dependent manner.

Yadav DS, Chattopadhyay I, Verma A, et al.
A pilot study evaluating genetic alterations that drive tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer in Northeast India.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9317-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The susceptibility of an individual to oral cancer is mediated by genetic factors and carcinogen-exposure behaviors such as betel quid chewing, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. This pilot study was aimed to identify the genetic alteration in 100 bp upstream and downstream flanking regions in addition to the exonic regions of 169 cancer-associated genes by using Next Generation sequencing with aim to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer of Northeast India. To understand the role of chemical compounds present in tobacco and betel quid associated with the progression of oral cancer, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (Indels) found in this study were analyzed for their association with chemical compounds found in tobacco and betel quid using Comparative Toxogenomic Database. Genes (AR, BRCA1, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with arecoline which is the major component of areca nut. Genes (BARD1, BRCA2, CCND2, IGF1R, MSH6, and RASSF1) with novel deletion and genes (APC, BRMS1, CDK2AP1, CDKN2B, GAS1, IGF1R, and RB1) with novel insertion were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1 which is produced by fermented areca nut. Genes (ADH6, APC, AR, BARD1, BRMS1, CDKN1A, E2F1, FGFR4, FLNC, HRAS, IGF1R, IL12B, IL8, NBL1, STAT5B, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1. Genes (ATM, BRCA1, CDKN1A, EGFR, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with tobacco specific nitrosamines.

Mizuhashi K, Kanamoto T, Moriishi T, et al.
Filamin-interacting proteins, Cfm1 and Cfm2, are essential for the formation of cartilaginous skeletal elements.
Hum Mol Genet. 2014; 23(11):2953-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations of Filamin genes, which encode actin-binding proteins, cause a wide range of congenital developmental malformations in humans, mainly skeletal abnormalities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Filamin functions in skeletal system formation remain elusive. In our screen to identify skeletal development molecules, we found that Cfm (Fam101) genes, Cfm1 (Fam101b) and Cfm2 (Fam101a), are predominantly co-expressed in developing cartilage and intervertebral discs (IVDs). To investigate the functional role of Cfm genes in skeletal development, we generated single knockout mice for Cfm1 and Cfm2, as well as Cfm1/Cfm2 double-knockout (Cfm DKO) mice, by targeted gene disruption. Mice with loss of a single Cfm gene displayed no overt phenotype, whereas Cfm DKO mice showed skeletal malformations including spinal curvatures, vertebral fusions and impairment of bone growth, showing that the phenotypes of Cfm DKO mice resemble those of Filamin B (Flnb)-deficient mice. The number of cartilaginous cells in IVDs is remarkably reduced, and chondrocytes are moderately reduced in Cfm DKO mice. We observed increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation in Cfm DKO cartilaginous cells. In addition to direct interaction between Cfm and Filamin proteins in developing chondrocytes, we showed that Cfm is required for the interaction between Flnb and Smad3, which was reported to regulate Runx2 expression. Furthermore, we found that Cfm DKO primary chondrocytes showed decreased cellular size and fewer actin bundles compared with those of wild-type chondrocytes. These results suggest that Cfms are essential partner molecules of Flnb in regulating differentiation and proliferation of chondryocytes and actin dynamics.

Sun GG, Sheng SH, Jing SW, Hu WN
An antiproliferative gene FLNA regulates migration and invasion of gastric carcinoma cell in vitro and its clinical significance.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(3):2641-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to analyze the expression and clinical significance of filamin A (FLNA) in gastric carcinoma and the biological effect in its cell line by FLNA overexpression. Immunohistochemistry and western blot were used to analyze FLNA protein expression in 47 cases of gastric cancer and 47 cases of normal tissues to study the relationship between FLNA expression and clinical factors. FLNA lentiviral vector and empty vector were respectively transfected into gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell line. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot were used to detect the mRNA level and protein of FLNA. 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and migration and invasion assays were also conducted to determine the influence of the upregulated expression of FLNA that might be found on SGC-7901 cell biological effect. Immunohistochemistry: The level of FLNA protein expression was found to be significantly lower in gastric cancer tissue than normal tissues (P < 0.05). Western blot: The relative amount of FLNA protein in gastric cancer tissue was found to be significantly lower than in normal tissues (P < 0.05). The level of FLNA protein expression was not correlated with gender, age, and tumor invasion (P > 0.05), but it was correlated with lymph node metastasis, clinic stage, and histological grade (P < 0.05). Loss of FLNA expression correlated significantly with poor overall survival time by Kaplan-Meier analysis (P < 0.05). The result of biological function showed that SGC-7901 cell transfected FLNA had a lower survival fraction, significant decrease in migration and invasion, and lower matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) protein expression compared with SGC-7901 cell untransfected FLNA (P < 0.05). FLNA expression decreased in gastric cancer and correlated significantly with lymph node metastasis, clinic stage, histological grade, and poor overall survival, suggesting that FLNA may play important roles as a negative regulator to gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell by promoting degradation of MMP-9.

Chen Y, Wang L, Xu H, et al.
Exome capture sequencing reveals new insights into hepatitis B virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma at the early stage of tumorigenesis.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(4):1906-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, is the third primary cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and formation of HCC remain obscure. In the present study, we performed exome sequencing using tumor and normal tissues from 3 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive BCLC stage A HCC patients. Bioinformatic analysis was performed to find candidate protein-altering somatic mutations. Eighty damaging mutations were validated and 59 genes were reported to be mutated in HBV-related HCCs for the first time here. Further analysis using whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of 88 HBV-related HCC patients from the European Genome-phenome Archive database showed that mutations in 33 of the 59 genes were also detected in other samples. Variants of two newly found genes, ZNF717 and PARP4, were detected in more than 10% of the WGS samples. Several other genes, such as FLNA and CNTN2, are also noteworthy. Thus, the exome sequencing analysis of three BCLC stage A patients provides new insights into the molecular events governing the early steps of HBV-induced HCC tumorigenesis.

Greening DW, Ji H, Kapp EA, Simpson RJ
Sulindac modulates secreted protein expression from LIM1215 colon carcinoma cells prior to apoptosis.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1834(11):2293-307 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality in Western populations. Growing evidence from human and rodent studies indicate that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause regression of existing colon tumors and act as effective chemopreventive agents in sporadic colon tumor formation. Although much is known about the action of the NSAID sulindac, especially its role in inducing apoptosis, mechanisms underlying these effects is poorly understood. In previous secretome-based proteomic studies using 2D-DIGE/MS and cytokine arrays we identified over 150 proteins released from the CRC cell line LIM1215 whose expression levels were dysregulated by treatment with 1mM sulindac over 16h; many of these proteins are implicated in molecular and cellular functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, angiogenesis and apoptosis (Ji et al., Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2009, 3, 433-451). We have extended these studies and describe here an improved protein/peptide separation strategy that facilitated the identification of 987 proteins and peptides released from LIM1215 cells following 1mM sulindac treatment for 8h preceding the onset of apoptosis. This peptidome separation strategy involved fractional centrifugal ultrafiltration of concentrated cell culture media (CM) using nominal molecular weight membrane filters (NMWL 30K, 3K and 1K). Proteins isolated in the >30K and 3-30K fractions were electrophoretically separated by SDS-PAGE and endogenous peptides in the 1-3K membrane filter were fractioned by RP-HPLC; isolated proteins and peptides were identified by nanoLC-MS-MS. Collectively, our data show that LIM1215 cells treated with 1mM sulindac for 8h secrete decreased levels of proteins associated with extracellular matrix remodeling (e.g., collagens, perlecan, syndecans, filamins, dyneins, metalloproteinases and endopeptidases), cell adhesion (e.g., cadherins, integrins, laminins) and mucosal maintenance (e.g., glycoprotein 340 and mucins 5AC, 6, and 13). A salient finding of this study was the increased proteolysis of cell surface proteins following treatment with sulindac for 8h (40% higher than from untreated LIM1215 cells); several of these endogenous peptides contained C-terminal amino acids from transmembrane domains indicative of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). Taken together these results indicate that during the early-stage onset of sulindac-induced apoptosis (evidenced by increased annexin V binding, dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and cleavage of caspase-3), 1mM sulindac treatment of LIM1215 cells results in decreased expression of secreted proteins implicated in ECM remodeling, mucosal maintenance and cell-cell-adhesion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.

Qu Y, Dang S, Hou P
Gene methylation in gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 424:53-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

Nissou MF, El Atifi M, Guttin A, et al.
Hypoxia-induced expression of VE-cadherin and filamin B in glioma cell cultures and pseudopalisade structures.
J Neurooncol. 2013; 113(2):239-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most of our knowledge regarding glioma cell biology comes from cell culture experiments. For many years the standards for glioma cell culture were the use of cell lines cultured in the presence of serum and 20 % O2. However, in vivo, normoxia in many brain areas is in close to 3 % O2. Hence, in cell culture, the experimental value referred as the norm is hyperoxic compared to any brain physiological value. Likewise, cells in vivo are not usually exposed to serum, and low-passaged glioma neurosphere cultures maintained in serum-free medium is emerging as a new standard. A consequence of changing the experimental normoxic standard from 20 % O2 to the more brain physiological value of 3 % O2, is that a 3 % O2 normoxic reference point enabled a more rigorous characterization of the level of regulation of genes by hypoxia. Among the glioma hypoxia-regulated genes characterized using this approach we found VE-cadherin that is required for blood vessel formation, and filamin B a gene involved in endothelial cell motility. Both VE-cadherin and filamin B were found expressed in pseudopalisades, a glioblastoma pathognomonic structure made of hypoxic migrating cancer cells. These results provide additional clues on the role played by hypoxia in the acquisition of endothelial traits by glioma cells and on the functional links existing between pseudopalisades, hypoxia, and tumor progression.

Reimand J, Bader GD
Systematic analysis of somatic mutations in phosphorylation signaling predicts novel cancer drivers.
Mol Syst Biol. 2013; 9:637 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Large-scale cancer genome sequencing has uncovered thousands of gene mutations, but distinguishing tumor driver genes from functionally neutral passenger mutations is a major challenge. We analyzed 800 cancer genomes of eight types to find single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) that precisely target phosphorylation machinery, important in cancer development and drug targeting. Assuming that cancer-related biological systems involve unexpectedly frequent mutations, we used novel algorithms to identify genes with significant phosphorylation-associated SNVs (pSNVs), phospho-mutated pathways, kinase networks, drug targets, and clinically correlated signaling modules. We highlight increased survival of patients with TP53 pSNVs, hierarchically organized cancer kinase modules, a novel pSNV in EGFR, and an immune-related network of pSNVs that correlates with prolonged survival in ovarian cancer. Our findings include multiple actionable cancer gene candidates (FLNB, GRM1, POU2F1), protein complexes (HCF1, ASF1), and kinases (PRKCZ). This study demonstrates new ways of interpreting cancer genomes and presents new leads for cancer research.

Yoshida T, Kato J, Maekita T, et al.
Altered mucosal DNA methylation in parallel with highly active Helicobacter pylori-related gastritis.
Gastric Cancer. 2013; 16(4):488-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation triggered by Helicobacter pylori causes altered DNA methylation in stomach mucosae, which is deeply involved in gastric carcinogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the correlation between altered mucosal DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis, because inflammatory activity shows particular correlations with the development of diffuse-type cancer.
METHODS: Methylation levels in stomach mucosae of 78 healthy volunteers were determined by real-time methylation-specific PCR or bisulfite pyrosequencing. Examined loci were the promoter CpG islands of six genes (FLNc, HAND1, THBD, p41ARC, HRASLS, and LOX) and the CpG sites of non-coding repetitive elements (Alu and Satα) that are reportedly altered by H. pylori infection. Activity of H. pylori-related gastritis was evaluated using two serum markers: H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen II.
RESULTS: Methylation levels of the six CpG islands were consistently increased, and those of the two repetitive elements were consistently decreased in a stepwise manner with the activity of gastric inflammation as represented by serum marker levels. Each serum marker level was well correlated with the overall DNA methylation status of stomach mucosa, and these two serologic markers were additive in the detection of the mucosa with severely altered DNA methylation.
CONCLUSIONS: Alteration in mucosal DNA methylation level was closely correlated with activity of H. pylori-related gastritis as evaluated by serum markers. The observed correlation between altered DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis appears to be one of the relevant molecular mechanisms underlying the development of diffuse-type cancer.

Fujimoto D, Hirono Y, Goi T, et al.
The activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) promotes gastric cancer cell alteration of cellular morphology related to cell motility and invasion.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(2):565-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell motility proceeds by cycles of edge protrusion, adhesion and retraction. Whether these functions are coordinated by biochemical or biomechanical processes is unknown. Tumor invasion and metastasis is directly related to cell motility. We showed that stimulation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) can trigger an array of responses that would promote tumor cell growth and invasion. Thus, we examined aspects of PAR1 activation related to cell morphological change that might contribute to cell motility. We established a PAR1 stably transfected MKN45 gastric cancer cell line (MKN45/PAR1). We examined morphological changes, Rho family activation and overexpression of cytoskeletal protein in cells exposed to PAR1 agonists (α-thrombin and TFLLR-NH2). MKN45/PAR1 grows with an elongated and polarized morphology, extending pseudopodia at the leading edge. However, in the presence of PAR1 antagonist, MKN45/PAR1 did not show any changes in cell shape upon addition of either α-thrombin or TFLLR-NH2. Activated PAR1 induced RhoA and Rac1 phosphorylation, and subsequent overexpression of myosin IIA and filamin B which are stress fiber components that were identified by PMF analysis of peptide mass data obtained by MALDI-TOF/MS measurement. Upon stimulation of MKN45/PAR1 for 24 h with either α-thrombin or TFLLR-NH2, the distribution of both myosin IIA and filamin B proteins shifted to being distributed throughout the cytoplasm to the membrane, with more intense luminescence signals than in the absence of stimulation. These results demonstrate that PAR1 activation induces cell morphological change associated with cell motility via Rho family activation and cytoskeletal protein overexpression, and has a critical role in gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

Baas AF, Gabbett M, Rimac M, et al.
Agenesis of the corpus callosum and gray matter heterotopia in three patients with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome.
Eur J Hum Genet. 2013; 21(1):55-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is a rare inherited childhood cancer predisposition caused by biallelic germline mutations in one of the four mismatch repair (MMR)-genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Owing to a wide tumor spectrum, the lack of specific clinical features and the overlap with other cancer predisposing syndromes, diagnosis of CMMR-D is often delayed in pediatric cancer patients. Here, we report of three new CMMR-D patients all of whom developed more than one malignancy. The common finding in these three patients is agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Gray matter heterotopia is present in two patients. One of the 57 previously reported CMMR-D patients with brain tumors (therefore all likely had cerebral imaging) also had ACC. With the present report the prevalence of cerebral malformations is at least 4/60 (6.6%). This number is well above the population birth prevalence of 0.09-0.36 live births with these cerebral malformations, suggesting that ACC and heterotopia are features of CMMR-D. Therefore, the presence of cerebral malformations in pediatric cancer patients should alert to the possible diagnosis of CMMR-D. ACC and gray matter heterotopia are the first congenital malformations described to occur at higher frequency in CMMR-D patients than in the general population. Further systematic evaluations of CMMR-D patients are needed to identify possible other malformations associated with this syndrome.

Baldassarre M, Razinia Z, Brahme NN, et al.
Filamin A controls matrix metalloproteinase activity and regulates cell invasion in human fibrosarcoma cells.
J Cell Sci. 2012; 125(Pt 16):3858-69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Filamins are an important family of actin-binding proteins that, in addition to bundling actin filaments, link cell surface adhesion proteins, signaling receptors and channels to the actin cytoskeleton, and serve as scaffolds for an array of intracellular signaling proteins. Filamins are known to regulate the actin cytoskeleton, act as mechanosensors that modulate tissue responses to matrix density, control cell motility and inhibit activation of integrin adhesion receptors. In this study, we extend the repertoire of filamin activities to include control of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. We show that knockdown of filamin increases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and induces MMP2 activation, enhancing the ability of cells to remodel the ECM and increasing their invasive potential, without significantly altering two-dimensional random cell migration. We further show that within filamin A, the actin-binding domain is necessary, but not sufficient, to suppress the ECM degradation seen in filamin-A-knockdown cells and that dimerization and integrin binding are not required. Filamin mutations are associated with neuronal migration disorders and a range of congenital malformations characterized by skeletal dysplasia and various combinations of cardiac, craniofacial and intestinal anomalies. Furthermore, in breast cancers loss of filamin A has been correlated with increased metastatic potential. Our data suggest that effects on ECM remodeling and cell invasion should be considered when attempting to provide cellular explanations for the physiological and pathological effects of altered filamin expression or filamin mutations.

Mahapatra S, Klee EW, Young CY, et al.
Global methylation profiling for risk prediction of prostate cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(10):2882-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the promoter hypermethylation as diagnostic markers to detect malignant prostate cells and as prognostic markers to predict the clinical recurrence of prostate cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: DNA was isolated from prostate cancer and normal adjacent tissues. After bisulfite conversion, methylation of 14,495 genes was evaluated using the Methylation27 microarrays in 238 prostate tissues. We analyzed methylation profiles in four different groups: (i) tumor (n = 198) versus matched normal tissues (n = 40), (ii) recurrence (n = 123) versus nonrecurrence (n = 75), (iii) clinical recurrence (n = 80) versus biochemical recurrence (n = 43), and (iv) systemic recurrence (n = 36) versus local recurrence (n = 44). Group 1, 2, 3, and 4 genes signifying biomarkers for diagnosis, prediction of recurrence, clinical recurrence, and systemic progression were determined. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to predict risk of recurrence. We validated the methylation of genes in 20 independent tissues representing each group by pyrosequencing.
RESULTS: Microarray analysis revealed significant methylation of genes in four different groups of prostate cancer tissues. The sensitivity and specificity of methylation for 25 genes from 1, 2, and 4 groups and 7 from group 3 were shown. Validation of genes by pyrosequencing from group 1 (GSTP1, HIF3A, HAAO, and RARβ), group 2 (CRIP1, FLNC, RASGRF2, RUNX3, and HS3ST2), group 3 (PHLDA3, RASGRF2, and TNFRSF10D), and group 4 (BCL11B, POU3F3, and RASGRF2) confirmed the microarray results.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a global assessment of DNA methylation in prostate cancer and identifies the significance of genes as diagnostic and progression biomarkers of prostate cancer.

Chakravarti B, Chattopadhyay N, Brown EM
Signaling through the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR).
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012; 740:103-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
The extracellular calcium ([Formula: see text])-sensing receptor (CaSR) was the first GPCR identified whose principal physiological ligand is an ion, namely extracellular Ca(2+). It maintains the near constancy of [Formula: see text] that complex organisms require to ensure normal cellular function. A wealth of information has accumulated over the past two decades about the CaSR's structure and function, its role in diseases and CaSR-based therapeutics. This review briefly describes the CaSR and key features of its structure and function, then discusses the extracellular signals modulating its activity, provides an overview of the intracellular signaling pathways that it controls, and, finally, briefly describes CaSR signaling both in tissues participating in [Formula: see text] homeostasis as well as those that do not. Factors controlling CaSR signaling include various factors affecting the expression of the CaSR gene as well as modulation of its trafficking to and from the cell surface. The dimeric cell surface CaSR, in turn, links to various heterotrimeric and small molecular weight G proteins to regulate intracellular second messengers, lipid kinases, various protein kinases, and transcription factors that are part of the machinery enabling the receptor to modulate the functions of the wide variety of cells in which it is expressed. CaSR signaling is impacted by its interactions with several binding partners in addition to signaling elements per se (i.e., G proteins), including filamin-A and caveolin-1. These latter two proteins act as scaffolds that bind signaling components and other key cellular elements (e.g., the cytoskeleton). Thus CaSR signaling likely does not take place randomly throughout the cell, but is compartmentalized and organized so as to facilitate the interaction of the receptor with its various signaling pathways.

Zeller C, Dai W, Steele NL, et al.
Candidate DNA methylation drivers of acquired cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer identified by methylome and expression profiling.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(42):4567-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple DNA methylation changes in the cancer methylome are associated with the acquisition of drug resistance; however it remains uncertain how many represent critical DNA methylation drivers of chemoresistance. Using isogenic, cisplatin-sensitive/resistant ovarian cancer cell lines and inducing resensitizaton with demethylating agents, we aimed to identify consistent methylation and expression changes associated with chemoresistance. Using genome-wide DNA methylation profiling across 27 578 CpG sites, we identified loci at 4092 genes becoming hypermethylated in chemoresistant A2780/cp70 compared with the parental-sensitive A2780 cell line. Hypermethylation at gene promoter regions is often associated with transcriptional silencing; however, expression of only 245 of these hypermethylated genes becomes downregulated in A2780/cp70 as measured by microarray expression profiling. Treatment of A2780/cp70 with the demethylating agent 2-deoxy-5'-azacytidine induces resensitization to cisplatin and re-expression of 41 of the downregulated genes. A total of 13/41 genes were consistently hypermethylated in further independent cisplatin-resistant A2780 cell derivatives. CpG sites at 9 of the 13 genes (ARHGDIB, ARMCX2, COL1A, FLNA, FLNC, MEST, MLH1, NTS and PSMB9) acquired methylation in ovarian tumours at relapse following chemotherapy or chemoresistant cell lines derived at the time of patient relapse. Furthermore, 5/13 genes (ARMCX2, COL1A1, MDK, MEST and MLH1) acquired methylation in drug-resistant ovarian cancer-sustaining (side population) cells. MLH1 has a direct role in conferring cisplatin sensitivity when reintroduced into cells in vitro. This combined genomics approach has identified further potential key drivers of chemoresistance whose expression is silenced by DNA methylation that should be further evaluated as clinical biomarkers of drug resistance.

Yue J, Lu H, Liu J, et al.
Filamin-A as a marker and target for DNA damage based cancer therapy.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2012; 11(2):192-200 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Filamin-A, also called actin binding protein 280 (ABP-280), cross-links the actin filaments into dynamic orthogonal network to serve as scaffolds in multiple signaling pathways. It has been reported that filamin-A interacts with DNA damage response proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2. Defects of filamin-A impair the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), resulting in sensitization of cells to ionizing radiation. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that filamin-A can be used as a target for cancer chemotherapy and as a biomarker to predict cancer response to therapeutic DNA damage. We found that reduction of filamin-A sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy reagents bleomycin and cisplatin, delays the repair of not only DSBs but also single strand breaks (SSBs) and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), and increases chromosome breaks after the drug treatment. By treating a panel of human melanoma cell lines with variable filamin-A expression, we observed a correlation between expression level of filamin-A protein and drug IC(50). We further inhibited the expression of filamin-A in melanoma cells, and found that this confers an increased sensitivity to bleomycin and cisplatin treatment in a mouse xenograft tumor model. These results suggest that filamin-A plays a role in repair of a variety of DNA damage, that lack of filamin-A is a prognostic marker for a better outcome after DNA damage based treatment, and filamin-A can be inhibited to sensitize filamin-A positive cancer cells to therapeutic DNA damage. Thus filamin-A can be used as a biomarker and a target for DNA damage based cancer therapy.

Caruso JA, Stemmer PM
Proteomic profiling of lipid rafts in a human breast cancer model of tumorigenic progression.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2011; 28(6):529-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Tumor biomarkers assist in the early detection of cancer, act as therapeutic targets for intervention, and function as diagnostic indicators for the evaluation of therapeutic responses. To identify novel human breast cancer biomarkers, we have analyzed the protein content of lipid rafts isolated from a series of human mammary epithelial cell lines with increasing tumorigenic potential. Since lipid rafts function as platforms for protein interaction critical to several biological processes, we hypothesized that the abundance of proteins associated with proliferation, invasion and metastasis would be dysregulated in highly transformed cells. For this purpose, the MCF10A epithelial lineage, which include benign MCF10A cells, premalignant AT and TG3B cells, and malignant CA1a tumor cells, was utilized. Detergent-resistant membranes were isolated from each line and proteins were identified and relatively quantitated using iTRAQ™ reagents and tandem mass spectrometry. 57 proteins were identified, and 1667 peptide identifications, mapping to 49 proteins, contained sufficient information for semi-quantitative analysis. When comparing malignant to benign cells, we observed consistent alterations in groups of proteins, such as a 5.7-fold average decrease in G protein content (n = 5), 2.7-fold decrease in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins (n = 7) and 3.3-fold increase in intermediate filaments (n = 9). Several of the identified proteins, including caveolin-1, filamin A, keratins 5, 6 and 17, and vimentin, are bona fide or candidate biomarkers in clinical studies, underscoring the usefulness of the MCF10A series as a model to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying cancer progression.

Arsenault D, Lucien F, Dubois CM
Hypoxia enhances cancer cell invasion through relocalization of the proprotein convertase furin from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface.
J Cell Physiol. 2012; 227(2):789-800 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor hypoxia is strongly associated with malignant progression such as increased cell invasion and metastasis. Although the invasion-related genes affected by hypoxia have been well described, the contribution of post-transcriptional mechanisms such as protein trafficking and proprotein processing associated with the hypoxic response remains poorly understood. The proprotein convertase furin, the major processing enzyme of the secretory pathway, resides in the trans-Golgi network and most studies support a model where endogenous substrates are processed by furin within this compartment. Here, we report that hypoxia triggered an unexpected relocalization of furin from the trans-Golgi network to endosomomal compartments and the cell surface in cancer cells. Exposing these cells back to normoxic conditions reversed furin redistribution, suggesting that the tumor microenvironment modulates furin trafficking in a highly regulated manner. Assessment of the mechanisms involved revealed that both Rab4GTPase-dependent recycling and interaction of furin with the cytoskeletal anchoring protein, filamin-A, are essential for the cell surface relocalization of furin. Interference with the association of furin with filamin-A, prevented cell surface relocalization of furin and abolished the ability of cancer cells to migrate in response to hypoxia. Our observations support the notion that hypoxia promotes the formation of a peripheral processing compartment where furin translocates for enhanced processing of proproteins involved in tumorigenesis.

Yi JM, Dhir M, Van Neste L, et al.
Genomic and epigenomic integration identifies a prognostic signature in colon cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(6):1535-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: The importance of genetic and epigenetic alterations maybe in their aggregate role in altering core pathways in tumorigenesis.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Merging genome-wide genomic and epigenomic alterations, we identify key genes and pathways altered in colorectal cancers (CRC). DNA methylation analysis was tested for predicting survival in CRC patients using Cox proportional hazard model.
RESULTS: We identified 29 low frequency-mutated genes that are also inactivated by epigenetic mechanisms in CRC. Pathway analysis showed the extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling pathway is silenced in CRC. Six ECM pathway genes were tested for their prognostic potential in large CRC cohorts (n = 777). DNA methylation of IGFBP3 and EVL predicted for poor survival (IGFBP3: HR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.37-4.87, P = 0.004; EVL: HR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.07-5.74, P = 0.034) and simultaneous methylation of multiple genes predicted significantly worse survival (HR = 8.61, 95% CI: 2.16-34.36, P < 0.001 for methylation of IGFBP3, EVL, CD109, and FLNC). DNA methylation of IGFBP3 and EVL was validated as a prognostic marker in an independent contemporary-matched cohort (IGFBP3 HR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.04-4.09, P = 0.038; EVL HR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.00-5.0, P = 0.05) and EVL DNA methylation remained significant in a secondary historical validation cohort (HR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05-1.89, P = 0.022). Moreover, DNA methylation of selected ECM genes helps to stratify the high-risk stage 2 colon cancers patients who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (HR: 5.85, 95% CI: 2.03-16.83, P = 0.001 for simultaneous methylation of IGFBP3, EVL, and CD109).
CONCLUSIONS: CRC that have silenced genes in ECM pathway components show worse survival suggesting that our finding provides novel prognostic biomarkers for CRC and reflects the high importance of integrative analyses linking genetic and epigenetic abnormalities with pathway disruption in cancer.

Ellison DW, Dalton J, Kocak M, et al.
Medulloblastoma: clinicopathological correlates of SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT molecular subgroups.
Acta Neuropathol. 2011; 121(3):381-96 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Medulloblastoma is heterogeneous, being characterized by molecular subgroups that demonstrate distinct gene expression profiles. Activation of the WNT or SHH signaling pathway characterizes two of these molecular subgroups, the former associated with low-risk disease and the latter potentially targeted by novel SHH pathway inhibitors. This manuscript reports the validation of a novel diagnostic immunohistochemical method to distinguish SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT tumors and details their associations with clinical, pathological and cytogenetic variables. A cohort (n = 235) of medulloblastomas from patients aged 0.4-52 years was studied for expression of four immunohistochemical markers: GAB1, β-catenin, filamin A, and YAP1. Immunoreactivity (IR) for GAB1 characterizes only SHH tumors and nuclear IR for β-catenin only WNT tumors. IRs for filamin A and YAP1 identify SHH and WNT tumors. SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT tumors contributed 31, 14, and 55% to the series. All desmoplastic/nodular (D/N) medulloblastomas were SHH tumors, while most WNT tumors (94%) had a classic phenotype. Monosomy 6 was strongly associated with WNT tumors, while PTCH1 loss occurred almost exclusively among SHH tumors. MYC or MYCN amplification and chromosome 17 imbalance occurred predominantly among non-SHH/WNT tumors. Among patients aged 3-16 years and entered onto the SIOP PNET3 trial, outcome was significantly better for children with WNT tumors, when compared to SHH or non-SHH/WNT tumors, which showed similar survival curves. However, high-risk factors (M+ disease, LC/A pathology, MYC amplification) significantly influenced survival in both SHH and non-SHH/WNT groups. We describe a robust method for detecting SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT molecular subgroups in formalin-fixed medulloblastoma samples. In corroborating other studies that indicate the value of combining clinical, pathological, and molecular variables in therapeutic stratification schemes for medulloblastoma, we also provide the first outcome data based on a clinical trial cohort and novel data on how molecular subgroups are distributed across the range of disease.

Nakamura F, Stossel TP, Hartwig JH
The filamins: organizers of cell structure and function.
Cell Adh Migr. 2011 Mar-Apr; 5(2):160-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Filamin A (FLNa), the first non-muscle actin filament cross-linking protein, was identified in 1975. Thirty five years of FLNa research has revealed its structure in great detail, discovered its isoforms (FLNb and c), and identified over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules, and even transcription factors. Due to this diversity, mutations in human FLN genes result in a wide range of anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences. This review focuses on the structure and functions of FLNa in cell migration and adhesion.

Camilli TC, Xu M, O'Connell MP, et al.
Loss of Klotho during melanoma progression leads to increased filamin cleavage, increased Wnt5A expression, and enhanced melanoma cell motility.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011; 24(1):175-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
We have previously shown that Wnt5A-mediated signaling can promote melanoma metastasis. It has been shown that Wnt signaling is antagonized by the protein Klotho, which has been implicated in aging. We show here that in melanoma cells, expressions of Wnt5A and Klotho are inversely correlated. In the presence of recombinant Klotho (rKlotho), we show that Wnt5A internalization and signaling is decreased in high Wnt5A-expressing cells. Moreover, in the presence of rKlotho, we observe an increase in Wnt5A remaining in the medium, coincident with an increase in sialidase activity, and decrease in syndecan expression. These effects can be inhibited using a sialidase inhibitor. In addition to its effects on Wnt5A internalization, we also demonstrate that Klotho decreases melanoma cell invasive potential by a second mechanism that involves the inhibition of calpain and a resultant decrease in filamin cleavage, which we demonstrate is critical for melanoma cell motility.

Xu Y, Bismar TA, Su J, et al.
Filamin A regulates focal adhesion disassembly and suppresses breast cancer cell migration and invasion.
J Exp Med. 2010; 207(11):2421-37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
The actin cross-linking protein filamin A (FLNa) functions as a scaffolding protein and couples cell cytoskeleton to extracellular matrix and integrin receptor signaling. In this study, we report that FLNa suppresses invasion of breast cancer cells and regulates focal adhesion (FA) turnover. Two large progression tissue microarrays from breast cancer patients revealed a significant decrease of FLNa levels in tissues from invasive breast cancer compared with benign disease and in lymph node-positive compared with lymph node-negative breast cancer. In breast cancer cells and orthotopic mouse breast cancer models, down-regulation of FLNa stimulated cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis formation. Time-lapse microscopy and biochemical assays after FLNa silencing and rescue with wild-type or mutant protein resistant to calpain cleavage revealed that FLNa regulates FA disassembly at the leading edge of motile cells. Moreover, FLNa down-regulation enhanced calpain activity through the mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade and stimulated the cleavage of FA proteins. These results document a regulation of FA dynamics by FLNa in breast cancer cells.

Simon EJ, Onoprishvili I
The interaction between the mu opioid receptor and filamin A.
Neurochem Res. 2010; 35(12):1859-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our laboratory embarked on research to discover proteins the interaction of which with the mu opioid receptor (MOPr) is required for its function and regulation. We performed yeast two-hybrid screens, using the carboxy tail of the human MOPr as bait and a human brain library. This yielded a number of proteins that seemed to bind to the MOPr C-tail. The one we chose to study in detail was filamin A (FLNA). Evidence was obtained that there was indeed protein-protein binding between the C-tail of MOPr and FLNA. A human melanoma cell line (M2) lacking the gene for FLNA and a control cell line (A7) which differed from M2 only in having been transfected with the gene for FLNA and expressing the FLNA protein were made available to us. We transfected these cell lines with the gene for MOPr and used them in our studies. The absence of FLNA strongly reduced MOPr downregulation as well as desensitization of adenylyl cyclase inhibition and G protein activation. A recent finding, published here for the first time, is that FLNA is required for the activation by mu opioid agonists of the MAP kinase p38. Deletion studies indicated that the MOPr binding site on FLNA is in the 24th repeat, close to its C-terminal. It was further found that FLNA lacking the N-terminal actin binding domain is as capable as full length FLNA to restore cells to control status, suggesting that actin binding is not required. A surprising finding was that upregulation of MOPr by morphine and some agonist analogs occurs in M2 cells lacking FLNA, whereas normal receptor downregulation takes place in A7 cells.

Li C, Xin W, Sy MS
Binding of pro-prion to filamin A: by design or an unfortunate blunder.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(39):5329-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Over the last decades, cancer research has focused on tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Genes in other cellular pathways has received less attention. Between 0.5% to 1% of the mammalian genome encodes for proteins that are tethered on the cell membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor. The GPI modification pathway is complex and not completely understood. Prion (PrP), a GPI-anchored protein, is infamous for being the only normal protein that when misfolded can cause and transmit a deadly disease. Though widely expressed and highly conserved, little is known about the functions of PrP. Pancreatic cancer and melanoma cell lines express PrP. However, in these cell lines the PrP exists as a pro-PrP as defined by retaining its GPI anchor peptide signal sequence (GPI-PSS). Unexpectedly, the GPI-PSS of PrP has a filamin A (FLNA) binding motif and binds FLNA. FLNA is a cytolinker protein, and an integrator of cell mechanics and signaling. Binding of pro-PrP to FLNA disrupts the normal FLNA functions. Although normal pancreatic ductal cells lack PrP, about 40% of patients with pancreatic ductal cell adenocarcinoma express PrP in their cancers. These patients have significantly shorter survival time compared with patients whose cancers lack PrP. Pro-PrP is also detected in melanoma in situ but is undetectable in normal melanocyte, and invasive melanoma expresses more pro-PrP. In this review, we will discuss the underlying mechanisms by which binding of pro-PrP to FLNA disrupts normal cellular physiology and contributes to tumorigenesis, and the potential mechanisms that cause the accumulation of pro-PrP in cancer cells.

Lasfar A, Cohen-Solal KA
Resistance to transforming growth factor β-mediated tumor suppression in melanoma: are multiple mechanisms in place?
Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31(10):1710-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Resistance to transforming growth factor (TGF) β-mediated tumor suppression in melanoma appears to be a crucial step in tumor aggressiveness since it is usually coupled with the ability of TGFβ to drive the oncogenic process via autocrine and paracrine effects. In this review, we will focus mainly on the mechanisms of escape from TGFβ-induced cell cycle arrest because the mechanisms of resistance to TGFβ-mediated apoptosis are still essentially speculative. As expected, some of these mechanisms can directly affect the function of the main downstream effectors of TGFβ, Smad2 and Smad3, resulting in compromised Smad-mediated antiproliferative activity. Other mechanisms can counteract or overcome TGFβ-mediated cell cycle arrest independently of the Smads. In melanoma, some models of resistance to TGFβ have been suggested and will be described. In addition, we propose additional models of resistance taking into consideration the information available on the dysregulation of fundamental cellular effectors and signaling pathways in melanoma.

Li C, Yu S, Nakamura F, et al.
Pro-prion binds filamin A, facilitating its interaction with integrin beta1, and contributes to melanomagenesis.
J Biol Chem. 2010; 285(39):30328-39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Filamin A (FLNA) is an integrator of cell mechanics and signaling. The spreading and migration observed in FLNA sufficient A7 melanoma cells but not in the parental FLNA deficient M2 cells have been attributed to FLNA. In A7 and M2 cells, the normal prion (PrP) exists as pro-PrP, retaining its glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchor peptide signal sequence (GPI-PSS). The GPI-PSS of PrP has a FLNA binding motif and binds FLNA. Reducing PrP expression in A7 cells alters the spatial distribution of FLNA and organization of actin and diminishes cell spreading and migration. Integrin β1 also binds FLNA. In A7 cells, FLNA, PrP, and integrin β1 exist as two independent, yet functionally linked, complexes; they are FLNA with PrP or FLNA with integrin β1. Reducing PrP expression in A7 cells decreases the amount of integrin β1 bound to FLNA. A PrP GPI-PSS synthetic peptide that crosses the cell membrane inhibits A7 cell spreading and migration. Thus, in A7 cells FLNA does not act alone; the binding of pro-PrP enhances association between FLNA and integrin β1, which then promotes cell spreading and migration. Pro-PrP is detected in melanoma in situ but not in melanocyte. Invasive melanoma has more pro-PrP. The binding of pro-PrP to FLNA, therefore, contributes to melanomagenesis.

Sun Y, Almomani R, Aten E, et al.
Terminal osseous dysplasia is caused by a single recurrent mutation in the FLNA gene.
Am J Hum Genet. 2010; 87(1):146-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Terminal osseous dysplasia (TOD) is an X-linked dominant male-lethal disease characterized by skeletal dysplasia of the limbs, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibroma with onset in female infancy. After performing X-exome capture and sequencing, we identified a mutation at the last nucleotide of exon 31 of the FLNA gene as the most likely cause of the disease. The variant c.5217G>A was found in six unrelated cases (three families and three sporadic cases) and was not found in 400 control X chromosomes, pilot data from the 1000 Genomes Project, or the FLNA gene variant database. In the families, the variant segregated with the disease, and it was transmitted four times from a mildly affected mother to a more seriously affected daughter. We show that, because of nonrandom X chromosome inactivation, the mutant allele was not expressed in patient fibroblasts. RNA expression of the mutant allele was detected only in cultured fibroma cells obtained from 15-year-old surgically removed material. The variant activates a cryptic splice site, removing the last 48 nucleotides from exon 31. At the protein level, this results in a loss of 16 amino acids (p.Val1724_Thr1739del), predicted to remove a sequence at the surface of filamin repeat 15. Our data show that TOD is caused by this single recurrent mutation in the FLNA gene.

Wu Q, Xu FL, Li Y, et al.
The c-Myc target glycoprotein1balpha links cytokinesis failure to oncogenic signal transduction pathways in cultured human cells.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(5):e10819 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
An increase in chromosome number, or polyploidization, is associated with a variety of biological changes including breeding of cereal crops and flowers, terminal differentiation of specialized cells such as megakaryocytes, cellular stress and oncogenic transformation. Yet it remains unclear how cells tolerate the major changes in gene expression, chromatin organization and chromosome segregation that invariably accompany polyploidization. We show here that cancer cells can initiate increases in chromosome number by inhibiting cell division through activation of glycoprotein1b alpha (GpIbalpha), a component of the c-Myc signaling pathway. We are able to recapitulate cytokinesis failure in primary cells by overexpression of GpIbalpha in a p53-deficient background. GpIbalpha was found to localize to the cleavage furrow by microscopy analysis and, when overexpressed, to interfere with assembly of the cellular cortical contraction apparatus and normal division. These results indicate that cytokinesis failure and tetraploidy in cancer cells are directly linked to cellular hyperproliferation via c-Myc induced overexpression of GpIbalpha.

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