Gene Summary

Gene:FGF3; fibroblast growth factor 3
Aliases: INT2, HBGF-3
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene was identified by its similarity with mouse fgf3/int-2, a proto-oncogene activated in virally induced mammary tumors in the mouse. Frequent amplification of this gene has been found in human tumors, which may be important for neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. Studies of the similar genes in mouse and chicken suggested the role in inner ear formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fibroblast growth factor 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 27 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • ERBB2
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • Messenger RNA
  • Recurrence
  • Risk Factors
  • Urinary System Cancers
  • Tumor Virus Infections
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Thymidylate Synthase
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Tamoxifen
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Gene Amplification
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 3
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Chromosome 11
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Tumor Markers
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
  • Cancer DNA
  • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 4
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Transfection
  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • Testosterone
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Signal Transduction
  • FGF3
  • FISH
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Breast Cancer
  • Survivors
  • Survival Rate
  • Kaposi Sarcoma
  • Oncogenes
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FGF3 (cancer-related)

Wheler JJ, Parker BA, Lee JJ, et al.
Unique molecular signatures as a hallmark of patients with metastatic breast cancer: implications for current treatment paradigms.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(9):2349-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our analysis of the tumors of 57 women with metastatic breast cancer with next generation sequencing (NGS) demonstrates that each patient's tumor is unique in its molecular fingerprint. We observed 216 somatic aberrations in 70 different genes, including 131 distinct aberrations. The most common gene alterations (in order of decreasing frequency) included: TP53, PIK3CA, CCND1, MYC, HER2 (ERBB2), MCL1, PTEN, FGFR1, GATA3, NF1, PIK3R1, BRCA2, EGFR, IRS2, CDH1, CDKN2A, FGF19, FGF3 and FGF4. Aberrations included mutations (46%), amplifications (45%), deletions (5%), splices (2%), truncations (1%), fusions (0.5%) and rearrangements (0.5%), with multiple distinct variants within the same gene. Many of these aberrations represent druggable targets, either through direct pathway inhibition or through an associated pathway (via 'crosstalk'). The 'molecular individuality' of these tumors suggests that a customized strategy, using an "N-of-One" model of precision medicine, may represent an optimal approach for the treatment of patients with advanced tumors.

Javle M, Rashid A, Churi C, et al.
Molecular characterization of gallbladder cancer using somatic mutation profiling.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(4):701-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer is relatively uncommon, with a high incidence in certain geographic locations, including Latin America, East and South Asia, and Eastern Europe. Molecular characterization of this disease has been limited, and targeted therapy options for advanced disease remain an open area of investigation. In the present study, surgical pathology obtained from resected gallbladder cancer cases (n = 72) was examined for the presence of targetable, somatic mutations. All cases were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). Two approaches were used: (a) mass spectroscopy-based profiling for 159 point ("hot spot") mutations in 33 genes commonly involved in solid tumors and (b) next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform that examined the complete coding sequence of in 182 cancer-related genes. Fifty-seven cases were analyzed for hot spot mutations; and 15, for NGS. Fourteen hot spot mutations were identified in 9 cases. Of these, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with poor survival on multivariate analysis. Other targetable mutations included PIK3CA (n = 2) and ALK (n = 1). On NGS, 26 mutations were noted in 15 cases. TP53 and PI3 kinase pathway (STK11, RICTOR, TSC2) mutations were common. One case had FGF10 amplification, whereas another had FGF3-TACC gene fusion, not previously described in gallbladder cancer. In conclusion, somatic mutation profiling using archival FFPE samples from gallbladder cancer is feasible. NGS, in particular, may be a useful platform for identifying novel mutations for targeted therapy.

Ribeiro IP, Marques F, Caramelo F, et al.
Genetic gains and losses in oral squamous cell carcinoma: impact on clinical management.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2014; 37(1):29-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The identification of genetic markers associated with oral cancer is considered essential to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, early tumor and relapse detection and, ultimately, to delineate individualized therapeutic approaches. Here, we aimed at identifying such markers.
METHODS: Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analyses encompassing 133 cancer-related genes were performed on a panel of primary oral tumor samples and its corresponding resection margins (macroscopically tumor-free tissue) allowing, in both types of tissue, the detection of a wide arrange of copy number imbalances on various human chromosomes.
RESULTS: We found that in tumor tissue, from the 133 cancer-related genes included in this study, those that most frequently exhibited copy number gains were located on chromosomal arms 3q, 6p, 8q, 11q, 16p, 16q, 17p, 17q and 19q, whereas those most frequently exhibiting copy number losses were located on chromosomal arms 2q, 3p, 4q, 5q, 8p, 9p, 11q and 18q. Several imbalances were highlighted, i.e., losses of ERBB4, CTNNB1, NFKB1, IL2, IL12B, TUSC3, CDKN2A, CASP1, and gains of MME, BCL6, VEGF, PTK2, PTP4A3, RNF139, CCND1, FGF3, CTTN, MVP, CDH1, BRCA1, CDKN2D, BAX, as well as exon 4 of TP53. Comparisons between tumor and matched macroscopically tumor-free tissues allowed us to build a logistic regression model to predict the tissue type (benign versus malignant). In this model, the TUSC3 gene showed statistical significance, indicating that loss of this gene may serve as a good indicator of malignancy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results point towards relevance of the above mentioned cancer-related genes as putative genetic markers for oral cancer. For practical clinical purposes, these genetic markers should be validated in additional studies.

Dienstmann R, Rodon J, Prat A, et al.
Genomic aberrations in the FGFR pathway: opportunities for targeted therapies in solid tumors.
Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(3):552-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) cascade plays crucial roles in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration and survival. Accumulating evidence suggests that in some tumor types, FGFRs are bona fide oncogenes to which cancer cells are addicted. Because FGFR inhibition can reduce proliferation and induce cell death in a variety of in vitro and in vivo tumor models harboring FGFR aberrations, a growing number of research groups have selected FGFRs as targets for anticancer drug development. Multikinase FGFR/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors have shown promising activity in breast cancer patients with FGFR1 and/or FGF3 amplification. Early clinical trials with selective FGFR inhibitors, which may overcome the toxicity constraints raised by multitarget kinase inhibition, are recruiting patients with known FGFR(1-4) status based on genomic screens. Preliminary signs of antitumor activity have been demonstrated in some tumor types, including squamous cell lung carcinomas. Rational combination of targeted therapies is expected to further increase the efficacy of selective FGFR inhibitors. Herein, we discuss unsolved questions in the clinical development of these agents and suggest guidelines for management of hyperphosphatemia, a class-specific mechanism-based toxicity. In addition, we propose standardized definitions for FGFR1 and FGFR2 gene amplification based on in situ hybridization methods. Extended access to next-generation sequencing platforms will facilitate the identification of diseases in which somatic FGFR(1-4) mutations, amplifications and fusions are potentially driving cancer cell viability, further strengthening the role of FGFR signaling in cancer biology and providing more possibilities for the therapeutic application of FGFR inhibitors.

André F, Bachelot T, Campone M, et al.
Targeting FGFR with dovitinib (TKI258): preclinical and clinical data in breast cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(13):3693-702 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and FGFR2 amplifications are observed in approximately 10% of breast cancers and are related to poor outcomes. We evaluated whether dovitinib (TKI258), an inhibitor of FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3, presented antitumor activity in FGFR-amplified breast cancers.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Preclinical activity of dovitinib was evaluated in both breast cancer cell lines and an FGFR1-amplified xenograft model (HBCx2). Dovitinib was then evaluated in a phase II trial that included 4 groups of patients with human EGF receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer on the basis of FGFR1 amplification and hormone receptor (HR) status. FGFR1 amplification was assessed by silver in situ hybridization. Preplanned retrospective analyses assessed predictive value of FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGF3 amplifications by quantitative PCR (qPCR).
RESULTS: Dovitinib monotherapy inhibits proliferation in FGFR1- and FGFR2-amplified, but not FGFR-normal, breast cancer cell lines. Dovitinib also inhibits tumor growth in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer xenografts. Eighty-one patients were enrolled in the trial. Unconfirmed response or stable disease for more than 6 months was observed in 5 (25%) and 1 (3%) patient(s) with FGFR1-amplified/HR-positive and FGFR1-nonamplified/HR-positive breast cancer. When qPCR-identified amplifications in FGFR1, FGFR2, or FGF3 were grouped to define an FGF pathway-amplified breast cancer in HR-positive patients, the mean reduction in target lesions was 21.1% compared with a 12.0% increase in patients who did not present with FGF pathway-amplified breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: Dovitinib showed antitumor activity in FGFR-amplified breast cancer cell lines and may have activity in breast cancers with FGF pathway amplification.

Küchler EC, Lips A, Tannure PN, et al.
Tooth agenesis association with self-reported family history of cancer.
J Dent Res. 2013; 92(2):149-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been proposed that tooth agenesis and cancer development share common molecular pathways. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate the epidemiological and molecular association between tooth agenesis and self-reported family history of cancer. Eighty-two individuals with tooth agenesis and 328 individuals with no birth defect were recruited from the same institution. Tooth agenesis was assessed in permanent teeth and was defined based on the age of the participants and when initial tooth formation should be radiographically visible. We also investigated the role of genes involved in dental development that have been implicated in tumorigenesis, and 14 markers in AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2 were genotyped. Individuals with tooth agenesis had an increased risk of having a family history of cancer (p = 0.00006; OR = 2.7; 95% C.I., 1.6-4.4). There were associations between AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2 with tooth agenesis [i.e., individuals who carried the polymorphic allele of FGFR2 (rs1219648) presented higher risk for having premolar agenesis (p = 0.02; OR = 1.8; 95% C.I., 1.1-3.0)]. In conclusion, tooth agenesis was associated with positive self-reported family history of cancer and with variants in AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2. Prospective studies are needed to confirm if tooth agenesis can be used as a risk marker for cancer.

Hillbertz NS, Hirsch JM, Jalouli J, et al.
Viral and molecular aspects of oral cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(10):4201-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. SCCs and their variants constitute over 90% of oral malignancies, and the disease is associated with poor prognosis. OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, virus infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and thus give rise to the malignant condition. Herein, we review the available literature regarding high-risk factors such as alcohol and tobacco usage; discuss the roles of human papillomaviruses (HPV), the Epstein-Barr virus, and the human herpes simplex virus (HSV); and evaluate several candidate genes associated with the condition: p53, p16(INK4) and p21(WAF1/CIPI), survivin, B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), keratins, Fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3), FGF4, FGF19, Oral cancer overexpressed gene 1 (ORAOV1), and Cyclin D1 (CCND1).

Arao T, Ueshima K, Matsumoto K, et al.
FGF3/FGF4 amplification and multiple lung metastases in responders to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2013; 57(4):1407-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The response rate to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is relatively low (0.7%-3%), however, rapid and drastic tumor regression is occasionally observed. The molecular backgrounds and clinico-pathological features of these responders remain largely unclear. We analyzed the clinical and molecular backgrounds of 13 responders to sorafenib with significant tumor shrinkage in a retrospective study. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis using one frozen HCC sample from a responder demonstrated that the 11q13 region, a rare amplicon in HCC including the loci for FGF3 and FGF4, was highly amplified. A real-time polymerase chain reaction-based copy number assay revealed that FGF3/FGF4 amplification was observed in three of the 10 HCC samples from responders in which DNA was evaluable, whereas amplification was not observed in 38 patients with stable or progressive disease (P = 0.006). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed FGF3 amplification. In addition, the clinico-pathological features showed that multiple lung metastases (5/13, P = 0.006) and a poorly differentiated histological type (5/13, P = 0.13) were frequently observed in responders. A growth inhibitory assay showed that only one FGF3/FGF4-amplified and three FGFR2-amplified cancer cell lines exhibited hypersensitivity to sorafenib in vitro. Finally, an in vivo study revealed that treatment with a low dose of sorafenib was partially effective for stably and exogenously expressed FGF4 tumors, while being less effective in tumors expressing EGFP or FGF3.
CONCLUSION: FGF3/FGF4 amplification was observed in around 2% of HCCs. Although the sample size was relatively small, FGF3/FGF4 amplification, a poorly differentiated histological type, and multiple lung metastases were frequently observed in responders to sorafenib. Our findings may provide a novel insight into the molecular background of HCC and sorafenib responders, warranting further prospective biomarker studies.

Ziebart T, Draenert FG, Galetzka D, et al.
The original family revisited after 37 years: odontoma-dysphagia syndrome is most likely caused by a microduplication of chromosome 11q13.3, including the FGF3 and FGF4 genes.
Clin Oral Investig. 2013; 17(1):123-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Fibroblast growth factors consist of receptor tyrosine kinase binding proteins involved in growth, differentiation, and regeneration of a variety of tissues of the head and neck. Their role in the development of teeth has been documented, and their presence in human odontogenic cysts and tumors has previously been investigated. Odontoma–dysphagia syndrome (OMIM 164330) is a very rare disorder characterized by clustering of teeth as compound odontoma, dysplasia and aplasia of teeth, slight craniofacial abnormalities, and dysphagia. We have followed the clinical course of the disease in a family over more than 30 years and have identified a genetic abnormality segregating with the disorder.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated clinical data from nine different family members and obtained venous blood probes for genetic studies from three family members (two affected and one unaffected).
RESULTS: The present family with five patients in two generations has remained one out of only two known cases with this very rare syndrome. All those affected showed teeth dysplasia, oligodontia, and dysplasia and odontoma of the upper and lower jaw. Additional signs included dysphagia and strictures of the oesophagus. Comorbidity in one patient included aortic stenosis and coronary artery disease, requiring coronary bypasses and aortic valve replacement. Genome-wide SNP array analyses in three family members (two affected and one unaffected) revealed a microduplication of chromosome 11q13.3 spanning 355 kilobases (kb) and including two genes in full length, fibroblast growth factors 3 (FGF3) and 4 (FGF4).
CONCLUSION: The microduplication identified in this family represents the most likely cause of the odontoma–dysphagia syndrome and implies that the syndrome is caused by a gain of function of the FGF3 and FGF4 genes.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Mutations of FGF receptor genes can cause craniofacial syndromes such as odontoma–dysphagia syndrome. Following this train of thought, an evaluation of FGF gene family in sporadic odontoma could be worthwhile.

Huang L, Zheng M, Zhou QM, et al.
Identification of a 7-gene signature that predicts relapse and survival for early stage patients with cervical carcinoma.
Med Oncol. 2012; 29(4):2911-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is no gene signature for predicting relapse and survival of cervical cancer with early stage currently. In this study, we investigate whether gene expression profiling of cervical cancer could be used to predict the prognosis of patient. A series of 100 primary cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy between January 2001 and October 2006 were analyzed for gene expression profiles by using a custom oligonucleotide microarray containing probes for 1440 human tumor-related gene transcripts. Supervised analysis of gene expression data identified 19 genes that exhibited differential expression between cervical cancer and normal cervix. Then, all 100 patients were divided into the training (n=50) and testing sets (n=50). Using Cox regression and risk-score analysis, we identified a 7-gene (UBL3, FGF3, BMI1, PDGFRA, PTPRF, RFC4, and NOL7) signature for predicting relapse of patient in the training set. The 7-gene signature was validated by the testing set (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 91.9%; positive predictive value, 78.6%; negative predictive value, 94.4%). Patients with high-risk 7-gene signature had poor relapse-free survivals (RFS) than patients with low-risk 7-gene signature in both training set (P=0.026) and testing set (P=0.042). Multivariate analysis showed that the FIGO stage and 7-gene signature are independent prognostic factors associated with RFS of cervical cancer patients. The 7-gene signature can predict cancer recurrence and survival of cervical cancer patients. This may have prognostic or therapeutic implications for the future management of cervical cancer patients.

Karlsson E, Waltersson MA, Bostner J, et al.
High-resolution genomic analysis of the 11q13 amplicon in breast cancers identifies synergy with 8p12 amplification, involving the mTOR targets S6K2 and 4EBP1.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011; 50(10):775-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
The chromosomal region 11q13 is amplified in 15-20% of breast cancers; an event not only associated with estrogen receptor (ER) expression but also implicated in resistance to endocrine therapy. Coamplifications of the 11q13 and 8p12 regions are common, suggesting synergy between the amplicons. The aim was to identify candidate oncogenes in the 11q13 region based on recurrent amplification patterns and correlations to mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, the 11q13/8p12 coamplification and its prognostic value, was evaluated at the DNA and the mRNA levels. Affymetrix 250K NspI arrays were used for whole-genome screening of DNA copy number changes in 29 breast tumors. To identify amplicon cores at 11q13 and 8p12, genomic identification of significant targets in cancer (GISTIC) was applied. The mRNA expression levels of candidate oncogenes in the amplicons [RAD9A, RPS6KB2 (S6K2), CCND1, FGF19, FGF4, FGF3, PAK1, GAB2 (11q13); EIF4EBP1 (4EBP1), PPAPDC1B, and FGFR1 (8p12)] were evaluated using real-time PCR. Resulting data revealed three main amplification cores at 11q13. ER expression was associated with the central 11q13 amplification core, encompassing CCND1, whereas 8p12 amplification/gene expression correlated to S6K2 in a proximal 11q13 core. Amplification of 8p12 and high expression of 4EBP1 or FGFR1 was associated with a poor outcome in the group. In conclusion, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays have enabled mapping of the 11q13 amplicon in breast tumors with high resolution. A proximal 11q13 core including S6K2 was identified as involved in the coamplification/coexpression with 8p12, suggesting synergy between the mTOR targets S6K2 and 4EBP1 in breast cancer development and progression.

Brown J, Bothma H, Veale R, Willem P
Genomic imbalances in esophageal carcinoma cell lines involve Wnt pathway genes.
World J Gastroenterol. 2011; 17(24):2909-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To identify molecular markers shared across South African esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines using cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array copy number analysis.
METHODS: We used conventional cytogenetics, FISH, and multicolor FISH to characterize the chromosomal rearrangements of five ESCC cell lines established in South Africa. The whole genome copy number profile was established from 250K SNP arrays, and data was analyzed with the CNAT 4.0 and GISTIC software.
RESULTS: We detected common translocation breakpoints involving chromosomes 1p11-12 and 3p11.2, the latter correlated with the deletion, or interruption of the EPHA3 gene. The most significant amplifications involved the following chromosomal regions and genes: 11q13.3 (CCND1, FGF3, FGF4, FGF19, MYEOV), 8q24.21(C-MYC, FAM84B), 11q22.1-q22.3 (BIRC2, BIRC3), 5p15.2 (CTNND2), 3q11.2-q12.2 (MINA) and 18p11.32 (TYMS, YES1). The significant deletions included 1p31.2-p31.1 (CTH, GADD45α, DIRAS3), 2q22.1 (LRP1B), 3p12.1-p14.2 (FHIT), 4q22.1-q32.1 (CASP6, SMAD1), 8p23.2-q11.1 (BNIP3L) and 18q21.1-q21.2 (SMAD4, DCC). The 3p11.2 translocation breakpoint was shared across four cell lines, supporting a role for genes involved at this site, in particular, the EPHA3 gene which has previously been reported to be deleted in ESCC.
CONCLUSION: The finding that a significant number of genes that were amplified (FGF3, FGF4, FGF19, CCND1 and C-MYC) or deleted (SFRP2 gene) are involved in the Wnt and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways, suggests that these pathways may be activated in these cell lines.

Azab AK, Azab F, Quang P, et al.
FGFR3 is overexpressed waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and its inhibition by Dovitinib induces apoptosis and overcomes stroma-induced proliferation.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(13):4389-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: There is no standard of therapy for the treatment of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), therefore there is a need for the development of new agents. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) was shown to play a major role in several types in cancer. Dovitinib, an inhibitor of FGFR3, was effective in hematologic malignancies. In this study, we tested FGFR3 as a therapeutic target in WM and tested the effect of dovitinib on cell proliferation and apoptosis of WM cells in the context of BM microenvironment.
METHODS: The expression of FGFR3 in WM cells was tested using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Cell signaling in response to stimulation with FGF3 and stromal cells, and its inhibition by dovitinib was performed using immunoblotting. Cell survival and cell proliferation were assessed by MTT and BrdU assays. Apoptosis was measured by detection of APO-2.7 and cleavage of caspase-3 using flow cytometry. Cell cycle was performed by PI staining of cells and flow cytometry. The combinatory effect of dovitinib with other drugs was analyzed using Calcusyn software. The effect of dovitinib was tested in vivo.
RESULTS: FGFR3 was overexpressed in WM cells and its activation induced cell proliferation. Inhibition of FGFR3 with dovitinib decreased cell survival, increased apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest. Inhibition of FGFR3 by dovitinib reduced the interaction of WM to bone marrow components, and reversed its proliferative effect. Dovitinib had an additive effect with other drugs. Moreover, dovitinib reduced WM tumor progression in vivo.
CONCLUSION: We report that FGFR3 is a novel therapeutic target in WM, and suggest dovitinib for future clinical trial the treatment of patients with WM.

Gruel N, Lucchesi C, Raynal V, et al.
Lobular invasive carcinoma of the breast is a molecular entity distinct from luminal invasive ductal carcinoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2010; 46(13):2399-407 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to get insight into the molecular alterations of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), comparative genomic hybridisation array and transcriptomic analyses of a series of 62 oestrogens-positive (ER) invasive tumours [21 ILC and 41 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC)] were performed. ILC and IDC shared highly recurrent regions of gains (1q12-q44(+) in more than 60% of the cases, 16pter-p11.2(+) in 45% and 63% of ILC and IDC, respectively) and losses (16q11.2-q24.2(-) in 84% of ILC and 67.5% of IDC and 17pter-p12(-) in 50% of ILC and IDC). However, ILC genomic signature was characterised by significantly more frequent losses of 13q21.33-q31.3 region (46.5%) and 22q11.23-q12.1 region (50%) whereas IDC showed significantly more frequent losses of 11q23.1-q23.2 region (in 44% of IDC). Nine different regions of high level amplifications were found in 38% of ILC (8/21 cases). Localised on chromosome 11 (11q13.2 region), the most frequent region of amplification encompassing the CCND1 and FGF3 genes was observed in five different ILC. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of transcriptomic data showed that ILC and IDC clustered apart. Genes involved in cell adhesion, cell communication and trafficking, extra cellular matrix-interaction pathways or cell mobility contributed to this clustering. Despite these differences, the overall clinical outcome of ILC was identical to that of IDC. This molecular study highlights that lobular and oestrogens-positive ductal invasive carcinomas share common genomic alterations but that ILC present some specific molecular alterations. These molecular specificities should help with the identification of new therapeutic targets for ILC patients.

McConkey DJ, Choi W, Marquis L, et al.
Role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in drug sensitivity and metastasis in bladder cancer.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2009; 28(3-4):335-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that plays essential roles in development and wound healing that is characterized by loss of homotypic adhesion and cell polarity and increased invasion and migration. At the molecular level, EMT is characterized by loss of E-cadherin and increased expression of several transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin expression (Zeb-1, Zeb-2, Twist, Snail, and Slug). Early work established that loss of E-cadherin and increased expression of MMP-9 was associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with urothelial tumors, suggesting that EMT might also be associated with bladder cancer progression and metastasis. More recently, we have used global gene expression profiling to characterize the molecular heterogeneity in human urothelial cancer cell lines (n = 20) and primary patient tumors, and unsupervised clustering analyses revealed that the cells naturally segregate into two discrete "epithelial" and "mesenchymal" subsets, the latter consisting entirely of muscle-invasive tumors. Importantly, sensitivity to inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or type-3 fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR3) was confined to the "epithelial" subset, and sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors could be reestablished by micro-RNA-mediated molecular reversal of EMT. The results suggest that EMT coordinately regulates drug resistance and muscle invasion/metastasis in urothelial cancer and is a dominant feature of overall cancer biology.

Vasei M, Modjtahedi H, Ale-Booyeh O, et al.
Amplification and expression of EGFR and ERBB2 in Wilms tumor.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2009; 194(2):88-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wilms tumor is one of the most common solid tumors in children. We evaluated expression and amplification of a number of genes and their prognostic significance in 45 patients with Wilms tumor, using tissue microarray technology. The expression of EGFR, ERBB2, MDM2, CCND1, MLH1, MSH2, TP53, and ABCB1 (alias MDR1) was studied by immunohistochemistry. Amplification of the EGFR, ERBB2, MDM2, CCND1, CTTN (previously EMS1), RAF1, MYC, FGF3 (previously INT2), WNT1, GLI1, CDK4, and NCOA3 (alias AIB1) genes was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Expression of EGFR was seen in 17 of the 45 cases (38%) but was not associated with gene amplification. The ERBB2 gene was neither overexpressed nor amplified in any case. Tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry analyses for ERBB2 in whole-tumor sections were also negative in all cases. Strong p53 reactivity was noted in blastemal cells in two cases with an unfavorable outcome. ABCB1 reactivity was seen in five cases with favorable histology and outcome. Only one case showed nuclear cyclin D1 positivity. All tumors showed MLH1 and MSH2 expression. All examined genes showed normal copy numbers. Unfavorable histology correlated with poor prognosis (P=0.03). There was no significant association between gene expression and prognosis. Overexpression of the EGFR gene in many Wilms tumor cases warrants further study to determine the therapeutic benefit of EGFR inhibitors in combination with other therapies in Wilms tumor patients.

Lázár V, Ecsedi S, Szöllosi AG, et al.
Characterization of candidate gene copy number alterations in the 11q13 region along with BRAF and NRAS mutations in human melanoma.
Mod Pathol. 2009; 22(10):1367-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amplification of the 11q13 chromosomal region is a common event in primary melanomas. Several candidate genes are localized at this sequence; however, their role in melanoma has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to develop an accurate method for determining the amplification pattern of six candidate genes that map to this amplicon core and to elucidate the possible relationship between BRAF, NRAS mutations and CCND1 copy number alterations, all of which are key components of the MAP kinase pathway. Characterization of gene copy numbers was performed by quantitative PCR and, as an alternative method, fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to define the CCND1 amplification pattern at the single cell level. Samples with amplified CCND1 (32%) were further analyzed for copy number alterations for the TAOS1, FGF3, FGF19, FGF4 and EMS1 genes. Co-amplification of the CCND1 and TAOS1 was present in 15% of tumors and was more frequent in ulcerated lesions (P=0.017). Furthermore, 56% of primary melanomas had either BRAF or NRAS mutations, but these two mutations were not present in any of the lesions analyzed. Of these cases, 34% also had CCND1 amplification. There was a significant relationship between NRAS activating mutations and UV exposure (P=0.005). We did not find correlations between CCND1 gene amplification status and any of the patients' clinicopathological parameters. However, CCND1 amplification simultaneously with either BRAF or NRAS activation mutations was observed mainly in primary tumors with ulcerated surfaces (P=0.028). We assume that co-amplification of these candidate genes in the 11q13 region or CCND1 gene alterations along with either BRAF or NRAS mutations might be more important for prognosis than the presence of these alterations alone.

Krejci P, Prochazkova J, Bryja V, et al.
Molecular pathology of the fibroblast growth factor family.
Hum Mutat. 2009; 30(9):1245-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family contains 22 proteins that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in both developing and adult organism. The mutations in the FGF genes were not known to play role in human disease until the year 2000, when mutations in FGF23 were found to cause hypophosphatemic rickets. Nine years later, seven FGFs have been associated with human disorders. These include FGF3 in Michel aplasia; FGF8 in cleft lip/palate and in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; FGF9 in carcinoma; FGF10 in the lacrimal/salivary glands aplasia, and lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital syndrome; FGF14 in spinocerebellar ataxia; FGF20 in Parkinson disease; and FGF23 in tumoral calcinosis and hypophosphatemic rickets. The heterogeneity in the functional consequences of FGF mutations, the modes of inheritance, pattern of involved tissues/organs, and effects in different developmental stages provide fascinating insights into the physiology of the FGF signaling system. We review the current knowledge about the molecular pathology of the FGF family.

Rosa-Rosa JM, Pita G, González-Neira A, et al.
A 7 Mb region within 11q13 may contain a high penetrance gene for breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009; 118(1):151-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Familial breast cancer represents up to 5% of all breast cancer cases. Recently, our group has performed a new SNP-based linkage study in 19 non-BRCA1/2 families. We found that a single family was linked to regions in two different chromosomes (11q13 and 14q21), and observed a non-parametric LOD score of 11.5 in both regions. In the present study, we ruled out any possible translocation between the chromosomes. We also used both a panel of STRs and an indirect approach based on HapMap data to narrow down these regions from 28 to 7 Mb in chromosome 11 and from 14.5 to 8.5 Mb in chromosome 14. We performed a mutational screening on candidate genes in 11q13 (NUMA1, FGF3, CCND1, RAD9A, RNF121, FADD and hsa-mir-192), and on FOXA1 in 14q21. Although we have not found any deleterious mutations in the coding region of these genes, data from STR markers confirm 11q13 as a candidate region to contain a breast cancer susceptibility gene.

Kim JH, Kim JH, Yu YS, et al.
Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of newly established retinoblastoma cell lines of adherent growth compared with Y79 of nonadherent growth.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008; 30(8):571-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoblastoma (RB) shows cytogenetic aberrations involving genes other than RB gene located on 13q14. We analyzed genomic aberration in newly established RB cell lines SNUOT-RB1 and SNUOT-RB4 of adherent growth and Y79 cell line of nonadherent growth by microarray comparative genomic hybridization. SNUOT-RB1 showed 44 significant copy number changes (gain in 11 and loss in 33, P<0.0005). SNUOT-RB4 showed 42 significant copy number changes (gain in 8 and loss in 34, P<0.0005). Y79 cell line had the greatest gain of 19.65-fold in the locus of MYCN gene 2p24.1, whereas SNUOT-RB1 and SNUOT-RB4 showed no significant gain. SNUOT-RB1 and SNUOT-RB4 gained chromosomal copy numbers commonly in chromosome 11, especially in locus 11q13, which is responsible for cancer-related genes such as CCND1, MEN1, and FGF3. Losses of copy numbers occurred in chromosomes 3, 9, 10, 11, 16, and 17. In summary, SNUOT-RB1 and SNUOT-RB4 represented similar pattern in gain and loss of chromosomal copy number changes, while different from Y79. The loss of CYLD gene of tumor suppressor gene, 16q12-q13, was only on locus of common involvement in 3 cell lines.

Katoh M
Cancer genomics and genetics of FGFR2 (Review).
Int J Oncol. 2008; 33(2):233-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
FGFR2 gene encodes FGFR2b in epithelial cells, and FGFR2c in mesenchymal cells. FGFR2b is a high affinity receptor for FGF1, FGF3, FGF7, FGF10 and FGF22, while FGFR2c for FGF1, FGF2, FGF4, FGF6, FGF9, FGF16 and FGF20. Here genomics and genetics of FGFR2, and therapeutics targeted to FGFR2 will be reviewed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FGFR2 are associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Gene amplification or missense mutation of FGFR2 occurs in gastric cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer. Genetic alterations of FGFR2 induce aberrant FGFR2 signaling activation due to release of FGFR2 from autoinhibition, or creation of FGF signaling autocrine loop. Class switch of FGFR2b to FGFR2c is associated with more malignant phenotype. FGF and canonical WNT signals synergize during mammary carcinogenesis, but counteract during osteogenesis and adipogenesis. Among PD173074, SU5402, and AZD2171 functioning as FGFR inhibitors, AZD2171 is the most promising anti-cancer drug. Cancer genomics and genetics are utilized to predict cancer-driving pathway for therapeutic optimization. FGFR2ome is defined as a complete data set of SNP, copy number variation (CNV), missense mutation, gene amplification, and predominant isoform of FGFR2. FGFR2ome analyses in patients with several tumor types among various populations should be carried out to establish integrative database of FGFR2 for the rational clinical application of FGFR2-targeted cancer therapy.

Tang WK, Chui CH, Fatima S, et al.
Inhibitory effects of Gleditsia sinensis fruit extract on telomerase activity and oncogenic expression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Mol Med. 2007; 19(6):953-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have shown that the anomalous fruit extract of Gleditsia sinensis (GSE) exhibited apoptotic properties in various solid and non-solid tumors in vitro. However, the inhibitory actions of GSE on oncogenic expression and telomerase activity in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been studied before. In the present study, the anti-cancer effects of GSE were demonstrated in three ESCC cell lines (HKESC-1, HKESC-2 and SLMT-1) by MTS and anchorage-independent clongen-icity assays, expression studies on oncogenes at 11q13 (CCND1, INT2, FGF4 and EMS1) and real-time quantitative telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay to show the inhibitory effect of GSE on telomerase in ESCC. The means of MTS50 of GSE for the ESCC cell lines and non-tumor NIH 3T3 cells were 21 and 163 microg/ml respectively. The anchorage-independent clongenicity assay showed that SLMT-1 cells lost their colony-forming potential which was dose-dependent to GSE. Moreover, GSE demonstrated dose-dependent suppression on the expression of INT2, EMS1 and FGF4, and inhibition of telomerase activity in the ESCC cell lines. Our overall results thus provide the first evidence that the anti-cancer effects of GSE on ESCC involve the suppression of oncogenic expression and inhibition of telomerase activity. Our findings also offer a new opportunity for the future development of GSE as a novel anti-cancer agent for ESCC and possibly for other cancers.

Hu L, Sham JS, Xie D, et al.
Up-regulation of fibroblast growth factor 3 is associated with tumor metastasis and recurrence in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2007; 252(1):36-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we established a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line (named H4-M) from a metastatic HCC tumor. In H4-M, a marker chromosome containing a homogeneously staining region (hsr) was identified by cytogenetic analysis. The hsr was characterized by chromosome microdissection and the result showed that the hsr was composed of DNA sequence from 11q13. Oncogenes CCND1 and FGF3 were localized within the complicon and overexpressions of CCND1 and FGF3 were confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Clinical significance of FGF3 overexpression was studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using an HCC tissue microarray (TMA) containing 60 pairs of primary/metastatic HCCs and 30 pairs of primary/recurrent HCCs. TMA study showed that overexpression of FGF3 was significantly associated with HCC metastasis and recurrence (p<0.01), suggesting that up-regulation of FGF3 may play an important role in HCC metastasis and recurrence.

Valladares A, Hernández NG, Gómez FS, et al.
Genetic expression profiles and chromosomal alterations in sporadic breast cancer in Mexican women.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006; 170(2):147-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of death among Mexican women >35 years of age. At the molecular level, changes in many genetic pathways have been reported to be associated with this neoplasm. To analyze these changes, we determined gene expression profiles and chromosomal structural alterations in tumors from Mexican women. We obtained mRNA to identify expression profiles with microarray technology, and DNA to determine amplifications and deletions, in 10 fresh sporadic breast tumor biopsies without treatment, as well as in 10 nonaffected breast tissues. Expression profiles were compared with genetic changes observed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). We compared the expression profiles against the structural alterations from the studied genes by means of microarrays; at least 17 of these genes correlated with DNA copy number alterations. We found that the following genes were overexpressed: LAMC1, PCTK3, CCNC, CCND1, FGF3, PCTK2, L1CAM, BGN, and PLXNB3 (alias PLEXR). Underexpressed genes included CASP9, FGR, TP73, HSPG2, and ERCC1; genes turned off included FRAP1, EPHA2 (previously ECK), IL12A, E2F5, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF10A, EFNB3, and BCL2. The results will allow us, in the near future, to outline genes that could serve as diagnostic, prognostic, or target therapy markers for the Mexican population.

Huang X, Godfrey TE, Gooding WE, et al.
Comprehensive genome and transcriptome analysis of the 11q13 amplicon in human oral cancer and synteny to the 7F5 amplicon in murine oral carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2006; 45(11):1058-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
11q13 amplification occurs in a wide variety of tumors, including almost half of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) where it has been correlated with a poor outcome. In this study, we compiled 3.6 Mb of DNA sequence in the 11q13 amplicon core and refined the physical map of the amplicon. In the process, we determined the genomic structure and normal tissue expression patterns of two recently identified genes, TAOS2/TMEM16A and MRGF, which reside in the amplicon core. We then quantified DNA copy number and mRNA expression of all genes in the 11q13 amplicon in cell lines and primary tumors from OSCC. With the exception of FGF3, FGF4, FGF19, and MRGF, all genes were overexpressed in most tumors with genomic amplification. Furthermore, we found that the expression of genes in the amplicon appeared to be highly coordinated, making it difficult to determine which gene or genes are driving amplification. However, in nonamplified primary tumors, three genes, TAOS2/TMEM16A, OCIM, and TPCN2, are frequently overexpressed, whereas CCND1 and EMS1 are not. These results suggest that in addition to CCND1 and EMS1, other important genes also may be target genes driving 11q13 amplification. We hypothesize that 11q13 amplification may be driven by a cassette of genes that provide growth or metastatic advantage to cancer cells. This is supported by the finding that the human 11q13 amplicon core is syntenic to mouse chromosomal band 7F5, which is frequently amplified in chemically induced murine OSCC. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045-2257/suppmat

Mayr D, Kanitz V, Anderegg B, et al.
Analysis of gene amplification and prognostic markers in ovarian cancer using comparative genomic hybridization for microarrays and immunohistochemical analysis for tissue microarrays.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2006; 126(1):101-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
To identify oncogene amplification involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, we studied 21 ovarian carcinomas and 5 serous borderline tumors using conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and CGH to a genomic DNA microarray. Immunohistochemical analysis of the proteins encoded by the genes that were amplified frequently (FGF3/4, FGFR1, CCNE1, PAK1, JUNB, and MDM2) was performed on a tissue microarray comprising 254 cases of ovarian neoplasms. Regarding histologic type, characteristic patterns of copy number changes were revealed. They correlated with histologic tumor type and with intratumoral heterogeneity. Gain of FGF3/4 and CCNE1 was found in all serous carcinomas. Endometrioid carcinomas most frequently showed gain of JUNB (83%), KRAS2 (67%), MYCN (50%), ESR (50%), and CCND2 (50%). Of the serous borderline tumors, 80% harbored amplification of FGFR1 and MDM2 and a 75% gain of PIK3CA. Only CCNE1 immunoreactivity was significantly correlated with CGH results (P < .05) and postoperative survival (P < .05). Microarray-based genomic analysis in combination with immunohistochemical analysis was found to be a powerful technique for identification of clinically relevant gene amplification in human ovarian cancer.

O'Toole SA, Dunn E, Sheppard BL, et al.
Genome-wide analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid in endometrial cancer using comparative genomic hybridization microarrays.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006 Mar-Apr; 16(2):834-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify amplified oncogenes in endometrial cancer using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Despite its prevalence, the molecular mechanisms of endometrial carcinogenesis are still poorly understood. The selected array CGH allows the simultaneous examination of 58 oncogenes commonly amplified in human cancers and is capable of achieving increased mapping resolution compared with conventional CGH. A subset of 8 specimens from a bank of 60 malignant and normal specimens was selected for array analysis to identify potential genes of interest. TaqMan polymerase chain reaction was carried out on the 60 specimens to examine if aberrations at the genomic level correlated with gene expression and to compare expression in normal and malignant samples. Oncogenes amplified in the endometrial cancers included AR, PIK3CA, MET, HRAS, NRAS, D17S1670, FGFR1, CTSB, RPS6KB1, LAMC2, MYC, PDGFRA, FGF4/FGF3, PAKI, and FGR. Three genes were examined at the messenger RNA level. AR and PIK3CA were higher in normal specimens, and MET was higher in malignant samples, suggesting a role for MET in endometrial cancer. Newer arrays examining more genes and larger sample numbers are necessary to elucidate the carcinogenic pathway in endometrial cancer.

Hsu LC, Huang X, Seasholtz S, et al.
Gene amplification and overexpression of protein phosphatase 1alpha in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.
Oncogene. 2006; 25(40):5517-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene amplification of chromosomal band 11q13 is observed frequently in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Several genes have been identified in the 11q13 amplicon, including FGF3, FGF4, CCND1, EMS1 and TAOS1. Some of these genes show good correlation between gene copy number and gene expression, and are thought to play a role in driving 11q13 amplification. The PPP1CA gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of serine/threonine protein phosphatase protein phosphatase 1alpha (PP1alpha), is also located in 11q13. Protein phosphatase 1alpha, one of the isoforms of PP1, regulates critical cellular events, such as cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. We sought to explore the possibility that PPP1CA was amplified and overexpressed in OSCC cells. Indeed, some OSCC cell lines had PPP1CA gene amplification, as analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We have also demonstrated that PPP1CA gene copy number is increased in 21% of the OSCC cell lines determined by quantitative microsatellite analysis. PP1alpha RNA expression determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was significantly higher in OSCC cell lines with 11q13 amplification compared to those without 11q13 amplification (P=0.011). The difference was even more significant between cell lines with at least three copies of the PPP1CA gene and those with less than three copies of the gene (P=0.00045). Relative PP1alpha protein levels were also significantly associated with PPP1CA gene copy number (P=0.014). Furthermore, knockdown of PP1alpha and/or cyclin D1 by small interfering RNA suppressed OSCC cell growth, at least in part by modulating pRB phosphorylation, resulting in G0 growth arrest. These data suggest that like the cyclin D1 gene, CCND1, amplification and overexpression of the PP1alpha gene, PPP1CA, may be involved in OSCC tumorigenesis and/or progression.

Tai AL, Sham JS, Xie D, et al.
Co-overexpression of fibroblast growth factor 3 and epidermal growth factor receptor is correlated with the development of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma.
Cancer. 2006; 106(1):146-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a prevalent cancer with a poor prognosis. To develop a useful in vitro cell model, a cell line of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC-35) was established.
METHODS: The SCC-35 cell was characterized by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY). Chromosome microdissection, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and Southern and Northern blots analyses were used to study target genes.
RESULTS: Two amplicons were found at chromosomes 7p12 and 11q13. Amplification and overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at 7p12 and fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) at 11q13 were found. To understand the correlation between these two genes in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) more comprehensively, overexpression of FGF3 and EGFR was investigated by immunohistochemistry with a tissue microarray containing 406 NSCLC samples. Cytoplasmic overexpression of FGF3 and EGFR was detected in 61% and 69% NSCLC cases, respectively. More interestingly, a significant correlation between overexpression of FGF3 and EGFR was found in NSCLC.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that co-overexpression of FGF3 and EGFR may play an important role in the pathogenesis of lung carcinoma.

Calaf GM, Roy D, Hei TK
Growth factor biomarkers associated with estrogen- and radiation-induced breast cancer progression.
Int J Oncol. 2006; 28(1):87-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Transformation of a normal cell to a malignant one results from mutations in genes that encode key regulatory proteins. Growth factors are proteins secreted by a variety of transformed cells and tumors and function as autocrine regulators of growth. Biomarkers associated with cancer were examined in human breast epithelial cells transformed by high-LET radiation in the presence of 17beta-estradiol. An established cancer model was used in these studies. The MCF-10F cells that were irradiated with double doses of alpha-particles in the presence of estrogen (60 cGy + E/60 cGy + E, named Alpha 5) showed gradual phenotypic changes relative to control, including tumorigenicity in heterologous animals. Protein expression was determined by quantification of immunofluorescence staining coupled with confocal microscopy. The transforming growth factor alpha, epidermal growth factor, ERK1 and fibroblast growth factor-1 (Int2) protein expression was analyzed. Increased protein expression was observed in non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic alpha-irradiated and estrogen-treated cells. However, Stat-1alpha and pS2 protein expression was only increased in the tumorigenic Alpha 5 and Tumor 2 cell lines. It can be concluded that high-LET radiation in the presence of estrogen-induced changes in the proteins associated with growth factors and their overexpression may be a critical step in the cascade of events that characterize progression in breast cancer.

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