Gene Summary

Gene:EDNRB; endothelin receptor type B
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor which activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its ligand, endothelin, consists of a family of three potent vasoactive peptides: ET1, ET2, and ET3. Studies suggest that the multigenic disorder, Hirschsprung disease type 2, is due to mutations in the endothelin receptor type B gene. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:endothelin receptor type B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: EDNRB (cancer-related)

Rosanò L, Cianfrocca R, Bagnato A
Methods to Investigate β-Arrestin-1/β-Catenin Signaling in Ovarian Cancer Cells.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1957:393-406 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), which acts through the endothelin A receptor (ET

Zhang L, Luo B, Dang YW, et al.
The clinical significance of endothelin receptor type B in hepatocellular carcinoma and its potential molecular mechanism.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2019; 107:141-157 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical significance and potential molecular mechanism of endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect EDNRB protein expression level in 67 HCC paraffin embedded tissues and adjacent tissues. Correlations between EDNRB expression level and clinicopathologic parameters were analyzed in our study. The expression level and clinical significance of EDNRB in HCC were also evaluated from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics was employed to analyze the EDNRB related genes, and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis and Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network were conducted for those EDNRB related genes.
RESULTS: Lower expression level of EDNRB in HCC was verified by immunohistochemistry than adjacent tissues (P < 0.0001). The expression level of EDNRB in HCC tissues was lower than normal control liver tissues based on TCGA and GEO data (standard mean difference [SMD] = -1.48, 95% [confidence interval] CI: -1.63-(-1.33), P
CONCLUSION: Our study provides novel findings and insights on the molecular pathogenesis of HCC from EDNRB view.

Mohanta S, Sekhar Khora S, Suresh A
Cancer Stem Cell based molecular predictors of tumor recurrence in Oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch Oral Biol. 2019; 99:92-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the cancer stem cell specific biomarkers that can be effective candidate prognosticators of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
DESIGN: Microarray-based meta-analysis derived transcriptional profile of head and neck cancers was compared with the Cancer Stem Cell database to arrive at a subset of markers. This subset was further co-related with clinico-pathological parameters, recurrence and survival of oral cancer patients (n = 313) in The Cancer Genome Atlas database and in oral cancer (n = 28) patients.
RESULTS: Meta-analysis in combination with database comparison identified a panel of 221 genes specific to head and neck cancers. Correlation of expression levels of these markers in the oral cancer cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 313) with treatment outcome identified 54 genes (p < 0.05 or fold change >2) associated with disease recurrence, 8 genes (NQO1, UBE2C, EDNRB, FKBP4, STAT3, HOXA1, RIT1, AURKA) being significant with high fold change. Assessment of the efficacy of the subset (n = 54) as survival predictors identified an additional 4 genes (CDK1, GINS2, PHF5 A, ERBB2) that co-related with poor disease-free survival (p < 0.05). CDK1 showed a significant association with the clinical stage, margin status and with advanced pathological parameters. Initial patient validation indicated that CDK1 and NQO1 significantly co-related with the poor disease-free and overall survival (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: This panel of oral cancer specific, cancer stem cell associated markers identified in this study, a subset of which was validated, will be of clinical benefit subject to large scale validation studies.

Kori M, Yalcin Arga K
Potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cervical cancer: Insights from the meta-analysis of transcriptomics data within network biomedicine perspective.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0200717 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The malignant neoplasm of the cervix, cervical cancer, has effects on the reproductive tract. Although infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus is essential for cervical cancer development, it alone is insufficient to explain the development of cervical cancer. Therefore, other risk factors such as host genetic factors should be identified, and their importance in cervical cancer induction should be determined. Although gene expression profiling studies in the last decade have made significant molecular findings about cervical cancer, adequate screening and effective treatment strategies have yet to be achieved. In the current study, meta-analysis was performed on cervical cancer-associated transcriptome data and reporter biomolecules were identified at RNA (mRNA, miRNA), protein (receptor, transcription factor, etc.), and metabolite levels by the integration of gene expression profiles with genome-scale biomolecular networks. This approach revealed already-known biomarkers, tumor suppressors and oncogenes in cervical cancer as well as various receptors (e.g. ephrin receptors EPHA4, EPHA5, and EPHB2; endothelin receptors EDNRA and EDNRB; nuclear receptors NCOA3, NR2C1, and NR2C2), miRNAs (e.g., miR-192-5p, miR-193b-3p, and miR-215-5p), transcription factors (particularly E2F4, ETS1, and CUTL1), other proteins (e.g., KAT2B, PARP1, CDK1, GSK3B, WNK1, and CRYAB), and metabolites (particularly, arachidonic acids) as novel biomarker candidates and potential therapeutic targets. The differential expression profiles of all reporter biomolecules were cross-validated in independent RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq datasets, and the prognostic power of several reporter biomolecules, including KAT2B, PCNA, CD86, miR-192-5p and miR-215-5p was also demonstrated. In this study, we reported valuable data for further experimental and clinical efforts, because the proposed biomolecules have significant potential as systems biomarkers for screening or therapeutic purposes in cervical carcinoma.

Sudha A, Srinivasan P, Kanimozhi V, et al.
Antiproliferative and apoptosis-induction studies of 5-hydroxy 3',4',7-trimethoxyflavone in human breast cancer cells MCF-7: an in vitro and in silico approach.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2018; 38(3):179-190 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to find the efficacy of 5-hydroxy 3',4',7-trimethoxyflavone (HTMF), a flavonoid compound isolated from the medicinal plant Lippia nodiflora, in inhibiting the proliferation and inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The anti-proliferative effect of the compound HTMF was confirmed using MTT cytotoxicity assay. Increased apoptotic induction by HTMF was demonstrated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) and Hoechst 33258 staining studies. The phosphatidylserine translocation, an early feature of apoptosis and DNA damage were revealed through AnnexinV-Cy3 staining and comet assay. Moreover, the significant elevation of cellular ROS was observed in the treated cells, as measured by 2,7-diacetyl dichlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA). The mRNA expression studies also supported the effectiveness of HTMF by shifting the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. The treatment of MCF-7 cells with HTMF encouraged apoptosis through the modulation of apoptotic markers, such as p53, Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved PARP. In silico molecular docking and dynamics studies with MDM2-p53 protein revealed that HTMF was more potent compound that could inhibit the binding of MDM2 with p53 and, therefore, could trigger apoptosis in cancer cell. Overall, this study brings up scientific evidence for the efficacy of HTMF against MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Vasaikar S, Tsipras G, Landázuri N, et al.
Overexpression of endothelin B receptor in glioblastoma: a prognostic marker and therapeutic target?
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):154 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor with median survival of 12-15 months. Owing to uncertainty in clinical outcome, additional prognostic marker(s) apart from existing markers are needed. Since overexpression of endothelin B receptor (ETBR) has been demonstrated in gliomas, we aimed to test whether ETBR is a useful prognostic marker in GBM and examine if the clinically available endothelin receptor antagonists (ERA) could be useful in the disease treatment.
METHODS: Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Gene Expression Omnibus database were analyzed to assess ETBR expression. For survival analysis, glioblastoma samples from 25 Swedish patients were immunostained for ETBR, and the findings were correlated with clinical history. The druggability of ETBR was assessed by protein-protein interaction network analysis. ERAs were analyzed for toxicity in in vitro assays with GBM and breast cancer cells.
RESULTS: By bioinformatics analysis, ETBR was found to be upregulated in glioblastoma patients, and its expression levels were correlated with reduced survival. ETBR interacts with key proteins involved in cancer pathogenesis, suggesting it as a druggable target. In vitro viability assays showed that ERAs may hold promise to treat glioblastoma and breast cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: ETBR is overexpressed in glioblastoma and other cancers and may be a prognostic marker in glioblastoma. ERAs may be useful for treating cancer patients.

Saif I, Kasmi Y, Allali K, Ennaji MM
Prediction of DNA methylation in the promoter of gene suppressor tumor.
Gene. 2018; 651:166-173 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epigenetics methylation of cytosine is the most common epigenetic form in DNA sequences. It is highly concentrated in the promoter regions of the genes, leading to an inactivation of tumor suppressors regardless of their initial function. In this work, we aim to identify the highly methylated regions; the cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) island located on the promoters and/or the first exon gene known for their key roles in the cell cycle, hence the need to study gene-gene interactions. The Frommer and hidden Markov model algorithms are used as computational methods to identify CpG islands with specificity and sensitivity up to 76% and 80%, respectively. The results obtained show, on the one hand, that the genes studied are suspected of developing hypermethylation in the promoter region of the gene involved in the case of a cancer. We then showed that the relative richness in CG results from a high level of methylation. On the other hand, we observe that the gene-gene interaction exhibits co-expression between the chosen genes. This let us to conclude that the hidden Markov model algorithm predicts more specific and valuable information about the hypermethylation in gene as a preventive and diagnostics tools for the personalized medicine; as that the tumor-suppresser-genes have relative co-expression and complementary relations which the hypermethylation affect in the samples studied in our work.

Badana AK, Chintala M, Gavara MM, et al.
Lipid rafts disruption induces apoptosis by attenuating expression of LRP6 and survivin in triple negative breast cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 97:359-368 [PubMed] Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancer is a clinically challenging subtype due to lack of biomarker for rational targeted therapy. Lipid rafts are cholesterol enriched rigid platforms, which colocalize signalling molecules of cancer progression. This study explores the effect of lipid rafts disruption by cholesterol depleting agent, MβCD on induction of apoptosis and expression of WNT receptor LRP6, survivin and common apoptotic markers in TNBC cell lines. The in vitro effect of lipid rafts disruption on viability, single cell reproductive ability, proliferation and migration were evaluated by MTT, clonogenic, BrdU incorporation and wound scratch assays, respectively. The morphological changes were assessed by tryphan blue, Wright and Giemsa staining; nuclear changes by Hoechst staining. The induction of apoptosis was evaluated by AO/EtBr staining, DNA damage and DNA fragmentation assays. Expression of Caveolin-1, LRP6, β-Catenin, Survivin, Bcl2, BAX, Caspase-3, Ki67 and c-myc were analyzed by PCR and Western blotting techniques. The lipid raft disruption resulted in reduction of the proliferation of MDA-MB 231 and MDA-MB 468 cells by 56.3 and 42.0%; survival fraction by 54.7 and 59.4%; migration by 44.3 and 48.4%, respectively. It also induced apoptosis by causing cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, chromatin cleavage, oligonucleotide fragmentation with an apoptotic index of 59.1 and 46.6% in MDA-MB 231 and 468 cells, respectively. Further, it downregulated the expression of caveolin-1, LRP6, β-catenin, survivin, Bcl2, ki67, c-myc and upregulated BAX, caspase-3. The cholesterol supplementation enhanced the clonogenic potential and upregulated the expression of caveolin-1 and LRP6. The results underline a potential effect of lipid rafts disruption on induction of apoptosis in TNBC cells.

Deng J, Huang Y, Tao R, et al.
The expression of ETAR in liver cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2017; 18(9):723-729 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To investigate the expression of endothelin receptors in liver diseases and discuss its role in the process of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined the expressions of ETAR, ETBR and α-SMA in tissue samples using western blotting analysis. Furthermore, immunofluorescence was used to locate ETAR expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs), we calculated the percentage of positive cells and then analyzed its relation with clinical indexes.
RESULTS: According to the western blotting analysis, the expression of ETAR was high in hepatic hemangioma and liver cancer tissues and ETBR was highly expressed in cirrhosis tissues. The immunofluorescence results demonstrated that the expression of ETAR was elevated in hepatic hemangioma and liver cancer tissues. Moreover, ETAR expression was found in both HSCs and HSECs. Finally, the statistical analysis revealed that the number of positive ETAR cells was correlated with the clinical index platelets (PLT), alanine transaminase (ALT) and diameter of portal vein.
CONCLUSION: Endothelin receptors express differently in liver cirrhosis and liver cancer tissues and play a role in hepatic diseases by affecting HSCs and HSECs.

Rosanò L, Cianfrocca R, Sestito R, et al.
Targeting endothelin-1 receptor/β-arrestin1 network for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2017; 21(10):925-932 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Endothelin-1 receptor (ET-1R)/β-arrestin1 (β-arr1) signaling is dysregulated in ovarian cancer. This signaling circuit enables cancer cells to engage several signaling and transcriptional networks that are pervasively intertwined, and represent a potential therapeutic target for developing novel agents for ovarian cancer treatment. Areas covered: In this article, we discuss the role of the signaling network between ET-1R and key pathways mediated by the scaffold protein β-arr1, as part of signaling complex, or as a transcription co-activator, promoting precise control of transcription of different genes, including ET-1. Therefore ET-1R/β-arr1 is an actionable node involved in the activation of a persistent feedback loop that contributes to bypass signaling. Targeting ET-1R empowering this circuit can represent a necessary measure to reach clinical efficacy. Preclinical studies demonstrate that blocking ET-1R by FDA approved dual ET

Cianfrocca R, Rosanò L, Tocci P, et al.
Blocking endothelin-1-receptor/β-catenin circuit sensitizes to chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.
Cell Death Differ. 2017; 24(10):1811-1820 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The limited clinical response to conventional chemotherapeutics observed in colorectal cancer (CRC) may be related to the connections between the hyperactivated β-catenin signaling and other pathways in CRC stem-like cells (CRC-SC). Here, we show the mechanistic link between the endothelin-1 (ET-1)/ET-1 receptor (ET-1R) signaling and β-catenin pathway through the specific interaction with the signal transducer β-arrestin1 (β-arr1), which initiates signaling cascades as part of the signaling complex. Using a panel of patient-derived CRC-SC, we show that these cells secrete ET-1 and express ET

Russignan A, Spina C, Tamassia N, et al.
Endothelin-1 receptor blockade as new possible therapeutic approach in multiple myeloma.
Br J Haematol. 2017; 178(5):781-793 [PubMed] Related Publications
New effective treatments are needed to improve outcomes for multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Receptors with restricted expression on plasma cells (PCs) represent attractive new therapeutic targets. The endothelin-1 (EDN1) axis, consisting of EDN1 acting through EDN-receptor A (EDNRA) and B (EDNRB), was previously shown to be overexpressed in several tumours, including MM. However, there is incomplete understanding of how EDN1 axis regulates MM growth and response to therapy. Besides EDNRA, the majority of MM cell lines and primary malignant PCs express high levels of EDNRB and release EDN1. Similarly, bone-marrow microenvironment cells also secrete EDN1. Investigating the extent of epigenetic dysregulation of EDNRB gene in MM, we found that hypermethylation of EDNRB promoter and subsequent down-regulation of EDNRB gene was observed in PCs or B lymphocytes from healthy donors compared to EDNRB-expressing malignant PCs. Pharmacological blockade with the dual EDN1 receptor antagonist bosentan decreased cell viability and MAPK activation of U266 and RPMI-8226 cells. Interestingly, the combination of bosentan and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, currently approved for MM treatment, resulted in synergistic cytotoxic effects. Overall, our data has uncovered EDN1-mediated autocrine and paracrine mechanisms that regulate malignant PCs growth and drug response, and support EDN1 receptors as new therapeutic targets in MM.

Bakhtiary Z, Barar J, Aghanejad A, et al.
Microparticles containing erlotinib-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2017; 43(8):1244-1253 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with sensitizing mutations in the exons 18-21 of the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene show increased kinase activity of EGFR. Hence, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as erlotinib (ETB) have commonly been used as the second line therapeutic option for the treatment of metastatic NSCLC. While the ETB is available as an oral dosage form, the local delivery of this TKI to the diseased cells of the lung may ameliorate its therapeutic impacts. In the current study, we report on the development of ETB-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) based formulation of dry powder inhaler (ETB-SLN DPI). ETB-SLNs were formulated using designated amount of compritol/poloxamer 407. The engineered ETB-SLNs showed sub-100 nm spherical shape with an encapsulation efficiency of 78.21%. MTT assay and DAPI staining revealed that the ETB-SLNs enhanced the cytotoxicity of cargo drug molecules in the human alveolar adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells as a model for NSCLC. To attain the ETB-SLN DPI, the ETB-SLNs were efficiently spray dried into microparticles (1-5 μm) along with mannitol. The ETB-SLN DPI powder displayed suitable flowability and aerodynamic traits. The Carr's Index, Hausner ratio and Next Generation Impactor (NGI) analyses confirmed deep inhalation pattern of the formulation. Based on these findings, we propose the ETB-SLN DPI as a promising treatment modality for the NSCLC patients.

Moody TW, Ramos-Alvarez I, Moreno P, et al.
Endothelin causes transactivation of the EGFR and HER2 in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Peptides. 2017; 90:90-99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endothelin (ET)-1 is an important peptide in cancer progression stimulating cellular proliferation, tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. ET-1 binds with high affinity to the ET

Mousavi Ardehaie R, Hashemzadeh S, Behrouz Sharif S, et al.
Aberrant methylated EDNRB can act as a potential diagnostic biomarker in sporadic colorectal cancer while KISS1 is controversial.
Bioengineered. 2017; 8(5):555-564 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancers are among the most serious threats of human health worldwide. Survival and mortality rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) strongly depend on the early diagnosis. The aberrant methylation pattern of genes as a diagnostic biomarker can serve as a practical option for timely detection and contribute subsequently to the enhancement of survival rate in CRC patients, since methylation changes are not only frequent but also can occur in initial tumorogenesis stages. It has been indicated that EDNRB and KISS1 genes are hypermethylated through progression and development of CRC. In current study, after extraction of genomic DNA from 45 paired tumor and adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples and treatment with bisulfite conversion, the methylation status of EDNRB and KISS1 CpG rich regions were assessed quantitatively using MS-HRM assay to determine practicability of these aberrant methylations for diagnosis of sporadic CRC and its discrimination from corresponding normal tissues. The results showed that the methylation distribution differences, comparing tumor tissues with their adjacent non-cancerous tissues, were statistically significant in all selected locations within EDNRB gene promoter (P < 0.001); they had also some correlations with tumor stage and grade. Nonetheless, methylation distribution in KISS1 gene CpG rich region revealed no statistically significant differences between CRC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P = 0.060). Overall, it can be concluded that aberrant methylated EDNRB can be a promising potential diagnostic biomarker for CRC, while KISS1 is controversial and needs to be more investigated.

Lin H, Ma Y, Wei Y, Shang H
Genome-wide analysis of aberrant gene expression and methylation profiles reveals susceptibility genes and underlying mechanism of cervical cancer.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016; 207:147-152 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of cervical cancer (CC) by integrated bioinformatic analyses of gene expression and methylation profiles.
METHODS: The gene expression and methylation microarrays in CC samples and normal controls were respectively downloaded from the GEO database. After screening the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with Limma package and the CC-related methylation sites with CpGassoc package in R language, DEGs with CC-related methylation sites were identified from the intersection of the above two groups of results with 50kb upstream and downstream of a gene as the gene region. Then GO enrichment was performed by GenCLIP2.0 software. Sequentially, analysis of metabolic sub-pathways with pathogenic risk was predicted by iSubpathwayMiner package in R language.
RESULTS: A total of 1357 DEGs including 721 up-regulated and 636 down-regulated, as well as 666 CC-related methylation sites were screened out. After being analyzed, 26 DEGs with 35 CC-related methylation sites were identified. EDN3 and EDNRB were significantly involved in a function cluster in GO terms of vein smooth muscle contraction, vascular smooth muscle contraction and phasic smooth muscle contraction. LHX2 and PAX6 were significantly involved in a function cluster in GO terms of telencephalon regionalization and forebrain regionalization. ACOX3, CYP39A1 and DPYS were significantly enriched in 25 sub-pathways of 6 major pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: EDN3 and EDNRB might play important roles in the molecular mechanism of CC, and LHX2, ACOX3, CYP39A1 and DPYS might be susceptibility genes and potential risk markers in CC.

Juodzbalys G, Kasradze D, Cicciù M, et al.
Modern molecular biomarkers of head and neck cancer. Part I. Epigenetic diagnostics and prognostics: Systematic review.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 17(4):487-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Nearly half of the head and neck cancer cases are diagnosed in late stages. Traditional screening modalities have many disadvantages. The aim of the present article was to review the scientific literature about novel head and neck cancer diagnostics - epigenetic biomarkers.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed database. Authors conducted the search of articles in English language published from 2004 to 2015.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of thirty three relevant studies were included in the review. Fifteen of them concerned DNA methylation alterations, nine evaluation of abundancies in histone expressions and nine miRNA expression changes in HNC.
CONCLUSIONS: Considerable number of epigenetic biomarkers have been identified in both tumor tissue and salivary samples. Genes with best diagnostic effectiveness rates and further studying prospects were: TIMP3, DCC, DAPK, CDH1, CCNA1, AIM1, MGMT, HIC1, PAX1, PAX5, ZIC4, p16, EDNRB, KIF1A, MINT31, CD44, RARβ , ECAD. Individual histone and miRNA alterations tend to be hnc specific. Prognostic values of separate biomarkers are ambiguous. No established standards for molecular assay of head and neck cancer was found in order to elude the paradoxical results and discrepancies in separate trials.

Grey W, Hulse R, Yakovleva A, et al.
The RET E616Q Variant is a Gain of Function Mutation Present in a Family with Features of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia 2A.
Endocr Pathol. 2017; 28(1):41-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
The REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in growth and differentiation during embryogenesis and maintenance of the urogenital and nervous systems in mammals. Distinct mutations across hotspot RET exons can cause Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A (MEN2A) characterised by development of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), phaeochromocytoma (PCC) and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), with a strong correlation between genotype and phenotype. Here, we report a 42-year-old man presented in the clinic with a unilateral PCC, with subsequent investigations revealing a nodular and cystic thyroid gland. He proceeded to thyroidectomy, which showed bilateral C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) without evidence of MTC. His brother had neonatal Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). Genetic testing revealed the presence of a heterozygous variant of unknown significance (VUS) in the cysteine-rich region of exon 10 in the RET gene (c.1846G>C, p.E616Q), in both affected siblings and their unaffected mother. Exon 10 RET mutations are known to be associated with HSCR and MEN2. Variants in the cysteine-rich region of the RET gene, outside of the key cysteine residues, may contribute to the development of MEN2 in a less aggressive manner, with a lower penetrance of MTC. Currently, a VUS in RET cannot be used to inform clinical management and direct future care. Analysis of RET

Rezaei A, Akhavan O, Hashemi E, Shamsara M
Toward Chemical Perfection of Graphene-Based Gene Carrier via Ugi Multicomponent Assembly Process.
Biomacromolecules. 2016; 17(9):2963-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
The graphene-based materials with unique, versatile, and tunable properties have brought new opportunities for the leading edge of advanced nanobiotechnology. In this regard, the use of graphene in gene delivery applications is still at early stages. In this study, we successfully designed a new complex of carboxylated-graphene (G-COOH) with ethidium bromide (EtBr) and used it as a nanovector for efficient gene delivery into the AGS cells. G-COOH, with carboxyl functions on its surface, in the presence of EtBr, formaldehyde, and cyclohexylisocyanide were participated in Ugi four component reaction to fabricate a stable amphiphilic graphene-EtBr (AG-EtBr) composite. The coupling reaction was confirmed by further analyses with FT-IR, AFM, UV-vis, Raman, photoluminescence, EDS, and XPS. The AG-EtBr nanocomposite was able to interact with a plasmid DNA (pDNA). This nanocomposite has been applied for transfection of cultured mammalian cells successfully. Moreover, the AG-EtBr composites showed a remarkable decreased cytotoxicity in compared to EtBr. Interestingly, the advantages of AG-EtBr in cell transfection are more dramatic (3-fold higher) than Lipofectamine2000 as a commercial nonviral vector. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which EtBr is used as an intercalating agent along with graphene to serve as a new vehicle for gene delivery application.

Rosanò L, Bagnato A
β-arrestin1 at the cross-road of endothelin-1 signaling in cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35(1):121 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The advent of targeted therapeutics in human cancer has begun to find novel druggable targets and, in this context, the endothelin-1 receptor (ET-1R), namely ETA receptor (ETAR) and ETB receptor, among the GPCR family represents a class of highly druggable molecules in cancer. ET-1R are aberrantly expressed in human malignancies, potentially representing prognostic factors. Their activation by ligand stimulation initiate signaling cascades activating different downstream effectors, allowing precise control over multiple signaling pathways. ET-1R regulates cell proliferation, survival, motility, cytoskeletal changes, angiogenesis, metastasis as well as drug resistance. The molecular events underlying these responses are the activation of transcriptional factors and coactivators, and downstream genes, acting as key players in tumor growth and progression. ET-1R represent crucial cancer targets that have been exploited for ET-1R therapeutics. Importantly, efforts to explore new information of ETAR in cancer have uncovered that their functions are crucially regulated by multifunctional scaffold protein β-arrestins (β-arrs) which orchestrate the multidimensionality of ETAR signaling into highly regulated and distinct signaling complexes, a property that is highly advantageous for tumor signaling. Moreover, the role of β-arr1 in ET-1 signaling in cancer highlights why the pleiotropic effects of ET-1 and its dynamic signaling are more complex than previously recognized. In order to improve therapeutic strategies that interfere with the widespread effects of ET-1R, it is important to consider antagonists able to turn the receptors "off" selectively controlling β-arr1-dependent signaling, highlighting the possibility that targeting ETAR/β-arr1 may display a large therapeutic window in cancer.

Knobloch J, Yanik SD, Körber S, et al.
TNFα-induced airway smooth muscle cell proliferation depends on endothelin receptor signaling, GM-CSF and IL-6.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2016; 116:188-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Pathological proliferation of human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) causes hyperplasia in chronic lung diseases. Signaling pathways that link airway inflammation to HASMC proliferation might provide therapeutic targets for the prevention of airway remodeling and chronic lung diseases. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) signals via endothelin-A- and B-receptors (ETAR, ETBR) to perpetuate HASMC-associated and TNFα-dependent inflammatory processes.
HYPOTHESIS: endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) suppress HASMC proliferation induced by inflammatory cytokines. HASMCs were stimulated ex vivo with cytokines in the presence or absence of ERAs (ETAR-specific/selective: BQ123, ambrisentan; ETBR-specific: BQ788; non-selective: bosentan, macitentan, ACT-132577) or cytokine-blocking antibodies. Cell counts, DNA-synthesis (BrdU-incorporation assay), cytokine production (ELISA) and ETBR expression (whole-genome microarray data, western blot) were analyzed. ET-1-induced HASMC proliferation and DNA-synthesis were reduced by protein kinase inhibitors and ETAR-specific/selective ERAs but not by BQ788. TNFα-induced HASMC proliferation and DNA-synthesis were reduced by all ERAs. TNFα induced ET-1 and ETBR expression. TNFα- and ET-1-induced GM-CSF releases were both reduced by BQ123 and BQ788. TNFα- and ET-1-induced IL-6 releases were both reduced by BQ123 but not by BQ788. Combined but not single blockade of GM-CSF-receptor-α-chain and IL-6 reduced TNFα- and ET-1-induced HASMC proliferation and DNA-synthesis. Combined but not single treatment with GM-CSF and IL-6 induced HASMC proliferation and DNA-synthesis in the presence of ET-1. In conclusion, TNFα induces HASMC proliferation via ET-1/GM-CSF/IL-6. ETBR requires up-regulation by TNFα to mediate ET-1 effects on HASMC proliferation. This signaling cascade links airway inflammation to HASMC-associated remodeling processes and is sensitive to ERAs. Therefore, ERAs could prevent inflammation-induced airway smooth muscle hyperplasia.

Cenciarelli C, Marei HE, Felsani A, et al.
PDGFRα depletion attenuates glioblastoma stem cells features by modulation of STAT3, RB1 and multiple oncogenic signals.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(33):53047-53063 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Platelet derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) play an important role in tumor pathogenesis, and they are frequently overexpressed in glioblastoma (GBM). Earlier we have shown a higher protein expression of PDGFR isoforms (α and β) in peritumoral-tissue derived cancer stem cells (p-CSC) than in tumor core (c-CSC) of several GBM affected patients. In the current study, in order to assess the activity of PDGFRα/PDGF-AA signaling axis, we performed time course experiments to monitor the effects of exogenous PDGF-AA on the expression of downstream target genes in c-CSC vs p-CSC. Interestingly, in p-CSC we detected the upregulation of Y705-phosphorylated Stat3, concurrent with a decrement of Rb1 protein in its active state, within minutes of PDGF-AA addition. This finding prompted us to elucidate the role of PDGFRα in self-renewal, invasion and differentiation in p-CSC by using short hairpin RNA depletion of PDGFRα expression. Notably, in PDGFRα-depleted cells, protein analysis revealed attenuation of stemness-related and glial markers expression, alongside early activation of the neuronal marker MAP2a/b that correlated with the induction of tumor suppressor Rb1. The in vitro reduction of the invasive capacity of PDGFRα-depleted CSC as compared to parental cells correlated with the downmodulation of markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype and angiogenesis. Surprisingly, we observed the induction of anti-apoptotic proteins and compensatory oncogenic signals such as EDN1, EDNRB, PRKCB1, PDGF-C and PDGF-D. To conclude, we hypothesize that the newly discovered PDGFRα/Stat3/Rb1 regulatory axis might represent a potential therapeutic target for GBM treatment.

Olender J, Nowakowska-Zajdel E, Kruszniewska-Rajs C, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of endothelin-3 in colorectal cancer.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2016; 29(2):333-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endothelins are expressed in a variety of human tissue and are involved in the processes as proliferation, migration and differentiation. The signal transduction pathway is a result of the endothelin-1-3 (ET1-3) binding to their receptors (ETAR, ETBR). ET-3 is a new candidate tumour suppressor gene, which is often downregulated or silenced in human cancer.The aim of the study was to examine DNA methylation of ET-3 genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue samples in relation to the clinical stage (CS) of cancer. The paper is a continuation of our previously published results, which showed a four-fold transcriptional silencing of the ET-3 gene in the samples of colorectal cancer in comparison to normal tissues.A total of 66 paired CRC and normal (surgical margin) tissue samples were used in the study. The tumour tissues were collected from CRC patients in CS I-IV according the 7th edition of UICC TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (CS I, n = 8; CS II, n = 20; CS III, n = 27; CS IV, n = 11). Assessment of epigenetic silencing of the ET-3 encoding gene was performed in three steps. The silencing of the ET-3 encoding gene was a result from methylation of the promoter sequence using methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR). Analyses were performed using primers complementary for a CpG island in the first exon of the gene encoding ET-3. An epigenetic silence through methylation of 7.5% (5/66) in comparison to control was observed, including 10% of CS II (2/20), 7% of CS III (2/27) and 9% of CS IV (1/11). The controls and the samples of tumour in CS I showed no epigenetic silencing via methylation. In conclusion, epigenetic silencing of ET-3 in CRC could play a role in the progression than in the induction process. EDN3 would be a future target for epigenetic therapy in colorectal cancer, but further clinical studies are needed.

Nakashima S, Sugita Y, Miyoshi H, et al.
Endothelin B receptor expression in malignant gliomas: the perivascular immune escape mechanism of gliomas.
J Neurooncol. 2016; 127(1):23-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to clarify the role of endothelin B receptors (ETBRs) in gliomas, we analyzed cell cultures and surgical specimens of gliomas using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR measured the absolute expression of ETBR mRNA in twelve samples, which included gliomas that were classified using the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system Grade I-IV, as well as two glioblastoma cell lines (CCF-STTG1 and U87-MG). Using immunohistochemistry, 77 glioma specimens were evaluated for their expression of ETBR and infiltrating T lymphocytes, including an analysis of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs). The number of ETBR-positive vessels in the glioblastomas (Grade IV) was significantly higher than in other grades of gliomas (comparisons to Grade IV, Grade I: p = 0.0323, Grade II: p = 0.0009, Grade III: p = 0.0273). The ETBR expression rate (defined as the number of ETBR-positive blood vessels divided by the total number of blood vessels) in the glioblastomas was higher than the ETBR expression rate in the low-grade gliomas (compared to Grade IV, Grade I: p = 0.0132, Grade II: p = 0.0018, Grade III: p = 0.0745). In addition, the cases which had an ETBR expression rate of 50 % or higher exhibited fewer infiltrating CTLs and more infiltrating Tregs compared to the cases with an ETBR expression rate <50 % (CTLs: p = 0.0342; Tregs: p = 0.0175). Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH-1) mutations were identified in 21 cases, but there was no correlation between ETBR expression and IDH-1 mutations for any WHO grade. These results suggest that ETBR expression during neo-angiogenesis may interfere with the homing of CTLs around the tumor and be involved in the immune escape mechanism of gliomas.

Hlaváč V, Souček P
Role of family D ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCD) in cancer.
Biochem Soc Trans. 2015; 43(5):937-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, belonging to the family D, are expressed in peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum or lysosomes. ABCD transporters play a role in transport of lipids, bile acids and vitamin B12 and associate with peroxisomal disorders. ABCD1 performs transport of coenzyme A esters of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in peroxisomes and a number of mutations in ABCD1 gene were linked to an X-linked adrenoleucodystrophy (X-ALD). The role of ABCD transporters in tumour growth has not been studied in detail, but there is some evidence that ABCDs levels differ between undifferentiated stem or tumour cells and differentiated cells suggesting a possible link to tumorigenesis. In this mini-review, we discuss the available information about the role of ABCD transporters in cancer.

Cong N, Li Z, Shao W, et al.
Activation of ETA Receptor by Endothelin-1 Induces Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Migration and Invasion via ERK1/2 and AKT Signaling Pathways.
J Membr Biol. 2016; 249(1-2):119-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a member of endothelins family, binds to ETA receptor (ETAR) and ETB receptor to exert its role in multiple cellular processes. Although ET-1 and its receptors has been reported to be overexpressed in many cancers, and overexpression of ET-1 is able to trigger hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish, the functions of ET-1 and its receptors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell migration and invasion remain unclear. In the present study, we found that ETAR was greatly expressed in HCC cells and HCC tissues. ETAR expression as well as ET-1 expression was associated with vascular invasion and tumor stage in HCC. Activation of ETAR by ET-1 dose-dependently promoted cell migration and invasion of HCC cells, while silencing of ETAR by siRNA or blocking of ETAR by specific inhibitor resulted in significant reduction in ET-1-mediated migration and invasion. Furthermore, ET-1 induced activation of ERK1/2 and AKT and increased MMP-3 production via ETAR. In addition, using inhibitors of ERK1/2 and AKT, we found that ERK1/2 and AKT pathways were both involved in ETAR-mediated migration, invasion, and MMP-3 production. Taken together, our findings suggest that activation of ETAR by ET-1 promotes HCC cell migration and invasion via activating ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways and upregulating MMP-3 expression. Thus, ETAR may play an important role in the progress of HCC.

Gehring MP, Kipper F, Nicoletti NF, et al.
P2X7 receptor as predictor gene for glioma radiosensitivity and median survival.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015; 68:92-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is considered the most lethal intracranial tumor and the median survival time is approximately 14 months. Although some glioma cells present radioresistance, radiotherapy has been the mainstay of therapy for patients with malignant glioma. The activation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is responsible for ATP-induced death in various cell types. In this study, we analyzed the importance of ATP-P2X7R pathway in the radiotherapy response P2X7R silenced cell lines, in vivo and human tumor samples. Both glioma cell lines used in this study present a functional P2X7R and the P2X7R silencing reduced P2X7R pore activity by ethidium bromide uptake. Gamma radiation (2Gy) treatment reduced cell number in a P2X7R-dependent way, since both P2X7R antagonist and P2X7R silencing blocked the cell cytotoxicity caused by irradiation after 24h. The activation of P2X7R is time-dependent, as EtBr uptake significantly increased after 24h of irradiation. The radiotherapy plus ATP incubation significantly increased annexin V incorporation, compared with radiotherapy alone, suggesting that ATP acts synergistically with radiotherapy. Of note, GL261 P2X7R silenced-bearing mice failed in respond to radiotherapy (8Gy) and GL261 WT-bearing mice, that constitutively express P2X7R, presented a significant reduction in tumor volume after radiotherapy, showing in vivo that functional P2X7R expression is essential for an efficient radiotherapy response in gliomas. We also showed that a high P2X7R expression is a good prognostic factor for glioma radiosensitivity and survival probability in humans. Our data revealed the relevance of P2X7R expression in glioma cells to a successful radiotherapy response, and shed new light on this receptor as a useful predictor of the sensitivity of cancer patients to radiotherapy and median survival.

Vethakanraj HS, Babu TA, Sudarsanan GB, et al.
Targeting ceramide metabolic pathway induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 464(3):833-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The sphingolipid ceramide is a pro apoptotic molecule of ceramide metabolic pathway and is hydrolyzed to proliferative metabolite, sphingosine 1 phosphate by the action of acid ceramidase. Being upregulated in the tumors of breast, acid ceramidase acts as a potential target for breast cancer therapy. We aimed at targeting this enzyme with a small molecule acid ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 in human breast cancer cell lines MCF 7 and MDA MB 231. Ceranib 2 effectively inhibited the growth of both the cell lines in dose and time dependant manner. Morphological apoptotic hallmarks such as chromatin condensation, fragmented chromatin were observed in AO/EtBr staining. Moreover, ladder pattern of fragmented DNA observed in DNA gel electrophoresis proved the apoptotic activity of Ceranib 2 in breast cancer cell lines. The apoptotic events were associated with significant increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bad, Bax and Bid) and down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl 2). Interestingly, increase in sub G1 population of cell cycle phase analysis and elevated Annexin V positive cells after Ceranib 2 treatment substantiated its apoptotic activity in MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines. Thus, we report Ceranib 2 as a potent therapeutic agent against both ER(+) and ER(-) breast cancer cell lines.

Xia RH, Wang Z, Zhang CY, et al.
Low expression of endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) is related to H3K9me3 binding with the EDNRB promoter region and is associated with the clinical T tumor stage in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2015; 120(2):258-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and the mechanism of the regulation of EDNRB expression.
STUDY DESIGN: After screening, EDNRB was selected, and the expression was detected using immunohistochemistry in 33 ACC samples (including 6 clinical tumor stage 1 [T1] patients, 13 T2 patients, 9 T3 patients, and 5 T4 patients) and 20 adjacent glands. Interaction between the EDNRB promoter region and histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) was examined using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in combination with ChIP-polymerase chain reaction (ChIP-PCR). EDNRB expression in ACC cells treated with chaetocin was detected using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot tests.
RESULTS: EDNRB expression was lower in ACC than that in adjacent glands (P = .006). The expression of EDNRB in patients with advanced T stage was lower than that in patients with early T stage (P = .024). The low EDNRB gene expression group had more H3K9me3 binding regions in the gene promoter (P = .003). EDNRB gene expression significantly increased in the ACC cell lines after treatment with chaetocin. Chaetocin could reduce the interaction between the EDNRB promoter and H3K9me3.
CONCLUSIONS: H3K9me3 binding to the EDNRB promoter region could reduce the EDNRB expression. Low EDNRB expression played a role in the progression of ACC tumors.

Huang R, Wang J, Zhong Y, et al.
Mitochondrial DNA Deficiency in Ovarian Cancer Cells and Cancer Stem Cell-like Properties.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(7):3743-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A low quantity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a risk factor in a variety of tumor types. However, it is unclear how mtDNA reduction influences tumor behavior.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: mtDNA-deficient ovarian cancer cells were established by ethidium bromide (EtBr) treatment with additive combination of pyruvate and uridine.
RESULTS: The mtDNA-deficient cells had a low growth and colony-forming efficiency compared to the control cells. RNA sequencing revealed down-regulation of mitochondrion-related genes and up-regulation of genes related to cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis. The expression of genes involved in cancer metastasis, proliferation, angiogenesis, drug resistance and cancer cell stemness were also up-regulated. Intriguingly, cancer stem cell markers CD90 and CD117 were both up-regulated by EtBr dose-dependently in both cell lines.
CONCLUSION: MtDNA deficiency may induce ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties through different ways in vitro, therefore contributing to different tumor behaviors.

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