Gene Summary

Gene:DCC; DCC netrin 1 receptor
Aliases: CRC18, CRCR1, MRMV1, HGPPS2, IGDCC1, NTN1R1
Summary:This gene encodes a netrin 1 receptor. The transmembrane protein is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules, and mediates axon guidance of neuronal growth cones towards sources of netrin 1 ligand. The cytoplasmic tail interacts with the tyrosine kinases Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2) to mediate axon attraction. The protein partially localizes to lipid rafts, and induces apoptosis in the absence of ligand. The protein functions as a tumor suppressor, and is frequently mutated or downregulated in colorectal cancer and esophageal carcinoma. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:netrin receptor DCC
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 18
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Apoptosis
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Single-Stranded Conformational Polymorphism
  • Adolescents
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • APC
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Mutation
  • Disease Progression
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Cell Surface Receptors
  • Taiwan
  • Cancer DNA
  • p53 Protein
  • TP53
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Gene Deletion
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • DNA Methylation
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Staging
  • RAS Genes
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Genes, DCC
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Microsatellite Repeats
  • DCC Receptor
  • Promoter Regions
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Colorectal Cancer
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DCC (cancer-related)

Pyman B, Sedghi A, Azizi S, et al.
Exploring microRNA Regulation of Cancer with Context-Aware Deep Cancer Classifier.
Pac Symp Biocomput. 2019; 24:160-171 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA that regulate gene expression through post-transcriptional silencing. Differential expression observed in miRNAs, combined with advancements in deep learning (DL), have the potential to improve cancer classification by modelling non-linear miRNA-phenotype associations. We propose a novel miRNA-based deep cancer classifier (DCC) incorporating genomic and hierarchical tissue annotation, capable of accurately predicting the presence of cancer in wide range of human tissues.
METHODS: miRNA expression profiles were analyzed for 1746 neoplastic and 3871 normal samples, across 26 types of cancer involving six organ sub-structures and 68 cell types. miRNAs were ranked and filtered using a specificity score representing their information content in relation to neoplasticity, incorporating 3 levels of hierarchical biological annotation. A DL architecture composed of stacked autoencoders (AE) and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) was trained to predict neoplasticity using 497 abundant and informative miRNAs. Additional DCCs were trained using expression of miRNA cistrons and sequence families, and combined as a diagnostic ensemble. Important miRNAs were identified using backpropagation, and analyzed in Cytoscape using iCTNet and BiNGO.
RESULTS: Nested four-fold cross-validation was used to assess the performance of the DL model. The model achieved an accuracy, AUC/ROC, sensitivity, and specificity of 94.73%, 98.6%, 95.1%, and 94.3%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Deep autoencoder networks are a powerful tool for modelling complex miRNA-phenotype associations in cancer. The proposed DCC improves classification accuracy by learning from the biological context of both samples and miRNAs, using anatomical and genomic annotation. Analyzing the deep structure of DCCs with backpropagation can also facilitate biological discovery, by performing gene ontology searches on the most highly significant features.

Iida Y, Salomon MP, Hata K, et al.
Predominance of triple wild-type and IGF2R mutations in mucosal melanomas.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):1054 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary mucosal melanoma (MM) is a rare subtype of melanoma that arises from melanocytes in the mucosa. MM has not been well profiled for mutations and its etiology is not well understood, rendering current treatment strategies unsuccessful. Hence, we investigated mutational landscape for MM to understand its etiology and to clarify mutations that are potentially relevant for MM treatment.
METHODS: Forty one MM and 48 cutaneous melanoma (CM) tissues were profiled for mutations using targeted deep next-generation sequencing (NGS) for 89 cancer-related genes. A total of 997 mutations within exons were analyzed for their mutational spectrum and prevalence of mutation, and 685 non-synonymous variants were investigated to identify mutations in individual genes and pathways. PD-L1 expression from 21 MM and 18 CM were assessed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Mutational spectrum analysis revealed a lower frequency of UV-induced DNA damage in MM than in CM (p = 0.001), while tobacco exposure was indicated as a potential etiologic factor for MM. In accordance with low UV damage signatures, MM demonstrated an overall lower number of mutations compared to CM (6.5 mutations/Mb vs 14.8 mutations/Mb, p = 0.001), and less PD-L1 expression (p = 0.003). Compared to CM, which showed frequent mutations in known driver genes (BRAF 50.0%, NRAS 29.2%), MM displayed lower mutation frequencies (BRAF; 12.2%, p < 0.001, NRAS; 17.1%), and was significantly more enriched for triple wild-type (no mutations in BRAF, RAS, or NF1, 70.7% vs 25.0%, p < 0.001), IGF2R mutation (31.7% vs 6.3%, p = 0.002), and KIT mutation (9.8% vs 0%, p = 0.042). Of clinical relevance, presence of DCC mutations was significantly associated with poorer overall survival in MM (log-rank test, p = 0.02). Furthermore, mutational spectrum analysis distinguished primary anorectal MM from CM metastasized to the bowel (spectrum analysis p < 0.001, number of mutations p = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrated a potential etiologic factor and driver mutation for MM and strongly suggested that MM initiation or progression involves distinct molecular-mechanisms from CM. This study also identified mutational signatures that are clinically relevant for MM treatment.

Simbolo M, Vicentini C, Mafficini A, et al.
Mutational and copy number asset of primary sporadic neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine.
Virchows Arch. 2018; 473(6):709-717 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) represent the most common histotype among small intestine neoplasms, and metastatic disease is usually present at diagnosis. A retrospective series of 52 sporadic primary surgically resected SI-NETs, which were metastatic at diagnosis, was analyzed by high-coverage target sequencing (HCTS) for the mutational status of 57 genes and copy number status of 40 genes selected from recently published genome sequencing data. Seven genes were found to be recurrently mutated: CDKN1B (9.6%), APC and CDKN2C (each 7.7%), BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA, and TP53 (each 3.8%). Copy number analysis showed frequent allelic loss of 4 genes located on chromosome 18 (BCL2, CDH19, DCC, and SMAD4) in 23/52 (44.2%) and losses on chromosomes 11 (38%) and 16 (15%). Other recurrent copy number variations were gains for genes located on chromosomes 4 (31%), 5 (27%), 14 (36%), and 20 (20%). Univariate survival analysis showed that SRC gene copy number gains were associated with a poorer prognosis (p = 0.047). Recurrent copy number variations are important events in SI-NET and SRC may represent a novel prognostic biomarker for this tumor type.

Bhangu JS, Beer A, Mittlböck M, et al.
Circulating Free Methylated Tumor DNA Markers for Sensitive Assessment of Tumor Burden and Early Response Monitoring in Patients Receiving Systemic Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastasis.
Ann Surg. 2018; 268(5):894-902 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (neoCTx) followed by hepatic resection is the treatment of choice for patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CLM). Treatment response is generally assessed using radiologic imaging after several cycles of chemotherapy. However, earlier assessment of response would be desirable since nonresponders could be switched early to an alternative chemotherapy regimen. Recent evidence suggests that circulating free methylated tumor DNA is a highly sensitive biomarker and may more accurately reflect tumor burden and treatment response than conventional markers for CRC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with CLM who received neoCTx prior to intended hepatic resection were included in this prospective nonrandomized study. Peripheral blood plasma was collected at baseline and before each cycle of neoCTx and was then analyzed for aberrant methylation of 48 CRC-associated genes. Methylation marker levels were correlated with baseline tumor volume and treatment response and compared with the standard tumor markers CEA and CA 19-9.
RESULTS: The methylation markers SEPT9, DCC, BOLL, and SFRP2 were present in all patients at baseline and displayed a stronger correlation with tumor volume than CEA and CA 19-9. Serial measurement of these methylation markers allowed for discrimination between operated and nonoperated patients already after 1 cycle of neoCTx with high sensitivity and specificity. The early dynamic changes of SEPT9 and DCC also seemed to correlate with pathohistological response.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serial measurements of CRC-associated methylation markers could be a particularly valuable tool for early response assessment in patients receiving neoCTx for CLM.

Zhou C, Ye M, Ni S, et al.
DNA methylation biomarkers for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Epigenetics. 2018; 13(4):398-409 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation plays an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The current study aimed to identify aberrantly methylated-differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. In addition, we screened for DEGs affected by DNA methylation modification and further investigated their prognostic values for HNSCC. We included microarray data of DNA methylation (GSE25093 and GSE33202) and gene expression (GSE23036 and GSE58911) from Gene Expression Omnibus. Aberrantly methylated-DEGs were analyzed with R software. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA sequencing and DNA methylation (Illumina HumanMethylation450) databases were utilized for validation. In total, 27 aberrantly methylated genes accompanied by altered expression were identified. After confirmation by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, 2 hypermethylated-low-expression genes (FAM135B and ZNF610) and 2 hypomethylated-high-expression genes (HOXA9 and DCC) were identified. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve confirmed the diagnostic value of these four methylated genes for HNSCC. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that FAM135B methylation was a favorable independent prognostic biomarker for overall survival of HNSCC patients.

Guroo SA, Malik AA, Afroze D, et al.
Significant Pattern of Promoter Hypermethylation of UNC5C Gene in Colorectal Cancer and Its Implication in Late Stage Disease
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(5):1185-1188 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background:The development of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is a complex multistep process involving an accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic modifications, particularly DNA methylation in selected gene are recognized as common molecular alterations in human tumors. Netrin-1 receptors are aberrantly methylated in primary colorectal cancer. Epigenetic alterations in the netrin-1 receptors have been found to be related with the malignant potential of CRC. Purpose: In the present study, we evaluated the role of promoter hypermethylation of UNC5C gene (one of the netrin-1 receptors) in colorectal cancer patients of Kashmiri population (North India). Hypermethylation in tumour tissue was detected by Methylation- Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MS-PCR). Results: UNC5C promoter hypermethylation was significantly found to be associated with colorectal cancer cases where frequency was 62% (31 of 50) and 38% (19 of 50) patients were unmethylated (p<0.0001).UNC5C methylation was significantly higher in CRCs with a frequency of 62% than 10% in corresponding normal mucosa of (p<0.0001). Further, UNC5C hypermethylation was found to be significantly associated with stage-III/IV as compared to stage I/II with a frequency of 75.8% and 42.8% respectively(p>0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that UNC5C hypermethylation is implicated in CRC which plays a role in its tumorigenesis and may predict the late stage disease.

Dery KJ, Silver C, Yang L, Shively JE
Interferon regulatory factor 1 and a variant of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L coordinately silence the gene for adhesion protein CEACAM1.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(24):9277-9291 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The adhesion protein carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is widely expressed in epithelial cells as a short cytoplasmic isoform (S-iso) and in leukocytes as a long cytoplasmic isoform (L-iso) and is frequently silenced in cancer by unknown mechanisms. Previously, we reported that interferon response factor 1 (IRF1) biases alternative splicing (AS) to include the variable exon 7 (E7) in CEACAM1, generating long cytoplasmic isoforms. We now show that IRF1 and a variant of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (Lv1) coordinately silence the

Salazar N, Carlson JC, Huang K, et al.
A Chimeric Antibody against ACKR3/CXCR7 in Combination with TMZ Activates Immune Responses and Extends Survival in Mouse GBM Models.
Mol Ther. 2018; 26(5):1354-1365 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the least treatable type of brain tumor, afflicting over 15,000 people per year in the United States. Patients have a median survival of 16 months, and over 95% die within 5 years. The chemokine receptor ACKR3 is selectively expressed on both GBM cells and tumor-associated blood vessels. High tumor expression of ACKR3 correlates with poor prognosis and potential treatment resistance, making it an attractive therapeutic target. We engineered a single chain FV-human FC-immunoglobulin G1 (IgG

Yuan X, Zhang J, Yang L, et al.
Detection of Significant Copy Number Variations From Multiple Samples in Next-Generation Sequencing Data.
IEEE Trans Nanobioscience. 2018; 17(1):12-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Analyzing copy number variations (CNVs) from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data has become a common approach to detect disease susceptibility genes. The main challenge is how to utilize the NGS data with limited coverage depth to detect significant CNVs. Here, we introduce a new statistical method, the derivative of correlation coefficient (DCC), to detect significant CNVs that recurrently occur in multiple samples using read depth signals. We use a sliding window to calculate a correlation coefficient for each genome bin, and compute corresponding derivatives by fitting curves to the correlation coefficient. Then, the detection of significant CNVs was transformed into a problem of detecting significant derivatives reflecting genome breakpoints that can be solved using statistical hypothesis testing. We tested and compared the performance of DCC against several peer methods using a large number of simulation data sets, and validated DCC using several real sequencing data sets derived from the European Genome-Phenome archive, DNA Data Bank of Japan, and the 1000 Genomes Project. Experimental results suggest that DCC is an effective approach for identifying CNVs, outperforming peer methods in the terms of detection power and accuracy. DCC can be used to detect significant or recurrent CNVs in various NGS data sets, thus providing useful information to study genomic mutations and find disease susceptibility genes.

Krøigård AB, Larsen MJ, Lænkholm AV, et al.
Identification of metastasis driver genes by massive parallel sequencing of successive steps of breast cancer progression.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0189887 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer results from alterations at essential genomic sites and is characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Identification of driver genes of metastatic progression is essential, as metastases, not primary tumors, are fatal. To gain insight into the mutational concordance between different steps of malignant progression we performed exome sequencing and validation with targeted deep sequencing of successive steps of malignant progression from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous distant metastases in six breast cancer patients. Using the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations, a surprisingly large number of cancer driver genes, ranging between 3 and 145, were estimated to confer a selective advantage in the studied primary tumors. We report a substantial amount of metastasis specific mutations and a number of novel putative metastasis driver genes. Most notable are the DCC, ABCA13, TIAM2, CREBBP, BCL6B and ZNF185 genes, mainly mutated exclusively in metastases and highly likely driver genes of metastatic progression. We find different genes and pathways to be affected at different steps of malignant progression. The Adherens junction pathway is affected in four of the six studied patients and this pathway most likely plays a vital role in the metastatic process.

Hoffmann M, Pasch S, Schamberger T, et al.
Diagnostic pathology of early systemic cancer: ERBB2 gene amplification in single disseminated cancer cells determines patient survival in operable esophageal cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 142(4):833-843 [PubMed] Related Publications
Early metastatic dissemination and evolution of disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) outside the primary tumor is one reason for the failure of adjuvant therapies because it generates molecular genotypes and phenotypes different from primary tumors, which still underlie therapy decisions. Since ERBB2 amplification in esophageal DCCs but not in primary tumor cells predict outcome, we aimed to establish an assay with diagnostic reliability for single DCCs or circulating tumor cells. For this, we evaluated copy number alterations of more than 600 single DCCs from multiple cancer types to define reference regions suitable for quantification of target regions, such as ERBB2. We then compared ERBB2 quantitative PCR (qPCR) measurements with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) data of various breast cancer cell lines and identified the aberration-calling threshold. The method was applied to two independent cohorts of esophageal cancer patients from Hamburg (n = 59) and Düsseldorf (n = 53). We found a high correlation between the single cell qPCR assay and the standard FISH assay (R = 0.98) and significant associations between amplification and survival for both patient cohorts (Hamburg (HH), p = 0.033; Düsseldorf (D), p = 0.052; pooled HH + D, p = 0.002) when applied to DCCs of esophageal cancer patients. Detection of a single ERBB2-amplified DCC was the most important risk factor for death from esophageal cancer (relative risk = 4.22; 95% CI = 1.91-9.32; p < 0.001). In our study, we detected ERBB2-amplified cells in 7% of patients. These patients could benefit from anti-ERBB2 targeting therapies.

Dao P, Kim YA, Wojtowicz D, et al.
BeWith: A Between-Within method to discover relationships between cancer modules via integrated analysis of mutual exclusivity, co-occurrence and functional interactions.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2017; 13(10):e1005695 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The analysis of the mutational landscape of cancer, including mutual exclusivity and co-occurrence of mutations, has been instrumental in studying the disease. We hypothesized that exploring the interplay between co-occurrence, mutual exclusivity, and functional interactions between genes will further improve our understanding of the disease and help to uncover new relations between cancer driving genes and pathways. To this end, we designed a general framework, BeWith, for identifying modules with different combinations of mutation and interaction patterns. We focused on three different settings of the BeWith schema: (i) BeME-WithFun, in which the relations between modules are enriched with mutual exclusivity, while genes within each module are functionally related; (ii) BeME-WithCo, which combines mutual exclusivity between modules with co-occurrence within modules; and (iii) BeCo-WithMEFun, which ensures co-occurrence between modules, while the within module relations combine mutual exclusivity and functional interactions. We formulated the BeWith framework using Integer Linear Programming (ILP), enabling us to find optimally scoring sets of modules. Our results demonstrate the utility of BeWith in providing novel information about mutational patterns, driver genes, and pathways. In particular, BeME-WithFun helped identify functionally coherent modules that might be relevant for cancer progression. In addition to finding previously well-known drivers, the identified modules pointed to other novel findings such as the interaction between NCOR2 and NCOA3 in breast cancer. Additionally, an application of the BeME-WithCo setting revealed that gene groups differ with respect to their vulnerability to different mutagenic processes, and helped us to uncover pairs of genes with potentially synergistic effects, including a potential synergy between mutations in TP53 and the metastasis related DCC gene. Overall, BeWith not only helped us uncover relations between potential driver genes and pathways, but also provided additional insights on patterns of the mutational landscape, going beyond cancer driving mutations. Implementation is available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Przytycka/software/bewith.html.

Ding X, Philip S, Martin BK, et al.
Survival of BRCA2-Deficient Cells Is Promoted by
Genetics. 2017; 207(4):1335-1345 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Cavalieri S, Stathis A, Fabbri A, et al.
Uncommon somatic mutations in metastatic NUT midline carcinoma.
Tumori. 2017; 103(Suppl. 1):e5-e8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION:: NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare and aggressive epithelial cancer arising from median organs. It is driven by chromosomal translocation t(15;19) involving the rearrangement of NUT (nuclear protein in testis) and BRD4 (bromodomain 4) genes leading to fusion oncoprotein BRD4-NUT.
CASE PRESENTATION:: We report the case of a woman who was previously treated with induction chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and adjuvant trastuzumab for HER-2 positive invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. After 6 months of follow-up a lung nodule appeared. A biopsy showed an adenocarcinoma fetal type/lung blastoma, so a left inferior lobectomy was performed: NMC harboring BRD4-NUT rearrangement was diagnosed. After 9 months of follow-up, bone and soft tissue metastases occurred, so the patient was given radiotherapy. Next-generation sequencing technology identified somatic mutations in deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), mixed lineage leukemia protein 3 (MLL3), and splicing factor 3B subunit 1 (SF3B1) genes in NMC cells from both primitive cancer and metastases. The patient was treated with the experimental BRD4 inhibitor for 10 months, until the disease progressed to the lung and bone. After spinal cord compression, the patient was offered palliative radiotherapy to bone and eventually died aged 39 years.
CONCLUSIONS:: To the best of our knowledge, our case is the first DCC, MLL3, and SF3B1 mutated NUT midline carcinoma reported in the literature. If these mutations were confirmed to play a role in this neoplasm, clinical trials analyzing targeted therapies should be considered, eg. colorectal cancer-like chemotherapies for DCC mutations, hypomethylating agents for MLL3 mutations or SF3B1 inhibitors in case of specific somatic mutations.

Druliner BR, Ruan X, Sicotte H, et al.
Early genetic aberrations in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(1):114-124 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosome instability (CIN) is widely observed in both sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC). Defects in APC and WNT signaling are primarily associated with CIN in hereditary CRC, but the genetic causes for CIN in sporadic CRC remain elusive. Using high-density SNP array and exome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we characterized loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and copy number variation (CNV) in the peripheral blood, normal colon, and corresponding tumor tissue in 15 CRC patients with proficient mismatch repair (MMR) and 24 CRC patients with deficient MMR. We found a high frequency of 18q LOH in tumors and arm-specific enrichment of genetic aberrations on 18q in the normal colon (primarily copy neutral LOH) and blood (primarily copy gain). These aberrations were specific to the sporadic, pMMR CRC. Though in tumor samples genetic aberrations were observed for genes commonly mutated in hereditary CRC (eg, APC, CTNNB1, SMAD4, BRAF), none of them showed LOH or CNV in the normal colon or blood. DCC located on 18q21.1 topped the list of genes with genetic aberrations in the tumor. In an independent cohort of 13 patients subjected to Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS), we found LOH and CNV on 18q in adenomatous polyp and tumor tissues. Our data suggests that patients with sporadic CRC may have genetic aberrations preferentially enriched on 18q in their blood, normal colon epithelium, and non-malignant polyp lesions that may prove useful as a clinical marker for sporadic CRC detection and risk assessment.

Clarke MA, Luhn P, Gage JC, et al.
Discovery and validation of candidate host DNA methylation markers for detection of cervical precancer and cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(4):701-710 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been recently introduced as an alternative to cytology for cervical cancer screening. However, since most HPV infections clear without causing clinically relevant lesions, additional triage tests are required to identify women who are at high risk of developing cancer. We performed DNA methylation profiling on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from women with benign HPV16 infection and histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, and cancer using a bead-based microarray covering 1,500 CpG sites in over 800 genes. Methylation levels in individual CpG sites were compared using a t-test, and results were summarized by computing p-values. A total of 12 candidate genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL1, ATP10, CADM1, DCC, DBC1, HS3ST2, MOS, MYOD1, SOX1, SOX17 and TMEFF2) identified by DNA methylation profiling, plus an additional three genes identified from the literature (EPB41L3, MAL and miR-124) were chosen for validation in an independent set of 167 liquid-based cytology specimens using pyrosequencing and targeted, next-generation bisulfite sequencing. Of the 15 candidate gene markers, 10 had an area under the curve (AUC) of ≥ 0.75 for discrimination of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL+) from

Jamuar SS, Schmitz-Abe K, D'Gama AM, et al.
Biallelic mutations in human DCC cause developmental split-brain syndrome.
Nat Genet. 2017; 49(4):606-612 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Motor, sensory, and integrative activities of the brain are coordinated by a series of midline-bridging neuronal commissures whose development is tightly regulated. Here we report a new human syndrome in which these commissures are widely disrupted, thus causing clinical manifestations of horizontal gaze palsy, scoliosis, and intellectual disability. Affected individuals were found to possess biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the axon-guidance receptor 'deleted in colorectal carcinoma' (DCC), which has been implicated in congenital mirror movements when it is mutated in the heterozygous state but whose biallelic loss-of-function human phenotype has not been reported. Structural MRI and diffusion tractography demonstrated broad disorganization of white-matter tracts throughout the human central nervous system (CNS), including loss of all commissural tracts at multiple levels of the neuraxis. Combined with data from animal models, these findings show that DCC is a master regulator of midline crossing and development of white-matter projections throughout the human CNS.

Walline HM, Goudsmit CM, McHugh JB, et al.
Integration of high-risk human papillomavirus into cellular cancer-related genes in head and neck cancer cell lines.
Head Neck. 2017; 39(5):840-852 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal cancer is generally associated with excellent response to therapy, but some HPV-positive tumors progress despite aggressive therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate viral oncogene expression and viral integration sites in HPV16- and HPV18-positive squamous cell carcinoma lines.
METHODS: E6/E7 alternate transcripts were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences (DIPS-PCR) and sequencing identified viral insertion sites and affected host genes. Cellular gene expression was assessed across viral integration sites.
RESULTS: All HPV-positive cell lines expressed alternate HPVE6/E7 splicing indicative of active viral oncogenesis. HPV integration occurred within cancer-related genes TP63, DCC, JAK1, TERT, ATR, ETV6, PGR, PTPRN2, and TMEM237 in 8 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) lines but UM-SCC-105 and UM-GCC-1 had only intergenic integration.
CONCLUSION: HPV integration into cancer-related genes occurred in 7 of 9 HPV-positive cell lines and of these 6 were from tumors that progressed. HPV integration into cancer-related genes may be a secondary carcinogenic driver in HPV-driven tumors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 840-852, 2017.

Sefrioui D, Vermeulin T, Blanchard F, et al.
Copy number variations in DCC/18q and ERBB2/17q are associated with disease-free survival in microsatellite stable colon cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 140(7):1653-1661 [PubMed] Related Publications
We conducted a prospective study to assess the prognostic impact of selected copy number variations (CNVs) in Stage II-III microsatellite stable (MSS) colon cancer. A total of 401 patients were included from 01/2004 to 01/2009. The CNVs in 8 selected target genes, DCC/18q, EGFR/7p, TP53/17p, BLK/8p, MYC/8q, APC/5q, ERBB2/17q and STK6/20q, were detected using a quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction of short fluorescent fragment (QMPSF) method. The primary end-point was the impact of the CNVs on the 4-year disease-free survival (DFS). The recurrence rate at 4 years was 20.9%, corresponding to 14% Stage II patients versus 31% Stage III patients (p < 0.0001). The 4-year DFS was significantly decreased in patients with a loss at DCC/18q (p = 0.012) and a gain at ERBB2/17q (p = 0.041). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that Stage III, a loss at DCC/18q and a gain at ERBB2/17q were independent factors associated with DFS. A combination of DCC/18q and ERBB2/17q was also associated with relapse, with the hazard ratio increasing from 1 to 2.4 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-4.1) and 3.1 (95% CI, 1.2-8.4) in the presence of 0, 1 or 2 alterations, respectively (p = 0.0013). CNVs in DCC/18q and ERBB2/17q are significantly associated with DFS in Stage II-III MSS colon cancer.

Juodzbalys G, Kasradze D, Cicciù M, et al.
Modern molecular biomarkers of head and neck cancer. Part I. Epigenetic diagnostics and prognostics: Systematic review.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 17(4):487-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Nearly half of the head and neck cancer cases are diagnosed in late stages. Traditional screening modalities have many disadvantages. The aim of the present article was to review the scientific literature about novel head and neck cancer diagnostics - epigenetic biomarkers.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed database. Authors conducted the search of articles in English language published from 2004 to 2015.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of thirty three relevant studies were included in the review. Fifteen of them concerned DNA methylation alterations, nine evaluation of abundancies in histone expressions and nine miRNA expression changes in HNC.
CONCLUSIONS: Considerable number of epigenetic biomarkers have been identified in both tumor tissue and salivary samples. Genes with best diagnostic effectiveness rates and further studying prospects were: TIMP3, DCC, DAPK, CDH1, CCNA1, AIM1, MGMT, HIC1, PAX1, PAX5, ZIC4, p16, EDNRB, KIF1A, MINT31, CD44, RARβ , ECAD. Individual histone and miRNA alterations tend to be hnc specific. Prognostic values of separate biomarkers are ambiguous. No established standards for molecular assay of head and neck cancer was found in order to elude the paradoxical results and discrepancies in separate trials.

Ylivinkka I, Keski-Oja J, Hyytiäinen M
Netrin-1: A regulator of cancer cell motility?
Eur J Cell Biol. 2016; 95(11):513-520 [PubMed] Related Publications
Netrins form a family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins, netrin-1 being the prototype and most investigated member of the family. The major physiological functions of netrin-1 lie in the regulation of axonal development as well as morphogenesis of different branched organs, by promoting the polarity of migratory/invasive front of the cell. On the other hand, netrin-1 acts as a factor preventing cell apoptosis. These events are mediated via a range of different receptors, including UNC5 and DCC-families. Cancer cells often employ developmental pathways to gain survival and motility advantage. Within recent years, there has been increasing number of observations of upregulation of netrin-1 expression in different forms of cancer, and the increased expression of netrin-1 has been linked to its functions as a survival and invasion promoting factor. We review here recent advances in the netrin-1 related developmental processes that may be of special interest in tumor biology, in addition to the known functions of netrin-1 in tumor biology with special focus on cancer cell migration.

Lubbe SJ, Escott-Price V, Brice A, et al.
Rare variants analysis of cutaneous malignant melanoma genes in Parkinson's disease.
Neurobiol Aging. 2016; 48:222.e1-222.e7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A shared genetic susceptibility between cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has been suggested. We investigated this by assessing the contribution of rare variants in genes involved in CMM to PD risk. We studied rare variation across 29 CMM risk genes using high-quality genotype data in 6875 PD cases and 6065 controls and sought to replicate findings using whole-exome sequencing data from a second independent cohort totaling 1255 PD cases and 473 controls. No statistically significant enrichment of rare variants across all genes, per gene, or for any individual variant was detected in either cohort. There were nonsignificant trends toward different carrier frequencies between PD cases and controls, under different inheritance models, in the following CMM risk genes: BAP1, DCC, ERBB4, KIT, MAPK2, MITF, PTEN, and TP53. The very rare TYR p.V275F variant, which is a pathogenic allele for recessive albinism, was more common in PD cases than controls in 3 independent cohorts. Tyrosinase, encoded by TYR, is the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of neuromelanin, and has a role in the production of dopamine. These results suggest a possible role for another gene in the dopamine-biosynthetic pathway in susceptibility to neurodegenerative Parkinsonism, but further studies in larger PD cohorts are needed to accurately determine the role of these genes/variants in disease pathogenesis.

Chen HJ, Wei Z, Sun J, et al.
A recellularized human colon model identifies cancer driver genes.
Nat Biotechnol. 2016; 34(8):845-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Refined cancer models are needed to bridge the gaps between cell line, animal and clinical research. Here we describe the engineering of an organotypic colon cancer model by recellularization of a native human matrix that contains cell-populated mucosa and an intact muscularis mucosa layer. This ex vivo system recapitulates the pathophysiological progression from APC-mutant neoplasia to submucosal invasive tumor. We used it to perform a Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis screen to identify genes that cooperate with mutant APC in driving invasive neoplasia. We identified 38 candidate invasion-driver genes, 17 of which, including TCF7L2, TWIST2, MSH2, DCC, EPHB1 and EPHB2 have been previously implicated in colorectal cancer progression. Six invasion-driver genes that have not, to our knowledge, been previously described were validated in vitro using cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays and ex vivo using recellularized human colon. These results demonstrate the utility of our organoid model for studying cancer biology.

Nieser M, Henopp T, Brix J, et al.
Loss of Chromosome 18 in Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Small Intestine: The Enigma Remains.
Neuroendocrinology. 2017; 104(3):302-312 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine (SI-NETs) exhibit an increasing incidence and high mortality rate. Until now, no fundamental molecular event has been linked to the tumorigenesis and progression of these tumors. Only the loss of chromosome 18 (Chr18) has been shown in up to two thirds of SI-NETs, whereby the significance of this alteration is still not understood. We therefore performed the first comprehensive study to identify Chr18-related events at the genetic, epigenetic and gene/protein expression levels.
METHODS: We did expression analysis of all seven putative Chr18-related tumor suppressors by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Next-generation exome sequencing and SNP array analysis were performed with five SI-NETs with (partial) loss of Chr18. Finally, we analyzed all microRNAs (miRNAs) located on Chr18 by qRT-PCR, comparing Chr18+/- and Chr18+/+ SI-NETs.
RESULTS: Only DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) revealed loss of/greatly reduced expression in 6/21 cases (29%). No relevant loss of SMAD2, SMAD4, elongin A3 and CABLES was detected. PMAIP1 and maspin were absent at the protein level. Next-generation sequencing did not reveal relevant recurrent somatic mutations on Chr18 either in an exploratory cohort of five SI-NETs, or in a validation cohort (n = 30). SNP array analysis showed no additional losses. The quantitative analysis of all 27 Chr18-related miRNAs revealed no difference in expression between Chr18+/- and Chr18+/+ SI-NETs.
CONCLUSION: DCC seems to be the only Chr18-related tumor suppressor affected by the monoallelic loss of Chr18 resulting in a loss of DCC protein expression in one third of SI-NETs. No additional genetic or epigenetic alterations were present on Chr18.

Liu X, Wang X, Fu SW, et al.
Genetic association of deleted in colorectal carcinoma variants with breast cancer risk: A case-control study.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(22):32765-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC), a netrin-1 dependence receptor, is correlated with cell progression, migration, and adhesion. Evidence indicated that DCC was frequently down-regulated in many cancers. However, the association of DCC with breast cancer remains uncertain. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the impact of three DCC gene variants (rs2229080, rs7504990, and rs4078288) on breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women. This study included 560 breast cancer patients and 583 age-matched healthy controls from Northwest China. The three gene variants were genotyped via Sequenom MassARRAY. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were utilized to evaluate the associations. We found that individuals with the rs2229080 C/G, C/C, and C/G-CC genotypes had a higher breast cancer risk, and the minor allele C was associated with increased breast cancer risk in an allele model. We observed a significantly decreased breast cancer risk with the rs7504990 C/T, T/T, and C/T-T/T genotypes, and the minor allele T was protective against breast cancer in an allele model. In addition, rs2229080 was associated with the axillary lymph node (LN) metastasis status. An age-stratified analysis revealed an association between rs2229080 and reduced breast cancer risk among older patients (≥ 49 years). Furthermore, the haplotype analysis showed that the Crs2229080Crs7504990Ars4078288 haplotype was associated with a decreased breast cancer risk. However, the results indicated a lack of association between rs4078288 and breast cancer risk. These findings affirmed that rs2229080 and rs7504990 polymorphisms in DCC might be related with breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women.

Schulten HJ, Hussein D, Al-Adwani F, et al.
Microarray Expression Data Identify DCC as a Candidate Gene for Early Meningioma Progression.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153681 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumors bearing in a minority of cases an aggressive phenotype. Although meningiomas are stratified according to their histology and clinical behavior, the underlying molecular genetics predicting aggressiveness are not thoroughly understood. We performed whole transcript expression profiling in 10 grade I and four grade II meningiomas, three of which invaded the brain. Microarray expression analysis identified deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) as a differentially expressed gene (DEG) enabling us to cluster meningiomas into DCC low expression (3 grade I and 3 grade II tumors), DCC medium expression (2 grade I and 1 grade II tumors), and DCC high expression (5 grade I tumors) groups. Comparison between the DCC low expression and DCC high expression groups resulted in 416 DEGs (p-value<0.05; fold change>2). The most significantly downregulated genes in the DCC low expression group comprised DCC, phosphodiesterase 1C (PDE1C), calmodulin-dependent 70kDa olfactomedin 2 (OLFM2), glutathione S-transferase mu 5 (GSTM5), phosphotyrosine interaction domain containing 1 (PID1), sema domain, transmembrane domain (TM) and cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 6D (SEMA6D), and indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT). The most significantly upregulated genes comprised chromosome 5 open reading frame 63 (C5orf63), homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), and basic helix-loop-helix family, member e40 (BHLHE40). Biofunctional analysis identified as predicted top upstream regulators beta-estradiol, TGFB1, Tgf beta complex, LY294002, and dexamethasone and as predicted top regulator effectors NFkB, PIK3R1, and CREBBP. The microarray expression data served also for a comparison between meningiomas from female and male patients and for a comparison between brain invasive and non-invasive meningiomas resulting in a number of significant DEGs and related biofunctions. In conclusion, based on its expression levels, DCC may constitute a valid biomarker to identify those benign meningiomas at risk for progression.

Samy MD, Yavorski JM, Mauro JA, Blanck G
Impact of SNPs on CpG Islands in the MYC and HRAS oncogenes and in a wide variety of tumor suppressor genes: A multi-cancer approach.
Cell Cycle. 2016; 15(12):1572-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that occur within CpG Islands may lead to increased hypermethylation if a SNP allele has the potential to form a CpG dinucleotide, as well as potentially lead to hypomethylation if a SNP allele eliminates a CpG dinucleotide. We analyzed CpG-related SNP allele frequencies in whole genome sequences (WGS) across 5 TCGA cancer datasets, thereby exploiting a more recent appreciation for signaling pathway degeneracy in cancer. The cancer data sets were analyzed for SNPs in CpG islands associated with the oncogenes, HRAS and MYC, and in the CpG islands associated with the tumor suppressor genes, APC, DCC, and RB1. We determined that one SNP allele (rs3824120) in a CpG island associated with MYC which eliminated a CpG was more common in the cancer datasets than in the 100Genomes databases (p < 0.01). For HRAS, 2 SNP alleles (rs112690925, rs7939028) that created CpG's occurred significantly less frequently in the cancer data sets than in the general SNP databases (e.g., rs7939028, p < 0.0002, in comparison with AllSNPs(142)). Also, one SNP allele (rs4940177) that created a CpG in a CpG island associated with the DCC tumor suppressor gene, was more common in the cancer datasets (p < 0.0007). To understand a broader picture of the potential of SNP alleles to create CpG's in CpG islands of tumor suppressor genes, we developed a scripted algorithm to assess the SNP alleles associated with the CpG islands of 43 tumor suppressor genes. The following tumor suppressor genes have the possibility of significant, percent increases in their CpG counts, depending on which SNP allele(s) is present: VHL, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, PTEN and RB1.

Misawa K, Mochizuki D, Imai A, et al.
Prognostic value of aberrant promoter hypermethylation of tumor-related genes in early-stage head and neck cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(18):26087-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Staging and pathological grading are useful, but imperfect predictors of recurrence in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Accordingly, molecular biomarkers that predict the risk of recurrence are necessary to improve clinical outcomes. The methylation statuses of the promoters of 11 tumor-related genes (p16, RASSF1A, E-cadherin, H-cadherin, MGMT, DAPK, DCC, COL1A2, TAC1, SST, and GALR1) were analyzed in 133 HNSCC cases using quantitative methylation-specific PCR. We detected frequent methylation of p16 (44%), RASSF1A (18%), E-cadherin (53%), H-cadherin (35%), MGMT (35%), DAPK (53%), DCC (42%), COL1A2 (44%), TAC1 (61%), SST (64%), and GALR1 (44%) in HNSCC. Disease-free survival was lower in patients with 6-11 methylated genes than in those with 0-5 methylated genes (log-rank test, P = 0.001). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, the methylation of E-cadherin, COL1A2, TAC1, and GALR1 was associated with poor survival, with hazard ratios of 4.474 (95% CI, 1.241-16.124). In a joint analysis of these four genes, patients with 2-4 methylated genes had a significantly lower survival rate than those with 0-1 methylated genes in early-stage HNSCC. Importantly, the methylation of some genes was closely related to poor prognosis in early-stage HNSCC, providing strong evidence that these hypermethylated genes are valuable biomarkers for prognostic evaluation.

Zauber P, Marotta S, Sabbath-Solitare M
Copy number of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli gene is not always neutral in sporadic colorectal cancers with loss of heterozygosity for the gene.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:213 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Changes in the number of alleles of a chromosome may have an impact upon gene expression. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) indicates that one allele of a gene has been lost, and knowing the exact copy number of the gene would indicate whether duplication of the remaining allele has occurred. We were interested to determine the copy number of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene in sporadic colorectal cancers with LOH.
METHODS: We selected 38 carcinomas with LOH for the APC gene region of chromosome 5, as determined by amplification of the CA repeat region within the D5S346 loci. The copy number status of APC was ascertained using the SALSA® MLPA® P043-B1 APC Kit. LOH for the DCC gene, KRAS gene mutation, and microsatellite instability were also evaluated for each tumor, utilizing standard polymerase chain reaction methods.
RESULTS: No tumor demonstrated microsatellite instability. LOH of the DCC gene was also present in 33 of 36 (91.7%) informative tumors. A KRAS gene mutation was present in 16 of the 38 (42.1%) tumors. Twenty-four (63.2%) of the tumors were copy number neutral, 10 (26.3%) tumors demonstrated major loss, while two (5.3%) showed partial loss. Two tumors (5.3%) had copy number gain.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of APC and DCC LOH, KRAS and microsatellite instability indicate our colorectal cancer cases were typical of sporadic cancers following the 'chromosomal instability' pathway. The majority of our colorectal carcinomas with LOH for APC gene are copy number neutral. However, one-third of our cases showed copy number loss, suggesting that duplication of the remaining allele is not required for the development of a colorectal carcinoma.

Rai R, Kim JJ, Misra S, et al.
A Multiple Interaction Analysis Reveals ADRB3 as a Potential Candidate for Gallbladder Cancer Predisposition via a Complex Interaction with Other Candidate Gene Variations.
Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16(12):28038-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer is the most common and a highly aggressive biliary tract malignancy with a dismal outcome. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial, comprising the combined effect of multiple genetic variations of mild consequence along with numerous dietary and environmental risk factors. Previously, we demonstrated the association of several candidate gene variations with GBC risk. In this study, we aimed to identify the combination of gene variants and their possible interactions contributing towards genetic susceptibility of GBC. Here, we performed Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CRT) to investigate the gene-gene interactions and the combined effect of 14 SNPs in nine genes (DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634); FAS (rs2234767); FASL (rs763110); DCC (rs2229080, rs4078288, rs7504990, rs714); PSCA (rs2294008, rs2978974); ADRA2A (rs1801253); ADRB1 (rs1800544); ADRB3 (rs4994); CYP17 (rs2486758)) involved in various signaling pathways. Genotyping was accomplished by PCR-RFLP or Taqman allelic discrimination assays. SPSS software version 16.0 and MDR software version 2.0 were used for all the statistical analysis. Single locus investigation demonstrated significant association of DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634), DCC (rs714, rs2229080, rs4078288) and ADRB3 (rs4994) polymorphisms with GBC risk. MDR analysis revealed ADRB3 (rs4994) to be crucial candidate in GBC susceptibility that may act either alone (p < 0.0001, CVC = 10/10) or in combination with DCC (rs714 and rs2229080, p < 0.0001, CVC = 9/10). Our CRT results are in agreement with the above findings. Further, in-silico results of studied SNPs advocated their role in splicing, transcriptional and/or protein coding regulation. Overall, our result suggested complex interactions amongst the studied SNPs and ADRB3 rs4994 as candidate influencing GBC susceptibility.

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