Gene Summary

Gene:COL1A1; collagen type I alpha 1 chain
Aliases: OI1, OI2, OI3, OI4, EDSC, EDSARTH1
Summary:This gene encodes the pro-alpha1 chains of type I collagen whose triple helix comprises two alpha1 chains and one alpha2 chain. Type I is a fibril-forming collagen found in most connective tissues and is abundant in bone, cornea, dermis and tendon. Mutations in this gene are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta types I-IV, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIA, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Classical type, Caffey Disease and idiopathic osteoporosis. Reciprocal translocations between chromosomes 17 and 22, where this gene and the gene for platelet-derived growth factor beta are located, are associated with a particular type of skin tumor called dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, resulting from unregulated expression of the growth factor. Two transcripts, resulting from the use of alternate polyadenylation signals, have been identified for this gene. [provided by R. Dalgleish, Feb 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:collagen alpha-1(I) chain
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: COL1A1 (cancer-related)

Tang X, Huang X, Wang D, et al.
Identifying gene modules of thyroid cancer associated with pathological stage by weighted gene co-expression network analysis.
Gene. 2019; 704:142-148 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid cancer is the most common type of endocrine tumor. The TNM classification remains a standard for treatment determination and predicting prognosis in thyroid cancer. The genes modules associated with the progression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were not clear. We applied a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and differential expression analysis to systematically identified co-expressed gene modules and hub genes associated with PTC progression based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) PTC transcriptome sequencing data. An independent validation cohort, GSE27155, was used to evaluate the preservation of gene modules. We identified two co-expressed genes modules associated with progression of PTC. Enrichment analysis indicated that the two modules were enriched in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix organization. DCN, COL1A1, COL1A2, COL5A2 and COL3A1 were hub genes in the co-expressed network. We systematically identified co-expressed gene modules and hub genes associated with PTC progression for the first time, which provided insights into the mechanisms underlying PTC progression and some potential targets for the treatment of PTC.

Hao S, Lv J, Yang Q, et al.
Identification of Key Genes and Circular RNAs in Human Gastric Cancer.
Med Sci Monit. 2019; 25:2488-2504 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Globally, gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common source of cancer-associated mortality. The aim of this study was to identify key genes and circular RNAs (circRNAs) in GC diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy and to further explore the potential molecular mechanisms of GC. MATERIAL AND METHODS Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and circRNAs (DE circRNAs) between GC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues were identified from 3 mRNA and 3 circRNA expression profiles. Functional analyses were performed, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed. The significant modules and key genes in the PPI networks were identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of these key genes. Potential miRNA-binding sites of the DE circRNAs and target genes of these miRNAs were predicted and used to construct DE circRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks. RESULTS A total of 196 upregulated and 311 downregulated genes were identified in GC. The results of functional analysis showed that these DEGs were significantly enriched in a variety of functions and pathways, including extracellular matrix-related pathways. Ten hub genes (COL1A1, COL3A1, COL1A2, COL5A2, FN1, THBS1, COL5A1, SPARC, COL18A1, and COL11A1) were identified via PPI network analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that 7 of these were associated with a poor overall survival in GC patients. Furthermore, we identified 2 DE circRNAs, hsa_circ_0000332 and hsa_circ_0021087. To reveal the potential molecular mechanisms of circRNAs in GC, DE circRNA-microRNA-mRNA networks were constructed. CONCLUSIONS Key candidate genes and circRNAs were identified, and novel PPI and circRNA-microRNA-mRNA networks in GC were constructed. These may provide useful information for the exploration of potential biomarkers and targets for the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of GC.

Di Y, Chen D, Yu W, Yan L
Bladder cancer stage-associated hub genes revealed by WGCNA co-expression network analysis.
Hereditas. 2019; 156:7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Bladder cancer was a malignant disease in patients, our research aimed at discovering the possible biomarkers for the diseases.
Results: The gene chip GSE31684, including 93samples, was downloaded from the GEO datasets and co-expression network was constructed by the data. Molecular complex detection(MCODE) was used to identify hub genes. The most significant cluster including 16 genes:

Feng Z, Song Y, Qian J, et al.
Differential expression of a set of microRNA genes reveals the potential mechanism of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2019; 80(2):77-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to explore the potential mechanism underlying papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) development.
METHODS: Gene expression profile data GSE3467 and microRNA (miRNA) expression profile data E-TABM-68 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and Array Express database respectively. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNAs between PTC patients and normal individuals were screened. Then, the significant target DEGs regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs were mapped to protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and functional modules were screened. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analysis for miRNA genes were performed using DAVID (the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integration Discovery) tool.
RESULTS: Total 4307 DEGs and 23 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. A PPI subnetwork containing 612 nodes and 713 edges was constructed. Total 5 DEGs such as SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), FN1 (fibronectin 1), THBS1 (thrombospondin 1), COL1A1 (collagen, type I, alpha 1) and COL7A1 (collagen, type VII, alpha 1) were found in module M1. The up-regulated DEGs were significantly related with cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), response to wounding and immune response. The down-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in metabolism related pathways and transcription related with GO terms.
CONCLUSIONS: ECM-receptor interaction and amino acid degradation may play key roles in the mechanism of PTC progression.

Lv J, Guo L, Wang JH, et al.
Biomarker identification and trans-regulatory network analyses in esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25(2):233-244 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is an aggressive disease with high mortality and an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor of EAC, and patients with BE have a persistent and excessive risk of EAC over time. Individuals with BE are up to 30-125 times more likely to develop EAC than the general population. Thus, early detection of EAC and BE could significantly improve the 5-year survival rate of EAC. Due to the limitations of endoscopic surveillance and the lack of clinical risk stratification strategies, molecular biomarkers should be considered and thoroughly investigated.
AIM: To explore the transcriptome changes in the progression from normal esophagus (NE) to BE and EAC.
METHODS: Two datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) in NCBI Database ( were retrieved and used as a training and a test dataset separately, since NE, BE, and EAC samples were included and the sample sizes were adequate. This study identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the R/Bioconductor project and constructed trans-regulatory networks based on the Transcriptional Regulatory Element Database and Cytoscape software. Enrichment of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) terms was identified using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resources. The diagnostic potential of certain DEGs was assessed in both datasets.
RESULTS: In the GSE1420 dataset, the number of up-regulated DEGs was larger than that of down-regulated DEGs when comparing EAC
CONCLUSION: After the construction and analyses of the trans-regulatory networks in EAC and BE, the results indicate that COL1A1 and MMP1 could be potential biomarkers for EAC and BE, respectively.

Ahn MY, Kim BJ, Kim HJ, et al.
Anti-cancer effect of dung beetle glycosaminoglycans on melanoma.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dung beetle glycosaminoglycan is known to possess anti-aging activities. However, its anti-cancer mechanisms are not fully elucidated yet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of insect-derived polymer dung beetle glycosaminoglycan (GAG) after intraperitoneally injecting it to melanoma mice induced by B16F10 cells.
METHODS: To determine molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of dung beetle GAG, its origin N-glycan under 3KD Dalton was assayed for melanoma cell cytotoxicity. Quantitative comparisons of adhesive molecule on extracellular matrix and activities of tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 2 (TIMP-2) were also investigated. In vivo anti-cancer effect of dung beetle GAG on solid tumor size, survival time and gene-expression profiles was also assayed using B10F10 melanoma mice model. Mice with induced melanoma were then treated with Catharsius molossus (dung beetle) GAG (CaG) at 5 mg/kg for 8 weeks to investigate its anti-cancer effects compared to bumblebee (Bombus ignitus) queen glycosaminoglycan (IQG) and Huechys sanguinea glycosaminoglycan (HEG).
RESULTS: These N-glycans derived from these GAG were composed of many linear heparinoid polysaccharides, polymers with hexose and N-acetylhexose. Adminstration with these GAGs increased survival time and decreased melanoma sizes in mice, in accordance with their inhibitory effects on cell growth ratio of melanoma B16F10. In addition, treatment with N-glycans derived from theses glycosaminoglycan increased activities of TIMP-2 in HMVEC cells pretreated with TNF-alpha and in melanoma cells, suggesting that they had anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In DNA microarray results, compared to control, CaG treated mouse group showed upregulation of 192 genes including collagen,typeI,alpha1 (Col1a1), consistent with the highly increased in vitro extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion on collagen 1 and up-regulation of heparanase (Hpse). After treatment with CaG, a total of 152 genes were down-regulated, including nuclear RNA export factor (Nxf3) and hyaluronan proteoglycan link protein1 (Hapln1).
CONCLUSIONS: Glycosaminoglycan, CaG can strengthen ECM by increasing activity of TIMP-2 and adhesion activity on collagen known to inhibit changes of ECM, leading to tumor cell invasion and progression.

Song W, Suurmeijer AJH, Bollen SM, et al.
Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst: six new cases with imaging details, molecular pathology, and review of the literature.
Skeletal Radiol. 2019; 48(7):1059-1067 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) rarely present in soft tissue locations (STABC). The 30 cases of STABC reported in the English literature were reviewed. Six new cases retrieved from the files of the Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumors were compared to the six cases described in the radiological literature.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging studies and histopathology of six new STABC cases were reviewed. Follow-up was recorded with respect to local recurrence. FISH for USP6 rearrangement and/or anchored multiplex PCR-based targeted NGS using Archer FusionPlex Sarcoma Panel were attempted.
RESULTS: On imaging, the six STABC cases presented as a solid or multicystic intramuscular soft tissue mass, usually with thin peripheral mineralized bone shell. On MRI, perilesional edema was visualized in nearly all cases. Fluid-fluid levels were observed in one case. All lesions had the distinct histologic features of STABC. In three cases suitable for NGS, the diagnosis of STABC was confirmed by a COL1A1-USP6 fusion gene. In one additional case, USP6 gene rearrangement was detected by FISH. After marginal excision, none of the six STABC recurred after a mean follow-up period of 50 months (range, 39-187 months).
CONCLUSIONS: On imaging, it can be difficult to discriminate between STABC and myositis ossificans. The presence of a thin bony shell and fluid-fluid levels can be helpful in discriminating these two entities. STABC is readily diagnosed after histopathologic examination of the resection specimen. STABC belongs to the spectrum of tumors with USP6 rearrangements, which includes ABC, myositis ossificans, and nodular fasciitis.

Xia F, Jiang B, Chen Y, et al.
Prediction of novel target genes and pathways involved in tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(51):e13802 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (TCPTC) is reportedly associated with aggressive clinicopathological parameters and poor outcomes; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying TCPTC remain poorly understood.
METHODS: The gene mutation types and mRNA expression profiles of patients with TCPTC were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Pathways in the interaction network and the diagnostic approaches of candidate markers for TCPTC were investigated.
RESULTS: BRAF mutation was particularly prevalent in TCPTC with a mutation frequency of 78%. TCPTC was associated with a patient age >45 years, tumor multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, a higher T stage, advanced AJCC TNM stages, BRAF V600E mutation, and poor disease-free survival. We identified 4138 TCPTC-related DEGs and 301 TCPTC-specific DEGs. Intriguingly, the gene expression pattern revealed that the dysregulated levels of both putative oncogenes and tumor suppressors in TCPTC were higher than those in classical/conventional variant PTC (cPTC). Functional enrichment analyses revealed that these DEGs were involved in several cancer-related pathways. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed from the 301 TCPTC-specific DEGs, and 3 subnetworks, and 8 hub genes were verified. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed that 6 hub genes, including COL5A1, COL1A1, COL10A1, COL11A1, CCL20, and CXCL5, could be used not only for the differential diagnosis of PTC from normal samples, but also for the differential diagnosis of TCPTC from cPTC samples.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study might provide further insights into the investigations of the tumorigenesis mechanism of TCPTC and assists in the discovery of novel candidate diagnostic markers for TCPTC.

Šekoranja D, Boštjančič E, Salapura V, et al.
Primary aneurysmal bone cyst with a novel SPARC-USP6 translocation identified by next-generation sequencing.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 228-229:12-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign but locally aggressive, mostly pediatric neoplasm, with characteristic USP6 gene rearrangement that distinguishes it from a secondary ABC and other primary bone tumors. With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, several hitherto unknown USP6 fusion partners have been identified in ABC. Accordingly, we present a case of an 18-year-old male with a solid sub-periosteal primary ABC in the diaphysis of the left femur. Using an NGS-based assay, we identified SPARC-USP6 fusion, which has not previously been described in ABC. Including our case, the list of currently known USP6 fusion partners in primary ABC include: CDH11, CNBP, COL1A1, CTNNB1, EIF1, FOSL2, OMD, PAFAH1B1, RUNX2, SEC31A, SPARC, STAT3 and THRAP3.

Kopp S, Krüger M, Bauer J, et al.
Microgravity Affects Thyroid Cancer Cells during the TEXUS-53 Mission Stronger than Hypergravity.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Thyroid cancer is the most abundant tumor of the endocrine organs. Poorly differentiated thyroid cancer is still difficult to treat. Human cells exposed to long-term real (r-) and simulated (s-) microgravity (µ

Oyama R, Kito F, Qiao Z, et al.
Establishment of novel patient-derived models of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: two cell lines, NCC-DFSP1-C1 and NCC-DFSP2-C1.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2019; 55(1):62-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a common type of dermal sarcoma, characterized by the presence of the unique collagen type I alpha 1 chain (COL1A1)-PDGFB translocation, which causes constitutive activation of the platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGFB) signaling pathway. Patients with DFSP exhibit frequent local recurrence, and novel therapeutic approaches are required to achieve better clinical outcomes. Patient-derived cancer cell lines are essential in the preclinical research. Here, we established novel patient-derived DFSP cell lines from two patients with DFSP and designated these cell lines NCC-DFSP1-C1 and NCC-DFSP2-C1. Tumors of the two patients with DFSP had COL1A1-PDGFB translocations with distinct COL1A1 breakpoints, e.g., in exons 33 and 15, and the translocations were preserved in the established cell lines. NCC-DFSP1-C1 and NCC-DFSP2-C1 cells exhibited similar morphology and limited capability of proliferation in vitro, forming spheroids when seeded on low-attachment tissue culture plates. In contrast, NCC-DFSP1-C1 cells had considerably higher invasive capability than NCC-DFSP2-C1 cells. Overall proteome contents were similar between NCC-DFSP1-C1 and NCC-DFSP2-C1 cells. Notably, in vitro screening studies identified anticancer drugs that showed antiproliferative effects at considerably low concentrations in the DFSP cell lines. Bortezomib, mitoxantrone, ponatinib, and romidepsin were more cytotoxic to NCC-DFSP1-C1 cells than to NCC-DFSP2-C1 cells. These cell lines will be useful tools for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat DFSP.

Sun S, Wang Y, Wu Y, et al.
Identification of COL1A1 as an invasion‑related gene in malignant astrocytoma.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(6):2542-2554 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant astrocytoma (MA) is the most common and severe type of brain tumor. A greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of MA would be beneficial for the development of targeted molecular therapies. In the present study, the upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in MA were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database using R/Bioconductor software. DEGs in different World Health Organization classifications were compared using the Venny tool and 15 genes, including collagen type I α1 chain (COL1A1) and laminin subunit γ1 (LAMC1), were revealed to be involved in the malignant progression of MA. In addition, the upregulated DEGs in MA were evaluated using functional annotations of Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes with the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery tool. The results indicated that invasion‑associated enrichment was observed in 'extracellular matrix' (ECM), 'cell adhesion' and 'phosphoinositide 3‑kinase‑protein kinase B signaling pathway'. Subsequently, the analysis of the protein‑protein interactions was performed using STRING and Cytoscape software, which revealed that the ECM component was the invasion‑associated module and its corresponding genes included COL1A1, LAMC1 and fibronectin 1. Finally, survival Kaplan‑Meier estimate was conducted using cBioportal online, which demonstrated that COL1A1 expression affected the survival of and recurrence in patients with MA. Moreover, the results of in vitro Transwell assay and western blot analysis revealed that the depleted levels of COL1A1 also decreased the expression of several proteins associated with cell invasion, including phosphorylated‑signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2, MMP‑9 and nuclear factor‑κB. On the whole, the present study identified the invasion‑related target genes and the associated potential pathways in MA. The results indicated that COL1A1 may be a candidate biomarker for the prognosis and treatment of MA.

Erdem M, Tüfekçi Ö, Kızıldağ S, et al.
Investigation of the Relationship Between
Turk J Haematol. 2019; 36(1):12-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), various clinical risk factors and genetic predispositions contribute to the development of bone complications during and after chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether vitamin D receptor (
Materials and Methods: Fifty children with ALL who were treated with the ALL Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster-95 protocol between 1998 and 2008 and were followed for at least 7 years were enrolled. The control group consisted of 96 healthy children.
Results: Low BMD (16%), osteoporosis (12%), and osteonecrosis (8%) were present in a total of 18 patients (36%). The frequency of osteonecrosis and total bone abnormalities was significantly higher in children aged ≥10 years (p=0.001). The risk of low BMD and osteonecrosis was higher in those with vitamin D deficiency. Only the
Conclusion: The development of therapy-induced bone mineral loss and osteonecrosis in children with ALL is frequent and the risk is especially higher in children aged ≥10 years and with vitamin D deficiency. The association between

Wang Y, Xu H, Zhu B, et al.
Systematic identification of the key candidate genes in breast cancer stroma.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018; 23:44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Tumor microenvironment, in particular the stroma, plays an important role in breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Investigation of the molecular characteristics of breast cancer stroma may reveal targets for future study.
Methods: The transcriptome profiles of breast cancer stroma and normal breast stroma were compared to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The method was analysis of GSE26910 and GSE10797 datasets. Common DEGs were identified and then analyses of enriched pathways and hub genes were performed.
Results: A total of 146 DEGs were common to GSE26910 and GSE10797. The enriched pathways were associated with "extracellular matrix (ECM) organization", "ECM-receptor interaction" and "focal adhesion". Network analysis identified six key genes, including
Conclusions: We found that several conserved tumor stromal genes might regulate breast cancer invasion through ECM remodeling. The clinical outcome analyses of

Tallegas M, Fraitag S, Binet A, et al.
Novel KHDRBS1-NTRK3 rearrangement in a congenital pediatric CD34-positive skin tumor: a case report.
Virchows Arch. 2019; 474(1):111-115 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms in adults as well as children represent a frequent dilemma for pathologists. Along this neoplasm spectrum, the differential diagnosis with CD34-positive proliferations can be challenging, particularly concerning neoplasms of fibrohistiocytic and fibroblastic lineages. In children, cutaneous and superficial soft-tissue neoplasms with CD34-positive spindle cells are associated with benign to intermediate malignancy potential and include lipofibromatosis, plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibroma, fibroblastic connective tissue nevus, and congenital dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Molecular biology has been valuable in showing dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and infantile fibrosarcoma that are characterized by COL1A1-PDGFB and ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangements respectively. We report a case of congenital CD34-positive dermohypodermal spindle-cell neoplasm occurring in a female infant and harboring a novel KHDRBS1-NTRK3 fusion. This tumor could belong to a new subgroup of pediatric cutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms, be an atypical presentation of a plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibroma, of a fibroblastic connective tissue nevus, or represent a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with an alternative gene rearrangement.

Olson N, Rouhi O, Zhang L, et al.
A novel case of an aggressive superficial spindle cell sarcoma in an adult resembling fibrosarcomatous dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and harboring an EML4-NTRK3 fusion.
J Cutan Pathol. 2018; 45(12):933-939 [PubMed] Related Publications
A subset of soft tissue sarcomas often harbors recurrent fusions involving protein kinases. While some of these fusion events have shown utility in arriving at a precise diagnosis, novel fusions in otherwise difficult to classify sarcomas continue to be identified. We present a case of a 40-year-old female who noted a lower back nodule in 2010 that was initially labeled as a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with fibrosarcomatous transformation. The lesion recurred the following year and metastasized to the groin 6 years later. Because of some morphologic peculiarities, molecular characterization was pursued in the metastatic focus, which revealed the neoplasm was negative for the COL1A1-PDGFB fusion. However, anchored multiplex polymerase chain reaction for targeted next-generation sequencing (Archer Dx) detected an EML4-NTRK3 fusion, which was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR, Sanger sequencing and RNA sequencing analysis of the recurrent and metastatic specimens. Although various soft tissue neoplasms involving fusions with NTRK genes are well-reported, the current case could not be easily classified in any of the established entities. Nevertheless, it raises interesting questions regarding the importance of classification, prognosis, and treatment for some of these tyrosine kinase fusion-driven sarcomas.

Yamada Y, Sugawara S, Arai T, et al.
Molecular pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma: Impact of the anti-tumor miR-29 family on gene regulation.
Int J Urol. 2018; 25(11):953-965 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To identify key oncogenes and proteins that are controlled by the microRNA miR-29 family (miR-29a, miR-29b and miR-29c) in renal cell carcinoma pathogenesis.
METHODS: Genome-wide gene expression and in silico database analyses were carried out. The Cancer Genome Atlas database was used to investigate the clinical significance of gene expression data in renal cell carcinoma patients. Loss-of-function assays were applied to investigate the function of target genes.
RESULTS: We identified 47 possible target genes that might be regulated by the miR-29 family in renal cell carcinoma cells. Among the targets of the miR-29 family, high expression of 10 genes (ADAMTS14, TRIB13, SERPINH1, FCGR1B, COL1A1, LAIR2, WISP2, TREM1, TNKS1BP1 and GBP2) significantly predicted poor patient prognosis (P < 0.001). SERPINH1 was directly regulated by the miR-29 family, and its overexpression was detected in renal cell carcinoma surgical specimens and tyrosine kinase inhibitor failure autopsy specimens. High expression of SERPINH1 was significantly associated with tumor stage, pathological grade and poor prognosis (P < 0.0001). Knockdown assays showed that its expression enhanced cancer cell migration and invasive abilities.
CONCLUSIONS: Genes regulated by the anti-tumor miR-29 family are closely involved in the molecular pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma. Our approach based on anti-tumor microRNAs might contribute to the development of new diagnostic markers and therapeutic strategies.

Yang L, Jing J, Sun L, Yue Y
Exploring prognostic genes in ovarian cancer stage-related coexpression network modules.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(34):e11895 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Identification of meaningful cluster modules of differential genes or representative biomarkers related to the stages of ovarian cancer (OC) is pivotal, which may help to detect mechanisms of OC progression and evaluate OC patients' prognosis.We downloaded gene expression data and the corresponding clinical information of OC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, which included 379 ovarian cancer patients. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of OC patients between stages were picked out using R. There were 731 differential genes between ovarian cancer stage II and stage III (DEGs II-III) and 563 differential genes between ovarian cancer stage III and stage IV (DEGs III-IV), then we performed GO analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG) pathway analysis using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Moreover, CytoHubba was used to detect the top 20 hub genes in DEGs II-III and DEGs III-IV, followed Cytoscape with search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes (STRING) and MCODE plug-in was utilized to construct protein-protein interaction (PPI) modules of these genes. Three important coexpression modules of DEGs II-III and 3 more meaningful modules of DEGs III-IV were detected from PPI network using molecular complex detection (MCODE) tool. In addition, 5 hub genes in these stage-related DEGs modules with worse overall survival were selected, including COL3A1, COL1A1, COL1A2, KRAS, NRAS. This bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that stage-related prognostic DEGs, such as COL3A1, COL1A1, COL1A2, KRAS, and NRAS might play an unfavorable role in the development as well as metastasis of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, they need to be experimentally verified as a new biomarker to predict OC patient prognosis.

Zhang Z, Fang C, Wang Y, et al.
COL1A1: A potential therapeutic target for colorectal cancer expressing wild-type or mutant KRAS.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(5):1869-1880 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment primarily relies on chemotherapy along with surgery, radiotherapy and, more recently, targeted therapy at the late stages. However, chemotherapeutic drugs have high cytotoxicity, and the similarity between the effects of these drugs on cancerous and healthy cells limits their wider use in clinical settings. Targeted monoclonal antibody treatment may compensate for this deficiency. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)‑targeted drugs have a positive effect on CRC with intact KRAS proto-oncogene GTPase (KRAS or KRASWT), but may be ineffective or harmful in patients with KRAS mutations (KRASMUT). Therefore, it is important to identify drug target genes that are uniformly effective with regards to KRASWT and KRASMUT CRC. The present study performed gene expression analysis, and identified 294 genes upregulated in KRASWT and KRASMUT CRC samples. Collagen type I α 1 (COL1A1) was identified as the hub gene through STRING and Cytoscape analyses. Consistent with results obtained from Oncomine, a cancer microarray database and web-based data-mining platform, it was demonstrated that the expression of COL1A1 was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues and cell lines regardless of KRAS status. Inhibition of COL1A1 in KRASWT and KRASMUT CRC cell lines significantly decreased cell proliferation and invasion. In addition, increased COL1A1 expression in CRC was significantly associated with serosal invasion, lymph metastases and hematogenous metastases. Taken together, the findings of the present study indicated that COL1A1 may serve as a candidate diagnostic biomarker and a promising therapeutic target for CRC.

Dickson BC, Hornick JL, Fletcher CDM, et al.
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with a novel COL6A3-PDGFD fusion gene and apparent predilection for breast.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(9):437-445 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a locally aggressive superficial mesenchymal neoplasm. It typically occurs in adulthood, and has been reported to have a slight male predilection. Tumors have a characteristic histopathologic appearance, including: storiform architecture, infiltrative "honeycomb" growth within subcutaneous adipose tissue, and immunoreactivity for CD34. Virtually all molecularly characterized cases to date have been found to harbor a COL1A1-PDGFB fusion product. Following identification of an index patient with a novel COL6A3-PDGFD fusion gene, we undertook a molecular investigation, using a combination of RNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to assess the prevalence of PDGFD rearrangement in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (N = 63). Three additional patients were found to have balanced PDGFD rearrangements. Interestingly, all 4 tumors arose on the breast of females. As a result, we subsequently examined 16 additional cases of primary breast dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, identifying 2 additional tumors with PDGFD rearrangement. The morphology and immunophenotype of all 6 cases was analogous to those with the canonical COL1A1-PDGFB fusion; none of the cases showed fibrosarcomatous transformation. This study illustrates that the COL6A3-PDGFD fusion product is rare in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and associated with an apparent predilection for breast. An awareness of this variant is important for pathologists, as it will not be detected using conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or FISH-based diagnostic assays for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

Nanchahal J, Ball C, Davidson D, et al.
Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor Therapy for Dupuytren's Disease: A Randomised Dose Response Proof of Concept Phase 2a Clinical Trial.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 33:282-288 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dupuytren's disease is a common fibrotic condition of the hand that causes irreversible flexion contractures of the fingers, with no approved therapy for early stage disease. Our previous analysis of surgically-excised tissue defined tumour necrosis factor (TNF) as a potential therapeutic target. Here we assessed the efficacy of injecting nodules of Dupuytren's disease with a TNF inhibitor.
METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive adalimumab on one occasion in dose cohorts of 15 mg in 0.3 ml, 35 mg in 0.7 ml, or 40 mg in 0.4 ml, or an equivalent volume of placebo in a 3:1 ratio. Two weeks later the injected tissue was surgically excised and analysed. The primary outcome measure was levels of mRNA expression for α-smooth muscle actin (ACTA2). Secondary outcomes included levels of α-SMA and collagen proteins. The trial was registered with (NCT03180957) and the EudraCT (2015-001780-40).
FINDINGS: We recruited 28 patients, 8 assigned to the 15 mg, 12 to the 35 mg and 8 to the 40 mg adalimumab cohorts. There was no change in mRNA levels for ACTA2, COL1A1, COL3A1 and CDH11. Levels of α-SMA protein expression in patients treated with 40 mg adalimumab (1.09 ± 0.09 ng per μg of total protein) were significantly lower (p = 0.006) compared to placebo treated patients (1.51 ± 0.09 ng/μg). The levels of procollagen type I protein expression were also significantly lower (p < 0.019) in the sub group treated with 40 mg adalimumab (474 ± 84 pg/μg total protein) compared with placebo (817 ± 78 pg/μg). There were two serious adverse events, both considered unrelated to the study drug.
INTERPRETATION: In this dose-ranging study, injection of 40 mg of adalimumab in 0.4 ml resulted in down regulation of the myofibroblast phenotype as evidenced by reduction in expression of α-SMA and type I procollagen proteins at 2 weeks. These data form the basis of an ongoing phase 2b clinical trial assessing the efficacy of intranodular injection of 40 mg adalimumab in 0.4 ml compared to an equivalent volume of placebo in patients with early stage Dupuytren's disease.
FUNDING: Health Innovation Challenge Fund (Wellcome Trust and Department of Health) and 180 Therapeutics LP.

Dadone-Montaudié B, Alberti L, Duc A, et al.
Alternative PDGFD rearrangements in dermatofibrosarcomas protuberans without PDGFB fusions.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(11):1683-1693 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is underlined by recurrent collagen type I alpha 1 chain-platelet-derived growth factor B chain (COL1A1-PDGFB) fusions but ~ 4% of typical dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans remain negative for this translocation in routine molecular screening. We investigated a series of 21 cases not associated with the pathognomonic COL1A1-PDGFB fusion on routine fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing. All cases displayed morphological and clinical features consistent with the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. RNA-sequencing analysis was successful in 20 cases. The classical COL1A1-PDGFB fusion was present in 40% of cases (n = 8/20), and subsequently confirmed with a COL1A1 break-apart FISH probe in all but one case (n = 7/8). 55% of cases (n = 11/20) displayed novel PDGFD rearrangements; PDGFD being fused either to the 5' part of COL6A3 (2q37.3) (n = 9/11) or EMILIN2 (18p11) (n = 2/11). All rearrangements led to in-frame fusion transcripts and were confirmed at genomic level by FISH and/or array-comparative genomic hybridization. PDGFD-rearranged dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans presented clinical outcomes similar to typical dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Notably, the two EMILIN2-PDGFD cases displayed fibrosarcomatous transformation and homozygous deletions of CDKN2A at genomic level. We report the first recurrent molecular variant of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans involving PDGFD, which functionally mimic bona fide COL1A1-PDGFB fusions, leading presumably to a similar autocrine loop-stimulating PDGFRB. This study also emphasizes that COL1A1-PDGFB fusions can be cytogenetically cryptic on FISH testing in a subset of cases, thereby representing a diagnostic pitfall that pathologists should be aware of.

Shea MP, O'Leary KA, Wegner KA, et al.
High collagen density augments mTOR-dependent cancer stem cells in ERα+ mammary carcinomas, and increases mTOR-independent lung metastases.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 433:1-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Metastatic estrogen receptor alpha positive (ERα+) cancers account for most breast cancer mortality. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) and dense/stiff extracellular matrices are implicated in aggression and therapy resistance. We examined this interplay and response to mTOR inhibition using ERα+ adenocarcinomas from NRL-PRL females in combination with Col1a1

Mikami T, Bologna-Molina R, Mosqueda-Taylor A, et al.
Pathogenesis of primordial odontogenic tumour based on tumourigenesis and odontogenesis.
Oral Dis. 2018; 24(7):1226-1234 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Primordial odontogenic tumour (POT) is a rare benign mixed epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic tumour. POT is composed of dental papilla-like tissue covered with cuboidal to columnar epithelium that resembles to inner and outer enamel epithelium of the enamel organ without dental hard tissue formation. The aim of this study was to examine pathogenesis of POT based on tumourigenesis and odontogenesis.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six cases of POT were submitted for study. DNA analysis and transcriptome analysis were performed by next-generation sequencing. Expression of amelogenin, ameloblastin and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) was examined by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: There were no gene mutations detected in any of analysed 151 cancer- and 42 odontogenesis-associated genes. Enamel protein-coding genes of Amelx, Ambn and Enam, and dentin protein-coding genes of Col1a1, Dspp, Nes and Dmp1 were expressed, whereas expression of dentinogenesis-associated genes of Bglap, Ibsp and Nfic was negative or very weak suggesting inhibition of dentin formation in POT after odontoblast differentiation. Immunoreactivity of amelogenin, ameloblastin and DSPP was detected in POT.
CONCLUSIONS: Pathogenesis of POT is considered to be genetically different from other odontogenic tumours. It is suggested that inhibition of enamel and dentin formation in POT is due to defects in dentin formation process.

Liu J, Shen JX, Wu HT, et al.
Collagen 1A1 (COL1A1) promotes metastasis of breast cancer and is a potential therapeutic target.
Discov Med. 2018; 25(139):211-223 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important component of tumor microenvironment and plays critical roles in cancer development and metastasis, in which collagen is the major structural protein. Collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1) is reportedly associated with the development of several human diseases. However, the functions and mechanisms of cellular expression of COL1A1 in breast cancer remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cellular expression of COL1A1 in breast cancer cells and patients, and its role in the development and metastasis of breast cancer.
METHODS: The immunofluorescence staining was used to identify the cellular location of COL1A1 in breast cancer cell lines. Real-time PCR was applied to measuring the mRNA levels of COL1A1 and genes of interest. Wound healing and transwell assay were performed to evaluate the effect of COL1A1 on metastasis of breast cancer cells. 97 patients with breast cancer were recruited in this study for evaluating the correlation of COL1A1 with survival and clinicopathological parameters.
RESULTS: COL1A1 was expressed in all examined breast cancer cells. Knockdown of COL1A1 inhibited metastasis of breast cancer cells, with a low-level of CXCR4, independent of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. In patients with breast cancer, cellular expression of COL1A1 was associated with ER/PR expression and metastasis status. The increased COL1A1 level was associated with poor survival, especially in patients with ER+ breast cancer. Patients with a high-level of COL1A1 showed better cisplatin-based chemotherapy response.
CONCLUSION: Cellular expression of COL1A1 could promote breast cancer metastasis. COL1A1 is a new prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer, especially in ER+ patients.

Meng C, He Y, Wei Z, et al.
MRTF-A mediates the activation of COL1A1 expression stimulated by multiple signaling pathways in human breast cancer cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 104:718-728 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deposition of type I collage in ECM is an important property of various fibrotic diseases including breast cancer. The excessive expression of type I collagen contributes to the rigidity of cancer tissue and increases the mechanical stresses which facilitate metastasis and proliferation of cancer cells via the activation of TGF-β signaling pathway. The increased mechanical stresses also cause the compression of blood vessels and result in hypoperfusion and impaired drug delivery in cancer tissue. Additionally, type I collage functions as the ligand of α2β1-integrin and DDR1/2 receptors on the membrane of cancer cells to initiate signal transduction leading to metastasis. The expression of type I collage in cancer cells is previously shown to be inducible by TGF-β however the detailed mechanism by which the synthesis of type I collagen is regulated in breast cancer cells remains unclear. Herein, we report that MRTF-A, a co-activator of SRF, is important for the regulation of type I collagen gene COL1A1 in breast cancer cells. MRTF-A physically interacted with the promoter of COL1A1 to facilitate histone acetylation and RNA polymerase II recruitment. The RhoC-ROCK signaling pathway which controls the nuclear localization of MRTF-A regulated the transcription of COL1A1 in human breast cancer cells. TGF-β and Wnt signaling increased the expression of both MRTF-A and COL1A1. Furthermore, depletion of MRTF-A abolished the upregulation of COL1A1 in response to the TGF-β or Wnt signaling, indicating the importance of MRTF-A in the synthesis of type I collagen in breast cancer. Given the crucial roles of type I collagen in the formation of metastasis-prone and hypoperfusion microenvironment, MRTF-A would be a potential target for the development of anti-breast cancer activities.

Wang M, Li L, Liu J, Wang J
A gene interaction network‑based method to measure the common and heterogeneous mechanisms of gynecological cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(1):230-242 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Gynecological malignancies are a leading cause of mortality in the female population. The present study intended to identify the association between three severe types of gynecological cancer, specifically ovarian cancer, cervical cancer and endometrial cancer, and to identify the connective driver genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) and biological processes associated with these types of gynecological cancer. In the present study, individual driver genes for each type of cancer were identified using integrated analysis of multiple microarray data. Gene Ontology (GO) has been used widely in functional annotation and enrichment analysis. In the present study, GO enrichment analysis revealed a number of common biological processes involved in gynecological cancer, including 'cell cycle' and 'regulation of macromolecule metabolism'. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis is a resource for understanding the high‑level functions and utilities of a biological system from molecular‑level information. In the present study, the most common pathway was 'cell cycle'. A protein‑protein interaction network was constructed to identify a hub of connective genes, including minichromosome maintenance complex component 2 (MCM2), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), collagen type I α1 chain (COL1A1) and Jun proto‑oncogene AP‑1 transcription factor subunit (JUN). Survival analysis revealed that the expression of MCM2, MMP2, COL1A1 and JUN was associated with the prognosis of the aforementioned gynecological cancer types. By constructing an miRNA‑driver gene network, let‑7 targeted the majority of the driver genes. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated a connection model across three types of gynecological cancer, which was useful in identifying potential diagnostic markers and novel therapeutic targets, in addition to in aiding the prediction of the development of cancer as it progresses.

Cardozo ER, Foster R, Karmon AE, et al.
MicroRNA 21a-5p overexpression impacts mediators of extracellular matrix formation in uterine leiomyoma.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018; 16(1):46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (MiR) may promote fibroid development via altered expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and ECM formation, and evidence supports aberrant expression of MicroRNA (MiR) 21a-5p in fibroids. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional significance of MiR 21a-5p overexpression in the pathobiology of leiomyomata (fibroids).
METHODS: A basic science experimental design using immortalized fibroid and myometrial cell lines derived from patient-matched specimens was used. Stable overexpression of MiR-21a-5p in an immortalized fibroid and patient matched myometrial cell line was achieved through lentiviral vector infection. Main outcome measures were MiR-21-5p overexpression, target gene and protein expression, collagen (COL1A1) production, cell proliferation, cell migration, and cell cycle stages of fibroid and myometrial immortalized cell lines.
RESULTS: MiR-21a-5p was overexpressed to similar levels in fibroid and myometrial cell lines after lentiviral infection. Increased expression of miR-21 resulted in increased gene and protein expression of TGF-β3 in both fibroid and myometrial cells. Changes in expression of the ECM genes Fibronectin, Collagen 1A1, CTGF, Versican and DPT were seen in both fibroid and myometrial cells. Changes were also seen in Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) related genes including MMP 2, MMP 9, MMP 11 and Serpine 1 in both fibroid and myometrial cells. MiR-21 upregulation resulted in increased proliferation and migration in fibroid cells compared to myometrial cells.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-21a-5p overexpression results in changes in the expression of ECM mediators in both fibroid and myometrial cells, and increased cell proliferation in fibroid cells. These finding suggest a potential functional role of MiR-21a-5p in the development of uterine fibroids and warrant further investigation.

Hsieh YY, Tung SY, Pan HY, et al.
Upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is associated with poor prognosis of late-stage gastric Cancer patients.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):508 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is the eighth most common cancer in Taiwan, with a 40% 5-year survival rate. Approximately 40% of patients are refractory to chemotherapy. Currently, the anti-HER2 therapy is the only clinically employed targeted therapy. However, only 7% patients in Taiwan are HER2-positive. Identifying candidate target genes will facilitate the development of adjuvant targeted therapy to increase the efficacy of gastric cancer treatment.
METHODS: Clinical specimens were analyzed by targeted RNA sequencing to assess the expression levels of target genes. Statistical significance of differential expression and correlation between specimens was evaluated. The correlation with patient survival was analyzed as well. In vitro cell mobility was determined using wound-healing and transwell mobility assays.
RESULTS: Expression of BMP1, COL1A1, STAT3, SOX2, FOXA2, and GATA6 was progressively dysregulated through the stages of gastric oncogenesis. The expression profile of these six genes forms an ubiquitously biomarker signature that is sufficient to differentiate cancer from non-cancerous specimens. High expression status of BMP1 correlates with poor long-term survival of late-stage patients. In vitro, suppression of BMP1 inhibits the mobility of the gastric cancer cell lines, indicating a role of BMP1 in metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: BMP1 is upregulated in gastric cancer and is correlated with poor patient survival. Suppression of BMP1 reduced gastric cancer mobility in vitro. Our finding suggests that anti-BMP1 therapy will likely augment the efficacy of standard chemotherapy and improve the treatment outcome.

Jung J, Jang K, Ju JM, et al.
Novel cancer gene variants and gene fusions of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) reveal their molecular diversity conserved in the patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 428:127-138 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the improved 5-year survival rate of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a challenge due to lack of effective targeted therapy and higher recurrence and metastasis than other subtypes. To identify novel druggable targets and to understand its unique biology, we tried to implement 24 patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of TNBC. The overall success rate of PDX implantation was 45%, much higher than estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed conserved ER/PR/Her2 negativity (with two exceptions) between the original and PDX tumors. Genomic analysis of 10 primary tumor-PDX pairs with Ion AmpliSeq CCP revealed high degree of variant conservation (85.0%-96.9%) between primary and PDXs. Further analysis showed 44 rare variants with a predicted high impact in 36 genes including Trp53, Pten, Notch1, and Col1a1. Among them, we confirmed frequent Notch1 variant. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis of 24 PDXs revealed 594 gene fusions, of which 163 were in-frame, including AZGP1-GJC3 and NF1-AARSD1. Finally, western blot analysis of oncogenic signaling proteins supporting molecular diversity of TNBC PDXs. Overall, our report provides a molecular basis for the usefulness of the TNBC PDX model in preclinical study.

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