Gene Summary

Gene:CD63; CD63 molecule
Aliases: MLA1, ME491, LAMP-3, OMA81H, TSPAN30
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. The encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins. It may function as a blood platelet activation marker. Deficiency of this protein is associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Also this gene has been associated with tumor progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:CD63 antigen
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 March, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (21)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 March 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Exosomes
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Tumor Antigens
  • MicroRNAs
  • CD63
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Melanoma
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • CD Antigens
  • CD9 Antigen
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Regression Analysis
  • Down-Regulation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Base Sequence
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Skin Cancer
  • CD82
  • Angiogenesis
  • Gene Expression
  • Staging
  • Cell Movement
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Chromosome 12
  • Precipitin Tests
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Tumor Markers
  • Disease Progression
Tag cloud generated 17 March, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CD63 (cancer-related)

Jabbar KJ, Medeiros LJ, Wang SA, et al.
Flow cytometric immunophenotypic analysis of systemic mastocytosis involving bone marrow.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014; 138(9):1210-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Mast cells of systemic mastocytosis (SM) have aberrant immunophenotypes that are useful for their detection by flow cytometry immunophenotyping.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the usefulness of CD2, CD25, and other antigens for establishing the diagnosis of SM in bone marrow using flow cytometry immunophenotyping.
DESIGN: We studied 50 bone marrow aspirates of patients with SM using flow cytometry immunophenotyping. The bone marrow aspirates were stained with antibodies specific for CD2, CD25, CD35, CD59, CD63, and CD69. For the detection of CD2 and CD25, antibodies conjugated with phycoerythrin (PE) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were compared. CD45-PerCP and CD117-APC were used for gating. Data were acquired on FACS Calibur cytometers and analyzed using CellQuest software.
RESULTS: CD2 and CD25 were positive in 41 of 50 (82%) and 45 of 50 (90%) SM cases, respectively. For CD2, the PE-conjugated antibody yielded better sensitivity than the FITC-conjugated antibody (31 of 40 [78%] versus 28 of 40 [70%]). For CD25, PE-conjugated and FITC-conjugated antibodies showed similar detection sensitivity, although the intensity of expression was brighter with CD25-PE. Compared with immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry immunophenotyping was superior for detecting CD2 (14 of 23 [61%] versus 9 of 23 [39%]). Other antigens frequently overexpressed in SM were CD35 (43 of 50 [86%]), CD59 (46 of 50 [92%]), CD63 (43 of 49 [88%]), and CD69 (39 of 48 [81%]).
CONCLUSIONS: Flow cytometry immunophenotyping is a rapid and sensitive technique for characterizing mast cells in bone marrow aspirate specimens. The use of PE-conjugated antibodies for CD2 and CD25 improves the detection rate (CD2) or facilitates analysis (CD25); therefore, PE-conjugated antibodies are suggested. Antibodies reactive with CD35, CD59, CD63, and CD69 are also helpful in detecting SM in bone marrow.

Lupia A, Peppicelli S, Witort E, et al.
CD63 tetraspanin is a negative driver of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human melanoma cells.
J Invest Dermatol. 2014; 134(12):2947-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
The CD63 tetraspanin is highly expressed in the early stages of melanoma and decreases in advanced lesions, suggesting it as a possible suppressor of tumor progression. We employed loss- and gain-of-gene-function approaches to investigate the role of CD63 in melanoma progression and acquisition of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program. We used two human melanoma cell lines derived from primary tumors and one primary human melanoma cell line isolated from a cutaneous metastasis, differing by levels of CD63 expression. CD63-silenced melanoma cells showed enhanced motility and invasiveness with downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of N-cadherin and Snail. In parallel experiments, transient and stable ectopic expression of CD63 resulted in a robust reduction of cell motility, invasiveness, and protease activities, which was proportional to the increase in CD63 protein level. Transfected cells overexpressing the highest level of CD63 when transplanted into immunodeficient mice showed a reduced incidence and rate of tumor growth. Moreover, these cells showed a reduction of N-cadherin, Vimentin, Zeb1, and a-SMA, and a significant resistance to undergo an EMT program both in basal condition and in the following stimulation with TGFβ. Thus, our results establish a previously unreported mechanistic link between the tetraspanin CD63 and EMT abrogation in melanoma.

Tominaga N, Hagiwara K, Kosaka N, et al.
RPN2-mediated glycosylation of tetraspanin CD63 regulates breast cancer cell malignancy.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:134 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The tetraspanin CD63 is a highly N-glycosylated protein that is known to regulate cancer malignancy. However, the contribution of glycosylation of CD63 to cancer malignancy remains unclear. Previously, we reported that ribophorin II (RPN2), which is part of an N-oligosaccharyle transferase complex, is responsible for drug resistance in breast cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that cancer malignancy associated with the glycosylation of CD63 is regulated by RPN2.
RESULTS: Inhibition of RPN2 expression led to a reduction in CD63 glycosylation. In addition, the localization of CD63 was deregulated by knockdown of RPN2. Interestingly, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) localization was displaced from the cell surface in CD63-silenced cells. CD63 silencing reduced the chemoresistance and invasion ability of malignant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the enrichment of CD63/MDR1-double positive cells was associated with lymph node metastasis. Taken together, these results indicated that high glycosylation of CD63 by RPN2 is implicated in clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings describe a novel and important function of RPN2-mediated CD63 glycosylation, which regulates MDR1 localization and cancer malignancy, including drug resistance and invasion.

Aga M, Bentz GL, Raffa S, et al.
Exosomal HIF1α supports invasive potential of nasopharyngeal carcinoma-associated LMP1-positive exosomes.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(37):4613-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It has emerged recently that exosomes are potential carriers of pro-tumorigenic factors that participate in oncogenesis. However, whether oncogenic transcription factors are transduced by exosomes is unknown. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) transcriptionally regulates numerous key aspects of tumor development and progression by promoting a more aggressive tumor phenotype, characterized by increased proliferation and invasiveness coupled with neoangiogenesis. It has been shown that the principal oncoprotein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), drives oncogenic processes and tumor progression of the highly invasive EBV malignancy, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We now demonstrate that endogenous HIF1α is detectable in exosomes and that LMP1 significantly increases levels of HIF1α in exosomes. HIF1 recovered from exosomes retains DNA-binding activity and is transcriptionally active in recipient cells after exosome uptake. We also show that treatment of EBV-negative cells with LMP1-exosomes increases migration and invasiveness of NP cell lines in functional assays, which correlates with the phenotype associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In addition, we provide evidence that HIF1α itself participates in exosome-mediated pro-metastatic effects in recipient cells, as exosome-mediated delivery of active and inactive forms of HIF1α results in reciprocal changes in the expression of E- and N-cadherins associated with EMT. Further, immunohistochemical analysis of NPC tumor tissues revealed direct correlation between protein levels of LMP1 and of the endosome/exosome marker tetraspanin, CD63, which suggests an increase in exosome formation in this EBV-positive malignancy. We hypothesize that exosome-mediated transfer of functional pro-metastatic factors by LMP1-positive NPC cells to surrounding tumor cells promotes cancer progression.

Lee SY, Kim JM, Cho SY, et al.
TIMP-1 modulates chemotaxis of human neural stem cells through CD63 and integrin signalling.
Biochem J. 2014; 459(3):565-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
We recently reported that hNSCs (human neural stem cells) have the interesting characteristic of migration towards an intracranial glioma. However, the molecules and mechanisms responsible for tumour tropism are unclear. In the present study, we used microarray and proteomics analyses to identify a novel chemoattractant molecule, TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1), secreted from human brain tumour tissues. We demonstrate that TIMP-1 significantly enhances hNSC adhesion and migration in a cell culture system. These effects were critically dependent on CD63, as shRNA-mediated ablation of CD63 expression attenuated the response. TIMP-1 significantly increased the number of FAs (focal adhesions) and cytoskeletal reorganization for cell migration in hNSCs, whereas knockdown of CD63 resulted in decreased hNSC spreading, FAs and migration, even after TIMP-1 treatment. In addition, TIMP-1 binding to CD63 activated β1 integrin-mediated signalling through Akt and FAK phosphorylation, leading to pattern changes in distribution of vinculin and F-actin (filamentous actin). Furthermore, inactivation of β1 integrin by use of a blocking antibody or inhibition of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) signalling impaired the migration of hNSCs towards TIMP-1. Collectively, our results underline TIMP-1 as a novel and effective key regulator of CD63 and β1 integrin-mediated signalling, which regulates hNSC adhesion and migration.

Bidad K, Nawijn MC, van Oosterhout AJ, et al.
Basophil activation test in the diagnosis and monitoring of mastocytosis patients with wasp venom allergy on immunotherapy.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2014; 86(3):183-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is need for an accurate diagnostic test in mastocytosis patients with wasp venom allergy (WVA) and monitoring of these patients during immunotherapy (IT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of the Basophil Activation Test (BAT) as a diagnostic and monitoring test in patients with mastocytosis and WVA.
METHODS: Seventeen patients with mastocytosis and WVA and six mastocytosis patients without WVA were included. BAT was performed before the start of IT (first visit) and at 6 weeks (second visit) and 1 year (third visit), after reaching the maintenance dose. Of 17 patients included, 11 completed the third visit. In mastocytosis patients with WVA, dose-dependent wasp-venom induced upregulation of CD63 and CD203c expression on basophils was observed compared with mastocytosis patients without WVA. Serum specific IgE, IgG4, and tryptase levels were measured in all patients.
RESULTS: BAT had a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 100% in diagnosing WVA in mastocytosis patients. Basophil allergen threshold sensitivity with respect to CD63 and CD203c was significantly decreased in the second visit compared with the first visit and increased significantly in the third visit compared with the second visit. Specific IgE levels increased significantly in the second visit compared with first and decreased significantly in the third visit compared with the second. Specific IgG4 levels rose significantly in the second visit compared with the first and on the third visit compared with the second. Tryptase levels did not change significantly during the study.
CONCLUSIONS: BAT represents a diagnostic test with 100% specificity in allergic patients with mastocytosis and these patients are better to be monitored for a longer period during IT.

Liu J, Sun H, Wang X, et al.
Increased exosomal microRNA-21 and microRNA-146a levels in the cervicovaginal lavage specimens of patients with cervical cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(1):758-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Well-run screening programs for cervical cancer in the population at risk have been shown to result in a sharp decrease in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in a number of large populations. Expression patterns of a recently identified biomarker family, microRNA, appear to be characteristic of tumor type and developmental origin. Several tumors have been reported to actively release exosomes carrying microRNAs. The present study has determined the association of microRNAs with cervical cancer-derived exosomes. The cervical cancer-derived exosomes were enriched in the cervicovaginal lavages specimens and the abundance of exosomes and exosomal microRNAs was detected by electron microscopy, western blot analysis, RT-qPCR and microRNA target reporter vector. The microRNA-21 and microRNA-146a, which were up-regulated in cervical cancer patients, were associated with the high levels of cervical cancer-derived exosomes. In conclusion, we demonstrated the abundance of exosomes in the cervicovaginal lavage specimens of women with cervical cancer. Furthermore, our results indicated that abnormally high levels of microRNA-21 and microRNA-146a existed in the cervical cancer-derived exosomes and the two microRNAs were functional in 293T cells.

Lorenzi L, Tabellini G, Vermi W, et al.
Occurrence of nodular lymphocyte-predominant hodgkin lymphoma in hermansky-pudlak type 2 syndrome is associated to natural killer and natural killer T cell defects.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e80131 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hermansky Pudlak type 2 syndrome (HPS2) is a rare autosomal recessive primary immune deficiency caused by mutations on β3A gene (AP3B1 gene). The defect results in the impairment of the adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) complex, responsible for protein sorting to secretory lysosomes leading to oculo-cutaneous albinism, bleeding disorders and immunodeficiency. We have studied peripheral blood and lymph node biopsies from two siblings affected by HPS2. Lymph node histology showed a nodular lymphocyte predominance type Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) in both HPS2 siblings. By immunohistochemistry, CD8 T-cells from HPS2 NLPHL contained an increased amount of perforin (Prf) + suggesting a defect in the release of this granules-associated protein. By analyzing peripheral blood immune cells we found a significant reduction of circulating NKT cells and of CD56(bright)CD16(-) Natural Killer (NK) cells subset. Functionally, NK cells were defective in their cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines including Hodgkin Lymphoma as well as in IFN-γ production. This defect was associated with increased baseline level of CD107a and CD63 at the surface level of unstimulated and IL-2-activated NK cells. In summary, these results suggest that a combined and profound defect of innate and adaptive effector cells might explain the susceptibility to infections and lymphoma in these HPS2 patients.

Plantier F
[Granular cell tumour or Abrikissoff's tumour].
Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2013; 140(5):399-402 [PubMed] Related Publications

Ordóñez NG
Value of melanocytic-associated immunohistochemical markers in the diagnosis of malignant melanoma: a review and update.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(2):191-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since the identification of S100 protein as an immunohistochemical marker that could be useful in the diagnosis of melanoma in the early 1980s, a large number of other melanocytic-associated markers that could potentially be used to assist in the differential diagnosis of these tumors have also been investigated. A great variation exists, however, among these markers, not only in their expression in some subtypes of melanoma, particularly desmoplastic melanoma, but also in their specificity because some of them can also be expressed in nonmelanocytic neoplasms, including various types of soft tissue tumors and carcinomas. This article reviews the information that is currently available on the practical value of some of the markers that have more often been recommended for assisting in the diagnosis of melanomas, including those that have only recently become available.

Toricelli M, Melo FH, Peres GB, et al.
Timp1 interacts with beta-1 integrin and CD63 along melanoma genesis and confers anoikis resistance by activating PI3-K signaling pathway independently of Akt phosphorylation.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12:22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Anoikis resistance is one of the abilities acquired along tumor progression. This characteristic is associated with metastasis development, since tumorigenic cells must survive independently of cell-matrix interactions in this process. In our laboratory, it was developed a murine melanocyte malignant transformation model associated with a sustained stressful condition. After subjecting melan-a melanocytes to 1, 2, 3 and 4 cycles of anchorage impediment, anoikis resistant cells were established and named 1C, 2C, 3C and 4C, respectively. These cells showed altered morphology and PMA independent cell growth, but were not tumorigenic, corresponding to pre-malignant cells. After limiting dilution of 4C pre-malignant cells, melanoma cell lines with different characteristics were obtained. Previous data from our group showed that increased Timp1 expression correlated with anoikis-resistant phenotype. Timp1 was shown to confer anchorage-independent growth capability to melan-a melanocytes and render melanoma cells more aggressive when injected into mice. However, the mechanisms involved in anoikis regulation by Timp1 in tumorigenic cells are not clear yet.
METHODS: The β1-integrin and Timp1 expression were evaluated by Western blotting and CD63 protein expression by flow cytometry using specific antibodies. To analyze the interaction among Timp1, CD63 and β1-integrin, immunoprecipitation assays were performed, anoikis resistance capability was evaluated in the presence or not of the PI3-K inhibitors, Wortmannin and LY294002. Relative expression of TIMP1 and CD63 in human metastatic melanoma cells was analyzed by real time PCR.
RESULTS: Differential association among Timp1, CD63 and β1-integrins was observed in melan-a melanocytes, 4C pre-malignant melanocytes and 4C11- and 4C11+ melanoma cells. Timp1 present in conditioned medium of melanoma cells rendered melan-a melanocytes anoikis-resistant through PI3-K signaling pathway independently of Akt activation. In human melanoma cell lines, in which TIMP1 and beta-1 integrin were also found to be interacting, TIMP1 and CD63 levels together was shown to correlate significantly with colony formation capacity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Timp1 is assembled in a supramolecular complex containing CD63 and β1-integrins along melanoma genesis and confers anoikis resistance by activating PI3-K signaling pathway, independently of Akt phosphorylation. In addition, our data point TIMP1, mainly together with CD63, as a potential biomarker of melanoma.

Miller IV, Raposo G, Welsch U, et al.
First identification of Ewing's sarcoma-derived extracellular vesicles and exploration of their biological and potential diagnostic implications.
Biol Cell. 2013; 105(7):289-303 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Exosomes are small RNA- and protein-containing extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are thought to mediate hetero- and homotypic intercellular communication between normal and malignant cells.Tumour-derived exosomes are believed to promote re-programming of the tumour-associated stroma to favour tumour growth and metastasis. Currently, exosomes have been intensively studied in carcinomas. However, little is known about their existence and possible role in sarcomas.
RESULTS: Here, we report on the identification of vesicles with exosomal features derived from Ewing's sarcoma(ES), the second most common soft-tissue or bone cancer in children and adolescents. ES cell line-derived EV shave been isolated by ultracentrifugation and analysed by flow-cytometric assessment of the exosome-associated proteins CD63 and CD81 as well as by electron microscopy. They proved to contain ES-specific transcripts including EWS-FLI1, which were suitable for the sensitive detection of ES cell line-derived exosomes by qRT-PCRin a pre-clinical model for patient plasma. Microarray analysis of ES cell line-derived exosomes revealed that they share a common transcriptional signature potentially involved in G-protein-coupled signalling, neurotransmitter signalling and stemness.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results imply that ES-derived exosomes could eventually serve as biomarkers for minimal residual disease diagnostics in peripheral blood and prompt further investigation of their potential biological role in modification of the ES-associated microenvironment

Wei F, Yang J, Wong DT
Detection of exosomal biomarker by electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM).
Biosens Bioelectron. 2013; 44:115-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Exosomes biomarkers mediating important biological process, especially in the systemic disease diagnostics and therapeutics, yet the protective exosomal vesicle structure hinders rapid, simple detection of the harbored molecules. We have established a new method, the electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM), which can simultaneously disrupt exosomes to release the contents and on-site monitoring the harbored exosomal RNA/proteins biomarkers. When exposed to a non-uniform electrical field, exosomal RNA and proteins are rapidly released. Bio-recognition of these biomolecules is carried out concurrently. We tested the hypothesis that the lung cancer cell line, H460 stably transfected with hCD63-GFP, would shed hCD63-GFP expressing exosomes that could be detected in serum and saliva. We confirmed in vivo that H460-CD63-GFP shed exosomes were transported to blood and saliva. This result demonstrates for the first time tumor-shed exosomes were detected in saliva, in addition to blood, presenting a new translational utility of exosome-based biomarker detection in saliva.

Piva E, Chieco-Bianchi F, Krajcar V, et al.
Adverse reactions in patients with B-cell lymphomas during combined treatment with rituximab: In vitro evaluation of rituximab hypersensitivity by basophil activation test.
Am J Hematol. 2012; 87(11):E130-1 [PubMed] Related Publications

Chiba M, Kimura M, Asari S
Exosomes secreted from human colorectal cancer cell lines contain mRNAs, microRNAs and natural antisense RNAs, that can transfer into the human hepatoma HepG2 and lung cancer A549 cell lines.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 28(5):1551-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Exosomes are microvesicles that are released from various cells into the extracellular space. It has been reported that the components within exosomes vary according to the type of secreted cell. In the present study, we investigated the tetraspanin family proteins CD63, CD9 and CD81 as useful collection markers of exosomes derived from the three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines HCT-15, SW480 and WiDr. In addition, we aimed to detect the mRNAs, microRNAs and natural antisense RNAs within the exosomes secreted from the three CRC cell lines. Furthermore, we examined whether exosomes containing their RNAs were transferred into the hepatoma cell line HepG2 and lung cancer cell line A549. CD81 was detected in exosomes secreted from the three CRC cell lines. This result indicates that CD81 can be a collection marker of exosomes derived from the three CRC cell lines. When the RNA species within exosomes derived from the three CRC cell lines were examined, the mRNAs of housekeeping genes such as ACTB and GAPDH, the microRNAs such as miR-21, miR-192 and miR-221, and the natural antisense RNAs of LRRC24, MDM2 and CDKN1A genes, were detected. We discovered their natural antisense RNAs within exosomes for the first time in the present study. Furthermore, PKH67-labeled exosomes derived from the CRC cell lines were taken up into HepG2 and A549 cells. These findings indicate that the intracellular RNAs enclosed within exosomes are secreted to the outside, and exosomes derived from the CRC cell lines are transferred into HepG2 and A549 cells. In conclusion, we reveal that exosomes derived from the CRC cell lines contain mRNAs, microRNAs and natural antisense RNAs, and can be delivered into HepG2 and A549 cells. These findings indicate that exosomal RNAs can shuttle between cells, and may be involved in the regulation of gene expression in recipient cells.

[Isolation and proteomic analysis of exosomes secreted by human cancer cells in vitro].
Tsitologiia. 2012; 54(5):430-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exosomes are 20-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin secreted by most cell types in vitro and in vivo. Since exosomes contain both RNA (mRNA and microRNA) and proteins, which can be transferred to another cell, and be functional in that new environment, these vesicles may be involved in the communication between cells. The secretion of exosomes by tumor cells and their implication in the transport and propagation of infectious cargo suggest their participation in pathological situations. Our purpose here is to describe methods for the production, purification, and proteomic characterization of exosomes derived from human cancer cells in vitro. Based on exosomes' unique lipidic composition, we have developed the new approach to increase production of exosomes by cells in vitro. Secondly, we have developed quality control by laser correlation spectroscopy for exosomal assays based on the amount of MHC class I and CD63 molecules on their surface. At last, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was used after 2D electrophoresis for the proteomic analysis of exosomes derived from cancer cell lines. This study describes the protein composition of brain tumor cell-derived exosomes in more detail.

Umezu T, Ohyashiki K, Kuroda M, Ohyashiki JH
Leukemia cell to endothelial cell communication via exosomal miRNAs.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(22):2747-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent findings indicate that specific microRNAs (miRNAs), such as those of the miR-17-92 cluster, may be responsible for regulating endothelial gene expression during tumor angiogenesis. Secreted miRNAs enclosed in exosomes also have an important role in cell-cell communication. To elucidate whether miRNAs secreted from neoplastic cells transfer into endothelial cells and are functionally active in the recipient cells, we investigated the effect of exosomal miRNAs derived from leukemia cells (K562) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). As K562 cells released the miR-17-92 cluster, especially miR-92a, into the extracellular environment, K562 cells, transfected with Cy3-labeled pre-miR-92a, were co-cultured with HUVECs. Cy3-miR-92a derived from K562 cells was detected in the cytoplasm of HUVECs, and the Cy3-miR-92a co-localized with the signals of an exosomal marker, CD63. The expression of integrin α5, a target gene for miR-92a, was significantly reduced in HUVECs by exosomal miR-92a, indicating that exogenous miRNA via exosomal transport can function like endogenous miRNA in HUVECs. The most salient feature of this study is the exosome, derived from K562 cells with enforced miR-92a expression, did not affect the growth of HUVECs but did enhance endothelial cell migration and tube formation. Our results support the idea that exosomal miRNAs have an important role in neoplasia-to-endothelial cell communication.

Rank A, Liebhardt S, Zwirner J, et al.
Circulating microparticles in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(5):2009-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Microparticles are known to be increased in various malignancies. In this prospective study, microparticle levels were evaluated in patients with benign and malignant ovarian lesions.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Microparticles from platelets/megakaryocytes, activated platelets and endothelial cells, tissue factor exposing microparticles and D-dimer values were examined in patients with newly diagnosed ovarian lesions before surgery, and were correlated with tumor histology.
RESULTS: Higher counts of CD63-positive microparticles were detected in patients with ovarian cancer [mean=276×10(6) (range: 64-948)/l; n=12] as compared to patients with benign ovarian tumors [146×10(6) (45-390)/l; n=21; p=0.014]. D-dimer values were also increased in patients with cancer [860 (180-4500) ng/l versus 280 (170-2720) ng/l; p=0.001].
CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of CD63-positive microparticles and D-dimer reflect the procoagulant phenotype of these patients. However, for the discrimination between benign and malignant ovarian tumors, measuring preoperative levels of microparticles does not seem to be helpful.

Xia Y, Yeddula N, Leblanc M, et al.
Reduced cell proliferation by IKK2 depletion in a mouse lung-cancer model.
Nat Cell Biol. 2012; 14(3):257-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the leading cancer malignancies, with a five-year survival rate of only ~15%. We have developed a lentiviral-vector-mediated mouse model, which enables generation of non-small-cell lung cancer from less than 100 alveolar epithelial cells, and investigated the role of IKK2 and NF-κB in lung-cancer development. IKK2 depletion in tumour cells significantly attenuated tumour proliferation and significantly prolonged mouse survival. We identified Timp1, one of the NF-κB target genes, as a key mediator for tumour growth. Activation of the Erk signalling pathway and cell proliferation requires Timp-1 and its receptor CD63. Knockdown of either Ikbkb or Timp1 by short hairpin RNAs reduced tumour growth in both xenograft and lentiviral models. Our results thus suggest the possible application of IKK2 and Timp-1 inhibitors in treating lung cancer.

Rudman SM, Josephs DH, Cambrook H, et al.
Harnessing engineered antibodies of the IgE class to combat malignancy: initial assessment of FcɛRI-mediated basophil activation by a tumour-specific IgE antibody to evaluate the risk of type I hypersensitivity.
Clin Exp Allergy. 2011; 41(10):1400-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: IgE antibodies, sequestered into tissues and retained locally by the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcɛRI, on powerful effector cells such as mast cells, macrophages and eosinophils, may offer improvements in the therapy of solid tumours. The chimeric antibody, MOv18 IgE, against the human ovarian carcinoma antigen, folate receptor α (FRα), is more effective than its IgG1 counterpart in xenograft models of ovarian cancer. Although MOv18 IgE binds to a single epitope on FRα and cannot cross-link IgE receptors on basophils, there remains a risk that components in the circulation of ovarian cancer patients might cross-link FRα-MOv18-IgE-receptor-FcɛRI complexes on basophils to cause type I hypersensitivity.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the propensity for MOv18 used in a therapeutic setting to cause FcɛRI-mediated type I hypersensitivity.
METHODS: As validated readouts of the potential for MOv18 to cause FcɛRI-mediated type I hypersensitivity we measured release of a granule-stored mediator from a rat basophilic leukaemia cell line RBL SX-38 stably transfected with human tetrameric (αβγ2) FcɛRI, and induction of CD63 on blood basophils from patients with ovarian carcinoma and healthy controls ex vivo.
RESULTS: Serum FRα levels were increased in ovarian cancer patients compared with healthy controls. MOv18 IgE alone, or in the presence of its antigen recombinant human FRα, or of healthy volunteer (n=14) or ovarian carcinoma patient (n=32) sera, did not induce RBL SX-38 cell degranulation. Exposure to FRα-expressing ovarian tumour cells at target-to-effector ratios expected within tumours induced degranulation. MOv18 IgE did not induce expression of CD63 in blood basophils from either healthy volunteers (n=6), or cancer patients, despite detectable levels of circulating FRα (n=5).
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These encouraging data are compatible with the hypothesis that, when ovarian carcinoma patients are treated with MOv18, FcɛRI-mediated activation of effector cells occurs within the tumour mass but not in the circulation mandating, with due caution, further pre-clinical studies.

Chen Z, Gu S, Trojanowicz B, et al.
Down-regulation of TM4SF is associated with the metastatic potential of gastric carcinoma TM4SF members in gastric carcinoma.
World J Surg Oncol. 2011; 9:43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of TM4SF members CD9, CD63 and CD82 in human gastric carcinoma.
METHODS: By employing RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of CD9, CD63 and CD82 in 49 paired tissue specimens of normal gastric mucosa and carcinoma. All tissues were obtained from patients who underwent curative surgery.
RESULTS: All normal gastric epithelium and gastric ulcer tissues strongly expressed transcripts and proteins of CD9, CD63 and CD82 as compared with corresponding controls. We found a significant correlation between CD63 mRNA level and different pM statuses (P = 0.036). Carcinomas in M0 stage revealed a stronger expression of CD63 than carcinomas in M1 stage. Expression of CD9 protein was found significantly stronger in pN0, pM0 than in advanced pN stages (P = 0.03), pM1 (P = 0.013), respectively. We found the relationship between CD63 expression, gender (p = 0.09) and nodal status (p = 0.028), respectively. Additionally, advanced and metastasized tumor tissues revealed significantly down-regulated CD82 protein expression (p = 0.033 and p = 0, respectively), which correlated with the tumor pTNM stage (p = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The reduction of CD9, CD63 and CD82 expression are indicators for the metastatic potential of gastric carcinoma cells. Unlike their expression in other tumor types, the constitutive expression of CD63 may indicate that this factor does play a direct role in human gastric carcinogenesis.

Iizuka S, Kudo Y, Yoshida M, et al.
Ameloblastin regulates osteogenic differentiation by inhibiting Src kinase via cross talk between integrin beta1 and CD63.
Mol Cell Biol. 2011; 31(4):783-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ameloblastin, the most abundant nonamelogenin enamel matrix protein, plays a role in ameloblast differentiation. Here, we found that ameloblastin was expressed in osteosarcoma cells; to explore the potential functions of ameloblastin in osteoblasts, we investigated whether this protein is involved in osteogenic differentiation and bone formation on the premise that CD63, a member of the transmembrane-4 glycoprotein superfamily, interacts with integrins in the presence of ameloblastin. Ameloblastin bound to CD63 and promoted CD63 binding to integrin β1. The interaction between CD63 and integrin β1 induced Src kinase inactivation via the binding of CD63 to Src. The reduction of Src activity and osteogenic differentiation mediated by ameloblastin were abrogated by treatment with anti-CD63 antibody and overexpression of constitutively active Src, respectively. Therefore, our results suggest that ameloblastin is expressed in osteoblasts and functions as a promoting factor for osteogenic differentiation via a novel pathway through the interaction between CD63 and integrin β1.

Rorive S, Lopez XM, Maris C, et al.
TIMP-4 and CD63: new prognostic biomarkers in human astrocytomas.
Mod Pathol. 2010; 23(10):1418-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Based on the molecular profiling of astrocytomas, we previously identified a series of genes involved in astrocytoma invasion. Of these, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4) was found to be overexpressed in pilocytic astrocytomas relative to diffuse astrocytomas of any histological grade. Although some data suggest that TIMP-4 may be an anti-tumoral actor in astrocytomas, recent findings challenge this concept. The present study aims to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic values of TIMP-4 and its putative partner CD63 in human astrocytomas. Tissue microarray and image analysis were first carried out to quantitatively analyze the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins in 471 gliomas including 354 astrocytomas. Pathological semi-quantitative scores of both markers' expression were then established and correlated to astrocytoma diagnosis and patient prognosis. TIMP-4 and CD63 expressions were both overexpressed in astrocytomas compared with oligodendrogliomas (P<0.001) and in pilocytic astrocytomas compared with grade II diffuse astrocytomas (P<0.001). In glioblastomas, high TIMP-4/CD63 co-expression scores were identified as independent prognostic factors associated with progression and shorter survival. In conclusion, this work provides the first evidence of a TIMP-4/CD63 association in astrocytoma tumor cells. It identifies TIMP-4 and CD63 as markers of the astrocytic phenotype in patients with gliomas. In addition, this work highlights the contribution of high TIMP-4/CD63 co-expression to the adverse outcomes of patients with glioblastomas.

Kim DH, Kwon MS
Role of fine needle aspiration cytology, cell block preparation and CD63, P63 and CD56 immunostaining in classifying the specific tumor type of the lung.
Acta Cytol. 2010 Jan-Feb; 54(1):55-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether CD63, p63 and CD56 are useful in the diagnostic evaluation of cytologic samples of pulmonary malignancy.
STUDY DESIGN: We explored the utility of using a panel of 3 antibodies, CD63, p63 and CD56, for the diagnosis of lung cancer in cytologic samples consisting of 40 cases of cell block sections and previously Papanicolaou-stained cytologic smear slides.
RESULTS: The positive rates for CD63, p63 and CD56 were as follows: adenocarcinoma (18/19), (0/19), (0/19), for small cell lung carcinoma (3/8), (0/8), (8/8), and for squamous cell carcinoma (0/13), (12/13), (0/13). All p63 positive cases were squamous cell carcinoma, and all CD56 positive cases were small cell lung carcinoma. CD63 was positive in the majority of adenocarcinomas.
CONCLUSION: The panel of CD63, p63 and CD56 appears to be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of cytologic samples of pulmonary malignancy.

Woegerbauer M, Thurnher D, Houben R, et al.
Expression of the tetraspanins CD9, CD37, CD63, and CD151 in Merkel cell carcinoma: strong evidence for a posttranscriptional fine-tuning of CD9 gene expression.
Mod Pathol. 2010; 23(5):751-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tetraspanins including CD9, CD37, CD63, and CD151 are linked to cellular adhesion, cell differentiation, migration, carcinogenesis, and tumor progression. The aim of the study was to detect, quantify, and evaluate the prognostic value of these tetraspanins in Merkel cell carcinoma and to study the regulation of CD9 mRNA expression in Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines in detail. Immunohistochemical staining of 28 Merkel cell carcinoma specimens from 25 patients showed a significant correlation of CD9 (P=0.03) and CD151 (P=0.043) expression to overall survival. CD9 and CD63 expression correlated significantly to patients' disease-free interval (P=0.017 and P=0.058). Of primary Merkel cell carcinoma tumors, 42% were CD9 positive in contrast to only 21% of the subcutaneous in-transit metastases. Characterization of the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the CD9 mRNA from two cultured Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines revealed the presence of two major RNA species differing only in the length of their 5' termini (183 versus 102 nucleotides). In silico analysis of the long CD9 mRNA predicted a 5' UTR folding pattern blocking ribosomal scanning and translation. Quantitative data by real-time RT-PCR not only indicated a reduction of CD9 mRNA but also a distinct quantitative shift toward the long 5' UTR in CD9 receptor negative cells. These observations provide an example for a posttranscriptional fine-tuning of CD9 gene expression in tumor cells.

Buim ME, Lourenço SV, Carvalho KC, et al.
Downregulation of CD9 protein expression is associated with aggressive behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol. 2010; 46(3):166-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC) is a malignancy characterized by a high degree of local aggression and metastasis to cervical lymph nodes. Tetraspanins are proteins with functional roles in a wide array of cellular processes and are reported to be associated with tumor progression. The present study investigated the expression of the CD9, CD37, CD63, CD81 and CD82 tetraspanins in OSCC using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR). Tissue microarray (TMA) analysis of samples from 179 cases of OSCC and 10 normal samples oral mucosa were evaluated immunomorphologically. We analyzed CD9 and CD82 expression by qRT-PCR in 66 OSCC cases and 4 normal samples of oral mucosa. Expression of CD63, CD37 and CD81 was not detected in the samples studied. CD82 was downregulated or negative in 127 of 179 (80%) specimens; no correlation was observed between CD82 expression, clinicopathological parameters, disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival. CD9 expression was downregulated or negative in 75 of 129 (42%) OSCC samples. Loss of CD9 expression in OSCC samples correlated with the incidence of lymph node metastasis (p=0.017). Disease-free survival and the 5-year overall survival of patients with downregulated or negative CD9 expression were significantly lower than in patients with positive CD9 expression (p=0.010 and p=0.071, respectively). No correlation was found between CD9 or CD82 expression and clinicopathological parameters by qRT-PCR. Our results suggest that the downregulation or lack of expression of the CD9 protein might indicate a more aggressive of OSCC.

Clark FL, Somoano B, Taube J, et al.
Eyebrow papule in an elderly man.
Dermatol Online J. 2009; 15(9):14 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 70-year-old Caucasian man presented with a several-month history of a solitary, asymptomatic papule on the left eyebrow. His medical history included stage 1A lentigo maligna melanoma and multiple non-melanoma skin cancers. Physical examination demonstrated a solitary 5-mm smooth, dome-shaped skin colored papule with subtle central erosion on the left eyebrow. No overlying telangiectasias were noted. A biopsy of the lesion was performed. The lesion was composed of plump spindle cells arranged in a plexiform pattern in the background of thick, keloidal collagen bundles. The lesional cells were NKI/C3-positive and S-100-negative. A diagnosis of cellular neurothekeoma was made.

Krauth MT, Mirkina I, Herrmann H, et al.
Midostaurin (PKC412) inhibits immunoglobulin E-dependent activation and mediator release in human blood basophils and mast cells.
Clin Exp Allergy. 2009; 39(11):1711-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: KIT tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as nilotinib or midostaurin (PKC412), are increasingly used in clinical trials to counteract neoplastic cell growth in patients with aggressive mast cell (MC) disorders. However, these patients suffer not only from MC infiltration and consecutive organ damage but also from MC mediator-related symptoms.
METHODS: We examined the effects of three KIT TKI, imatinib, nilotinib, and midostaurin, on IgE-dependent mediator release in normal human blood basophils and cultured cord blood cell-derived MC, and on spontaneous histamine secretion in the MC leukaemia cell line HMC-1 and the basophil cell line KU812.
RESULTS: The multi-kinase inhibitor midostaurin that interacts with KIT and protein kinase C was found to counteract anti-IgE-induced mediator release in blood basophils and cultured cord blood cell-derived MC in all samples examined. By contrast, no effects of imatinib or nilotinib on histamine secretion in basophils or MC were found. The effects of midostaurin on histamine release were dose-dependent and occurred at pharmacologic concentrations (IC(50) 10-100 nm). Midostaurin was also found to inhibit the IgE-dependent up-regulation of CD63 on cultured cord blood cell-derived human MC, but did not inhibit IgE-dependent up-regulation of CD63 or CD203c in human blood basophils.
CONCLUSION: Midostaurin may be a beneficial drug in aggressive systemic mastocytosis not only because of its growth-inhibitory effects but also because of its additional effects on activation and mediator release in MC and basophils.

Smith VE, Read ML, Turnell AS, et al.
A novel mechanism of sodium iodide symporter repression in differentiated thyroid cancer.
J Cell Sci. 2009; 122(Pt 18):3393-402 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Differentiated thyroid cancers and their metastases frequently exhibit reduced iodide uptake, impacting on the efficacy of radioiodine ablation therapy. PTTG binding factor (PBF) is a proto-oncogene implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer. We recently reported that PBF inhibits iodide uptake, and have now elucidated a mechanism by which PBF directly modulates sodium iodide symporter (NIS) activity in vitro. In subcellular localisation studies, PBF overexpression resulted in the redistribution of NIS from the plasma membrane into intracellular vesicles, where it colocalised with the tetraspanin CD63. Cell-surface biotinylation assays confirmed a reduction in plasma membrane NIS expression following PBF transfection compared with vector-only treatment. Coimmunoprecipitation and GST-pull-down experiments demonstrated a direct interaction between NIS and PBF, the functional consequence of which was assessed using iodide-uptake studies in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells. PBF repressed iodide uptake, whereas three deletion mutants, which did not localise within intracellular vesicles, lost the ability to inhibit NIS activity. In summary, we present an entirely novel mechanism by which the proto-oncogene PBF binds NIS and alters its subcellular localisation, thereby regulating its ability to uptake iodide. Given that PBF is overexpressed in thyroid cancer, these findings have profound implications for thyroid cancer ablation using radioiodine.

Shimada Y, Ishii G, Nagai K, et al.
Expression of podoplanin, CD44, and p63 in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
Cancer Sci. 2009; 100(11):2054-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent molecular biological studies have identified podoplanin as a candidate cancer stem cell (CSC) marker in squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). The purpose of this study was to examine the expression pattern of podoplanin, and the other stem cell markers CD44 and p63, and their relationship to clinico-pathological features including survival in pulmonary SqCC. We examined histologically the expression of podoplanin, CD44, and p63 in 162 consecutive SqCC by immunostaining. Podoplanin expression was observed in 107 (66%) tumors, CD44 in 145 (89.5%), and p63 in 151 (93.2%), respectively. In 95.3% of the podoplanin-positive tumors, tumor cells showing strong expression were localized in the periphery of the tumor nests. However, this peripheral localization was observed in only 55.9% of the CD44-positive and 43% of p63-positive tumors. In 88.8% of the podoplanin-positive tumors, positive cells were localized more peripherally in the tumor nests than CD44- or p63-positive cells and when CD44 and p63 expressions were compared in these podoplanin-positive tumors, p63-positive layers in the periphery of the tumor nests were broader compared to CD44-positive layers. These findings suggest tumor cells are aligned in the "hierarchical distribution pattern" according to the expression of these three markers. Patients who had podoplanin-positive tumors with the "hierarchical pattern" resulted in significantly better overall survival than those who had podoplanin-negative tumors (P = 0.043). These results suggest that podoplanin expression would reflect the most immature status in the differentiation process of SqCC, and SqCC with hierarchical expression would be a well-organized tumor group with lower biological aggressiveness based on the CSC concept.

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