Gene Summary

Gene:CCL4; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4
Aliases: ACT2, G-26, HC21, LAG1, LAG-1, MIP1B, SCYA2, SCYA4, MIP1B1, AT744.1, MIP-1-beta
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a mitogen-inducible monokine and is one of the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T-cells. The encoded protein is secreted and has chemokinetic and inflammatory functions. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-C motif chemokine 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (20)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (4)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Liver Cancer
  • p53 Protein
  • Mutation
  • Chemokines, CXC
  • Viral Matrix Proteins
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Promoter Regions
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cultured Cells
  • Tumor Necrosis Factors
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Survival
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Up-Regulation
  • Chemokine CCL3
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Transcription Factors
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Chromosome 17
  • Apoptosis
  • Base Sequence
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Chemokines
  • U937 Cells
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Signal Transduction
  • Chemokine CCL2
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Protein Array Analysis
  • Cytokines
  • Chemokines, CC
  • Messenger RNA
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCL4 (cancer-related)

Yu T, Lu Q, Ou XL, et al.
Clinical study on gastric cancer susceptibility genes IL-10-1082 and TNF-α.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(4):10909-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
TNF 308 gene polymorphism and IL-10 polymorphism provided evidence in diagnosing some types of cancer. We aimed to explore the relation of gene polymorphism with gastric cancer. A total of 360 cases of gastric cancer patients were included in the study. The genotypes GG, GA, and AA of the interleukin-10-1082 gene (IL-10-1082) and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene (TNF-α) 308 polymorphism were examined by chromogenic detection. Three hundred healthy individuals' gene as control group were also examined. The GA 308 genotype of TNF-α differed significantly between the control group and the gastric cancer group (X(2) = 9.32, P < 0.05). Genotype frequencies of A/A (17.2%), A/G (26.2%), and G/G (9.1%) of the IL-10-1082 gene polymorphism in the gastric cancer group differed significantly compared to those of the control group (X(2) = 20.32, P < 0.05). The IL-10-1082 gene and the GA 308 genotype of the TNF-α gene were found to be susceptibility genes for gastric cancer.

Mei F, You J, Liu B, et al.
LASS2/TMSG1 inhibits growth and invasion of breast cancer cell in vitro through regulation of vacuolar ATPase activity.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2831-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homo sapiens longevity assurance homologue 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2)/tumor metastasis suppressor gene 1 (TMSG1) was a novel tumor metastasis-related gene identified using messenger RNA differential display from non-metastatic human prostate cancer cell variants. The mechanism of LASS2/TMSG1 inhibiting tumor invasion metastasis in breast cancer cells had not been well investigated. In the present study, a full length of 1.2 kb LASS2/TMSG1 complementary DNA (cDNA) coding for a protein of 380 amino acids was cloned. PcDNA3 eukaryotic expression plasmids of LASS2/TMSG1 were constructed and transfected into human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by lipofectin transfection method. And, the biological effects were observed comparing with control groups. As the result, LASS2/TMSG1 inhibited cell growth in vitro by increasing apoptosis and changing cell cycle distribution. Furthermore, the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) activity and extracellular hydrogen ion concentration were significantly decreased and the activity of secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was downregulated in MCF-7 cells overexpressing LASS2/TMSG1 compared with the controls. Therefore, LASS2/TMSG1 may inhibit growth and invasion of breast cancer cell in vitro through decreasing V-ATPase activity and extracellular hydrogen ion concentration and inactivating secreted MMP-2. The findings provided the evidence that the LASS2/TMSG1 gene had tumor growth and invasion suppressor function in human breast cancer cell and may provide a promising target for cancer metastasis diagnosis and therapy.

Ray S, Murmu N, Adhikari J, et al.
Inhibition of Hep G2 hepatic cancer cell growth and CCl₄ induced liver cytotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Mahua extract.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2014; 33(4):295-314 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mahua flower extract may provide protective effects against hepatotoxicity. The effect of Mahua flower extract (ME) was investigated on Hep G2 cell line and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damages in Swiss albino mice. To investigate its cytotoxic effect in liver cancer, Hep G2 cells were treated with different doses of ME, and cell proliferation as well as colony formation assays demonstrated dose-dependent cytotoxicity of ME towards Hep G2 cells in tissue culture. Further gene expression studies showed significant down-regulation of AKT1/2/3, p-AKT, and COX-2 proteins including up-regulation of active caspase-3 in ME treated Hep G2 cells. In in vivo experiments, the mice were pretreated with ME for 15 days. On the 16th day CCl4 was injected intraperitoneally and after 24 h all mice were sacrificed. The antioxidant enzyme activities were measured in liver homogenates. CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was evidenced by significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as GST, GSH, SOD, CAT, and GPx. Histological studies showed CCl4-induced centrilobular necrosis and formation of fatty vacuoles in cirrhotic mice liver. Treatment with ME at a dose of 2 mg and 4 mg/kg exhibited the potential to prevent significant liver toxicity. The expression of active caspase-3 protein was down-regulated in ME treated groups compared to CCl4 exposed animals. This study demonstrated ME mediated antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects; therefore it could be used in the future for treating hepatic disorders including liver cancer, especially in combination with chemotherapeutics.

Taleb S, Abbaszadegan MR, Moghbeli M, et al.
HES1 as an independent prognostic marker in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Gastrointest Cancer. 2014; 45(4):466-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Notch signaling is one of the main involved pathways in cell differentiation and organogenesis, and its deregulation may lead to tumorigenesis. In this pathway, targeted to the CSL (CBF1, Suppressor of Hairless or Lag-1) complex, notch intracellular domain (NICD) releases corepressors and recruits MAML1 as coactivator triggering the activation of notch signaling transcription complex. Hairy enhance of split-1 (HES1) is one of the notch signaling target genes which is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor acting as a proliferation stimulator through the suppression of cell cycle inhibitors such as p27 and p21.
AIMS: In this study, we aimed to analyze the role of HES1 in the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of HES1 in fresh tumoral tissues and their margin normal samples were assessed in 50 ESCC patients by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
RESULTS: Thirteen out of 50 cases (26 %) had HES1 underexpression, while HES1 overexpression was observed only in 4 (8 %) samples. HES1 underexpression was significantly correlated with tumor depth of invasion (P = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: Although we have not observed any significant correlation between the HES1 expression and notch activation in ESCC, this study is the first report that elucidated the HES1 underexpression in ESCC and revealed its correlation with the invasiveness of ESCC.

Sen S, Langiewicz M, Jumaa H, Webster NJ
Deletion of serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 in hepatocytes predisposes to hepatocellular carcinoma in mice.
Hepatology. 2015; 61(1):171-83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Alterations in RNA splicing are associated with cancer, but it is not clear whether they result from malignant transformation or have a causative role. We show here that hepatocyte-specific deletion of serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3) impairs hepatocyte maturation and metabolism in early adult life, and mice develop spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with aging. Tumor development is preceded by chronic liver disease with progressive steatosis and fibrosis. SRSF3 protects mice against CCl4 -induced fibrosis and carcinogenesis and suppresses inclusion of the profibrogenic EDA exon in fibronectin 1. Loss of SRSF3 increases expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 and the A-isoform of the insulin receptor, allowing aberrant activation of mitogenic signaling, promotes aberrant splicing and expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes, and activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling leading to c-Myc induction. Finally, SRSF3 expression is either decreased or the protein mislocalized in human HCC.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a potential role for SRSF3 in preventing hepatic carcinogenesis by regulating splicing to suppress fibrosis, mitogenic splicing, and EMT. Thus, these mice may provide an attractive model to discover the pathogenic mechanisms linking aberrant pre-messenger RNA splicing with liver damage, fibrosis, and HCC.

Tung CY, Lewis DE, Han L, et al.
Activation of dendritic cell function by soypeptide lunasin as a novel vaccine adjuvant.
Vaccine. 2014; 32(42):5411-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The addition of an appropriate adjuvant that activates the innate immunity is essential to subsequent development of the adaptive immunity specific to the vaccine antigens. Thus, any innovation capable of improving the immune responses may lead to a more efficacious vaccine. We recently identified a novel immune modulator using a naturally occurring seed peptide called lunasin. Lunasin was originally isolated from soybeans, and it is a small peptide containing 43 amino acids. Our studies revealed stimulatory effects of lunasin on innate immune cells by regulating expression of a number of genes that are important for immune responses. The objective was to define the effectiveness of lunasin as an adjuvant that enhances immune responses. The immune modulating functions of lunasin were characterized in dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Lunasin-treated conventional DCs (cDCs) not only expressed elevated levels of co-stimulatory molecules (CD86, CD40) but also exhibited up-regulation of cytokines (IL1B, IL6) and chemokines (CCL3, CCL4). Lunasin-treated cDCs induced higher proliferation of allogeneic CD4+ T cells when comparing with medium control treatment in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). Immunization of mice with ovalbumin (OVA) and lunasin inhibited the growth of OVA-expressing A20 B-lymphomas, which was correlated with OVA-specific CD8+ T cells. In addition, lunasin was an effective adjuvant for immunization with OVA, which together improved animal survival against lethal challenge with influenza virus expressing the MHC class I OVA peptide SIINFEKL (PR8-OTI). These results suggest that lunasin may function as a vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC maturation, which in turn enhances the development of protective immune responses to the vaccine antigens.

Giannakakis A, Karapetsas A, Dangaj D, et al.
Overexpression of SMARCE1 is associated with CD8+ T-cell infiltration in early stage ovarian cancer.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 53:389-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
T-lymphocyte infiltration in ovarian tumors has been linked to a favorable prognosis, hence, exploring the mechanism of T-cell recruitment in the tumor is warranted. We employed a differential expression analysis to identify genes over-expressed in early stage ovarian cancer samples that contained CD8 infiltrating T-lymphocytes. Among other genes, we discovered that TTF1, a regulator of ribosomal RNA gene expression, and SMARCE1, a factor associated with chromatin remodeling were overexpressed in first stage CD8+ ovarian tumors. TTF1 and SMARCE1 mRNA levels showed a strong correlation with the number of intra-tumoral CD8+ cells in ovarian tumors. Interestingly, forced overexpression of SMARCE1 in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells resulted in secretion of IL8, MIP1b and RANTES chemokines in the supernatant and triggered chemotaxis of CD8+ lymphocytes in a cell culture assay. The potency of SMARCE1-mediated chemotaxis appeared comparable to that caused by the transfection of the CXCL9 gene, coding for a chemokine known to attract T-cells. Our analysis pinpoints TTF1 and SMARCE1 as genes potentially involved in cancer immunology. Since both TTF1 and SMARCE1 are involved in chromatin remodeling, our results imply an epigenetic regulatory mechanism for T-cell recruitment that invites deciphering.

Li F, Ma N, Zhao R, et al.
Overexpression of miR-483-5p/3p cooperate to inhibit mouse liver fibrosis by suppressing the TGF-β stimulated HSCs in transgenic mice.
J Cell Mol Med. 2014; 18(6):966-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
The transition from liver fibrosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been suggested to be a continuous and developmental pathological process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered molecules that regulate the expression of genes involved in liver disease. Many reports demonstrate that miR-483-5p and miR-483-3p, which originate from miR-483, are up-regulated in HCC, and their oncogenic targets have been identified. However, recent studies have suggested that miR-483-5p/3p is partially down-regulated in HCC samples and is down-regulated in rat liver fibrosis. Therefore, the aberrant expression and function of miR-483 in liver fibrosis remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of miR-483 in vivo inhibits mouse liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 . We demonstrate that miR-483-5p/3p acts together to target two pro-fibrosis factors, platelet-derived growth factor-β and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2, which suppress the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) LX-2. Our work identifies the pathway that regulates liver fibrosis by inhibiting the activation of HSCs.

Fuchs BC, Hoshida Y, Fujii T, et al.
Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition attenuates liver fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2014; 59(4):1577-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most rapidly increasing cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Because of the lack of viable treatment options for HCC, prevention in high-risk patients has been proposed as an alternative strategy. The main risk factor for HCC is cirrhosis and several lines of evidence implicate epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the progression of cirrhosis and development of HCC. We therefore examined the effects of the EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib on liver fibrogenesis and hepatocellular transformation in three different animal models of progressive cirrhosis: a rat model induced by repeated, low-dose injections of diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a mouse model induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ), and a rat model induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Erlotinib reduced EGFR phosphorylation in hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and reduced the total number of activated HSC. Erlotinib also decreased hepatocyte proliferation and liver injury. Consistent with all these findings, pharmacological inhibition of EGFR signaling effectively prevented the progression of cirrhosis and regressed fibrosis in some animals. Moreover, by alleviating the underlying liver disease, erlotinib blocked the development of HCC and its therapeutic efficacy could be monitored with a previously reported gene expression signature predictive of HCC risk in human cirrhosis patients.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that EGFR inhibition using Food and Drug Administration-approved inhibitors provides a promising therapeutic approach for reduction of fibrogenesis and prevention of HCC in high-risk cirrhosis patients who can be identified and monitored by gene expression signatures.

Hayes BJ, Riehle KJ, Shimizu-Albergine M, et al.
Activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha contributes to liver fibrosis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e92925 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Chronic liver injury leads to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and loss of liver function. Liver cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and it is the primary risk factor for developing liver cancer. Fibrosis and cirrhosis result from activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which are the primary collagen producing cell type in the liver. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) is expressed by human HSCs, and PDGFRα expression is elevated in human liver disease. Using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter mouse strain, we evaluated the role of PDGFRα in liver disease in mice and found that mouse HSCs express PDGFRα and expression is upregulated during carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury and fibrosis injection. This fibrotic response is reduced in Pdgfrα heterozygous mice, consistent with the hypothesis that liver fibrosis requires upregulation and activation of PDGFRα. These results indicate that Pdgfrα expression is important in the fibrotic response to liver injury in humans and mice, and suggest that blocking PDGFRα-specific signaling pathways in HSCs may provide therapeutic benefit for patients with chronic liver disease.

Xu X, Liu B, Zou P, et al.
Silencing of LASS2/TMSG1 enhances invasion and metastasis capacity of prostate cancer cell.
J Cell Biochem. 2014; 115(4):731-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homo sapiens longevity assurance homolog 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2), also known as tumor metastasis suppressor gene 1 (TMSG1), was firstly cloned by our laboratory in 1999. However, its antitumor molecular mechanisms are still unclear. LASS2/TMSG-1 could directly interact with the C subunit of Vacuolar H(+) ATPase (V-ATPase), which suggested that LASS2/TMSG1 might inhibit the invasion and metastasis through regulating the function of V-ATPase. In this study, we explored the effect of small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting LASS2/TMSG1 on the invasion and metastasis of human prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3M-2B4 with low metastatic potential and its functional interaction with V-ATPase. Silencing of LASS2/TMSG1 gene in PC-3M-2B4 cells increased V-ATPase activity, extracellular hydrogen ion concentration and in turn the activation of secreted MMP-2 and MMP-9, which coincided with enhancing cell proliferation, cell survival, and cell invasion in vitro, as well as acceleration of prostate cancer (PCA) growth and lymph node metastases in vivo. Thus we concluded that silencing of LASS2/TMSG1 enhances invasion and metastasis of PCA cell through increase of V-ATPase activity. These results establish LASS2/TMSG1 as a promising therapeutic target for advanced PCA.

Tremblay I, Paré E, Arsenault D, et al.
The MEK/ERK pathway promotes NOTCH signalling in pancreatic cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e85502 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Activation of the NOTCH receptors relies on their intracellular proteolysis by the gamma-secretase complex. This cleavage liberates the NOTCH intracellular domain (NIC) thereby allowing the translocation of NIC towards the nucleus to assemble into a transcriptional platform. Little information is available regarding the regulatory steps operating on NIC following its release from the transmembrane receptor up to its association with transcriptional partners. Interfering with these regulatory steps might potentially influences the nuclear outcome of NOTCH signalling. Herein, we exploited a reliable model to study the molecular events occurring subsequent to NOTCH1 cleavage. In pancreatic cancer cells, pulse of NOTCH1 activation led to increased expression of NOTCH target genes namely HES1 and c-MYC. We uncovered that, upon its release, the NOTCH1 intracellular domain, NIC1, undergoes a series of post-translational modifications that include phosphorylation. Most interestingly, we found that activation of the MEK/ERK pathway promotes HES1 expression. Inhibition of the gamma-secretase complex prevented the MEK/ERK-induced HES1 expression suggesting a NOTCH-dependent mechanism. Finally, higher levels of NIC1 were found associated with its transcriptional partners [CBF1, Su(H) and LAG-1] (CSL) and MASTERMIND-LIKE 1 (MAML1) upon MEK/ERK activation providing a potential mechanism whereby the MEK/ERK pathway promotes expression of NOTCH target genes. For the first time, our data exposed a signalling pathway, namely the MEK/ERK pathway that positively impacts on NOTCH nuclear outcome.

Scaiewicz V, Nahmias A, Chung RT, et al.
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous (CHOP) protein promotes carcinogenesis in the DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma model.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e81065 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) plays pro-apoptotic roles in the integrated stress response. Recently, a tumor suppressive role for CHOP was demonstrated in lung cancer via regulation of tumor metabolism. To explore the role of CHOP in hepatocarcinogenesis, we induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in wild type (wt) and CHOP knockout (KO) mice using the carcinogen N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN).
RESULTS: Analysis of tumor development showed reduced tumor load, with markedly smaller tumor nodules in the CHOP KO animals, suggesting oncogenic roles of CHOP in carcinogen-induced HCC. In wt tumors, CHOP was exclusively expressed in tumor tissue, with minimal expression in normal parenchyma. Analysis of human adenocarcinomas of various origins demonstrated scattered expression of CHOP in the tumors, pointing to relevance in human pathology. Characterization of pathways that may contribute to preferential expression of CHOP in the tumor identified ATF6 as a potential candidate. ATF6, a key member of the endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling machinery, exhibited a similar pattern of expression as CHOP and strong activation in wt but not CHOP KO tumors. Because HCC is induced by chronic inflammation, we assessed whether CHOP deficiency affects tumor-immune system crosstalk. We found that the number of macrophages and levels of IFNγ and CCL4 mRNA were markedly reduced in tumors from CHOP KO relative to wt mice, suggesting a role for CHOP in modulating tumor microenvironment and macrophage recruitment to the tumor.
CONCLUSION: Our data highlights a role for CHOP as a positive regulator of carcinogen-induced HCC progression through a complex mechanism that involves the immune system and modulation of stress signaling pathways.

Mango RL, Wu QP, West M, et al.
C-C chemokine receptor 5 on pulmonary mesenchymal cells promotes experimental metastasis via the induction of erythroid differentiation regulator 1.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(2):274-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: C-C Chemokine receptor 5 knockout (Ccr5(-/-)) mice develop fewer experimental pulmonary metastases than wild-type (WT) mice. This phenomenon was explored by applying gene expression profiling to the lungs of mice with these metastases. Consequently, erythroid differentiation regulator 1 (Erdr1) was identified as upregulated in the WT mice. Though commonly associated with bone marrow stroma, Erdr1 was differentially expressed in WT pulmonary mesenchymal cells (PMC) and murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Moreover, the Ccr5 ligand Ccl4 increased its expression by 3.36 ± 0.14-fold. Ccr5 signaling was dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k) but not the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Pi3k) pathway because treatment with U0126 inhibited upregulation of Erdr1, but treatment with LY294002 increased the expression by 3.44 ± 0.92-fold (P < 0.05). The effect Erdr1 on B16-F10 melanoma metastasis was verified by the adoptive transfer of WT MEFs into Ccr5(-/-) mice. In this model, MEFs that had been transduced with Erdr1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lowered metastasis by 33% compared with control transduced MEFs. The relevance of ERDR1 on human disease was assessed by coculturing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells with M2-10B4 stromal cells that had been transfected with shRNA or control plasmids. After 96 hours of coculture, the cell counts were higher with control cell lines than with Erdr1 knockdown lines [odds ratio (OR), 1.88 ± 0.27, 2.52 ± 0.66, respectively]. This increase was associated with a decrease in apoptotic cells (OR, 0.69 ± 0.18, 0.58 ± 0.12, respectively).
IMPLICATIONS: Therefore, ERDR1 is a stromal-derived factor that promotes cancer cell survival in vitro and in an experimental metastasis model.

Luo M, Yang F, Huang SX, et al.
Two-stage model of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in mouse.
Oncol Res. 2013; 20(11):517-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to develop an efficient and reproducible mouse model for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) research and assess the expression of two proto-oncogenes (c-myc and N-ras) and tumor suppressor gene p53 in the carcinogenic process. In this study, we found that diethylnitrosamine initiation with CCl4 and ethanol promotion could induce a short-term, two-stage liver carcinogenesis model in male BALB/c mice, the process of hepatocarcinogenesis including liver damage, liver necrosis/cell death, liver inflammation, liver proliferation, liver hyperplasia, liver steatosis, and liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular nodules, which mimicked the usual sequence of events observed in human HCC. We also identified that the increase in expression of the p53 gene is related to the proliferation of hepatocytes, whereas overexpression of the c-myc and N-ras genes is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. This animal model may serve as a basis for recapitulating the molecular pathogenesis of HCC seen in humans.

Monga J, Pandit S, Chauhan RS, et al.
Growth inhibition and apoptosis induction by (+)-Cyanidan-3-ol in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68710 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of (+)-cyanidan-3-ol (CD-3) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and chemopreventive potential against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Balb/c mice. The HepG2 cell line was treated with CD-3 at various concentrations and the proliferation of the HepG2 cells was measure by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), sulforhodamine B (SRB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 (HO), Acridine orange/ethylene dibromide (AO/EB) staining, DNA fragmentation analysis and the apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry. The HCC tumor model was established in mice by injecting N-nitrosodiethylamine/carbon tetrachloride (NDEA/CCl4) and the effect of CD-3 on tumor growth in-vivo was studied. The levels of liver injury markers, tumor markers, and oxidative stress were measured. The expression levels of apoptosis-related genes in in-vitro and in vivo models were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The CD-3 induced cell death was considered to be apoptotic by observing the typical apoptotic morphological changes under fluorescent microscopy and DNA fragmentation analysis. Annexin V/PI assay demonstrated that apoptosis increased with increase in the concentration of CD-3. The expression levels of apoptosis-related genes that belong to bcl-2 and caspase family were increased and AP-1 and NF-κB activities were significantly suppressed by CD-3. Immunohistochemistry data revealed less localization of p53, p65 and c-jun in CD-3 treated tumors as compared to localization in NDEA/CCl4 treated tumors. Taken together, our data demonstrated that CD-3 could significantly inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells in-vitro and suppress HCC tumor growth in-vivo by apoptosis induction.

Xu CZ, Xie J, Jin B, et al.
Gene and microRNA expression reveals sensitivity to paclitaxel in laryngeal cancer cell line.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(7):1351-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Paclitaxel is a widely used chemotherapy drug for advanced laryngeal cancer patients. However, the fact that there are 20-40% of advanced laryngeal cancer patients do not response to paclitaxel makes it necessary to figure out potential biomarkers for paclitaxel sensitivity prediction. In this work, Hep2, a laryngeal cancer cell line, untreated or treated with lower dose of paclitaxel for 24 h, was applied to DNA microarray chips for gene and miR expression profile analysis. Expression of eight genes altered significantly following paclitaxel treatment, which was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Four up-regulated genes were ID2, BMP4, CCL4 and ACTG2, in which ID2 and BMP4 were implicated to be involved in several drugs sensitivity. While the down-regulated four genes, MAPK4, FASN, INSIG1 and SCD, were mainly linked to the endoplasmic reticulum and fatty acid biosynthesis, these two cell processes that are associated with drug sensitivity by increasing evidences. After paclitaxel treatment, expression of 49 miRs was significantly altered. Within these miRs, the most markedly expression-changed were miR-31-star, miR-1264, miR-3150b-5p and miR-210. While the miRs putatively modulated the mRNA expression of the most significantly expression-altered genes were miR-1264, miR-130a, miR-27b, miR-195, miR-1291, miR-214, miR-1277 and miR-1265, which were obtained by miR target prediction and miRNA target correlation. Collectively, our study might provide potential biomarkers for paclitaxel sensitivity prediction and drug resistance targets in laryngeal cancer patients.

Zhang L, Mitani Y, Caulin C, et al.
Detailed genome-wide SNP analysis of major salivary carcinomas localizes subtype-specific chromosome sites and oncogenes of potential clinical significance.
Am J Pathol. 2013; 182(6):2048-57 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
The molecular genetic alterations underlying the development and diversity of salivary gland carcinomas are largely unknown. To characterize these events, comparative genomic hybridization analysis was performed, using a single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray platform, of 60 fresh-frozen specimens that represent the main salivary carcinoma types: mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), and salivary duct carcinoma (SDC). The results were correlated with the clinicopathologic features and translocation statuses to characterize the genetic alterations. The most commonly shared copy number abnormalities (CNAs) in all types were losses at chromosomes 6q23-26 and the 9p21 region. Subtype-specific CNAs included a loss at 12q11-12 in ACC and a gain at 17q11-12 in SDC. Focal copy number losses included 1p36.33-p36-22 in ACC, 9p13.2 in MEC, and 3p12.3-q11-2, 6q21-22.1, 12q14.1, and 12q15 in SDC. Tumor-specific amplicons were identified at 11q23.3 (PVRL1) in ACC, 11q13.3 (NUMA1) in MEC, and 6p21.1 (CCND3), 9p13.2 (PAX5), 12q15 (CNOT2/RAB3IP), 12q21.1 (GLIPR1L1), and 17q12 (ERBB2/CCL4) in SDC. A comparative CNA analysis of fusion-positive and fusion-negative ACCs and MECs revealed relatively lower CNAs in fusion-positive tumors than in fusion-negative tumors in both tumor types. An association between CNAs and high grade and advanced stage was observed in MECs only. These findings support the pathogenetic segregation of these entities and define novel chromosomal sites for future identification of biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Lum LG, Thakur A, Liu Q, et al.
CD20-targeted T cells after stem cell transplantation for high risk and refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2013; 19(6):925-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
A phase I trial of infusing anti-CD3 × anti-CD20 bispecific antibody (CD20Bi) armed activated T cells (aATC) was conducted in high-risk/refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients to determine whether aATC infusions are safe, affect immune recovery, and induce an antilymphoma effect. Ex vivo expanded ATC from 12 patients were armed with anti-CD20 bispecific antibody, cryopreserved, and infused after autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT). Patients underwent SCT after high-dose chemotherapy, and aATC infusions were started on day +4. The patients received 1 infusion of aATC per week for 4 weeks after SCT with doses of 5, 10, 15, and 20 × 10(9). aATC infusions were safe and did not impair engraftment. The major side effects were chills, fever, hypotension, and fatigue. The mean number of IFN-γ Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Spots (ElSpots) directed at CD20 positive lymphoma cells (DAUDI, P = .0098) and natural killer cell targets (K562, P < .0051) and the mean specific cytotoxicity directed at DAUDI (P = .037) and K562 (P = .002) from pre-SCT to post-SCT were significantly higher. The increase in IFN-γ EliSpots from pre-SCT to post-SCT in patients who received armed ATC after SCT were significantly higher than those in patients who received SCT alone (P = .02). Serum IL-7, IL-15, Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 beta, IP-10, MIP-1α, and Monokine induced by gamma interferone increased within hours after infusion. Polyclonal and specific antibodies were near normal 3 months after SCT. aATC infusions were safe and increased innate and specific antilymphoma cell immunity without impairing antibody recovery after SCT.

Lino Cardenas CL, Henaoui IS, Courcot E, et al.
miR-199a-5p Is upregulated during fibrogenic response to tissue injury and mediates TGFbeta-induced lung fibroblast activation by targeting caveolin-1.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(2):e1003291 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
As miRNAs are associated with normal cellular processes, deregulation of miRNAs is thought to play a causative role in many complex diseases. Nevertheless, the precise contribution of miRNAs in fibrotic lung diseases, especially the idiopathic form (IPF), remains poorly understood. Given the poor response rate of IPF patients to current therapy, new insights into the pathogenic mechanisms controlling lung fibroblasts activation, the key cell type driving the fibrogenic process, are essential to develop new therapeutic strategies for this devastating disease. To identify miRNAs with potential roles in lung fibrogenesis, we performed a genome-wide assessment of miRNA expression in lungs from two different mouse strains known for their distinct susceptibility to develop lung fibrosis after bleomycin exposure. This led to the identification of miR-199a-5p as the best miRNA candidate associated with bleomycin response. Importantly, miR-199a-5p pulmonary expression was also significantly increased in IPF patients (94 IPF versus 83 controls). In particular, levels of miR-199a-5p were selectively increased in myofibroblasts from injured mouse lungs and fibroblastic foci, a histologic feature associated with IPF. Therefore, miR-199a-5p profibrotic effects were further investigated in cultured lung fibroblasts: miR-199a-5p expression was induced upon TGFβ exposure, and ectopic expression of miR-199a-5p was sufficient to promote the pathogenic activation of pulmonary fibroblasts including proliferation, migration, invasion, and differentiation into myofibroblasts. In addition, we demonstrated that miR-199a-5p is a key effector of TGFβ signaling in lung fibroblasts by regulating CAV1, a critical mediator of pulmonary fibrosis. Remarkably, aberrant expression of miR-199a-5p was also found in unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse model of kidney fibrosis, as well as in both bile duct ligation and CCl4-induced mouse models of liver fibrosis, suggesting that dysregulation of miR-199a-5p represents a general mechanism contributing to the fibrotic process. MiR-199a-5p thus behaves as a major regulator of tissue fibrosis with therapeutic potency to treat fibroproliferative diseases.

Covell DG, Wallqvist A, Kenney S, Vistica DT
Bioinformatic analysis of patient-derived ASPS gene expressions and ASPL-TFE3 fusion transcript levels identify potential therapeutic targets.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(11):e48023 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Gene expression data, collected from ASPS tumors of seven different patients and from one immortalized ASPS cell line (ASPS-1), was analyzed jointly with patient ASPL-TFE3 (t(X;17)(p11;q25)) fusion transcript data to identify disease-specific pathways and their component genes. Data analysis of the pooled patient and ASPS-1 gene expression data, using conventional clustering methods, revealed a relatively small set of pathways and genes characterizing the biology of ASPS. These results could be largely recapitulated using only the gene expression data collected from patient tumor samples. The concordance between expression measures derived from ASPS-1 and both pooled and individual patient tumor data provided a rationale for extending the analysis to include patient ASPL-TFE3 fusion transcript data. A novel linear model was exploited to link gene expressions to fusion transcript data and used to identify a small set of ASPS-specific pathways and their gene expression. Cellular pathways that appear aberrantly regulated in response to the t(X;17)(p11;q25) translocation include the cell cycle and cell adhesion. The identification of pathways and gene subsets characteristic of ASPS support current therapeutic strategies that target the FLT1 and MET, while also proposing additional targeting of genes found in pathways involved in the cell cycle (CHK1), cell adhesion (ARHGD1A), cell division (CDC6), control of meiosis (RAD51L3) and mitosis (BIRC5), and chemokine-related protein tyrosine kinase activity (CCL4).

Yamaguchi Y, Shao Z, Sharif S, et al.
Thrombin-cleaved fragments of osteopontin are overexpressed in malignant glial tumors and provide a molecular niche with survival advantage.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(5):3097-111 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Osteopontin (OPN), which is highly expressed in malignant glioblastoma (GBM), possesses inflammatory activity modulated by proteolytic cleavage by thrombin and plasma carboxypeptidase B2 (CPB2) at a highly conserved cleavage site. Full-length OPN (OPN-FL) was elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from all cancer patients compared with noncancer patients. However, thrombin-cleaved OPN (OPN-R) and thrombin/CPB2-double-cleaved OPN (OPN-L) levels were markedly increased in GBM and non-GBM gliomas compared with systemic cancer and noncancer patients. Cleaved OPN constituted ∼23 and ∼31% of the total OPN in the GBM and non-GBM CSF samples, respectively. OPN-R was also elevated in GBM tissues. Thrombin-antithrombin levels were highly correlated with cleaved OPN, but not OPN-FL, suggesting that the cleaved OPN fragments resulted from increased thrombin and CPB2 in this extracellular compartment. Levels of VEGF and CCL4 were increased in CSF of GBM and correlated with the levels of cleaved OPN. GBM cell lines were more adherent to OPN-R and OPN-L than OPN-FL. Adhesion to OPN altered gene expression, in particular genes involved with cellular processes, cell cycle regulation, death, and inflammation. OPN and its cleaved forms promoted motility of U-87 MG cells and conferred resistance to apoptosis. Although functional mutation of the RGD motif in OPN largely abolished these functions, OPN(RAA)-R regained significant cell binding and signaling function, suggesting that the SVVYGLR motif in OPN-R may substitute for the RGD motif if the latter becomes inaccessible. OPN cleavage contributes to GBM development by allowing more cells to bind in niches where they acquire anti-apoptotic properties.

Oscier DG, Rose-Zerilli MJ, Winkelmann N, et al.
The clinical significance of NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations in the UK LRF CLL4 trial.
Blood. 2013; 121(3):468-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations have been previously reported to have prognostic significance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia but to date they have not been validated in a prospective, controlled clinical trial. We have assessed the impact of these mutations in a cohort of 494 patients treated within the randomized phase 3 United Kingdom Leukaemia Research Fund Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia 4 (UK LRF CCL4) trial that compared chlorambucil and fludarabine with and without cyclophosphamide in previously untreated patients. We investigated the relationship of mutations in NOTCH1 (exon 34) and SF3B1 (exon 14-16) to treatment response, survival and a panel of established biologic variables. NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations were found in 10% and17% of patients, respectively. NOTCH1 mutations correlated with unmutated IGHV genes, trisomy 12, high CD38/ ZAP-70 expression and were associated with reduced overall (median 54.8 vs 74.6 months, P = .02) and progression-free (median 22.0 vs 26.4 months, P = .02) survival. SF3B1 mutations were significantly associated with high CD38 expression and with shorter overall survival (median 54.3 vs 79.0 months, P < .001). Furthermore, multivariate analysis, including baseline clinical variables, treatment, and adverse prognostic factors demonstrated that although TP53 alterations remained the most informative marker of dismal survival in this cohort, NOTCH1 (HR 1.58, P = .03) and SF3B1 (HR 1.52, P = .01) mutations have added independent prognostic value.

Zha X, Yin Q, Tan H, et al.
Alteration of the gene expression profile of T-cell receptor αβ-modified T-cells with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma specificity.
Hematology. 2013; 18(3):138-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Antigen-specific, T-cell receptor (TCR)-modified cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that target tumors are an attractive strategy for specific adoptive immunotherapy. Little is known about whether there are any alterations in the gene expression profile after TCR gene transduction in T cells. We constructed TCR gene-redirected CTLs with specificity for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)-associated antigens to elucidate the gene expression profiles of TCR gene-redirected T-cells, and we further analyzed the gene expression profile pattern of these redirected T-cells by Affymetrix microarrays. The resulting data were analyzed using Bioconductor software, a two-fold cut-off expression change was applied together with anti-correlation of the profile ratios to render the microarray analysis set. The fold change of all genes was calculated by comparing the three TCR gene-modified T-cells and a negative control counterpart. The gene pathways were analyzed using Bioconductor and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Identical genes whose fold change was greater than or equal to 2.0 in all three TCR gene-redirected T-cell groups in comparison with the negative control were identified as the differentially expressed genes. The differentially expressed genes were comprised of 33 up-regulated genes and 1 down-regulated gene including JUNB, FOS, TNF, INF-γ, DUSP2, IL-1B, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9, CCL2, CCL4, and CCL8. These genes are mainly involved in the TCR signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathways. In conclusion, we characterized the gene expression profile of DLBCL-specific TCR gene-redirected T-cells. The changes corresponded to an up-regulation in the differentiation and proliferation of the T-cells. These data may help to explain some of the characteristics of the redirected T-cells.

Kiaii S, Kokhaei P, Mozaffari F, et al.
T cells from indolent CLL patients prevent apoptosis of leukemic B cells in vitro and have altered gene expression profile.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013; 62(1):51-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
T cells may have a role in sustaining the leukemic clone in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this study, we have examined the ability of T cells from CLL patients to support the survival of the leukemic B cells in vitro. Additionally, we compared global gene expression of T cells from indolent CLL patients with healthy individuals and multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Apoptosis of purified leukemic B cells was inhibited in vitro when co-cultured with increasing numbers of autologous T cells (p < 0.01) but not autologous B and T cells of normal donors. The anti-apoptotic effect exceeded that of the anti-apoptotic cytokine IL-4 (p = 0.002) and was greater with CD8+ cells (p = 0.02) than with CD4+ cells (p = 0.05). The effect was depended mainly on cell-cell contact although a significant effect was also observed in transwell experiments (p = 0.05). About 356 genes involved in different cellular pathways were deregulated in T cells of CLL patients compared to healthy individuals and MM patients. The results of gene expression profiling were verified for 6 genes (CCL4, CCL5 (RANTES), XCL1, XCL2, KLF6, and TRAF1) using qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Our results demonstrate that CLL-derived T cells can prevent apoptosis of leukemic B cells and have altered expression of genes that may facilitate the survival of the leukemic clone.

Xu X, You J, Pei F
Silencing of a novel tumor metastasis suppressor gene LASS2/TMSG1 promotes invasion of prostate cancer cell in vitro through increase of vacuolar ATPase activity.
J Cell Biochem. 2012; 113(7):2356-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homo sapiens longevity assurance homologue 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2), also known as tumor metastasis suppressor gene 1 (TMSG1), is a newly found tumor metastasis suppressor gene in 1999. Preliminary studies showed that it not only suppressed tumor growth but also closely related to tumor metastasis, however, its molecular mechanisms is still unclear. There have been reported that protein encoded by LASS2/TMSG-1 could directly interact with the C subunit of Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), which suggested that LASS2/TMSG1 might inhibit the invasion and metastasis through regulating the function of V-ATPase. Thus, in this study, we explored the effect of small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting LASS2/TMSG1 on the invasion of human prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3M-2B4 and its molecular mechanisms associated with the V-ATPase. Real-time fluorogentic quantitative PCR (RFQ-PCR) and Western blot revealed dramatic reduction of 84.5% and 60% in the levels of LASS2/TMSG1 mRNA and protein after transfection of siRNA in PC-3M-2B4 cells. The V-ATPase activity and extracellular hydrogen ion concentration were significantly increased in 2B4 cells transfected with the LASS2/TMSG1-siRNA compared with the controls. The activity of secreted MMP-2 was up-regulated in LASS2/TMSG1-siRNA treated cells compared with the controls; and the capacity for migration and invasion in LASS2/TMSG1-siRNA treated cells was significantly higher than the controls. Thus, we concluded that silencing of LASS2/TMSG1 may promote invasion of prostate cancer cell in vitro through increase of V-ATPase activity and extracellular hydrogen ion concentration and in turn the activation of secreted MMP-2.

Sassano A, Altman JK, Gordon LI, Platanias LC
Statin-dependent activation of protein kinase Cδ in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and induction of leukemic cell differentiation.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2012; 53(9):1779-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Statins are HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase inhibitors, which block the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate and have potent cholesterol lowering properties. Beyond their importance in the generation of lipid lowering effects, the regulatory effects of statins on the mevalonate pathway have a significant impact on multiple other cellular functions. There is now extensive evidence that statins have anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic properties, but the precise mechanisms by which such responses are generated are not well understood. In the present study we demonstrate that statins engage a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of proteins, PKCδ, in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. Our study shows that atorvastatin and fluvastatin induce proteolytic activation of PKCδ in the APL NB4 cell line, which expresses the t(15;17) translocation. Such engagement of PKCδ results in induction of its kinase domain and downstream regulation of pathways important for statin-dependent leukemia cell differentiation. Our research shows that the function of PKCδ is essential for statin-induced leukemic cell differentiation, as demonstrated by studies involving selective targeting of PKCδ using siRNAs. We also demonstrate that the potent enhancing effects of statins on all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced gene expression for CCL3 and CCL4 requires the function of PKCδ, suggesting a mechanism by which statins may promote ATRA-induced antileukemic responses. Altogether, our data establish a novel function for PKCδ as a mediator of statin-induced differentiation of APL cells and antileukemic effects.

Moriya Y, Nohata N, Kinoshita T, et al.
Tumor suppressive microRNA-133a regulates novel molecular networks in lung squamous cell carcinoma.
J Hum Genet. 2012; 57(1):38-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Analysis of the microRNA (miRNA) expression signature of lung squamous cell carcinoma (lung-SCC) revealed that the expression levels of miR-133a were significantly reduced in cancer tissues compared with normal tissues. In this study, we focused on the functional significance of miR-133a in cancer cell lines derived from lung-SCC and the identification of miR-133a-regulated novel cancer networks in lung-SCC. Restoration of miR-133a expression in PC10 and H157 cell lines resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, suggesting that miR-133a functions as a tumor suppressor. We used genome-wide gene expression analysis to identify the molecular targets of miR-133a regulation. Gene expression data and web-based searching revealed several candidate genes, including transgelin 2 (TAGLN2), actin-related protein2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa (ARPC5), LAG1 homolog, ceramide synthase 2 (LASS2) and glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1). ARPC5 and GSTP1 likely represent bona fide targets as their expression is elevated in lung-SCC clinical specimens. Furthermore, transient transfection of miR-133a, repressed ARPC5 and GSTP1 mRNA and protein levels. As cell proliferation was significantly inhibited in lung-SCC cells following RNAi knock down of either gene, ARPC5 and GSTP1 may function as oncogenes in the development of lung-SCC. The identification of a tumor suppressive miRNA and the novel cancer pathways it regulates could provide new insights into potential molecular mechanisms of lung-SCC carcinogenesis.

Chakraborty K, Bose A, Goswami KK, et al.
Dysregulated CC receptor/ligand in monocytes/macrophages from tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients is partially rectified by interferon α-2b.
Hum Immunol. 2012; 73(1):38-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
In an aim to rectify dysregulated CC chemokine receptor (CCR5)/ligand (RANTES, MIP-1α, MIP-1β) status of monocytes/macrophages in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC; n = 12) patients, we have tested interferon α2b (IFNα2b), a novel immunomodulator with wide use in the management of several forms of cancer. IFNα2b can upregulate reduced CCR5 expression and increases the suppressed secretory status of its ligands, as evidenced from in vitro studies on monocytes/macrophages from the peripheral blood of TSCC patients as well as healthy individuals. Isolated monocytes of TSCC patients (n = 5) undergoing chemotherapeutic treatment along with IFNα2b immunotherapy demonstrated significant upregulation in CCR5 expression and secretion of corresponding ligands. These rectifications in receptor/ligand levels are reflected in improved CCR5-dependent migration of monocytes/macrophages after IFNα2b treatment. The rectified chemokine profile and cellular migration translate into better tumoricidal and antigen-presenting functions of these cells. Accordingly, enhanced T-cell-mediated tumor cell killing is demonstrated upon IFNα2b treatment. Translating dual benefits on monocyte/macrophage functions, IFNα2b may emerge as a potential form of immunotherapy for TSCC patients that may be combined with standard chemotherapy for better clinical outcome.

Mazur G, Jaskuła E, Kryczek I, et al.
Proinflammatory chemokine gene expression influences survival of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2011; 49(2):240-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The migration, survival and proliferation of cells is the basis for all physiologic and pathologic processes in the human body. All these reactions are regulated by a complex chemokine network that guides lymphocytes homing, chemotaxis, adhesion and interplay between immunologic system response cells. Chemokines are also responsible for metastatic dissemination of cancers, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The purpose of this study was to determine chemokine gene expression (CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5) in lymphoma lymph nodes compared to their expression in reactive lymph nodes. We also analyzed the influence of chemokine gene expression on the survival of lymphoma patients. Chemokine gene expression was evaluated in 37 lymphoma lymph nodes and in 25 samples of reactive lymph nodes. Gene expression of chemokines CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5 was measured using the PCR method. Statistical analysis was performed using CSS Statistica for Windows (version 7.0) software. Probability values 〈 〈 0.05 were considered statistically significant and those between 0.05 and 0.1 as indicative of a trend. We found lower CXCL8 and CXCL10 gene expression in lymphoma lymph nodes compared to reactive lymph nodes. In the cases of CCL2 and CCL3, expression in lymphomas was higher than in reactive lymph nodes. Patients with high expression of CCL2 and CXCL10 had shorter survival.

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