Gene Summary

Gene:CCL3; C-C motif chemokine ligand 3
Aliases: MIP1A, SCYA3, G0S19-1, LD78ALPHA, MIP-1-alpha
Summary:This locus represents a small inducible cytokine. The encoded protein, also known as macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, plays a role in inflammatory responses through binding to the receptors CCR1, CCR4 and CCR5. Polymorphisms at this locus may be associated with both resistance and susceptibility to infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-C motif chemokine 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (65)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (4)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCL3 (cancer-related)

Teufel M, Seidel H, Köchert K, et al.
Biomarkers Associated With Response to Regorafenib in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 156(6):1731-1741 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In a phase 3 trial (RESORCE), regorafenib increased overall survival compared with placebo in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) previously treated with sorafenib. In an exploratory study, we analyzed plasma and tumor samples from study participants to identify genetic, microRNA (miRNA), and protein biomarkers associated with response to regorafenib.
METHODS: We obtained archived tumor tissues and baseline plasma samples from patients with HCC given regorafenib in the RESORCE trial. Baseline plasma samples from 499 patients were analyzed for expression of 294 proteins (DiscoveryMAP) and plasma samples from 349 patients were analyzed for levels of 750 miRNAs (miRCURY miRNA PCR). Tumor tissues from 7 responders and 10 patients who did not respond (progressors) were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (FoundationOne). Forty-six tumor tissues were analyzed for expression patterns of 770 genes involved in oncogenic and inflammatory pathways (PanCancer Immune Profiling). Associations between plasma levels of proteins and miRNAs and response to treatment (overall survival and time to progression) were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: Decreased baseline plasma concentrations of 5 of 266 evaluable proteins (angiopoietin 1, cystatin B, the latency-associated peptide of transforming growth factor beta 1, oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1, and C-C motif chemokine ligand 3; adjusted P ≤ .05) were significantly associated with increased overall survival time after regorafenib treatment. Levels of these 5 proteins, which have roles in inflammation and/or HCC pathogenesis, were not associated with survival independently of treatment. Only 20 of 499 patients had high levels and a reduced survival time. Plasma levels of α-fetoprotein and c-MET were associated with poor outcome (overall survival) independently of regorafenib treatment only. We identified 9 plasma miRNAs (MIR30A, MIR122, MIR125B, MIR200A, MIR374B, MIR15B, MIR107, MIR320, and MIR645) whose levels significantly associated with overall survival time with regorafenib (adjusted P ≤ .05). Functional analyses of these miRNAs indicated that their expression level associated with increased overall survival of patients with tumors of the Hoshida S3 subtype. Next-generation sequencing analyses of tumor tissues revealed 49 variants in 27 oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Mutations in CTNNB1 were detected in 3 of 10 progressors and VEGFA amplification in 1 of 7 responders.
CONCLUSION: We identified expression patterns of plasma proteins and miRNAs that associated with increased overall survival times of patients with HCC following treatment with regorafenib in the RESORCE trial. Levels of these circulating biomarkers and genetic features of tumors might be used to identify patients with HCC most likely to respond to regorafenib. number NCT01774344. NCBI GEO accession numbers: mRNA data (NanoString): GSE119220; miRNA data (Exiqon): GSE119221.

Pervaiz A, Zepp M, Mahmood S, et al.
CCR5 blockage by maraviroc: a potential therapeutic option for metastatic breast cancer.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2019; 42(1):93-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Bone metastasis is observed in up to 70% of breast cancer patients. The currently available treatment options are palliative in nature. Chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) has gained attention as therapeutic target in various malignancies. Here, we investigated the effects of targeting CCR5 by its antagonist maraviroc in metastatic breast cancer cells.
METHODS: In response to maraviroc exposure, cytotoxicity was assessed using an MTT proliferation assay, whereas the effects on colony formation and migration were assessed using colony formation, transwell chamber migration and scratch wound healing assays, respectively. Apoptosis-related activities were investigated using nuclear staining, annexin-V FITC staining and Western blotting. Cell cycle changes were analysed using flow cytometry and qRT-PCR for cell cycle relevant genes. A nude rat model for breast cancer bone metastasis was used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of CCR5 targeting by maraviroc. Circulatory levels of the three cognate ligands for CCR5 (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5) were analysed in sera of breast cancer patients using ELISA.
RESULTS: We found that blockade of CCR5 attenuated the proliferation, colony formation and migration of metastatic breast cancer cells, and induced apoptosis and arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Expression profiling highlighted the involvement of cell cycle related signalling cascades. We also found that treatment with maraviroc significantly inhibited bone metastasis in nude rats implanted with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Finally, we found that the circulatory levels of three cognate ligands for the CCR5 receptor varied between breast cancer patients and healthy controls.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that targeting CCR5 may be an effective strategy to combat breast cancer bone metastasis.

Zhou D, Li Z, Bai X
BRAF V600E and RET/PTC Promote the Activity of Nuclear Factor-κB, Inflammatory Mediators, and Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Study of 50 Patients in Inner Mongolia.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:6795-6808 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the BRAF V600E gene mutation and the RET/PTC gene rearrangement in the progression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in 50 patients from Inner Mongolia. MATERIAL AND METHODS Clinical data, blood, and tissue samples were obtained from 50 patients with PTC and ten patients with benign thyroid adenoma. Expression of BRAF V600E, RET/PTC, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)1, CXCL2, C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)2, and CCL3 were measured using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS Of the 50 patients with PTC, 37 patients expressed the BRAF V600E gene mutation, eight patients expressed RET/PTC, and five patients showed concomitant BRAF V600E and RET/PTC. Time to recurrence for patients with PTC with BRAF V600E was significantly increased compared with patients with concomitant BRAF V600E mutation and RET/PTC rearrangement (P<0.05). Expression of BRAF V600E, RET/PTC, and concomitant expression of BRAF V600E and RET/PTC were significantly associated with patient age and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Serum levels of NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β and CCL3, and tumor tissue levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β, CXCL2 and CCL2 in patients with PTC were significantly increased compared with patients with benign thyroid adenoma, before and after surgery (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Expression of the BRAF V600E mutation and RET/PTC translocation promoted the activity of NF-κB, expression of inflammatory mediators, and lymph node metastases in patients with PTC.

Xue N, Lin JH, Xing S, et al.
Plasma Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and CCL3 as Potential Biomarkers for Distinguishing Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma from High-Risk Individuals Who Have Positive Epstein-Barr Virus Capsid Antigen-Specific IgA.
Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 51(1):378-390 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify novel plasma biomarkers for distinguishing nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients from healthy individuals who have positive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen (VCA-IgA).
Materials and Methods: One hundred seventy-four plasma cytokines were analyzed by a Cytokine Array in eight healthy individuals with positive EBV VCA-IgA and eight patients with NPC. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunohistochemistry were employed to detect the expression levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) in NPC cell lines and tumor tissues. Plasma MIF and CCL3 were measured by ELISA in 138 NPC patients, 127 EBV VCA-IgA negative (VN) and 100 EBV VCA-IgA positive healthy donors (VP). Plasma EBV VCA-IgA was determined by immunoenzymatic techniques.
RESULTS: Thirty-four of the 174 cytokines varied significantly between the VP and NPC group. Plasma MIF and CCL3 were significantly elevated in NPC patients compared with VN and VP. Combination of MIF and CCL3 could be used for the differential diagnosis of NPC from VN cohort (area under the curve [AUC], 0.913; sensitivity, 90.00%; specificity, 80.30%), and combination of MIF, CCL3, and VCA-IgA could be used for the differential diagnosis of NPC from VP cohort (AUC, 0.920; sensitivity, 90.00%; specificity, 84.00%), from (VN+VP) cohort (AUC, 0.961; sensitivity, 90.00%; specificity, 92.00%). Overexpressions of MIF and CCL3 were observed in NPC plasma, NPC cell lines and NPC tissues.
CONCLUSION: Plasma MIF, CCL3, and VCA-IgA combination significantly improves the diagnostic specificity of NPC in high-risk individuals.

Suenaga M, Schirripa M, Cao S, et al.
Gene Polymorphisms in the CCL5/CCR5 Pathway as a Genetic Biomarker for Outcome and Hand-Foot Skin Reaction in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated With Regorafenib.
Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2018; 17(2):e395-e414 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The C-C motif chemokine ligand 5/C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCL5/CCR5) pathway has been shown to induce endothelial progenitor cell migration, resulting in increased vascular endothelial growth factor A expression. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in the CCL5/CCR5 pathway predict efficacy and toxicity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with regorafenib.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed genomic DNA extracted from 229 tumor samples from 2 different cohorts of patients who received regorafenib: an evaluation cohort of 79 Japanese patients and a validation cohort of 150 Italian patients. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of CCL5/CCR5 pathway-related genes were analyzed by PCR-based direct sequencing.
RESULTS: CCL4 rs1634517 and CCL3 rs1130371 were associated with progression-free survival in the evaluation cohort (hazard ratio [HR] 1.54, P = .043; HR 1.48, P = .064), and progression-free survival (HR 1.74, P < .001; HR 1.66, P = .002) and overall survival (HR 1.65, P = .004; HR 1.65, P = .004) in the validation cohort. The allelic frequencies of CCL5 single nucleotide polymorphisms varied between the evaluation and validation cohorts (G/G variant in rs2280789, 21.5% vs. 1.3%, P < .001; T/T variant in rs3817655, 22.8% vs. 2.7%, P < .001). In the evaluation cohort, patients with the G/G variant in rs2280789 had a higher incidence of grade 3+ hand-foot skin reaction compared to any A allele (53% vs. 27%, P = .078), and similarly to the T/T variant in rs3817655 compared to any A allele (56% vs. 26%, P = .026).
CONCLUSION: Genetic variants in the CCL5/CCR5 pathway may serve as prognostic markers and may predict severe hand-foot skin reaction in mCRC patients receiving regorafenib therapy.

Arvidsson G, Henriksson J, Sander B, Wright AP
Mixed-species RNAseq analysis of human lymphoma cells adhering to mouse stromal cells identifies a core gene set that is also differentially expressed in the lymph node microenvironment of mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.
Haematologica. 2018; 103(4):666-678 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A subset of hematologic cancer patients is refractory to treatment or suffers relapse, due in part to minimal residual disease, whereby some cancer cells survive treatment. Cell-adhesion-mediated drug resistance is an important mechanism, whereby cancer cells receive survival signals

Tsubaki M, Takeda T, Tomonari Y, et al.
The MIP-1α autocrine loop contributes to decreased sensitivity to anticancer drugs.
J Cell Physiol. 2018; 233(5):4258-4271 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several autocrine soluble factors, including macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), tumor necrosis factor-α, and hepatocyte growth factor, promote cell survival and growth in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. We hypothesized that inhibition of the MIP-1α autocrine loop may enhance the cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs in MM cell lines. In the present study, an MIP-1α neutralizing antibody suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced the cytotoxic effect of melphalan or bortezomib on MM cells. In addition, melphalan resistance cells (RPMI8226/L-PAM and HS-sultan/L-PAM cells) secreted MIP-1α and neutralizing antibody of MIP-1α partially overcame melphalan resistance. Moreover, combination treatment with MIP-1α neutralizing antibody and melphalan or bortezomib inhibited extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Survivin expression, and upregulated the expression of Bim and cleaved Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Treatment of IM9 cells with MIP-1α siRNA suppressed the activation of ERK1/2, Akt, and mTOR, and enhanced the cytotoxic effect of melphalan and bortezomib. These results indicate that MIP-1α neutralizing antibodies or MIP-1α siRNA enhance the cytotoxic effect of melphalan and bortezomib by suppressing the chemokine receptor/ERK and chemokine receptor/Akt/mTOR pathways. The inhibition of MIP-1α may thus provide a new therapeutic approach to control tumor progression and bone destruction in patients with MM.

Vandyke K, Zeissig MN, Hewett DR, et al.
HIF-2α Promotes Dissemination of Plasma Cells in Multiple Myeloma by Regulating CXCL12/CXCR4 and CCR1.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(20):5452-5463 [PubMed] Related Publications
Disease progression and relapse in multiple myeloma is dependent on the ability of the multiple myeloma plasma cells (PC) to reenter the circulation and disseminate throughout the bone marrow. Increased bone marrow hypoxia is associated with increased recirculation of multiple myeloma PCs. Accordingly, we hypothesized that during chronic hypoxia, activation of HIF-2α may overcome the bone marrow retention signal provided by stromal-derived CXCL12, thereby enabling dissemination of multiple myeloma PCs. Here we demonstrate that HIF-2α upregulates multiple myeloma PC CXCL12 expression, decreasing migration toward CXCL12 and reducing adhesion to mesenchymal stromal cells

Mukaida N, Tanabe Y, Baba T
Chemokines as a Conductor of Bone Marrow Microenvironment in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
All blood lineage cells are generated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which reside in bone marrow after birth. HSCs self-renew, proliferate, and differentiate into mature progeny under the control of local microenvironments including hematopoietic niche, which can deliver regulatory signals in the form of bound or secreted molecules and from physical cues such as oxygen tension and shear stress. Among these mediators, accumulating evidence indicates the potential involvement of several chemokines, particularly CXCL12, in the interaction between HSCs and bone marrow microenvironments. Fusion between breakpoint cluster region (BCR) and Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ABL)-1 gene gives rise to BCR-ABL protein with a constitutive tyrosine kinase activity and transforms HSCs and/or hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) into disease-propagating leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). LSCs can self-renew, proliferate, and differentiate under the influence of the signals delivered by bone marrow microenvironments including niche, as HSCs can. Thus, the interaction with bone marrow microenvironments is indispensable for the initiation, maintenance, and progression of CML. Moreover, the crosstalk between LSCs and bone marrow microenvironments can contribute to some instances of therapeutic resistance. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to indicate the important roles of bone marrow microenvironment-derived chemokines. Hence, we will herein discuss the roles of chemokines in CML with a focus on bone marrow microenvironments.

Lee SY, Kim JK, Jeon HY, et al.
CD133 Regulates IL-1β Signaling and Neutrophil Recruitment in Glioblastoma.
Mol Cells. 2017; 40(7):515-522 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD133, a pentaspan transmembrane glycoprotein, is generally used as a cancer stem cell marker in various human malignancies, but its biological function in cancer cells, especially in glioma cells, is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that forced expression of CD133 increases the expression of

Li S, Jiang Y, Li A, et al.
Telomere length is positively associated with the expression of IL‑6 and MIP‑1α in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of multiple myeloma.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(3):2497-2504 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Potential roles of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) are largely unknown. In the current study, the authors analyzed telomere length and the expressions of interleukin (IL)‑6 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)‑1α in MSCs derived from the bone marrow (BM) of MM patients and controls. The current results demonstrated that there was no significant difference in cell surface expression of CD73 and CD90, and the capacity to differentiate into bone tissue were identified between the BM MSCs derived from MM patients and controls. Interestingly, telomere length (TL) and mRNA expressions of IL‑6 and MIP‑1α were significantly longer or higher in BM MSCs of MM than those of controls. Moreover, TL is positively associated with the expressions of IL‑6 and MIP‑1α at the mRNA level in BM MSCs of MM. Additionally, IL‑6 and MIP‑1α expression were significantly upregulated when MSCs from MM patients were cultured in the myeloma associated condition medium. The present study indicated that myeloma‑associated elongation of TL of BM MSCs may be a key element contributing to the increased IL‑6 and MIP‑1α expression, by which MSCs in the tumor microenvironment may facilitate MM and/or MM bone disease development.

Crompot E, Van Damme M, Pieters K, et al.
Extracellular vesicles of bone marrow stromal cells rescue chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells from apoptosis, enhance their migration and induce gene expression modifications.
Haematologica. 2017; 102(9):1594-1604 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Interactions between chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells and the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment play a major function in the physiopathology of CLL. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are composed of exosomes and microparticles, play an important role in cell communication. However, little is known about their role in CLL / microenvironment interactions. In the present study, EVs purified by ultracentrifugation from BM mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) cultures were added to CLL B cells. After their integration into CLL B cells, we observed a decrease of leukemic cell spontaneous apoptosis and an increase in their chemoresistance to several drugs, including fludarabine, ibrutinib, idelalisib and venetoclax after 24 hours. Spontaneous (

Shen Y, Bu L, Li R, et al.
Screening effective differential expression genes for hepatic carcinoma with metastasis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells by RNA-seq.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(17):27976-27989 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor metastasis is a multistep process involving a number of genetic alterations so that the genetic diagnosis is got increasingly attentions today. The aim of this study was to use RNA-seq to screen the effective differential expression genes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells for the hepatic carcinoma with metastasis. The results showed that hepatic carcinoma samples gathered according to different metastasis. CCL3, CCL3L1, JUN, IL8, and IL1B were identified in inflammation mediated by chemokine and cytokine signaling pathway (P00031) in the hepatic carcinoma samples with metastasis, and subsequently confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In conclusions, CCL3, CCL3L1, JUN, IL8, and IL1B have the potential to be considered as candidates for future molecular diagnosis of the hepatic carcinoma with metastasis. This work may provide us with new visions into the metastasis process and potential efficient clinical diagnosis in the future.

Botta C, Di Martino MT, Ciliberto D, et al.
A gene expression inflammatory signature specifically predicts multiple myeloma evolution and patients survival.
Blood Cancer J. 2016; 6(12):e511 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is closely dependent on cross-talk between malignant plasma cells and cellular components of the inflammatory/immunosuppressive bone marrow milieu, which promotes disease progression, drug resistance, neo-angiogenesis, bone destruction and immune-impairment. We investigated the relevance of inflammatory genes in predicting disease evolution and patient survival. A bioinformatics study by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis on gene expression profiling dataset of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering and symptomatic-MM, identified inflammatory and cytokine/chemokine pathways as the most progressively affected during disease evolution. We then selected 20 candidate genes involved in B-cell inflammation and we investigated their role in predicting clinical outcome, through univariate and multivariate analyses (log-rank test, logistic regression and Cox-regression model). We defined an 8-genes signature (IL8, IL10, IL17A, CCL3, CCL5, VEGFA, EBI3 and NOS2) identifying each condition (MGUS/smoldering/symptomatic-MM) with 84% accuracy. Moreover, six genes (IFNG, IL2, LTA, CCL2, VEGFA, CCL3) were found independently correlated with patients' survival. Patients whose MM cells expressed high levels of Th1 cytokines (IFNG/LTA/IL2/CCL2) and low levels of CCL3 and VEGFA, experienced the longest survival. On these six genes, we built a prognostic risk score that was validated in three additional independent datasets. In this study, we provide proof-of-concept that inflammation has a critical role in MM patient progression and survival. The inflammatory-gene prognostic signature validated in different datasets clearly indicates novel opportunities for personalized anti-MM treatment.

Tekin N, Omidvar N, Morris TP, et al.
Protocol for qRT-PCR analysis from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections from diffuse large b-cell lymphoma: Validation of the six-gene predictor score.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(50):83319-83329 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As a part of an international study on the molecular analysis of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), a robust protocol for gene expression analysis from RNA extraction to qRT-PCR using Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded tissues was developed. Here a study was conducted to define a strategy to validate the previously reported 6-gene (LMO2, BCL6, FN1, CCND2, SCYA3 and BCL2) model as predictor of prognosis in DLBCL. To avoid variation, all samples were tested in a single centre and single platform. This study comprised 8 countries (Brazil, Chile, Hungary, India, Philippines, S. Korea, Thailand and Turkey). Using the Kaplan-Meier and log rank test on patients (n=162) and two mortality risk groups (with those above and below the mean representing high and low risk groups) confirmed that the 6-gene predictor score correlates significantly with overall survival (OS, p<0.01) but not with event free survival (EFS, p=0.18). Adding the International Prognostic Index (IPI) shows that the 6-gene predictor score correlates significantly with high IPI scores for OS (p<0.05), whereas those with low IPI scores show a trend not reaching significance (p=0.08). This study defined an effective and economical qRT-PCR strategy and validated the 6-gene score as a predictor of OS in an international setting.

Najjar YG, Rayman P, Jia X, et al.
Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Subset Accumulation in Renal Cell Carcinoma Parenchyma Is Associated with Intratumoral Expression of IL1β, IL8, CXCL5, and Mip-1α.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(9):2346-2355 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Raja UM, Gopal G, Shirley S, et al.
Immunohistochemical expression and localization of cytokines/chemokines/growth factors in gastric cancer.
Cytokine. 2017; 89:82-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous studies on gastric cancer tissue and patient plasma samples identified several cytokines/chemokines/growth factors to be differentially expressed, compared to normal samples. In this study our aim was to understand the localization patterns of the markers in gastric tissues. We investigated the expression of PDGFRB, CCL3, MMP3, CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL20, IGFBP3, CXCL9, SPP1, CCL18, TIMP1, CCL15, CXCL5 and CCL4 in gastric tissues using Immunohistochemistry (IHC) on Tissue Microarrays (TMA). The TMA comprised of 25 apparently normal (AN), 87 paired normal (PN) and 134 gastric cancer (T) tissues. The epithelial and stromal expression of markers and their correlation with patient characteristics and outcome were analyzed. Several of the markers [PDGFRB (p<0.001), CCL3 (p<0.001), MMP3 (p<0.001), CXCL8 (p<0.001), CXCL10 (p<0.001), CCL20 (p<0.001), CXCL9 (p<0.001), CCL18 (p<0.001), TIMP1 (p=0.025), CCL15 (p<0.001)] were elevated in the stromal compartment of gastric cancers compared to AN tissues, with some having intermediate levels of expression in PN tissues. Epithelial and stromal PDGFRB (p=0.030, p=0.018) expression was associated with diffuse type gastric cancer. Stromal IGFBP3 (p=0.039), CXCL8 (p=0.008), TIMP1 (p<0.001), CCL4 (p=0.003) and SPP1 (p=0.048) expression was associated with intestinal type gastric cancer. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed higher epithelial PDGFRB (p=0.005 and p=0.004), CXCL8 (p=0.009 and p=0.007) were associated with poor disease free and overall survival. In multivariate analysis, high epithelial PDGFRB (p=0.036 and p=0.02) and SPP1 (p=0.003 and p<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS in patients with gastric cancer. The expression of cytokine/chemokine/growth factor markers is higher in the gastric tumor stroma compared to the normal gastric stroma and PDGFRB and SPP1 may serve as potential prognostic factors in gastric cancer.

Blunt MD, Koehrer S, Dobson RC, et al.
The Dual Syk/JAK Inhibitor Cerdulatinib Antagonizes B-cell Receptor and Microenvironmental Signaling in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(9):2313-2324 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Pitarresi JR, Liu X, Sharma SM, et al.
Stromal ETS2 Regulates Chemokine Production and Immune Cell Recruitment during Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia.
Neoplasia. 2016; 18(9):541-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Preclinical studies have suggested that the pancreatic tumor microenvironment both inhibits and promotes tumor development and growth. Here we establish the role of stromal fibroblasts during acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), an initiating event in pancreatic cancer formation. The transcription factor V-Ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2) was elevated in smooth muscle actin-positive fibroblasts in the stroma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient tissue samples relative to normal pancreatic controls. LSL-Kras(G12D/+); LSL-Trp53(R172H/+); Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) mice showed that ETS2 expression initially increased in fibroblasts during ADM and remained elevated through progression to PDAC. Conditional ablation of Ets-2 in pancreatic fibroblasts in a Kras(G12D)-driven mouse ADM model decreased the amount of ADM events. ADMs from fibroblast Ets-2-deleted animals had reduced epithelial cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Surprisingly, fibroblast Ets-2 deletion significantly altered immune cell infiltration into the stroma, with an increased CD8+ T-cell population, and decreased presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and mature macrophages. The mechanism involved ETS2-dependent chemokine ligand production in fibroblasts. ETS2 directly bound to regulatory sequences for Ccl3, Ccl4, Cxcl4, Cxcl5, and Cxcl10, a group of chemokines that act as potent mediators of immune cell recruitment. These results suggest an unappreciated role for ETS2 in fibroblasts in establishing an immune-suppressive microenvironment in response to oncogenic Kras(G12D) signaling during the initial stages of tumor development.

Ten Hacken E, Sivina M, Kim E, et al.
Functional Differences between IgM and IgD Signaling in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
J Immunol. 2016; 197(6):2522-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BCR signaling is a central pathogenetic pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Most CLL cells express BCRs of IgM and IgD isotypes, but the contribution of these isotypes to functional responses remains incompletely defined. We therefore investigated differences between IgM and IgD signaling in freshly isolated peripheral blood CLL cells and in CLL cells cultured with nurselike cells, a model that mimics the lymph node microenvironment. IgM signaling induced prolonged activation of ERK kinases and promoted CLL cell survival, CCL3 and CCL4 chemokine secretion, and downregulation of BCL6, the transcriptional repressor of CCL3 In contrast, IgD signaling induced activation of the cytoskeletal protein HS1, along with F-actin polymerization, which resulted in rapid receptor internalization and failure to support downstream responses, including CLL cell survival and chemokine secretion. IgM and IgD receptor downmodulation, HS1 and ERK activation, chemokine secretion, and BCL6 downregulation were also observed when CLL cells were cocultured with nurselike cells. The Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib effectively inhibited both IgM and IgD isotype signaling. In conclusion, through a variety of functional readouts, we demonstrate very distinct outcomes of IgM and IgD isotype activation in CLL cells, providing novel insight into the regulation of BCR signaling in CLL.

Ascierto ML, McMiller TL, Berger AE, et al.
The Intratumoral Balance between Metabolic and Immunologic Gene Expression Is Associated with Anti-PD-1 Response in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2016; 4(9):726-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pretreatment tumor PD-L1 expression has been shown to correlate with response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. Yet, most patients with PD-L1(+) tumors do not respond to treatment. The current study was undertaken to investigate mechanisms underlying the failure of PD-1-targeted therapies in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) whose tumors express PD-L1. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pretreatment tumor biopsies expressing PD-L1 were derived from 13 RCC patients. RNA was isolated from PD-L1(+) regions and subjected to whole genome microarray and multiplex quantitative (q)RT-PCR gene expression analysis. A balance between gene expression profiles reflecting metabolic pathways and immune functions was associated with clinical outcomes following anti-PD-1 therapy. In particular, the expression of genes involved in metabolic and solute transport functions such as UGT1A family members, also found in kidney cancer cell lines, was associated with treatment failure in patients with PD-L1(+) RCC. Conversely, tumors from responding patients overexpressed immune markers such as BACH2, a regulator of CD4(+) T-cell differentiation, and CCL3 involved in leukocyte migration. These findings suggest that tumor cell-intrinsic metabolic factors may contribute to treatment resistance in RCC, thus serving as predictive markers for treatment outcomes and potential new targets for combination therapy regimens with anti-PD-1. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(9); 726-33. ©2016 AACRSee related Spotlight by Ohashi, p. 719.

Oghumu S, Knobloch TJ, Terrazas C, et al.
Deletion of macrophage migration inhibitory factor inhibits murine oral carcinogenesis: Potential role for chronic pro-inflammatory immune mediators.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 139(6):1379-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral cancer kills about 1 person every hour each day in the United States and is the sixth most prevalent cancer worldwide. The pro-inflammatory cytokine 'macrophage migration inhibitory factor' (MIF) has been shown to be expressed in oral cancer patients, yet its precise role in oral carcinogenesis is not clear. In this study, we examined the impact of global Mif deletion on the cellular and molecular process occurring during oral carcinogenesis using a well-established mouse model of oral cancer with the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). C57BL/6 Wild-type (WT) and Mif knock-out mice were administered with 4NQO in drinking water for 16 weeks, then regular drinking water for 8 weeks. Mif knock-out mice displayed fewer oral tumor incidence and multiplicity, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines Il-1β, Tnf-α, chemokines Cxcl1, Cxcl6 and Ccl3 and other molecular biomarkers of oral carcinogenesis Mmp1 and Ptgs2. Further, systemic accumulation of myeloid-derived tumor promoting immune cells was inhibited in Mif knock-out mice. Our results demonstrate that genetic Mif deletion reduces the incidence and severity of oral carcinogenesis, by inhibiting the expression of chronic pro-inflammatory immune mediators. Thus, targeting MIF is a promising strategy for the prevention or therapy of oral cancer.

Zhang J, Chang L, Jin H, et al.
Benzopyrene promotes lung cancer A549 cell migration and invasion through up-regulating cytokine IL8 and chemokines CCL2 and CCL3 expression.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2016; 241(14):1516-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tobacco-sourced carcinogen including benzopyrene (B[a]P) in lung cancer metastasis has not been fully reported. In this study, lung carcinoma A549 cell line was used to investigate the potential roles of tobacco-sourced B[a]P on cell metastasis and invasion and to assess its underlying mechanism. Effects of tobacco-sourced carcinogen on A549 cell proliferation, metastasis, and invasion were analyzed using MTT assay, Transwell assay, and scratch method, respectively. The effects of tobacco-sourced carcinogen on cytokines and chemokines secretion were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, correlation between inflammatory factor expression and cancer cell migration and invasion was assessed using siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Data showed that both B[a]P and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone either at high or low dose performed no significant difference on A549 cell proliferation with time increasing. 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone performed no significant difference on A549 cell migration and invasion while B[a]P significantly increased A549 cell migration and invasion compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Consequently, except for IL-6, IL-8, CCL-2, and CCL-3, secretions were significantly increased by B[a]P treatment compared to the control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, when CCL-2 and CCL-3 were silenced, the migrated and invasive A549 cells were significantly decreased compared to the control, respectively (P < 0.05), while silenced IL-8 drastically decreased the migrated and invasive cells compared to the control (P < 0.01). Taken together, this study illustrated that there may be significant correlation between smoking and lung cancer metastasis. B[a]P maybe an excellent contributor for lung cancer metastasis through up-regulating IL-8, CCL-2, and CCL-3 expression.

Bognar MK, Vincendeau M, Erdmann T, et al.
Oncogenic CARMA1 couples NF-κB and β-catenin signaling in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(32):4269-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Constitutive activation of the antiapoptotic nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway is a hallmark of the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). Recurrent oncogenic mutations are found in the scaffold protein CARMA1 (CARD11) that connects B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling to the canonical NF-κB pathway. We asked how far additional downstream processes are activated and contribute to the oncogenic potential of DLBCL-derived CARMA1 mutants. To this end, we expressed oncogenic CARMA1 in the NF-κB negative DLBCL lymphoma cell line BJAB. By a proteomic approach we identified recruitment of β-catenin and its destruction complex consisting of APC, AXIN1, CK1α and GSK3β to oncogenic CARMA1. Recruitment of the β-catenin destruction complex was independent of CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 complex formation or constitutive NF-κB activation and promoted the stabilization of β-catenin. The β-catenin destruction complex was also recruited to CARMA1 in ABC DLBCL cell lines, which coincided with elevated β-catenin expression. In line, β-catenin was frequently detected in non-GCB DLBCL biopsies that rely on chronic BCR signaling. Increased β-catenin amounts alone were not sufficient to induce classical WNT target gene signatures, but could augment TCF/LEF-dependent transcriptional activation in response to WNT signaling. In conjunction with NF-κB, β-catenin enhanced expression of immunosuppressive interleukin-10 and suppressed antitumoral CCL3, indicating that β-catenin can induce a favorable tumor microenvironment. Thus, parallel activation of NF-κB and β-catenin signaling by gain-of-function mutations in CARMA1 augments WNT stimulation and is required for regulating the expression of distinct NF-κB target genes to trigger cell-intrinsic and extrinsic processes that promote DLBCL lymphomagenesis.

Kassen D, Lath D, Lach A, et al.
Myeloma impairs mature osteoblast function but causes early expansion of osteo-progenitors: temporal changes in bone physiology and gene expression in the KMS12BM model.
Br J Haematol. 2016; 172(1):64-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloma bone disease results from an uncoupling of osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic bone formation, but early changes in osteogenic function remain poorly defined. We used the KMS12BM xenograft model to investigate cellular and molecular events at early and late stages of disease. Lytic lesions and changes in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers occur late (8 weeks), however, micro-computed tomography of femora revealed significant reduction in bone volume at earlier disease stages (3 weeks) when tumour burden is low. Calcein labelling demonstrated reduced mineralization and bone formation at 3 weeks, suggesting functional impairment despite preserved osteoblast numbers. Osteo-progenitors from compact bone increased early (1 week), but fell at 3 weeks and were profoundly suppressed by 8 weeks. Exposure of osteoblast progenitors to multiple myeloma (MM) cells in vitro induced cell cycling, suggesting a mechanistic basis for early expansion of osteo-progenitors. We observed temporal changes in chemokine, osteogenic and osteoclastogenic genes in the stromal compartment. Notably, an early rise in CCL3 may underlie functional changes in mature osteoblasts at 3 weeks. Our data indicate that MM has distinct effects on mature osteoblasts and immature osteo-progenitors. Our findings argue for early clinical intervention to prevent bone changes that ultimately lead to the development of osteolytic disease.

Yeh CR, Ou ZY, Xiao GQ, et al.
Infiltrating T cells promote renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression via altering the estrogen receptor β-DAB2IP signals.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(42):44346-59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies indicated the T cells, one of the most common types of immune cells existing in the microenvironment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), may influence the progression of RCC. The potential linkage of T cells and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), a key player to impact RCC progression, however, remains unclear. Our results demonstrate that RCC cells can recruit more T cells than non-malignant kidney cells. Using an in vitro matrigel invasion system, we found infiltrating T cells could promote RCC cells invasion via increasing ERβ expression and transcriptional activity. Mechanism dissection suggested that co-culturing T cells with RCC cells released more T cell attraction factors, including IFN-γ, CCL3 and CCL5, suggesting a positive regulatory feed-back mechanism. Meanwhile, infiltrating T cells may also promote RCC cell invasion via increased ERβ and decreased DAB2IP expressions, and knocking down DAB2IP can then reverse the T cells-promoted RCC cell invasion. Together, our results suggest that infiltrating T cells may promote RCC cell invasion via increasing the RCC cell ERβ expression to inhibit the tumor suppressor DAB2IP signals. Further mechanism dissection showed that co-culturing T cells with RCC cells could produce more IGF-1 and FGF-7, which may enhance the ERβ transcriptional activity. The newly identified relationship between infiltrating T cells/ERβ/DAB2IP signals may provide a novel therapeutic target in the development of agents against RCC.

Hartmann EM, Rudelius M, Burger JA, Rosenwald A
CCL3 chemokine expression by chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells orchestrates the composition of the microenvironment in lymph node infiltrates.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2016; 57(3):563-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous experiments demonstrated that survival and proliferation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells depends upon complex cross-talk between CLL cells and accessory cells in the tissue microenvironment. To further dissect these interactions in situ, we analyzed lymph nodes from 43 different patients infiltrated by CLL cells for expression of the chemokine CCL3, Ki-67, macrophages, and T cell subsets by immunohistochemistry. CCL3 expression was detected in 24 of 43 cases (56%), particularly in prolymphocytes and paraimmunoblasts within the proliferation centers. Significantly higher numbers of CD3+ T cells and CD57+ cells were noticed in CCL3 positive cases. Furthermore, denser infiltration of CLL lymph node tissues by CD57+ cells correlated with higher proliferation rates of the CLL cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate an association of CCL3 expression by CLL cells with increased numbers of CD3+ T cells and CD57+ cells in the lymph node microenvironment, which may promote CLL cell survival and proliferation.

De Cecco L, Capaia M, Zupo S, et al.
Interleukin 21 Controls mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in CD40-Activated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0134706 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several factors support CLL cell survival in the microenvironment. Under different experimental conditions, IL21 can either induce apoptosis or promote CLL cell survival. To investigate mechanisms involved in the effects of IL21, we studied the ability of IL21 to modulate gene and miRNA expressions in CD40-activated CLL cells. IL21 was a major regulator of chemokine production in CLL cells and it modulated the expression of genes involved in cell movement, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. In particular, IL21 down-regulated the expression of the chemokine genes CCL4, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL17, and CCL2, while it up-regulated the Th1-related CXCL9 and CXCL10. In addition, IL21 down-regulated the expression of genes encoding signaling molecules, such as CD40, DDR1 and PIK3CD. IL21 modulated a similar set of genes in CLL and normal B-cells (e.g. chemokine genes), whereas other genes, including MYC, TNF, E2F1, EGR2 and GAS-6, were regulated only in CLL cells. An integrated analysis of the miRNome and gene expression indicated that several miRNAs were under IL21 control and these could, in turn, influence the expression of potential target genes. We focused on hsa-miR-663b predicted to down-regulate several relevant genes. Transfection of hsa-miR-663b or its specific antagonist showed that this miRNA regulated CCL17, DDR1, PIK3CD and CD40 gene expression. Our data indicated that IL21 modulates the expression of genes mediating the crosstalk between CLL cells and their microenvironment and miRNAs may take part in this process.

Li Y, Zheng Y, Li T, et al.
Chemokines CCL2, 3, 14 stimulate macrophage bone marrow homing, proliferation, and polarization in multiple myeloma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(27):24218-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously showed that macrophages (MΦs) infiltrate the bone marrow (BM) of patients with myeloma and may play a role in drug resistance. This study analyzed chemokines expressed by myeloma BM that are responsible for recruiting monocytes to the tumor bed. We found that chemokines CCL3, CCL14, and CCL2 were highly expressed by myeloma and BM cells, and the levels of CCL14 and CCL3 in myeloma BM positively correlated with the percentage of BM-infiltrating MΦs. In vitro, these chemokines were responsible for chemoattracting human monocytes to tumor sites and in vivo for MΦ infiltration into myeloma-bearing BM in the 5TGM1 mouse model. Surprisingly, we also found that these chemokines stimulated MΦ in vitro proliferation induced by myeloma cells and in vivo in a human myeloma xenograft SCID mouse model. The chemokines also activated normal MΦ polarization and differentiation into myeloma-associated MΦs. Western blot analysis revealed that these chemokines promoted growth and survival signaling in MΦs via activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK MAPK pathways and c-myc expression. Thus, this study provides novel insight into the mechanism of MΦ infiltration of BM and also potential targets for improving the efficacy of chemotherapy in myeloma.

Wang G, Wei Z, Jia H, et al.
Knockdown of SOX18 inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(3):1121-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Recent studies have demonstrated that SOX18 is highly expressed in various types of cancer. In the present study, we found that SOX18 mRNA was overexpressed in HCC compared with non-tumorous tissues. We aimed to explore the effects of SOX18 siRNA on the proliferation, invasion and migration of two HCC cell lines, MHCC97H and HepG2, which overexpress SOX18. We found that SOX18 siRNA significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Results of the Transwell assay showed that the migration and invasion of the HCC cells were markedly impaired in the SOX18-knockdown cells. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that KEGG focal adhesion and chemokine signaling pathways were correlated with SOX18 expression. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of RhoA, PDGFB, IGF1R, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL5 were decreased in the SOX18-knockdown cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that upregulation of SOX18 was associated with a poor outcome in HCC patients. These results indicate that SOX18 may serve as a prognostic factor and a promising therapeutic strategy for HCC.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. CCL3, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 30 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999