Gene Summary

Gene:CCK; cholecystokinin
Summary:Cholecystokinin is a brain/gut peptide. In the gut, it induces the release of pancreatic enzymes and the contraction of the gallbladder. In the brain, its physiologic role is unclear. The cholecystokinin pro-hormone is processed by endo- and exo-proteolytic cleavages. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Pancreatic CancerCCK and Pancreatic Cancer View Publications33
Colorectal CancerCCK and Colonic Neoplasms View Publications19
Liver CancerCCK and Liver Cancer View Publications23
Ewing's SarcomaCCK Expression in Ewing's Sarcoma
In a study of diverse tumour cell lines Friedman (1992) reported that only a subset of tumors were found to expresses the cholecystokinin gene, in particular; 8/8 neuroepitheliomas, 8/8 Ewing sarcoma amd 2/6 rhabdomyosarcoma. In a study of paediatric primary tumours Schaer (1999) found that CCK cRNA expression was predominatly resrticted to 9/11 Ewing sarcomas and 5/10 leiomyosarcomas.
View Publications7
Thyroid CancerCCK and Thyroid Cancer View Publications3
Prostate CancerCCK and Prostate Cancer View Publications15

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCK (cancer-related)

Niu G, Li B, Sun J, Sun L
miR-454 is down-regulated in osteosarcomas and suppresses cell proliferation and invasion by directly targeting c-Met.
Cell Prolif. 2015; 48(3):348-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy of children and young adults. Increasing evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with cancer development, but, little is known concerning the role of miR-454 in osteosarcoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR was performed to detect expression of miR-454 in osteosarcoma cell lines and tissues. To understand its role in osteosarcoma, we reintroduced expression of miR-454 in the MG-63 cell line by transfection with miR-454 mimics or inhibitors. CCK-8 assay and an invasion assay were used to detect the functional role of miR-454. Luciferase assay and western blot analysis were performed to detect the target gene of miR-454.
RESULTS: miR-454 was found to be down-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Its over-expression inhibited tumour growth and invasion and its down-regulation promoted cell proliferation and invasion. Subsequent investigation revealed that c-Met was a direct and functional target of miR-454 in osteosarcoma. Overexpression of miR-454 impaired c-Met-induced cell proliferation and invasion. Finally, miR-454 was found to be inversely correlated to c-Met expression in human osteosarcoma tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: Reduced-expression of miR-454 in osteosarcoma cells promoted tumour growth by targeting c-Met, thus miR-454 may be a potential therapy target for this tumour.

Hu B, Jiang D, Chen Y, et al.
High CHMP4B expression is associated with accelerated cell proliferation and resistance to doxorubicin in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2569-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Charged multivesicular body protein 4B (CHMP4B), a subunit of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III complex, plays an important part in cytokinetic membrane abscission and the late stage of mitotic cell division. In this study, we explored the prognostic significance of CHMP4B in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its impact on the physiology of HCC cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistrical analyses showed that CHMP4B was significantly upregulated in HCC tissues, compared with adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Meanwhile, clinicopathological analysis revealed that high CHMP4B expression was correlated with multiple clinicopathological variables, including AFP, cirrhosis, AJCC stage, Ki-67 expression, and poor prognosis. More importantly, univariate and multivariate survival analyses demonstrated that CHMP4B served as an independent prognostic factor for survival of HCC patients. Using HCC cell cultures, we found that the expression of CHMP4B was progressively upregulated after the release from serum starvation. To verify whether CHMP4B could regulate the proliferation of HCC cells, CHMP4B was knocked down through the transfection of CHMP4B-siRNA oligos. Flow cytometry and CCK-8 assays indicated that interference of CHMP4B led to cell cycle arrest and proliferative impairment of HCC cells. Additionally, depletion of CHMP4B expression could increase the sensitivity to doxorubicin in HepG2 and Huh7 cells. Taken together, our results implied that CHMP4B could be a promising prognostic biomarker as well as a potential therapeutic target of HCC.

Liu T, Zhang X, Sha K, et al.
miR-709 up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma, promotes proliferation and invasion by targeting GPC5.
Cell Prolif. 2015; 48(3):330-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is a significant leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with cancer development and progression. However, up to now little has been known concerning the role of miR-709 in HCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR was performed to detect expression of miR-709 in HCC cell lines and tissues. To further understand its role in HCC, we restored its expression in HepG2 cell line through transfection with miR-709 mimics or inhibitors. CCK-8 proliferation assay, migration assay and invasion assay were used to detect functional roles of miR-709. Luciferase assay and western blotting were performed to detect the target gene of miR-709.
RESULTS: We found that miR-709 was highly expressed in HCC tissues and in HCC cell lines by qRT-PCR. Re-expression of miR-709 in HCC cells remarkably promoted cell migration and invasiveness in vitro. Subsequent investigation revealed that glypican-5 (GPC5) was a direct and functional target of miR-709 in HCC cells where overexpression of miR-709 impaired GPC5-induced inhibition of proliferation and invasion. Finally, analysis of miR-709 and GPC5 levels in human HCC tissues revealed that miR-709 inversely correlated with GPC5 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that miR-709 may positively regulate invasion and metastasis of HCC through targeting GPC5.

Zhu H, Miao MH, Ji XQ, et al.
miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 and promotes cell proliferation and invasion in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 459(2):340-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many types of cancers by negatively regulating gene expression at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in leukaemia, particularly T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), has remained elusive. Here, we identified miR-664 and its predicted target gene PLP2 were differentially expressed in T-ALL using bioinformatics methods. In T-ALL cell lines, CCK-8 proliferation assay indicated that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-664, while miR-664 inhibitor could significantly inhibited the proliferation. Moreover, migration and invasion assay showed that overexpression of miR-664 could significantly promoted the migration and invasion of T-ALL cells, whereas miR-664 inhibitor could reduce cell migration and invasion. luciferase assays confirmed that miR-664 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of PLP2, and western blotting showed that miR-664 suppressed the expression of PLP2 at the protein levels. This study indicated that miR-664 negatively regulates PLP2 and promotes proliferation and invasion of T-ALL cell lines. Thus, miR-664 may represent a potential therapeutic target for T-ALL intervention.

Li XQ, Zhou JD, Zou ST, et al.
Enhancement of radiosensitivity in human esophageal carcinoma cells by fenofibrate and its potential mechanism.
Tumori. 2015 Jan-Feb; 101(1):123-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Fenofibrate is a specific agonist of PPARα, and is characterized by relatively low systemic toxicity. Recent studies have revealed that fenofibrate suppresses the growth of several cancer lines in vitro, but the exact relation between fenofibrate and irradiation has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the radiosensitivity enhancement effects of fenofibrate combined with radiation on the human esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca-109 and TE1, and the potential mechanism underlying these effects.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The Eca-109 and TE1 cell lines were tested by the CCK-8 assay for cell proliferation. The multitarget click model was used to delineate the survival curve and radiosensitivity was determined after cells were treated with fenofibrate and/or x-ray radiation. Flow cytometry was used to examine the effect of fenofibrate and radiation on the cell cycle. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein was detected by Western blot analysis.
RESULTS: When given alone, fenofibrate had a time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect on cells. The dose-enhancement ratio for combined fenofibrate and radiation increased markedly compared with fenofibrate alone. Further, the ratio of cells in the G2/M phase after fenofibrate and radiation was higher than that after fenofibrate or irradiation alone. The expression of VEGF protein was suppressed after treatment with fenofibrate alone or fenofibrate plus radiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Fenofibrate can enhance the radiosensitivity of human esophageal carcinoma cells by increasing G2/M phase arrest. Modulation of VEGF expression could contribute in vivo to a favorable interaction.

Wang Y, Xu L, Jiang L
miR-1271 promotes non-small-cell lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion via targeting HOXA5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 458(3):714-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs (∼ 22 nt) that play important roles in the pathogenesis of human diseases by negatively regulating numerous target genes at posttranscriptional level. However, the role of microRNAs in lung cancer, particularly non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has remained elusive. In this study, two microRNAs, miR-1271 and miR-628, and their predicted target genes were identified differentially expressed in NSCLC by analyzing the miRNA and mRNA expression data from NSCLC tissues and their matching normal controls. miR-1271 and its target gene HOXA5 were selected for further investigation. CCK-8 proliferation assay showed that the cell proliferation was promoted by miR-1271 in NSCLC cells, while miR-1271 inhibitor could significantly inhibited the proliferation of NSCLC cells. Interestingly, migration and invasion assay indicated that overexpression of miR-1271 could significantly promoted the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells, whereas miR-1271 inhibitor could inhibited both cell migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. Western blot showed that miR-1271 suppressed the protein level of HOXA5, and luciferase assays confirmed that miR-1271 directly bound to the 3'untranslated region of HOXA5. This study indicated indicate that miR-1271 regulates NSCLC cell proliferation and invasion, via the down-regulation of HOXA5. Thus, miR-1271 may represent a potential therapeutic target for NSCLC intervention.

Hojjat-Farsangi M
Novel and emerging targeted-based cancer therapy agents and methods.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(2):543-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
After several decades of uncovering the cancer features and following the improvement of therapeutic agents, however cancer remains as one of the major reasons of mortality. Chemotherapy is one of the main treatment options and has significantly improved the overall survival of cancer patients, but chemotherapeutic agents are highly toxic for normal cells. Therefore, there is a great unmet medical need to develop new therapeutic principles and agents. Targeted-based cancer therapy (TBCT) agents and methods have revolutionized the cancer treatment efficacy. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) are among the most effective agents of TBCT. These drugs have improved the prognosis and survival of cancer patients; however, the therapeutic resistance has subdued the effects. Several mechanisms lead to drug resistance such as mutations in the drug targets, activation of compensatory pathways, and intrinsic or acquired resistance of cancer stem cells. Therefore, new modalities, improving current generation of inhibitors and mAbs, and optimizing the combinational therapy regimens are necessary to decrease the current obstacles in front of TBCT. Moreover, the success of new TBCT agents such as mAbs, SMIs, and immunomodulatory agents has sparked further therapeutic modalities with novel targets to inhibit. Due to the lack of cumulative information describing different agents and methods of TBCT, this review focuses on the most important agents and methods of TBCT that are currently under investigation.

Shan W, Wang C, Zhang Z, et al.
ATM may be a protective factor in endometrial carcinogenesis with the progesterone pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):1529-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of the study was to explore the role and mechanism of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein in endometrial carcinogenesis. A reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) was used to analyze the expression of ATM signal pathway proteins in Ishikawa and progesterone-insensitive Ishikawa. ATM expression was detected in endometrium specimens by immunohistochemistry, including 8 cases with proliferative endometrium, 6 cases with secretory endometrium, 10 cases with simple hyperplasia (SH), 13 cases of complex hyperplasia (CH), 11 cases of endometrial atypical hyperplasia (EAH), and 83 cases with type I endometrial cancer. The relationship between ATM expression and other clinicopathological indicators was also examined in type I endometrial cancer patients. The mechanisms of ATM were explored in vitro with the endometrial cell lines Ishikawa and RL95-2. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) test and Western blot analysis were performed to test proliferation and protein expression. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS19.0. The significance level was set at 0.05. ATM was increased with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) stimulation in Ishikawa in RPPA. ATM expression gradually decreased in endometrial hyperplasic lesions compared with the normal proliferative and secretory endometrium and was the lowest in type I endometrial cancer. ATM expression was negatively correlated with pathological grades in type I endometrial cancer. In vitro, ATM silencing retarded proliferation inhibition in Ishikawa and RL95-2 treated with MPA. ATM silencing could down-regulate the MPA-stimulated signal proteins, including Chk2, P53, and caspase-3 in vitro. MPA might exert its role through activating the ATM-associated pathway, ATM-Chk2-P53-caspase-3 (active), preserving normal endometrium and protecting it from malignancies. ATM might be a promising indicator for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer.

Zhou H, Guo W, Long C, et al.
Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 456(3):815-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assays were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression.

Juhlin CC, Goh G, Healy JM, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing characterizes the landscape of somatic mutations and copy number alterations in adrenocortical carcinoma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100(3):E493-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and lethal malignancy with a poorly defined etiology, and the molecular genetics of ACC are incompletely understood.
OBJECTIVE: To utilize whole-exome sequencing for genetic characterization of the underlying somatic mutations and copy number alterations present in ACC.
DESIGN: Screening for somatic mutation events and copy number alterations (CNAs) was performed by comparative analysis of tumors and matched normal samples from 41 patients with ACC.
RESULTS: In total, 966 nonsynonymous somatic mutations were detected, including 40 tumors with a mean of 16 mutations per sample and one tumor with 314 mutations. Somatic mutations in ACC-associated genes included TP53 (8/41 tumors, 19.5%) and CTNNB1 (4/41, 9.8%). Genes with potential disease-causing mutations included GNAS, NF2, and RB1, and recurrently mutated genes with unknown roles in tumorigenesis comprised CDC27, SCN7A, and SDK1. Recurrent CNAs included amplification at 5p15.33 including TERT (6/41, 14.6%) and homozygous deletion at 22q12.1 including the Wnt repressors ZNRF3 and KREMEN1 (4/41 9.8% and 3/41, 7.3%, respectively). Somatic mutations in ACC-established genes and recurrent ZNRF3 and TERT loci CNAs were mutually exclusive in the majority of cases. Moreover, gene ontology identified Wnt signaling as the most frequently mutated pathway in ACCs.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of Wnt pathway dysregulation in ACC and corroborate the finding of homozygous deletion of Wnt repressors ZNRF3 and KREMEN1. Overall, mutations in either TP53 or CTNNB1 as well as focal CNAs at the ZNRF3 or TERT loci denote mutually exclusive events, suggesting separate mechanisms underlying the development of these tumors.

Ji WG, Zhang XD, Sun XD, et al.
miRNA-155 modulates the malignant biological characteristics of NK/T-cell lymphoma cells by targeting FOXO3a gene.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2014; 34(6):882-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study investigated the effects of miRNA-155 on malignant biological characteristics of NK/T-cell lymphoma cell lines and the possible mechanism. The expression of miRNA-155 was detected in lymphoma cell lines from different sources (SNK-6, YTS, Jurkat and DOHH2) by real-time PCR. Lentiviral vectors (pLL3.7) that could overexpress or downexpress miRNA-155 were constructed. Recombinant lentiviral particles were prepared and purified, and their titers determined. The expression of miRNA-155 in the infected SNK-6 cells and the cell proliferation were detected by PCR and CCK-8, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to determine the apoptosis of infected SNK-6 cells. The target of miRNA155 was predicted from Targetscan website. The effect of miRNA155 on FOXO3a expression was examined by Western blotting. The results showed that among the human NK/T-cell lymphoma cell lines SNK-6, YTS, Jurkat and DOHH2, the expression of miRNA-155 was highest in SNK-6. The infection efficiency of the recombinant lentivirus in SNK-6 was more than 70% at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100. The expression of miRNA-155 was significantly increased in SNK-6 cells infected by lentivirus vectors with high expression of miRNA-155 (4 times higher than the control group), and profoundly decreased in those infected with lentiviruses with low expression of miRNA-155. The proliferation of letivirus-infected SNK-6 cells was decreased as the expression of miRNA-155 reduced. The apoptosis rate was increased with the reduction in the expression of miRNA-155. FOXO3a was found to be a possible target of miRNA155, as suggested by Targetscan website. Western blotting showed that the expression of FOXO3a was significantly elevated in SNK-6 cells with miRNA-155 inhibition. It was concluded that reduction in miRNA-155 expression can inhibit the proliferation of SNK-6 lymphoma cells and promote their apoptosis, which may be associated with regulation of FOXO3a gene.

Huang JW, Guan BZ, Yin LH, et al.
Effects of estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) on proliferation and metastasis of human lung cancer A549 cells.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2014; 34(6):875-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) plays an important role in the development of hormone-dependent cancers, but its roles in lung cancer remain elusive. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of ERRα on the proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer A549 cells. The mRNA and protein levels of ERRα were detected in lung cancer A549 and MCF-7 cells and bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. ERRα plasmid transfection and XCT-790 (an inverse agonist of ERRα) were used to up-regulate or down-regulate ERRα expression in A549 cells, respectively. The viability of A549 cells was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and the motility of A549 cells by wound healing assay and Transwell migration/invasion assay. The epithelial markers E-cadherin (E-Cad) and zona occludin-1 (ZO-1), the mesenchymal markers fibronectin (FN) and vimentin (Vim) and the transcription factors (Snail, Zeb1 Twist and Slug) were further detected at mRNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that ERRα promoted the growth of lung cancer A549 cells in vitro. XCT-790 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells. Over-expression of ERRα promoted the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of A549 cells, down-regulated the epithelial makers E-Cad and ZO-1, and up-regulated the mesenchymal makers FN and Vim. Silencing of Slug, but not other transcription factors, significantly abolished the ERRα-induced EMT of A549 cells. It was suggested that ERRα promoted the migration and invasion of A549 cells by inducing EMT, and Slug was involved in the process. Targeting ERRα might be an efficient approach for lung cancer treatment.

Jiang L, Wu X, Wang P, et al.
Targeting FoxM1 by thiostrepton inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(6):971-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We have previously reported that forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor was overexpressed in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and was associated with development of LSCC. However, there are limited studies regarding the functional significance of FoxM1 and FoxM1 inhibitor thiostrepton in LSCC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine both in vitro and in vivo activity of FoxM1 inhibitor thiostrepton against LSCC cell line and nude mice.
METHODS: Cell viability was studied by CCK-8 assay. Cell growth was evaluated by CFSE staining and cell cycle analysis. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression were detected by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Xenograft model of tumor formation was used to investigate how thiostrepton influences tumorigenesis in vivo.
RESULTS: Overexpression of FoxM1 in LSCC cells was down-regulated by thiostrepton in a dose-dependent manner. Thiostrepton caused dose- and time-dependent suppression of cell viability of LSCC. Moreover, thiostrepton induced cell cycle arrest at S phase at early time and inhibited DNA synthesis in LSCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner by down-regulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1. Thiostrepton also induced dose- and time-dependent apoptosis of LSCC cells by down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax and p53, and inducing release of cytochrome c accompanied by activation of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP. In addition, z-VAD-fmk, a universal inhibitor of caspases, prevented activation of cleavage caspase-3 and abrogates cell death induced by thiostrepton treatment. Furthermore, FADD and cleaved caspase-8 were activated, and expression of cIAP1, XIAP and survivin were inhibited by thiostrepton. Finally, treatment of LSCC cell line xenografts with thiostrepton resulted in tumorigenesis inhibition of tumors in nude mice by reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis of LSCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our finding suggest that targeting FoxM1 by thiostrepton inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of LSCC through mitochondrial- and caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway and Fas-dependent extrinsic pathway as well as IAP family. Thiostrepton may represent a novel lead compound for targeted therapy of LSCC.

Song J, Zhang J, Wang J, et al.
β1 integrin mediates colorectal cancer cell proliferation and migration through regulation of the Hedgehog pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):2013-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
β1 integrin (ITGB1) is the major expressed integrin protein of normal cells and tumor-associated cells. It is often up-regulated in human malignancies and is involved in many developmental processes, such as tumor progression and metastasis. However, little is known about the function of ITGB1 in colorectal cancer. We constructed lentiviral vectors expressing ITGB1 or ITGB1-specific RNA interference (RNAi) and an unrelated control vector. After infecting HT29 cells in vitro, proliferation and migration were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) assays, transwell invasion assays, and Western blots. The influence of lentivirus infection on the tumor development capacity of HT29 cells in vivo was examined by xenografting the tumor cells. The expression of ITGB1 in the xenografted tumor cells was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The up-regulation of ITGB1 significantly increased the proliferation in HT29 cells in vitro. Moreover, we found that the overexpression of ITGB1 up-regulated sonic hedgehog (Shh) while down-regulating Gli1 and SuFu in HT29-ITGB1 cells compared to controls. Moreover, the levels of c-myc and cyclin D1 proteins were up-regulated. Transwell assays showed that the number of migrating HT29-RNAi cells was lower than that in the other cell groups, indicating that ITGB1 significantly enhances the invasive ability of HT29 cells. In addition to these in vitro results, ITGB1 was found to be a significantly effective growth factor in a xenografted tumor mouse model. These results suggest that ITGB1 induces growth and invasion in a human colorectal cancer cell line through the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo.

Xu LD, Muller S, Thoppe SR, et al.
Expression of the p53 target Wig-1 is associated with HPV status and patient survival in cervical carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e111125 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The p53 target gene WIG-1 (ZMAT3) is located in chromosomal region 3q26, that is frequently amplified in human tumors, including cervical cancer. We have examined the status of WIG-1 and the encoded Wig-1 protein in cervical carcinoma cell lines and tumor tissue samples. Our analysis of eight cervical cancer lines (Ca Ski, ME-180, MS751, SiHa, SW756, C-4I, C-33A, and HT-3) by spectral karyotype, comparative genomic hybridization and Southern blotting revealed WIG-1 is not the primary target for chromosome 3 gains. However, WIG-1/Wig-1 were readily expressed and WIG-1 mRNA expression was higher in the two HPV-negative cervical cell lines (C33-A, HT-3) than in HPV-positive lines. We then assessed Wig-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in 38 cervical tumor samples. We found higher nuclear Wig-1 expression levels in HPV-negative compared to HPV positive cases (p = 0.002) and in adenocarcinomas as compared to squamous cell lesions (p<0.0001). Cases with moderate nuclear Wig-1 staining and positive cytoplasmic Wig-1 staining showed longer survival than patients with strong nuclear and negative cytoplasmic staining (p = 0.042). Nuclear Wig-1 expression levels were positively associated with age at diagnosis (p = 0.023) and histologic grade (p = 0.034). These results are consistent with a growth-promoting and/or anti-cell death function of nuclear Wig-1 and suggest that Wig-1 expression can serve as a prognostic marker in cervical carcinoma.

Song YH, Zhong MZ, Gan PP, et al.
ALDH1A1 mediates resistance of diffuse large B cell lymphoma to the CHOP regimen.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):11809-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although there have been substantial advances in our knowledge of the resistance of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) to chemotherapy, there are few efficient treatment strategies for recurrent/refractory DLBCL. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1A1 in the resistance of diffuse large B cell lymphoma to the chemotherapeutic mixture consisting of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP). The involvement of ALDH1A1 in DLBCL was elucidated by knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition; Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and clone formation assays were used to determine its role in CHOP sensitivity and clone formation ability. Caspase colorimetric assay was used to measure the extent of apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to measure signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling proteins, and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to measure the differential expression of ALDH1A1 of DLBCL patients and healthy donors. ALDH1A1 showed a 5.64-fold higher expression in malignant B cells than in normal B cells. Diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB) decreased the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the CHOP regimen in Farage cells from 344.78 ± 65.75 to 183.88 ± 49.75 ng/ml (P = 0.004). Both knockdown and inhibition of ALDH1A1 reduced clonogenicity, increased caspase-3/caspase-9 activity, and attenuated the phosphorylation status of STAT3/NF-κB. The prognosis of patients with a high level of ALDH1A1 expression was poor compared with that of patients with low levels of expression (P = 0.044). ALDH1A1 is a new mediator for resistance of DLBCL to CHOP; it is a predictor of clinical prognosis and may serve as a potential target to improve chemotherapy responsiveness of human DLBCL.

Meng D, Chen Y, Zhao Y, et al.
Expression and prognostic significance of TCTN1 in human glioblastoma.
J Transl Med. 2014; 12:288 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal intracranial malignancy in adults, with dismal prognosis despite multimodal therapies. Tectonic family member 1 (TCTN1) is a protein involved in a diverse range of developmental processes, yet its functions in GBM remain unclear. This study aims to investigate expression profile, prognostic value and effects of TCTN1 gene in GBM.
METHODS: Protein levels of TCTN1 were assessed by immunohistochemical staining using a tissue microarray constructed by a Chinese cohort of GBM patients (n=110), and its mRNA expression was also detected in a subset of this cohort. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were performed to estimate the prognostic significance of TCTN1. Similar analyses were also conducted in another two independent cohorts: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort (n=528) and the Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data (REMBRANDT) cohort (n=228). For the TCGA cohort, the relationships between TCTN1 expression, clinical outcome, molecular subtypes and genetic alterations were also analysed. Furthermore, proliferation of TCTN1 overexpressed or silenced GBM cells was determined by CCK-8 assays.
RESULTS: As discovered in three independent cohorts, both mRNA and protein levels of TCTN1 expression were markedly elevated in human GBMs, and higher TCTN1 expression served as an independent prognostic factor predicting poorer prognosis of GBM patients. Additionally, in the TCGA cohort, TCTN1 expression was dramatically decreased in patients within the proneural subtype compared to other subtypes, and significantly influenced by the status of several genetic aberrations such as CDKN2A/B deletion, EGFR amplification, PTEN deletion and TP53 mutation. The prognostic value of TCTN1 was more pronounced in proneural and mesenchymal subtypes, and was also affected by several genetic alterations particularly PTEN deletion. Furthermore, overexpression of TCTN1 significantly promoted proliferation of GBM cells, while its depletion evidently hampered cell growth.
CONCLUSIONS: TCTN1 is elevated in human GBMs and predicts poor clinical outcome for GBM patients, which is associated with molecular subtypes and genetic features of GBMs. Additionally, TCTN1 expression impacts GBM cell proliferation. Our results suggest for the first time that TCTN1 may serve as a novel prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target for GBM.

Li G, Wang Y, Liu Y, et al.
miR-185-3p regulates nasopharyngeal carcinoma radioresistance by targeting WNT2B in vitro.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(12):1560-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression contributes to a series of malignant cancer behaviors, including radioresistance. Our previous study showed differential expression of miR-185-3p in post-radiation nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. To investigate the role of miR-185-3p in NPC radioresistance, CNE-2 and 5-8F cells were transfected with miR-185-3p mimic and miR-185-3p inhibitor, respectively. CCK-8 assay and colony formation experiment confirmed that the expression of miR-185-3p affected the radioresistance of NPC cells. A negative correlation between miR-185-3p and WNT2B expression was observed in NPC cells and tissues. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-185-3p directly targeted the coding region of WNT2B. Furthermore, we found radioresistance decreased in WNT2B-silenced NPC cells. Activation of the WNT2B/β-catenin pathway was accompanied by epithelial-mesenchymal transition biomarker changes in NPC. We concluded that miR-185-3p contributed to the radioresistance of NPC via modulation of WNT2B expression in vitro.

Chen S, Chen X, Xiu YL, et al.
microRNA 490-3P enhances the drug-resistance of human ovarian cancer cells.
J Ovarian Res. 2014; 7:84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, single-stranded small RNAs that regulate gene expression negatively, which is involved in fundamental cellular processes. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-490-3P in the development of drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells.
METHODS: The human ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and A2780/Taxol were exposed to paclitaxel in the presence or absence of microRNA 490-3P transfection, after which cell viability were performed by CCK-8 assay. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting were used to assess the mRNA and protein expression levels of GST-π, MDR1 or P-gp.
RESULTS: Our results showed higher miR-490-3P mRNA expression level in A2780/Taxol cells than in A2780 cells (p < 0.05). Following miR-490-3P transfection, both A2780 and A2780/Taxol cells showed decreased sensitivity to paclitaxel. The mRNA expression levels of MDR1, GST-π (p < 0.05) and protein expression levels of P-gp, GST-π were down-regulated after miR-490-3P transfection in comparison to mock and negative control cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate for the first time that microRNA 490-3P may be involved in the development of drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

Zhou L, Feng Y, Jin Y, et al.
Verbascoside promotes apoptosis by regulating HIPK2-p53 signaling in human colorectal cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:747 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We investigated the role of the HIPK2-p53 signaling pathway in tumorigenesis and resistance to the drug Verbascoside (VB) in colorectal cancer (CRC), using in vivo and in vitro experiments.
METHODS: Primary human CRC samples and normal intestinal tissues from patients were analyzed for HIPK2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and its expression was correlated against patients' clinicopathological characteristics. Human CRC HCT-116 cells were implanted in BALB/c nude mice; mice with xenografted tumors were randomly administrated vehicle (control), 20, 40, or 80 mg/mL VB, or 1 mg/mL fluorouracil (5-FU). HIPK2, p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression in these tumors were determined by IHC. In vitro effects of VB on CRC cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry; HIPK2, p53, p-p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 were measured by western blot.
RESULTS: IHC analysis for 100 human CRC tumor samples and 20 normal intestinal tissues, showed HIPK2 expression to inversely correlate with Dukes stage and depth of invasion in CRC (P<0.05). In vivo, the inhibition rates of 20, 40, and 80 mg/mL VB on CRC xenograft tumor weight were 42.79%, 53.90%, and 60.99%, respectively, and were accompanied by increased expression of HIPK2, p53, and Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 expression in treated tumors. In vitro, VB significantly inhibited proliferation of CRC cell lines HCT-116, HT-29, LoVo, and SW620, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The apoptosis rates of 25, 50, and 100 μM VB on HCT-116 cells were 10.83±1.28, 11.25±1.54, and 20.19±2.87%, and on HT-29 cells were 18.92±6.12, 21.57±4.05, and 25.14±6.73%, respectively. In summary, VB treatment significantly enhanced the protein expression of pro-apoptotic HIPK2, p53, p-p53, Bax, and decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression in CRC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: HIPK2 protein modulates the phosphorylation status of p53, and levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in CRC. We also found that VB effectively activated the HIPK2-p53 signaling pathway, resulting in increased CRC cell apoptosis.

Chen ZX, Sang QT, Du YG, Xin YY
Silence of PTEN in colorectal cancer cells via siRNA inhibits cell growth.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2014; 33(3):233-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and is a leading cause of cancerrelated death worldwide. In this study, we aimed to examine the expression of PTEN in human colorectal cancer cell lines HCT-8 and to further investigate the functions of PTEN in colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, we established stably transfected HCT-8 cell lines expressing siRNA targeting the PTEN gene. Cell proliferation and cell migration of the siPTEN cells were characterized by the CCK-8 assay and the Transwell assay, respectively. Our results show that constitutive knockdown of the PTEN gene in siPTEN cells significantly promoted cell proliferation and migration. These results suggest that PTEN may play important roles in colorectal cancer cell proliferation and migration.

Liu H, Chen Y, Zhou F, et al.
Sox9 regulates hyperexpression of Wnt1 and Fzd1 in human osteosarcoma tissues and cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(8):4795-805 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor that has poor prognosis. Molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression remain largely unknown. Sox9, one of the Sox family transcription factors, is closely associated with the development of a variety of malignant tumors. This study investigates the expression of Sox9, Wnt1 and Fzd1 in human osteosarcoma tissues and cells and the role of Sox9 in the proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. Immunohistochemical analyses for Sox9, Wnt1, Fzd1, and Ki-67 proteins were performed in human primary osteosarcoma tissues from 48 patients. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) of Sox9 was transfected into human osteosarcoma MG63 cells. At 24 and 48 h after transfection with Sox9 siRNA, the expression of Wnt1 and Fzd1 was analyzed by RT-qPCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence techniques. Cell proliferation was assayed by CCK-8 method, and Ki-67 protein expression was analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that the expressions of Sox9, Wnt1, Fzd1, and Ki-67 proteins in human osteosarcoma tissues were higher than those in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Hyperexpressions of Sox9, Wnt1, Fzd1, and Ki-67 proteins occurred more frequently in human osteosarcoma tissues with an advanced clinical stage (IIb/III). Sox9 siRNA reduced both mRNA and protein expression levels of Wnt1 and Fzd1, which result in the distinct inhibition of MG63 cell proliferation. Our study suggests that Sox9 siRNA inhibits the proliferation capability of human osteosarcoma cells by down-regulating the expression of Wnt1 and its receptor Fzd1, which may provide new gene targets for the clinical treatment of osteosarcoma.

Zang W, Wang T, Wang Y, et al.
Myricetin exerts anti-proliferative, anti-invasive, and pro-apoptotic effects on esophageal carcinoma EC9706 and KYSE30 cells via RSK2.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):12583-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myricetin, a common dietary flavonoid, is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables and is used as a health food supplement based on its anti-tumor properties. However, the effect and mechanisms of myricetin in esophageal carcinoma are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated the effect of myricetin on the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of the esophageal carcinoma cell lines EC9706 and KYSE30 and explored the underlying mechanism and target protein(s) of myricetin. CCK-8 assay, transwell invasion assay, wound-healing assay, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis assay were used to evaluate the effects of myricetin on cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis. Nude mouse tumor xenograft model was built to understand the interaction between myricetin and NTD RSK2. Pull-down assay was used to verify molecular mechanism. Myricetin inhibited proliferation and invasion and induced apoptosis of EC9706 and KYSE30 cells. Moreover, myricetin was shown to bind RSK2 through the NH2-terminal kinase domain. Finally, myricetin inhibited EC9706 and KYSE30 cell proliferation through Mad1 and induced cell apoptosis via Bad. Myricetin inhibits the proliferation and invasion and induces apoptosis in EC9706 and KYSE30 cells via RSK2. Myricetin exerts anti-proliferative, anti-invasive, and pro-apoptotic effects on esophageal carcinoma EC9706 and KYSE30 cells via RSK2. Our results provide novel insight into myricetin as a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of esophageal carcinoma.

Zhang G, Li M, Han S, et al.
Induction of human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cell apoptosis by virosecurinine and its molecular mechanism.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(5):2365-71 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Virosecurinine is a major alkaloid of the plant Securinega suffruticosa and has been found to be a potent agent in inducing the differentiation of cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate the antitumor effects of virosecurinine by inducing the apoptosis of leukemic K562 cells and to examine the underlying mechanisms. K562 cells were treated with different concentrations of virosecurinine (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µmol/l) for 24, 48 and 72 h. The cell counting kit (CCK)‑8 method was used to detect the antitumor effect of K562 cells in vitro. Flow cytometry was used to observe the apoptotic ratio and analyze the cell cycle following treatment with virosecurinine in K562 cells. Light and electron microscopy was used to identify morphological alterations in the virosecurinine‑treated K562 cells. The mRNA levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), SH2 domain‑containing inositol‑5'‑phosphatase 2 (SHIP2), phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and breakpoint cluster region (BCR)/Abelson (ABL) were detected pre and post‑virosecurinine treatment using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). The generation depression effects of K562 cells cultured in vitro were detected using CCK‑8 technology, which revealed a dose and time‑dependent association. The IC50 was 32.984 µmol/l at 48 h. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that treatment with virosecurinine at concentrations of 6.25, 25 and 50 µmol/l increased the apoptotic rate of the K562 cells and caused G1/S phase arrest. RT‑qPCR indicated that virosecurinine upregulated the gene expression of PTEN and downregulated the expression of mTOR, SHIP‑2 and BCR/ABL in K562 cells. Virosecurinine inhibited the growth and proliferation of the K562 cell lines and induced apoptosis in K562 cells by affecting the expression of mTOR, SHIP2, BCR/ABL and PTEN.

Hjerpe E, Brage SE, Frostvik Stolt M, et al.
Metabolic markers and HSP60 in chemonaive serous solid ovarian cancer versus ascites.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2014; 24(8):1389-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic pathway alterations in cancer are thought to be dependent upon tumor type-specific oncogenic activation and local nutrient and oxygen supply during disease progression. In serous ovarian cancer, the typical peritoneal spread of disease is caused by shedding of tumor cells into the abdominal cavity, often along with ascites formation. Not much is known about the metabolic features of these detached serous tumor cells. In this study, we investigate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of GAPDH (glycolytic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and PKM2 (pyruvate kinase isoform M2), ATP5B (mitochondrial β-F1-ATPase), and heat shock protein 60 in matched serous solid tumor and corresponding ascites.
MATERIALS/METHODS: Fresh samples from solid tumor and corresponding ascites were prospectively collected from 40 patients undergoing primary surgery for suspected advanced ovarian cancer. Of these, 25 met the study eligibility criteria, that is, stage IIC to IV disease of the serous (24) or endometrioid (1) subtype with solid and ascites specimens containing 50% or more tumor cells and with good quality and quantity mRNA yield. All but 2 patients (92%) had type II disease. GAPDH, PKM2, ATP5B, and HSP60 mRNA expressions were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. For each marker, the mRNA expression in solid tumor was pairwise compared with the corresponding expression in ascites using the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test.
RESULTS: In contrast to our hypothesis, the mRNA expression of analyzed metabolic markers and HSP60 did not significantly differ between matched solid tumor and malignant ascites.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that further expression changes in genes related to glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation are not a prerequisite for serous cancer cell survival after detachment.

Shi J, Zhuang Y, Liu XK, et al.
TGF-beta induced RBL2 expression in renal cancer cells by down-regulating miR-93.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2014; 16(11):986-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: TGF-beta can induce G1 arrest via many mechanisms including up-regulating p21, p27, and Rb. However, as the member of Rb family, whether RBL2 is induced by TGF-beta treatment remains exclusive.
METHODS: The expression of RBL2 and miR-93 after TGF-beta treatment was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. The growth of renal cancer cells was determined by CCK-8 assays and cell cycle was determined by PI staining. The binding of miR-93 on RBL2 3'-UTR was determined by double luciferase system.
RESULTS: In renal cancer cells, TGF-beta treatment induced expression of RBL2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and RBL2 mediated TGF-beta induced growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest in renal cancer cells. Furthermore, we found that miR-93 directly targeted RBL2 by binding to its 3'-UTR in renal cancer cells. Over-expression of miR-93 significantly reduced the expression of RBL2, whereas knock down of miR-93 up-regulated the expression of RBL2. More importantly, TGF-beta treatment inhibited miR-93 expression, which resulted in up-regulation of RBL2 after TGF-beta treatment.
CONCLUSION: TGF-beta induced RBL2 expression through down-regulating miR-93 in renal cancer cells. The newly identified TGF-beta/miR-93/RBL2 signal pathway reveals a new mechanism of TGF-beta induced growth arrest in renal cancer.

Cao JJ, Zhao XM, Wang DL, et al.
YAP is overexpressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and its knockdown reduces cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(4):1594-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
Yes-associated protein (YAP) has been reported to be an oncogene in a number of malignancies. It constitutes an important regulatory mechanism for the Hippo pathway, a key regulator of cell growth and apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance and the role of YAP in the development of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). YAP expression levels were compared between ccRCC and adjacent normal renal tissues by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. YAP expression levels were then detected in ccRCC cell lines 786-0 and ACHN, as well as in human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293) using western blotting. Three specific YAP-shRNA lentiviral vectors were constructed and transfected into 786-0 cells, and then the mRNA and protein levels of YAP and downstream transcription factor TEAD1 were detected. Finally, the effects of YAP silencing on proliferation and the cell cycle distribution of 786-0 cells were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry (FCM), respectively. The apoptosis rate was also analyzed by FCM. It was observed that the expression levels of YAP mRNA and protein in ccRCC tissues were higher than these levels in the adjacent normal renal tissues. The expression of YAP protein in ccRCC tissues was significantly correlated with clinical stage and differentiation. The YAP protein levels in the two ccRCC cell lines 786-0 and ACHN were significantly higher than that in the HEK-293 cells. Additionally, treatment of 786-0 cells with YAP-shRNA lentiviral vectors significantly reduced the expression levels of YAP and TEAD1 mRNA and protein. Further analyses in 786-0 cells in which YAP was decreased, revealed that cell proliferation was inhibited, cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and apoptosis was increased. These results indicate that YAP is an underlying oncogene in ccRCC and it may be a promising biomarker and therapeutic target of ccRCC.

Li P, Xie XB, Chen Q, et al.
MiRNA-15a mediates cell cycle arrest and potentiates apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting synuclein-γ.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(16):6949-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that microRNA-15a (miR-15a) is dysregulated in breast cancer (BC). We aimed to evaluate the expression of miR-15a in BC tissues and corresponding para-carcinoma tissues. We also focused on effects of miR-15a on cellular behavior of MDA-MB-231 and expression of its target gene synuclein-γ (SNCG).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of miR-15a were analysed in BC formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues by microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. CCK-8 assays, cell cycle and apoptosis assays were used to explore the potential functions of miR-15a in MDA-MB-231 human BC cells. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed direct targets.
RESULTS: Downregulation of miR-15a was detected in most primary BCs. Ectopic expression of miR-15a promoted proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in vivo. Further studies indicated that miR-15a may directly interact with the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of SNCG mRNA, downregulating its mRNA and protein expression levels. SNCG expression was negatively correlated with miR-15a expression.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-15a has a critical role in mediating cell cycle arrest and promoting cell apoptosis of BC, probably by directly targeting SNCG. Thus, it may be involved in development and progression of BC.

Wang YX, Cai H, Jiang G, et al.
Silibinin inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and causes cell cycle arrest in human gastric cancer MGC803 cells via STAT3 pathway inhibition.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(16):6791-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of silibinin on proliferation and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line MGC803 and its possible mechanisms.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human gastric cancer cell line MGC803 cells were treated with various concentration of silibinin. Cellular viability was assessed by CCK-8 assay and apoptosis and cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry. Protein expression and mRNA of STAT3, and cell cycle and apoptosis regulated genes were detected by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively.
RESULTS: Silibinin inhibits growth of MGC803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Silibinin effectively induces apoptosis of MGC803 cells and arrests MGC803 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, while decreasing the protein expression of p-STAT3, and of STAT3 downstream target genes including Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, survivin at both protein and mRNA levels. In addition, silibinin caused an increase in caspase 3 and caspase 9 protein as well as mRNA levels. Silibinin caused G2/M phage arrest accompanied by a decrease in CDK1 and Cyclin B1 at protein and mRNA levels..
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that silibinin inhibits the proliferation of MGC803 cells, and it induces apoptosis and causes cell cycle arrest by down-regulating CDK1, cyclinB1, survivin, Bcl-xl, Mcl-1 and activating caspase 3 and caspase 9, potentially via the STAT3 pathway.

Zong C, Wang J, Shi TM
MicroRNA 130b enhances drug resistance in human ovarian cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):12151-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified as a novel class of gene regulators, playing an important role in various malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the role of miRNA-130b in the development of drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells. The human ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and paclitaxel-resistant A2780/Taxol cells were exposed to the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin or paclitaxel in the presence or absence of transfected miR-130b. Cell viability assays were then performed using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to assess the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-π, multidrug resistance (MDR)1, or P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Following transfection, we found higher expression levels of miR-130b in A2780/Taxol cells than in A2780 cells (p < 0.05). Both A2780 and A2780/Taxol cells showed decreased sensitivity to paclitaxel and cisplatin compared with mock-transfected and negative control cancer cells (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of MDR1 and GST-π (p < 0.05) and the protein expression levels of P-gp and GST-π were downregulated following miR-130b transfection in comparison to mock-transfected and negative control cancer cells. Our findings suggest that miRNA-130b may be involved in the development of drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

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