Gene Summary

Gene:CASP2; caspase 2, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase
Aliases: ICH1, NEDD2, CASP-2, NEDD-2, PPP1R57
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Caspases mediate cellular apoptosis through the proteolytic cleavage of specific protein substrates. The encoded protein may function in stress-induced cell death pathways, cell cycle maintenance, and the suppression of tumorigenesis. Increased expression of this gene may play a role in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and temporal lobe epilepsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CASP2 (cancer-related)

Zhang Q, Hu H, Shi X, Tang W
Knockdown of S100P by lentiviral-mediated RNAi promotes apoptosis and suppresses the colony-formation ability of gastric cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(5):2344-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
S100P is a putative candidate oncogene in several types of human tumors. However, expression of S100P, its potential role and its clinical significance in gastric cancer remain unclear. In the present study, S100P expression was examined by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. Positive staining for S100P was noted in 77.1% of the cases while 22.9% were negative. In two gastric cancer cell lines, MGC-803 and SGC-7901, S100P expression was knocked down by a lentiviral short hairpin delivery system. The RNA interference-mediated downregulation of S100P expression markedly promoted cell apoptosis and inhibited cell colony-formation ability of the gastric cancer cells. In addition, knockdown of S100P significantly regulated the expression of 12 apoptosis-associated genes with a >1.5-fold change compared with the negative control. Among them, FOS, DDIT3 and FN1 were significantly upregulated, while FASLG, DAPK1, CTNNB1 and CASP2 were notably downregulated following S100P silencing. These results suggest that S100P acts as an oncogenic factor in gastric cancer and is a potential molecular target for gastric cancer gene therapy.

Han C, Zhao R, Kroger J, et al.
Caspase-2 short isoform interacts with membrane-associated cytoskeleton proteins to inhibit apoptosis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e67033 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Caspase-2 (casp-2) is the most conserved caspase across species, and is one of the initiator caspases activated by various stimuli. The casp-2 gene produces several alternative splicing isoforms. It is believed that the long isoform, casp-2L, promotes apoptosis, whereas the short isoform, casp-2S, inhibits apoptosis. The actual effect of casp-2S on apoptosis is still controversial, however, and the underlying mechanism for casp-2S-mediated apoptosis inhibition is unclear. Here, we analyzed the effects of casp-2S on DNA damage induced apoptosis through "gain-of-function" and "loss-of-function" strategies in ovarian cancer cell lines. We clearly demonstrated that the over-expression of casp-2S inhibited, and the knockdown of casp-2S promoted, the cisplatin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. To explore the mechanism by which casp-2S mediates apoptosis inhibition, we analyzed the proteins which interact with casp-2S in cells by using immunoprecipitation (IP) and mass spectrometry. We have identified two cytoskeleton proteins, Fodrin and α-Actinin 4, which interact with FLAG-tagged casp-2S in HeLa cells and confirmed this interaction through reciprocal IP. We further demonstrated that casp-2S (i) is responsible for inhibiting DNA damage-induced cytoplasmic Fodrin cleavage independent of cellular p53 status, and (ii) prevents cisplatin-induced membrane blebbing. Taken together, our data suggests that casp-2S affects cellular apoptosis through its interaction with membrane-associated cytoskeletal Fodrin protein.

Zhu Y, Li Y, Haraguchi S, et al.
Dependence receptor UNC5D mediates nerve growth factor depletion-induced neuroblastoma regression.
J Clin Invest. 2013; 123(7):2935-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spontaneous regression of neuroblastoma (NB) resembles the developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD) of sympathetic neurons. Regressing tumor cells express high levels of the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors TRKA and p75NTR and are dependent on NGF for survival; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that UNC5D, a dependence receptor that is directly targeted by p53 family members, is highly expressed in favorable NBs. NGF withdrawal strongly upregulated UNC5D, E2F1, and p53 in human primary favorable NBs. The induced UNC5D was cleaved by caspases 2/3, and the released intracellular fragment translocated into the nucleus and interacted with E2F1 to selectively transactivate the proapoptotic target gene. The cleavage of UNC5D and its induction of apoptosis were strongly inhibited by addition of netrin-1. Unc5d(-/-) mice consistently exhibited a significant increase in dorsal root ganglia neurons and resistance to NGF depletion-induced apoptosis in sympathetic neurons compared with wild-type cells. Our data suggest that UNC5D forms a positive feedback loop with p53 and E2F1 to promote NGF dependence-mediated PCD during NB regression.

Song T, Zhang X, Zhang L, et al.
miR-708 promotes the development of bladder carcinoma via direct repression of Caspase-2.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013; 139(7):1189-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Bladder cancer is one of the world's top ten malignant tumors. The crucial role of microRNA in carcinogenesis has been well emphasized. Considering miRNA expression was tumor stage-, tissue-, or even development-specific, more experimental evidences about the functions of miRNAs in bladder cancer should be discovered to advance applying of miRNA in the diagnosis or therapy of cancer.
METHODS: MiR-708 level in bladder carcinoma and adjacent noncancerous tissues was tested by real-time qPCR. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by using flow cytometry. The tumorigenicity of bladder carcinoma cells was evaluated in nude mice model. Luciferase reporter gene assays were performed to identify the interaction between miR-708 and 3'UTR of Caspase-2 mRNA. The protein level of Caspase-2 was determined by western blotting.
RESULTS: In this study, we reported that miR-708 was frequently dysregulated in human bladder carcinoma tissues compared to normal tissues. In addition, we found that silencing of miR-708 could promote the T24 and 5637 cells to apoptosis and inhibit the bladder tumor growth in vivo. Also, Caspase-2 was proved to be one of direct targets of miR-708 in T24 and 5637 cells. Further results showed that Caspase-2 was involved in the miR-708 regulated cell apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: All together, these results suggest miR-708 may act as an oncogene and induce the carcinogenicity of bladder cancer by down-regulating Caspase-2 level.

Ehrlichova M, Mohelnikova-Duchonova B, Hrdy J, et al.
The association of taxane resistance genes with the clinical course of ovarian carcinoma.
Genomics. 2013; 102(2):96-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy regimens are standard treatment for advanced ovarian carcinoma. Expression levels of putative markers of taxane resistance in carcinoma tissues and paired peritoneal samples (n=55) and in 16 samples of ovaries without signs of carcinoma were compared with clinical data and the patients' time to progression. KIF14, PRC1, CIT and ABCC1 genes were significantly overexpressed in carcinomas when compared with normal ovarian tissues, while ABCB1 and CASP9 expression was decreased. Associations of protein expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 with KIF14, PRC1, ABCB1 and CASP2 were found. Lastly, it was discovered that ABCB1 and CASP2 levels associated with FIGO stage and that the CIT level associated with the time to progression of ovarian carcinoma patients (P<0.0001). In conclusion, ABCB1, CASP2, KIF14, PRC1 and CIT genes seem to associate with surrogate markers of ovarian carcinoma progression and CIT gene associates with therapy outcome.

Brynychová V, Hlaváč V, Ehrlichová M, et al.
Importance of transcript levels of caspase-2 isoforms S and L for breast carcinoma progression.
Future Oncol. 2013; 9(3):427-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: A role of caspase-2 in chemotherapy-induced apoptosis has been suggested. Our study aimed to evaluate the prognostic and predictive importance of caspase-2 isoforms in breast cancer patients.
MATERIALS & METHODS: Caspase-2L and -2S transcript levels were determined in paired tumor and non-malignant control tissues from 64 patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 100 pretreatment patients (general set) by real-time PCR with absolute quantification.
RESULTS: Low but statistically significant upregulation of caspase-2L in tumor versus control tissues was observed in both sets. Significant associations of the levels of caspase-2L, -2S or S/L ratio with clinical prognostic factors were observed. However, none of these associations were confirmed in both sets. Levels of caspase-2 isoforms or the S/L ratio did not significantly associate with progression-free survival in the general set or with chemotherapy response in the neoadjuvant set.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the role of caspase-2 isoforms in the progression of breast cancer may considerably differ between pre- and post-chemotherapy patients.

Huang Y, Chuang AY, Ratovitski EA
Phospho-ΔNp63α/miR-885-3p axis in tumor cell life and cell death upon cisplatin exposure.
Cell Cycle. 2011; 10(22):3938-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cisplatin-induced ATM-dependent phosphorylated (p)-ΔNp63α plays an important role in transcriptional regulation of specific genes encoding mRNAs and microRNAs (miRs) implicated in cell death, cell survival, and chemoresistance. The p-ΔNp63α-induced miR-885-3p functions as a critical regulator of MDM4, ATK1, BCL2, ATG16L2, ULK2, CASP2, and CASP3 mRNAs via pairing with their respective 'recognition' sequences. Cisplatin exposure modulated the levels of target proteins (reduced BCL2, AKT1, ATG16L2, and ULK2, while activated MDM4) in cisplatin-sensitive wild type ΔNp63α cells leading to distinct changes in cell viability. Finally, miR-885-3p modulated the cisplatin-induced TP53-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis by up regulation of MDM4 levels and down regulation of BCL2 levels in mitochondria. Altogether, our results support the notion that miR-885-3p might contribute in regulation of cell viability, apoptosis and/or autophagy in squamous cell carcinoma cells upon cisplatin exposure.

Yoo BH, Wang Y, Erdogan M, et al.
Oncogenic ras-induced down-regulation of pro-apoptotic protease caspase-2 is required for malignant transformation of intestinal epithelial cells.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(45):38894-903 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Resistance of carcinoma cells to anoikis, apoptosis that is normally induced by loss of cell-to-extracellular matrix adhesion, is thought to be essential for the ability of these cells to form primary tumors, invade adjacent tissues, and metastasize to distant organs. Current knowledge about the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade anoikis is far from complete. In an effort to understand these mechanisms, we found that ras, a major oncogene, down-regulates protease caspase-2 (which initiates certain steps of the cellular apoptotic program) in malignant human and rat intestinal epithelial cells. This down-regulation could be reversed by inhibition of a protein kinase Mek, a mediator of Ras signaling. We also found that enforced down-regulation of caspase-2 in nonmalignant intestinal epithelial cells by RNA interference protected them from anoikis. Furthermore, the reversal of the effect of Ras on caspase-2 achieved by the expression of exogenous caspase-2 in detached ras-transformed intestinal epithelial cells promoted well established apoptotic events, such as the release of the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial factors cytochrome c and HtrA2/Omi into the cytoplasm of these cells, significantly enhanced their anoikis susceptibility, and blocked their long term growth in the absence of adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Finally, the blockade of the effect of Ras on caspase-2 substantially suppressed growth of tumors formed by the ras-transformed cells in mice. We conclude that ras-induced down-regulation of caspase-2 represents a novel mechanism by which oncogenic Ras protects malignant intestinal epithelial cells from anoikis, promotes their anchorage-independent growth, and allows them to form tumors in vivo.

Lamers F, van der Ploeg I, Schild L, et al.
Knockdown of survivin (BIRC5) causes apoptosis in neuroblastoma via mitotic catastrophe.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011; 18(6):657-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
BIRC5 (survivin) is one of the genes located on chromosome arm 17q in the region that is often gained in neuroblastoma. BIRC5 is a protein in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway that interacts with XIAP and DIABLO leading to caspase-3 and caspase-9 inactivation. BIRC5 is also involved in stabilizing the microtubule-kinetochore dynamics. Based on the Affymetrix mRNA expression data, we here show that BIRC5 expression is strongly upregulated in neuroblastoma compared with normal tissues, adult malignancies, and non-malignant fetal adrenal neuroblasts. The over-expression of BIRC5 correlates with an unfavorable prognosis independent of the presence of 17q gain. Silencing of BIRC5 in neuroblastoma cell lines by various antisense molecules resulted in massive apoptosis as measured by PARP cleavage and FACS analysis. As both the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and the chromosomal passenger complex can be therapeutically targeted, we investigated in which of them BIRC5 exerted its essential anti-apoptotic role. Immunofluorescence analysis of neuroblastoma cells after BIRC5 silencing showed formation of multinucleated cells indicating mitotic catastrophe, which leads to apoptosis via P53 and CASP2. We show that BIRC5 silencing indeed resulted in activation of P53 and we could rescue apoptosis by CASP2 inhibition. We conclude that BIRC5 stabilizes the microtubules in the chromosomal passenger complex in neuroblastoma and that the apoptotic response results from mitotic catastrophe, which makes BIRC5 an interesting target for therapy.

Ulybina YM, Kuligina ES, Mitiushkina NV, et al.
Distribution of coding apoptotic gene polymorphisms in women with extreme phenotypes of breast cancer predisposition and tolerance.
Tumori. 2011 Mar-Apr; 97(2):248-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Comparison of subjects with extreme phenotypes of cancer susceptibility and tolerance allows to detect low-penetrance gene-disease interactions with a relatively small study size.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed the distribution of 19 coding apoptotic gene polymorphisms (Bid Gly10Ser; Casp2 Leu141Val; Casp5 Ala90Thr and Val318Leu; Casp7 Glu255Asp; Casp8 His302Asp; Casp9 Val28Ala, His173Arg and Arg221Gln; Casp10 Ile479Leu; Faim Thr117Ala and Ser127Leu; DR4 Arg141His, Thr209Arg, Ala228Glu and Lys441Arg; Survivin Lys129Glu; TNFR1 Gln121Arg; XIAP Pro423Gln) in 121 breast cancer patients with clinical features of a hereditary predisposition (family history and/or early onset and/or bilaterality) and 142 elderly tumor-free women.
RESULTS: None of the individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) demonstrated an association with breast cancer risk. The analysis of gene interactions revealed that the combination of XIAP Pro423Gln (rs5956583) AA genotype with Casp7 Glu255Asp (rs2227310) CG genotype appeared to prevail in "supercases" relative to "supercontrols" (25/121 [21%] vs 11/142 [8%], P = 0.002). We attempted to validate this association in the second round of case-control analysis, which involved 519 randomly selected breast cancer patients and 509 age-matched healthy women, but no difference was detected upon this comparison.
CONCLUSIONS: Coding apoptotic gene polymorphisms do not play a major role in BC predisposition. The results of this investigation may be considered while designing future studies on breast cancer-associated candidate SNPs.

Seo HW, Rengaraj D, Choi JW, et al.
The expression profile of apoptosis-related genes in the chicken as a human epithelial ovarian cancer model.
Oncol Rep. 2011; 25(1):49-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of our study was to examine the expression pattern of apoptosis-related genes in normal and cancerous ovaries of the hen. Localization of apoptosis-related gene mRNA was investigated in cancerous ovaries using in situ hybridization. The expression patterns of apoptosis-related genes were confirmed with RT-PCR in normal and cancerous ovaries. Differences of expression level between normal ovaries and ovarian cancers were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. In both normal and cancerous chicken ovaries, the expression of CASP1, CASP2, CASP3, CASP6, CASP8 and CASP9 were detected through RT-PCR analysis. The expression of BCL2, BCL2L1 and BID were confirmed in normal and cancerous ovaries of the hen. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that CASP1 expression was significantly increased in cancerous ovaries compared with normal ovaries, whereas BID expression was decreased. Our results showed a resistance to removal of abnormal cells via apoptosis in cancerous ovaries of the hen. Collectively, this phenomenon is closely associated with the dysregulation of CASP1 and BID expression in chicken ovarian cancer.

Babas E, Ekonomopoulou MT, Karapidaki I, et al.
Indication of participation of caspase-2 and caspase-5 in mechanisms of human cervical malignancy.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010; 20(8):1381-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: When apoptosis is disrupted, the transformed cells can survive, proliferate, and evolve into a malignancy. The strictly conserved caspase genes and the reliable experimental data clearly show that some caspases play a crucial role in apoptosis even if some of them have no apoptotic activity and others exhibit both apoptotic and nonapoptotic properties. Although caspase-2 belongs to initiator caspases, its normal role remains unclear. Experimental studies have shown that it is primarily necessary for the execution of apoptosis in mutagenic cells. Human caspase-5 is classified as an inflammatory caspase, although its substrate has not been identified yet. In this research, the activities of caspase-2 and caspase-5 have been estimated during the progression of human cervical malignancy.
METHODS: The experimental material includes human cervical tissue samples (normal and pathological) and blood serum samples of the corresponding tissue donors, where enzyme activities have been measured colorimetrically.
RESULTS: Both caspases' activities showed the highest increase, statistically significant (P < 0.01, by t test) compared with the controls, in the low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion tissues. Caspase-2 of all pathological tissues was proved more active than the controls. Serum caspases' activities were significantly lower than those of the tissues. Serum caspase-2's activity in patients with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion stage showed no statistically significant increase compared with the controls. Serum caspase-5's activity of all patients with malignancy stages was presented elevated, whereas that of the serum of patients with cervical cancer had the highest activity (P < 0.01, by t test).
CONCLUSIONS: The changes of caspase-2 and caspase-5 activities could be indicative of their involvement in the cervical malignancy mechanisms.

Yan J, Katz AE
ProstaCaid induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human and mouse androgen-dependent and-independent prostate cancer cells.
Integr Cancer Ther. 2010; 9(2):186-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
The anticancer effects of ProstaCaid, a novel integrative blend of vitamins, minerals, multiherb extracts, and derivatives, were tested in human and mouse androgen-dependent (AD) and -independent (AI) prostate cancer cell lines. ProstaCaid shows growth inhibitory effects on both human and mouse AD prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and CASP 2.1) and AI prostate cancer cells (PC3 and CASP 1.1) in a dose-/time-dependent manner. Consistently, long-term treatment with ProstaCaid also reduced colony formation capacities of prostate cancer cells. Flow cytometry assays revealed that ProstaCaid induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis in LNCaP and PC3 cells after 72 hours of treatment. Immunoblotting assay demonstrated that 25 microg/mL of ProstaCaid treatment resulted in (1) the reduction of cyclin D1, cyclin B1, and Cdc2 expression in a time-dependent way; (2) increase in p21(WAF1/Cip1) as early as 12 hours after the treatments in PC3 cells and reduction to base line at the 72-hour time point; and (3) repression of Bcl-2, BclxL, and induction of Bim as well as the cleavages of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) at 72 hours of treatment, suggesting caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, ProstaCaid suppressed activation of AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in PC3 and LNCaP cells by reducing phosphorylation levels of AKT, its downstream target S6 ribosomal protein and GSK3beta, and ERK1/2, respectively. In summary, these findings strongly suggest that ProstaCaid may be a potential chemopreventive and therapeutic agent for both AD and, more importantly, AI prostate cancer.

Yan J, Katz A
PectaSol-C modified citrus pectin induces apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human and mouse androgen-dependent and- independent prostate cancer cells.
Integr Cancer Ther. 2010; 9(2):197-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To demonstrate the efficacy of PectaSol-C modified citrus pectin (MCP) on prostate cancer in vitro.
METHOD: Cytotoxicity analysis of PectaSol-C was performed by MTT assay, as were parallel studies with the former brand version of MCP called PectaSol. Apoptosis and inhibition of cell growth were investigated by Western blotting.
RESULTS: Androgen-dependent and -independent human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and PC3, respectively), androgen-dependent and -independent murine prostate cancer cell lines (CASP2.1 and CASP1.1, respectively), as well as noncancerous human benign prostate hyperplasia BPH-1 cell line, were used in the study. MTT assay revealed that 1.0% PectaSol exerted cytotoxicity on LNCaP, PC3, CASP2.1, CASP1.1, and BPH-1 cells for 4-day treatment by 48.0% +/- 2.1%, 54.4% +/- 0.3%, 15.4% +/- 0.8%, 46.1% +/- 1.7%, and 27.4% +/- 1.6%, respectively; whereas 1.0% PectaSol-C showed cytotoxity by 52.2% +/- 1.8%, 48.2% +/- 2.9%, 23.0% +/- 2.6%, 49.0% +/- 1.3%, and 26.8% +/- 2.6%, respectively. Western blotting further confirmed that both MCPs inhibit MAP kinase activation, increase the expression level of its downstream target Bim, a pro-apoptotic protein, and induce the cleavage of Caspase-3 in PC3 and CASP1.1 prostate cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: PectaSol MCP and PectaSol-C MCP can inhibit cell proliferation and apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines. Our data suggested that 1.0% PectaSol-C can be used for further chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic analysis in vivo.

Glinskii AB, Glinsky GV, Lin HY, et al.
Modification of survival pathway gene expression in human breast cancer cells by tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac).
Cell Cycle. 2009; 8(21):3562-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) inhibits the cellular actions of thyroid hormone initiated at the hormone receptor on plasma membrane integrin alphavbeta3. Via interaction with the integrin, tetrac is also capable of inhibiting the angiogenic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. MDA-MB-231 cells are estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancer cells shown to be responsive to tetrac in terms of decreased cell proliferation. Here we describe actions initiated at the cell surface receptor by unmodified tetrac and nanoparticulate tetrac on a panel of survival pathway genes in estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells. Nanoparticulate tetrac is excluded from the cell interior. Expression of apoptosis inhibitors XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis) and MCL1 (myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1) was downregulated by nanoparticulate tetrac in these breast cancer cells whereas apoptosis-promoting CASP2 and BCL2L14 were upregulated by the nanoparticulate formulation. Unmodified tetrac affected only XIAP expression. Expression of the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) gene was increased by both formulations of tetrac, as was the expression of CBY1, a nuclear inhibitor of catenin activity. The majority of differentially regulated Ras-oncogene family members were downregulated by nanoparticulate tetrac. The latter downregulated expression of epidermal growth factor receptor gene and unmodified tetrac did not. Nanoparticulate tetrac has coherent anti-cancer actions on expression of differentially-regulated genes important to survival of MDA-MB-231 cells.

Pan Y, Ren KH, He HW, Shao RG
Knockdown of Chk1 sensitizes human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells in a p53-dependent manner to lidamycin through abrogation of a G2/M checkpoint and induction of apoptosis.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2009; 8(16):1559-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances in cell cycle regulation have led to a suggestion of therapeutically targeting cell cycle checkpoint pathways in cancer cells to increase the toxicity of DNA-damaging agents. In this study, we investigate whether knockdowns of checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2 by RNA interfering potentiate the cytotoxicity and abrogate G(2)/M checkpoint induced by DNA-damaging agent lidamycin (LDM) in HCT116 cells with different p53 status. Our results showed that Chk1 knockdown enhanced the cytotoxicity of LDM through abrogating G(2)/M arrest and increasing apoptosis to a greater extent in HCT116 p53(-/-) cells than in p53(wt) cells. Abrogation of LDM-induced G(2)/M arrest by Chk1 knockdown was associated with reducing the inactivated phosphorylations of Cdc25C and Cdc2. LDM-induced gamma-H2AX was increased in cells with Chk1 knockdown, indicating that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were enhanced. Furthermore, knockdown of Chk1 also increased LDM-mediated apoptotic cell death in p53 knockout cells with activation of caspase-2 and caspase-3. On the contrary, knockdown of Chk2 had no impact on G(2)/M arrest or apoptosis induced by LDM. Moreover, dual knockdown of Chk1 and Chk2 failed to achieve better efficacy than Chk1 alone. Taken together, we suggest that Chk1 is a potential therapeutic target to sensitize human p53 deficient cancer cells to LDM.

Su DM, Zhang Q, Wang X, et al.
Two types of human malignant melanoma cell lines revealed by expression patterns of mitochondrial and survival-apoptosis genes: implications for malignant melanoma therapy.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2009; 8(5):1292-304 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human malignant melanoma has poor prognosis because of resistance to apoptosis and therapy. We describe identification of the expression profile of 1,037 mitochondria-focused genes and 84 survival-apoptosis genes in 21 malignant melanoma cell lines and 3 normal melanocyte controls using recently developed hMitChip3 cDNA microarrays. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of 1,037 informative genes, and 84 survival-apoptosis genes, classified these malignant melanoma cell lines into type A (n = 12) and type B (n = 9). Three hundred fifty-five of 1,037 (34.2%) genes displayed significant (P ≤ 0.030; false discovery rate ≤ 3.68%) differences (± ≥ 2.0-fold) in average expression, with 197 genes higher and 158 genes lower in type A than in type B. Of 84 genes with known survival-apoptosis functions, 38 (45.2%) displayed the significant (P < 0.001; false discovery rate < 0.15%) difference. Antiapoptotic (BCL2, BCL2A1, PPARD, and RAF1), antioxidant (MT3, PRDX5, PRDX3, GPX4, GLRX2, and GSR), and proapoptotic (BAD, BNIP1, APAF1, BNIP3L, CASP7, CYCS, CASP1, and VDAC1) genes expressed at higher levels in type A than in type B, whereas the different set of antiapoptotic (PSEN1, PPP2CA, API5, PPP2R1B, PPP2R1A, and FIS1), antioxidant (HSPD1, GSS, SOD1, ATOX1, and CAT), and proapoptotic (ENDOG, BAK1, CASP2, CASP4, PDCD5, HTRA2, SEPT4, TNFSF10, and PRODH) genes expressed at lower levels in type A than in type B. Microarray data were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. These results showed the presence of two types of malignant melanoma, each with a specific set of dysregulated survival-apoptosis genes, which may prove useful for development of new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention and novel diagnostic biomarkers for treatment and prognosis of malignant melanoma.

Jourdan M, Reme T, Goldschmidt H, et al.
Gene expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins in malignant and normal plasma cells.
Br J Haematol. 2009; 145(1):45-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The survival of malignant plasma cells is a key event in disease occurrence, progression and chemoresistance. Using DNA-microarrays, we analysed the expression of genes coding for 58 proteins linked with extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, caspases and inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. We considered six memory B cells (MBC), seven plasmablasts (PPC), seven bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) and purified myeloma cells (MMC) from 92 newly-diagnosed patients. Forty out of the 58 probe sets enabled the separation of MBC, PPC and BMPC in three homogeneous clusters, characterized by an elevated expression of TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF10B, BCL2A1, CASP8, CASP9 and PMAIP1 genes for MBC, of FAS, FADD, AIFM1, BIRC5, CASP CASP2, CASP3 and CASP6 for PPC and of BCL2, MCL1, BID, BIRC3 and XIAP for BMPC. Thus, B cell differentiation was associated with change of expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes. Regarding MMC, the major finding was TRAIL upregulation that might be counteracted by a high osteoprotegerin production by BM stromal cells and a decreased expression of FAS, APAF1 and BNIP3 compared to normal BMPC. Out of the 40 genes, CASP2 and BIRC5 expression in MMC had adverse prognosis in two independent series of previously-untreated patients.

Fushimi K, Ray P, Kar A, et al.
Up-regulation of the proapoptotic caspase 2 splicing isoform by a candidate tumor suppressor, RBM5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008; 105(41):15708-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Similar to many genes involved in programmed cell death (PCD), the caspase 2 (casp-2) gene generates both proapoptotic and antiapoptotic isoforms by alternative splicing. Using a yeast RNA-protein interaction assay, we identified RBM5 (also known as LUCA-15) as a protein that binds to casp-2 pre-mRNA. In both transfected cells and in vitro splicing assay, RBM5 enhances the formation of proapoptotic Casp-2L. RBM5 binds to a U/C-rich sequence immediately upstream of the previously identified In100 splicing repressor element. Our mutagenesis experiments demonstrate that RBM5 binding to this intronic sequence regulates the ratio of proapoptotic/antiapoptotic casp-2 splicing isoforms, suggesting that casp-2 splicing regulation by RBM5 may contribute to its tumor suppressor activity. Our work has uncovered a player in casp-2 alternative splicing regulation and revealed a link between the alternative splicing regulator and the candidate tumor suppressor gene. Together with previous studies, our work suggests that splicing control of cell death genes may be an important aspect in tumorigenesis. Enhancing the expression or activities of splicing regulators that promote the production of proapoptotic splicing isoforms might provide a therapeutic approach to cancer.

Basu A, Adkins B, Basu C
Down-regulation of caspase-2 by rottlerin via protein kinase C-delta-independent pathway.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(8):2795-802 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein kinase C-delta (PKC delta) plays an important role in DNA damage-induced apoptosis. We have previously shown that the PKC delta inhibitor rottlerin protects against cisplatin-induced apoptosis acting upstream of caspase-9. In the present study, we have investigated if rottlerin regulates caspase-2 activation. Knockdown of caspase-2 by siRNA inhibited processing of apical caspase-9 and caspase-8, whereas depletion of caspase-9 had little effect on caspase-2 processing. Rottlerin inhibited activation and processing of caspase-9 and caspase-8 and cleavage of poly(ADP)ribose polymerase. We made a novel observation that rottlerin induced down-regulation of caspase-2 but not of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8, or caspase-9. Pharmacologic inhibitors of PKC, such as Gö 6983 and bisindolylmaleimide, or depletion of PKC delta by siRNA had no effect on the down-regulation of caspase-2 by rottlerin. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 reversed caspase-2 down-regulation by rottlerin, whereas calpain inhibitor had no effect. These results suggest that rottlerin induces down-regulation of caspase-2 via PKC delta-independent but ubiquitin proteasome-mediated pathway. Furthermore, down-regulation of caspase-2 by rottlerin can explain its antiapoptotic function during DNA damage-induced apoptosis.

Saglam O, Shah V, Worsham MJ
Molecular differentiation of early and late stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: an exploratory analysis.
Diagn Mol Pathol. 2007; 16(4):218-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A current shortcoming in cancer prognostication and treatment is a lack of methods that adequately address the complexity and diversity of the disease. Prognostic marker systems based on single parameters have generally proven inadequate. Thus, multiparametric methods, which rely on many pieces of information, are ideally suited to the grouping of tumor subtypes and the identification of specific patterns of disease progression.
DESIGN: This study investigated, on an exploratory basis, whether genome wide alterations of loss and gain, using a panel of 122 gene probes (112 unique genes), discriminated between early stage (stage 1 and 2) and late stage (stage 3 and 4) laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC). The LSCC cohort comprised 29 patients, 12 early and 17 late staged. Formalin-fixed LSCC DNA was interrogated by a genome wide candidate gene panel (122 genes) using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay.
RESULTS: Statistical analysis employed the nonparametric Wilcoxon 2-sample test. Significant differences between tumor stages of early versus late were seen for the following genes: ERBB4, CASP2, RECQL4, and BCL7A. Loss of ERBB4 (P=0.045) and BCL7A (P=0.019) significantly discriminated between early and late stage LSCC. Gain of RECQL4 copy number (P=0.043) was associated with late LSCC. Gain of CASP2 (P=0.043) marked early LSCC, whereas loss was associated with late LSCC.
CONCLUSIONS: High-throughput genome wide approaches have the potential to yield discrete gene repertoires of early and late stage LSCC differentiation.

Zohrabian VM, Nandu H, Gulati N, et al.
Gene expression profiling of metastatic brain cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2007; 18(2):321-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene expression profiling of metastatic brain tumors from primary lung adenocarcinoma, using a 17k-expression array, revealed that 1561 genes were consistently altered. Further functional classification placed the genes into seven categories: cell cycle and DNA damage repair, apoptosis, signal transduction molecules, transcription factors, invasion and metastasis, adhesion, and angiogenesis. Genes involved in apoptosis, such as caspase 2 (CASP2), transforming growth factor-beta inducible early gene (TIEG), and neuroprotective heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were underexpressed in metastatic brain tumors. Alterations in Rho GTPases (ARHGAP26, ARHGAP1), as well as down-regulation of the metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1 were noted, which may contribute to tumor aggression. Overexpression of the invasion-related gene neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), and angiogenesis-related genes vascular endothelial growth factor-B (VEGF-B) and placental growth factor (PGF) was also evidenced. Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitors 1 and 3 (BAI1 and BAI3) were underexpressed as well. Examination of cell-adhesion and migration-related genes revealed an increased expression of integrins and extracellular matrices collagen and laminin. The study also showed alterations in p53 protein-associated genes, among these increased gene expression of p53, up-regulation of Reprimo or candidate mediator of the p53-dependent G2-arrest, down-regulation of p53-regulated apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (p53AIP1), decreased expression of tumor protein inducible nuclear protein 1 (p53DINP1), and down-regulation of Mdm4 (MDMX). The results demonstrated that genes involved in adhesion, motility, and angiogenesis were consistently up-regulated in metastatic brain tumors, while genes involved in apoptosis, neuroprotection, and suppression of angiogenesis were markedly down-regulated, collectively making these cancer cells prone to metastasis.

Hattori H, Matsuzaki A, Suminoe A, et al.
Identification of novel genes with prognostic value in childhood leukemia using cDNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006; 23(2):115-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify genes distinctively expressed or suppressed in childhood leukemia with different prognoses, using cDNA microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression levels of the selected genes by cDNA microarray were quantified in primary leukemic blasts from 44 patients (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 28; acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), 13; transient myeloproliferative disorder, 3). The expression levels of CDKN2C, CRADD, and IGFBP-2 genes were significantly associated with the event-free survival of the patients in AML. The present results suggest that a combination of cDNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR may be useful to identify novel genes with prognostic value in childhood AML.

Findeisen P, Kloor M, Merx S, et al.
T25 repeat in the 3' untranslated region of the CASP2 gene: a sensitive and specific marker for microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(18):8072-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA mismatch repair deficiency is observed in about 10% to 15% of all colorectal carcinomas and in up to 90% of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients. Tumors with mismatch repair defects acquire mutations in short repetitive DNA sequences, a phenomenon termed high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H). The diagnosis of MSI-H in colon cancer is of increasing relevance, because MSI-H is an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer, seems to influence the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy, and is the most important molecular screening tool to identify HNPCC patients. To make MSI typing feasible for the routine pathology laboratory, highly reproducible and cost effective laboratory tests are required. Here, we describe a novel T25 mononucleotide marker in the 3'untranslated region of the CASP2 gene (CAT25) that displayed a quasimonomorphic repeat pattern in normal tissue of 200 unrelated individuals of Caucasian origin. In addition, CAT25 was monomorphic also in all tested donors of African and Asian origin (n = 102 and n = 79, respectively) and thus differs from the most commonly used markers BAT25 and BAT26. Without the analysis of corresponding normal tissue, CAT25 correctly detected 56 of 57 colorectal cancer specimens classified as MSI-H by using the standard National Cancer Institute/International Collaborative Group-HNPCC marker panel. Combined with the standard markers BAT25 and BAT26 in a multiplex PCR, all MSI-H colorectal cancer samples were typed correctly. No false-positive results were obtained in 60 non-MSI-H control colorectal cancer specimens. These data suggest that CAT25 should be included into novel marker panels for microsatellite testing thus allowing for a significant reduction of the complexity and costs of MSI typing. Moreover, CAT25 represents a highly promising marker for early detection of colorectal cancer in HNPCC germ line mutation carriers.

Ramachandran C, Rodriguez S, Ramachandran R, et al.
Expression profiles of apoptotic genes induced by curcumin in human breast cancer and mammary epithelial cell lines.
Anticancer Res. 2005 Sep-Oct; 25(5):3293-302 [PubMed] Related Publications
Curcumin (diferuloyl methane), the yellow-colored dietary pigment from the rhizomes of turmeric, has been recognized as a chemopreventive agent because of its antitumor, antioxidant and antiproliferative effects. The cytotoxic, apoptotic and gene regulatory effects of both turmeric and curcumin were investigated in the MCF-7 human breast cancer carcinoma cell line and compared with the effects in MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells. MCF-7 cells were more sensitive to turmeric and curcumin than MCF-10A cells. MCF-10A cells retained comparatively less curcumin in the medium than MCF- 7 cells after 24 h, thereby reducing the cytotoxic effect. Curcumin induced a significantly higher percentage of apoptosis in MCF-7 than MCF-10A cells at all doses. Microarray hybridization of Clonetech apoptotic arrays with labeled first-strand probes of total RNA was performed to identify and characterize the genes regulated by curcumin in tumor cells. Of the 214 apoptosis-associated genes in the array, the expression of 104 genes was altered by curcumin treatment. The gene expression was altered up to 14-fold levels in MCF-7 as compared to only up to 1.5-fold in the MCF-10A cell line by curcumin. Curcumin up-regulated (>3 fold) 22 genes and down-regulated (<3-fold) 17 genes at both 25 microg/ml and 50 microg/ml doses in the MCF-7 cell line. The up-regulated genes include HIAP1, CRAF1, TRAF6, CASP1, CASP2, CASP3, CASP4, HPRT, GADD45, MCL-1, NIP1, BCL2L2, TRAP3, GSTP1, DAXX, PIG11, UBC, PIG3, PCNA, CDC10, JNK1 and RBP2. The down-regulated genes were TRAIL, TNFR, AP13, IGFBP3, SARP3, PKB, IGFBP, CASP7, CASP9, TNFSF6, TRICK2A, CAS, TRAIL-R2, RATS1, hTRIP, TNFb and TNFRSF5. While a dose-dependent gene expression change was noticed in some genes, opposite regulatory effects were induced by different curcumin doses in three apoptotic genes. These results suggest that curcumin induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by regulation of multiple signaling pathways, indicating its potential use for prevention and treatment of cancer.

Zhu L, Somlo G, Zhou B, et al.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 inhibition by short hairpin RNAs leads to apoptosis in multiple myeloma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2005; 4(5):787-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
The presence of t(4;14)(p16.3;q32.3) in multiple myeloma cells results in dysregulated expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). FGFR3 acts as an oncogene to promote multiple myeloma cell proliferation and antiapoptosis. These encourage the clinical development of FGFR3-specific inhibitors. Three short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) targeting different sites of FGFR3 were selected and subsequently transfected into KMS-11, OPM-2, and NCI-H929 human myeloma cell lines, all of which are characterized by t(4;14) and FGFR3 over expression. The combination of these three shRNAs can effectively inhibit FGFR3 expression in all three cell lines. Sequential immunocytochemistry/fluorescence in situ hybridization was employed to validate that the shRNAs specifically inhibited FGFR3 expression in OPM-2 cells. Decreased expression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL1) proteins and increased staining of Annexin V-positive cells showed that inhibition of FGFR3 induces apoptosis. After confirming down-regulation of FGFR3 by real-time PCR, HU-133 plus 2.0 array was employed to compare the gene expression profile of shRNA-treated sample with that of the control. Besides the down-regulation of FGFR3, expression of the antiapoptotic genes CFLAR, BCL2, MCL1, and some members of NF-kappaB family decreased, whereas expression of the proapoptotic genes CYC, BID, CASP2, and CASP6 increased. Microarray results also revealed changes in genes previously implicated in multiple myeloma pathogenesis (RAS, RAF, IL-6R, and VEGF), as well as others (TLR4, KLF4, and GADD45A) not previously linked to multiple myeloma. Our observations indicate that shRNAs can specifically and effectively inhibit FGFR3 expression. This targeted approach may be worth testing in multiple myeloma patients with t(4;14) and FGFR3 overexpression in the future.

Abel F, Sjöberg RM, Nilsson S, et al.
Imbalance of the mitochondrial pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in neuroblastoma tumours with unfavourable biology.
Eur J Cancer. 2005; 41(4):635-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been proposed that a lack of apoptosis plays an important role in neuroblastoma (NB) progression. We therefore screened cDNA array filters, including 198 apoptotic genes, in order to identify mRNA transcripts that are differentially expressed in tumours with unfavourable versus favourable biology. Twenty-one genes were analysed further using real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Significantly lower levels of DNCL1 (PIN; P(c)(corrected) = 0.0054) and NTRK1 (TrkA; P(c) = 0.039) were found in NB tumours with unfavourable biology. In addition, BID, BCL2, APAF1, CASP2, CASP3 and CASP9 were found to be preferentially expressed in tumours with favourable biology, whereas CDKN1A (p21), IL2RA, and MCL1, were found to be preferentially expressed in NB tumours with unfavourable biology. In conclusion, mRNA levels of transcripts encoding pro-apoptotic mediators of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway were found to be expressed to a lower extent in tumours with unfavourable biology. Our data also suggest that the mitochondrial pathway is suppressed in advanced stages of NB tumours, due to an imbalance between anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic mediators which is a finding that may have therapeutic significance.

Wotawa A, Solier S, Logette E, et al.
Differential influence of etoposide on two caspase-2 mRNA isoforms in leukemic cells.
Cancer Lett. 2002; 185(2):181-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Etoposide (VP-16) is an anticancer agent that induces apoptosis in human leukemic cell lines such as U937 and HL60. We performed RNase protection assays, with two distinct cRNA panels covering most of caspase and BCL-2-related genes, using total RNA from cell lines exposed to various concentrations of the drug. Our results show that VP-16 down-regulates expression of most surveyed genes with the noticeable exception of casp-2S mRNA that is up regulated whereas casp-2L mRNA is decreased. Since these mRNAs are produced by the alternative splicing of exon 9, we devised a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method using primers from exons 8 and 10 to demonstrate that VP-16 stimulates the production of exon 9-containing sequences, irrespective of active transcription. However, this effect is specific of the 3'-end of the CASP-2 gene since no difference in the relative amounts of the 5'-end of the mRNA species is detected. Nevertheless, the level of full-length casp-2L mRNA together with that of procaspase-2L protein, which is pro-apoptotic, are decreased under VP-16 treatment, suggesting that an early cell response to treatment by cytotoxic agents is to down-regulate expression of selected pro-apoptotic proteins.

Casey W, Anderson S, Fox T, et al.
Transcriptional and physiological responses of HepG2 cells exposed to diethyl maleate: time course analysis.
Physiol Genomics. 2002; 8(2):115-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression levels of 767 genes were measured in HepG2 cells at eight time points (0, 0.5, 1, 6, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h) following exposure to the oxidizing agent, diethyl maleate (DEM). DEM treatment caused an immediate and sustained loss of intracellular GSH, with a concomitant increase in GSSG. From 6-12 h after exposure, there was a substantial increase in the percentage of cells undergoing S phase arrest and apoptosis. Expression profiles of approximately 90% of the genes fell into one of five clusters generated using hierarchical-clustering software, indicating the well-ordered nature of the stress response. The directional movement and timing of induction for many genes matched closely the known physiological role of the proteins they encode. Inhibitors of the cell cycle (CDKN1, CDKN4D, ATM) were induced, whereas cyclins [proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin K] were downregulated during the period from 6--20 h. Likewise, pro-apoptotic genes such as the caspases (CASP9, CASP3, CASP2) and apoptotic protease activating factor (APAF) were induced during the same period. Results of this study indicate that there is a good correlation between time-dependent physiological, biochemical, and gene expression data.

Hofmann WK, de Vos S, Tsukasaki K, et al.
Altered apoptosis pathways in mantle cell lymphoma detected by oligonucleotide microarray.
Blood. 2001; 98(3):787-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
An imbalance between cellular apoptosis and survival may be critical for the pathogenesis of lymphoma. Therefore, the gene expression pattern in lymph node preparations from patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) was compared to the pattern in nonmalignant hyperplastic lymph nodes (HLs). Oligonucleotide microarray analysis was performed comparing 5 MCLs to 4 HLs using high-density microarrays. The expression data were analyzed using Genespring software. For confirmation, the expression of selected genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction using the RNA extracted from 16 MCL and 12 HL samples. The focus was on 42 genes that were at least 3-fold down-regulated in MCL; in addition to the B-cell leukemia 2 (BCL2) system other apoptotic pathways were altered in MCL. The FAS-associated via death domain (FADD) gene that acts downstream of the FAS cascade as a key gene to induce apoptosis was more than 10-fold down-regulated in MCL. Furthermore, the death-associated protein 6 (DAXX) gene, the caspase 2 (CASP2) gene, and the RIPK1 domain containing adapter with death domain (RAIDD) gene, which are key genes in other proapoptotic pathways, were also decreased in the MCL samples. The suggestion is made that in addition to the known overexpression of cyclin D1, which drives entry into the cell cycle, disturbances of pathways associated with apoptosis contribute to the development of MCL. (Blood. 2001;98:787-794)

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