Research IndicatorsGraph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ATP7A (cancer-related)
The tumor microenvironment is associated with various tumor progressions, including cancer metastasis, immunosuppression, and tumor sustained growth. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are considered an indispensable component of the tumor microenvironment, participating in the progression of tumor microenvironment remodeling and creating various compounds to regulate tumor activities. This study aims to observe enriched TAMs in tumor tissues during bladder cancer development, which markedly facilitated the proliferation of bladder cancer cells and promoted tumor growth in vivo. We determined that TAMs regulate tumor sustained growth by secreting type I collagen, which can activate the prosurvival integrin α2β1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, traditional chemotherapeutic drugs combined with integrin α2β1 inhibitor showed intensive anticancer effects, revealing an innovative approach in clinical bladder cancer treatment.
BACKGROUND: Most tumor cells show aberrantly activated Akt which leads to increased cell survival and resistance to cancer radiotherapy. Therefore, targeting Akt can be a promising strategy for radiosensitization. Here, we explore the impact of the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 alone and in combination with the dual PI3K and mTOR inhibitor PI-103 on the radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells. In addition, we examine migration of drug-treated cells.
METHODS: Using single-cell tracking and wound healing migration tests, colony-forming assay, Western blotting, flow cytometry and electrorotation we examined the effects of MK-2206 and PI-103 and/or irradiation on the migration, radiation sensitivity, expression of several marker proteins, DNA damage, cell cycle progression and the plasma membrane properties in two glioblastoma (DK-MG and SNB19) cell lines, previously shown to differ markedly in their migratory behavior and response to PI3K/mTOR inhibition.
RESULTS: We found that MK-2206 strongly reduces the migration of DK-MG but only moderately reduces the migration of SNB19 cells. Surprisingly, MK-2206 did not cause radiosensitization, but even increased colony-forming ability after irradiation. Moreover, MK-2206 did not enhance the radiosensitizing effect of PI-103. The results appear to contradict the strong depletion of p-Akt in MK-2206-treated cells. Possible reasons for the radioresistance of MK-2206-treated cells could be unaltered or in case of SNB19 cells even increased levels of p-mTOR and p-S6, as compared to the reduced expression of these proteins in PI-103-treated samples. We also found that MK-2206 did not enhance IR-induced DNA damage, neither did it cause cell cycle distortion, nor apoptosis nor excessive autophagy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides proof that MK-2206 can effectively inhibit the expression of Akt in two glioblastoma cell lines. However, due to an aberrant activation of mTOR in response to Akt inhibition in PTEN mutated cells, the therapeutic window needs to be carefully defined, or a combination of Akt and mTOR inhibitors should be considered.
Ediriweera MK, Tennekoon KH, Samarakoon SREmerging role of histone deacetylase inhibitors as anti-breast-cancer agents.
Drug Discov Today. 2019; 24(3):685-702 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Breast cancer (BC) remains the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. A balance in the opposing actions of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) is necessary for epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Impairment in the balance between the actions of HATs and HDACs has been reported in the development of BC. By targeting histone and several non-histone proteins, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) can maintain the cellular acetylation profile and reverse the function of several proteins responsible for BC development. Preclinical and clinical data show that HDACi can evoke different anticancer mechanisms in distinct BC types.
Zhang Y, Tao L, Fan LX, et al.Cx32 mediates cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer cells by affecting drug efflux transporter expression and activating the EGFR‑Akt pathway.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(3):2287-2296 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Our previous study demonstrated that connexin 32 (Cx32) was upregulated and redistributed to the cytoplasm in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells with acquired resistance to cisplatin; this increased Cx32 feedback promoted cisplatin resistance. To further investigate the mechanism underlying Cx32‑mediated cisplatin resistance, alterations in drug transporters, the DNA repair system and the anti‑apoptotic signalling pathway were investigated by overexpressing or knocking down Cx32 in parental cells (A2780); cisplatin‑resistant human ovarian cancer cells (A2780/CDDP) were also acquired. Upregulation of efflux transporters [multi‑drug resistance protein 2 (MRP‑2), ATPase copper transporting α (ATP7A) and ATPase copper transporting β] and downregulation of the influx transporter copper uptake protein 1 mediated cisplatin resistance in A2780/CDDP cells. A2780/CDDP cells also exhibited increased expression of the DNA repair enzyme excision repair cross‑complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling pathway. Small interfering RNA‑mediated knockdown of Cx32 in A2780/CDDP cells decreased the expression of efflux transporters (MRP‑2 and ATP7A). Knockdown of Cx32 in A2780/CDDP cells also decreased the expression of ERCC1, inhibited the activation of the EGFR signalling pathway and enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin. When Cx32 was overexpressed in A2780 cells, an opposite effect on the expression of efflux transporters (MRP‑2 and ATP7A) and the activation of the EGFR signalling pathway was observed, which resulted in insensitivity to cisplatin‑induced apoptosis. Thus, Cx32 expression may induce cisplatin resistance by modulating drug efflux transporter expression and activating the EGFR‑protein kinase B signalling pathway in ovarian cancer cells.
Wang X, Huo B, Liu J, et al.Hepatitis B virus X reduces hepatocyte apoptosis and promotes cell cycle progression through the Akt/mTOR pathway in vivo.
Gene. 2019; 691:87-95 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus X (HBx), a viral onco-protein encoded by HBV, can promote oncogenesis of HCC. However, the mechanism of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis is still unclear. In this study, we establish a new mouse model with normal immune system to investigate the role of HBx and its functional mechanisms under normal immune function. The animal model was established by injecting HBx-EGFP-14-19 cells into the hepatic portal vein of KM mice. To verify the mouse model, the expression of HBx in the liver tissue of mice was detected by qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The apoptosis index was calculated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the expression levels of apoptosis-related and cell cycle-related factors were measured. Moreover, expression of proteins in the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway was detected in HBx-EGFP-14-19 mice with and without use of an Akt inhibitor. The results showed the HBx was successfully overexpressed in liver of KM mice. After overexpressing HBx, the apoptosis index was downregulated in HBx-EGFP-14-19 liver tissue, and the expression levels of caspase-9 and Bad were reduced, but Bcl-xl was increased in HBx-EGFP-14-19 liver tissue. Overexpression of HBx increased the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclinD1 and cyclinE. Moreover, compared with the low-level HBx group, p-Akt and p-mTOR were increased in the livers of mice with high levels of HBx. However, inactivation of apoptosis by overexpression of HBx was abolished by the treatment with an Akt inhibitor. These results indicate that HBx can induce anti-apoptosis mechanisms in hepatocytes in vivo, which is mediated by the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
BACKGROUND: Previous cancer genomics studies focused on searching for novel oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes whose abundance is positively or negatively correlated with end-point observation, such as survival or tumor grade. This approach may potentially miss some truly functional genes if both its low and high modes have associations with end-point observation. Such genes act as both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, a scenario that is unlikely but theoretically possible.
RESULTS: We invented an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm to divide patients into low-, middle- and high-expressing groups according to the expression level of a certain gene in both tumor and normal patients. We found one gene, ORMDL3, whose low and high modes were both associated with worse survival and higher tumor grade in breast cancer patients in multiple patient cohorts. We speculate that its tumor suppressor gene role may be real, while its high expression correlating with worse end-point outcome is probably due to the passenger event of the nearby ERBB2's amplification.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed EM algorithm can effectively detect genes having tri-modal distributed expression in patient groups compared to normal genes, thus rendering a new perspective on dissecting the association between genomic features and end-point observations. Our analysis of breast cancer datasets suggest that the gene ORMDL3 may have an unexploited tumor suppressive function.
Interactions of multiple myeloma (MM) cells with endothelial cells (ECs) enhance angiogenesis and MM progression. Here, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the cross talk between ECs and MM cells enabling angiogenesis. MMECs showed higher expression of Jagged1/2 ligands, of activated Notch1/2 receptors, and of Hes1/Hey1 Notch target genes than ECs from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients, suggesting that homotypic activation of Notch pathway occurs in MM. MM cells co-cultured with MMECs triggered Notch activation in these cells through a cell-to-cell contact-dependent way via Jagged1/2, resulting in Hes1/Hey1 overexpression. The angiogenic effect of Notch pathway was analyzed through Notch1/2·siRNAs and the γ-secretase inhibitor MK-0752 by in vitro (adhesion, migration, chemotaxis, angiogenesis) and in vivo (Vk12598/C57B/6 J mouse model) studies. Activated Notch1/2 pathway was associated with the overangiogenic MMEC phenotype: Notch1/2 knockdown or MK-0752 treatment reduced Hes1/Hey1 expression, impairing in vitro angiogenesis of both MMECs alone and co-cultured with MM cells. MM cells were unable to restore angiogenic abilities of treated MMECs, proving that MMEC angiogenic activities closely rely on Notch pathway. Furthermore, Notch1/2 knockdown affected VEGF/VEGFR2 axis, indicating that the Notch pathway interferes with VEGF-mediated control on angiogenesis. MK-0752 reduced secretion of proangiogenic/proinflammatory cytokines in conditioned media, thus inhibiting blood vessel formation in the CAM assay. In the Vk12598/C57B/6 J mouse, MK-0752 treatment restrained angiogenesis by reducing microvessel density. Overall, homotypic and heterotypic Jagged1/2-mediated Notch activation enhances MMECs angiogenesis. Notch axis inhibition blocked angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the Notch pathway may represent a novel therapeutic target in MM.
BRD4 assembles transcriptional machinery at gene super-enhancer regions and governs the expression of genes that are critical for cancer progression. However, it remains unclear whether BRD4-mediated gene transcription is required for tumor cells to develop drug resistance. Our data show that prolonged treatment of luminal breast cancer cells with AKT inhibitors induces FOXO3a dephosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and disrupts its association with SirT6, eventually leading to FOXO3a acetylation as well as BRD4 recognition. Acetylated FOXO3a recognizes the BD2 domain of BRD4, recruits the BRD4/RNAPII complex to the CDK6 gene promoter, and induces its transcription. Pharmacological inhibition of either BRD4/FOXO3a association or CDK6 significantly overcomes the resistance of luminal breast cancer cells to AKT inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Our study reports the involvement of BRD4/FOXO3a/CDK6 axis in AKTi resistance and provides potential therapeutic strategies for treating resistant breast cancer.
Acquired resistance to endocrine therapy remains a significant clinical burden for breast cancer patients. Somatic mutations in the
Zhao J, Wang YL, Li XB, et al.Comparative analysis of the diffusion kurtosis imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in grading gliomas, predicting tumour cell proliferation and IDH-1 gene mutation status.
J Neurooncol. 2019; 141(1):195-203 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have applied diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the comprehensive assessment of gliomas [tumour grade, isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1) mutation status and tumour proliferation rate (Ki-67)]. This study describes the efficacy of DKI and DTI to comprehensively evaluate gliomas, compares their results.
METHODS: Fifty-two patients (18 females; median age, 47.5 years) with pathologically proved gliomas were prospectively included. All cases underwent DKI examination. DKI (mean kurtosis: MK, axial kurtosis: Ka, radial kurtosis: Kr) and DTI (mean diffusivity: MD, fractional anisotropy: FA) maps of each metric was derived. Three ROIs were manually drawn.
RESULTS: MK, Ka, Kr and FA were significantly higher in HGGs than in LGGs, whereas MD was significantly lower in HGGs than in LGGs (P < 0.01). ROC analysis demonstrated that MK (specificity: 100% sensitivity: 79%) and Ka (specificity: 96% sensitivity: 82%) had the same and highest (AUC: 0.93) diagnostic value. Moreover, MK, Ka, and Kr were significantly higher in grade III than II gliomas (P ≦ 0.01). Further, DKI and DTI can significantly identify IDH-1 mutation status (P ≦ 0.03). Ka (sensitivity: 74%, specificity: 75%, AUC: 0.72) showed the highest diagnostic value. In addition, DKI metrics and MD showed significant correlations with Ki-67 (P ≦ 0.01) and Ka had the highest correlation coefficient (r
CONCLUSIONS: Compared with DTI, DKI has great advantages for the comprehensive assessment of gliomas. Ka might serve as a promising imaging index in predicting glioma grading, tumour cell proliferation rate and IDH-1 gene mutation status.
Yang Z, Li C, Yan C, et al.KIF14 promotes tumor progression and metastasis and is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in human gastric cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2019; 1865(1):181-192 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The kinesin family member 14 (KIF14) is a potential oncogene and is involved in the metastasis of various cancers. Nevertheless, its function in gastric cancer (GC) remains poorly defined. The expression of KIF14 was examined in GC cell lines and a clinical cohort of GC specimens by qPCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. The relationship between KIF14 expression and the clinicopathological features was analyzed. The effect of KIF14 on cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion and migration were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The expression of KIF14 was significantly increased in the GC tissues and cell lines. High KIF14 expression was associated with tumor stage, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and metastasis. KIF14 was an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of GC, and a higher expression of KIF14 predicted a poorer survival. KIF14 silencing resulted in attenuated proliferation, invasion and migration in human gastric cancer cells, whereas KIF14 ectopic expression facilitated these biological abilities. Notably, the depressed expression of KIF14 inhibited Akt phosphorylation, while overexpressed KIF14 augmented Akt phosphorylation. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between the expression of KIF14 and p‑Akt in GC tissues. Importantly, the proliferation, invasion and migration of the GC cells, which was promoted by KIF14 overexpression, was abolished by the Akt inhibitor MK-2206, while Akt overexpression greatly rescued the effects induced by KIF14 knockdown. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that KIF14 is overexpressed in GC, is correlated with poor prognosis and plays a crucial role in the progression and metastasis of GC.
Nafees S, Mehdi SH, Zafaryab M, et al.Synergistic Interaction of Rutin and Silibinin on Human Colon Cancer Cell Line.
Arch Med Res. 2018; 49(4):226-234 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM OF THE STUDY: Rutin and Silibinin are active flavonoid compounds, well-known for possessing multiple biological activities. We have studied how Rutin and Silibinin in combination modulate wide range intracellular signaling cascades as evidenced by in-vitro research. Data obtained from preclinical studies provide evidence to be supportive to bridge basic and translational studies.
METHODS: In this study, cytotoxic effect of Rutin and Silibinin individually and in combination on the viability of colon cancer cell line (HT-29) was revealed using the MTT assay. Mechanism involved in the cytotoxic effect were then investigated in terms of apoptosis using comet assay, DNA fragmentation and fluorescent microscopy analyses. The apoptosis associated proteins viz; Caspase-3, 8, 9, Bax, Bcl-2, p53, inflammation associated proteins viz; NFκB, IKK-α IKK-β and MAPK pathway associated proteins viz; p38 and MK-2 were determined by western-blot and Real Time-PCR analysis.
RESULTS: Results suggest that Rutin and Silibinin produce anticancer effects via induction of apoptosis as well as regulating the expressions of genes related to apoptosis, inflammation and MAPK pathway proteins more effectively in combination than individually.
CONCLUSION: Our study supports the viability of developing Rutin and Silibinin in combination as a novel therapeutic prodrug for colon cancer treatment and may have a promising role in the development of new anticancer drugs in the future.
Suina K, Tsuchihashi K, Yamasaki J, et al.Epidermal growth factor receptor promotes glioma progression by regulating xCT and GluN2B-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate-sensitive glutamate receptor signaling.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(12):3874-3882 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Autocrine and paracrine factors, including glutamate and epidermal growth factor (EGF), are potent inducers of brain tumor cell invasion, a pathological hallmark of malignant gliomas. System xc(-) consists of xCT and CD98hc subunits and functions as a plasma membrane antiporter for the uptake of extracellular cystine in exchange for intracellular glutamate. We previously showed that the EGF receptor (EGFR) interacts with xCT and thereby promotes the activity of system xc(-) in a kinase-independent manner, resulting in enhanced glutamate release in glioma cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying EGFR-mediated glioma progression in a glutamate-rich microenvironment has remained unclear. Here we show that the GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate-sensitive glutamate receptor (NMDAR) is a substrate of EGFR in glioma cells. In response to EGF stimulation, EGFR phosphorylated the COOH-terminal domain of GluN2B and thereby enhanced glutamate-NMDAR signaling and consequent cell migration in EGFR-overexpressing glioma cells. Treatment with the NMDAR inhibitor MK-801 or the system xc(-) inhibitor sulfasalazine suppressed EGF-elicited glioma cell migration. The administration of sulfasalazine and MK-801 also synergistically suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors formed by EGFR-overexpressing glioma cells. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated knockdown of xCT and GluN2B cooperatively prolonged the survival of mice injected intracerebrally with such glioma cells. Our findings thus establish a central role for EGFR in the signaling crosstalk between xCT and GluN2B-containing NMDAR in glioma cells.
Liao G, Yang D, Ma L, et al.The development of piperidinones as potent MDM2-P53 protein-protein interaction inhibitors for cancer therapy.
Eur J Med Chem. 2018; 159:1-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In tumor cells, p53 is always inactivated due to the mutation or deletion of TP53 gene or inhibited by the overexpressed MDM2. Small-molecule induced restoring of p53 function by blocking MDM2-p53 protein-protein interactions has been highly pursued as an attractive therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. To date, a large number of small-molecule inhibitors have been identified based on the compact and well-defined MDM2-p53 interactions, of which SAR405838, MK-8242, DS-3032b, NVP-CGM097, RG7112, HDM201, RG7388, ALRN-6924 and AMG 232 are undergoing clinical assessment at different phases for cancer therapy. This review is focused on the discovery and development of piperidinone-based MDM2-p53 inhibitors for cancer therapy, including the identification of hit compounds, hit-to-lead optimizations, binding models of ligands in the active site of MDM2, metabolic studies, and preclinical data of advanced piperidinone-based MDM2-p53 inhibitors. Additionally, acquired resistance of MDM2 inhibitors and potential toxicity toward normal tissues are briefly discussed.
Cellular senecence is an important biologic endpoint. Naturally occuring (aging) senescence is common in uterine leiomyoma (ULM). AKT is one of major pathways in promoting ULM growth and survival. Inactivation of AKT by MK2206 in ULM resulted in stress-induced senescence in vitro. Study of the senescent phenotypes and molecular changes in ULM may greatly facilitate the understanding of the tumor biology and potential clinical therapy for this common disease associated with high morbidity. To study senescence in a model system that closely resembles primary ULM in vivo, we applied an ex vivo model of three-dimensional (3D) spheroid culture system which maintained the molecular and cellular characteristics of primary ULM and matched myometrium as seen in vivo. Gene expression profiling done on ULM induced to undergo replication (passaging) or stress-induced (MK2206) senescence revealed that ROS and hypoxic-related genes were upregulated in the two types of senescences. Overexpression of two selected genes, WIPI1 and SLITKR4, induced cellular senescence in ULM spheroids. Additionally, administration of ABT263 (a BH3 mimetic) effectively reduced the senescent cells induced in ULM spheroids. This study identified novel genes associated with senescence in ULM and demonstrated a BH3 mimetic to act as a senolytic to remove senescent cells.
Erdogan S, Turkekul K, Dibirdik I, et al.Midkine downregulation increases the efficacy of quercetin on prostate cancer stem cell survival and migration through PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:793-805 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIMS: To examine the functions of growth factor midkine (MK) and a flavonoid quercetin on survival, apoptosis and migration of prostate cancer (PCa) stem cells (CSCs).
MAIN METHODS: CD44
KEY FINDINGS: Quercetin treatment for 24-72 h inhibited PC3 and CD44+/CD133+ stem cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of endogenous MK expression significantly suppressed proliferation of CD44
SIGNIFICANCE: Quercetin alone exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on CD44
Guan J, Zhou Y, Mao F, et al.MicroRNA‑320a suppresses tumor cell growth and invasion of human breast cancer by targeting insulin‑like growth factor 1 receptor.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(2):849-858 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The present study was performed to investigate the biological functions of microRNA‑320a in human breast cancer and the underlying mechanisms. MicroRNA‑320a expression was downregulated in human breast cancer, compared with the normal control. Overexpression of microRNA‑320a induced apoptosis, and inhibited cell viability and invasion in MDA‑MB‑231cells while downregulation of microRNA‑320a reduced apoptosis, and increased cell viability and invasion in MDA‑MB‑231 cells. Then, overexpression of microRNA‑320a suppressed insulin‑like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF‑1R), p‑AKt and cyclin D1 protein expression in MDA‑MB‑231cells. In addition, the downregulation of microRNA‑320a induced IGF‑1R, p‑Akt and cyclin D1 protein expression in MDA‑MB‑231cells. Furthermore, the IGF‑1R inhibitor increased the effects of microRNA‑320a on the apoptosis of MDA‑MB‑231 cells. The p‑Akt inhibitor (MK 2206 dihydrochloride, 2.5 nM) increased the effects of microRNA‑320a on the apoptosis of MDA‑MB‑231 cells. These results revealed that microRNA‑320a suppresses tumor cell growth and invasion of human breast cancer by targeting IGF‑1R.
Aims: Platinum-based chemotherapy is considered as the first-line treatment for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, platinum resistance and toxicity are major obstacles to its clinical applications. The two P-type ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B have been identified to play an essential role in the transport of platinum. Their genetic polymorphisms may affect the treatment outcome and toxicity of platinum. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of ATP7A and ATP7B genetic polymorphisms with clinical outcome and toxicity of platinum-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients.
Subjects and Methods: Four hundred and twenty-seven NSCLC patients were enrolled. All patients have accepted platinum-based chemotherapy for at least two cycles. ATP7A (rs2227291 and rs6622665) and ATP7B (rs1061472 and rs9535826) polymorphisms were genotyped by allele-specific matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Chemotherapeutic response, overall survival time, and hematological and gastrointestinal toxicity were recorded and their associations with genetic factors were evaluated.
Results: ATP7A rs2227291 and rs6622665 deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Therefore, the two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were not taken into consideration. For ATP7B polymorphism, ATP7B rs9535826 was associated with gastrointestinal toxicity, and the GG genotype showed lower gastrointestinal toxicity (odds ratio = 0.30; 95% confidence interval = 0.10-0.90; P = 0.031).
Conclusion: The genotypes of ATP7B gene may be novel and significant biomarkers for predicting the gastrointestinal toxicity of platinum-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients.
Ethier JL, Lheureux S, Oza AMThe role of niraparib for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Future Oncol. 2018; 14(25):2565-2577 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a leading cause of cancer death in women. Approximately 10-15% of patients with EOC harbor a genetic predisposition due to mutations in BRCA1/2 genes. In the recurrent setting, prolonging time to platinum-resistance may improve progression-free survival. In BRCA1/2 mutated ovarian cancer, the use of a polyadenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase inhibitors has been studied in the maintenance and recurrent setting. In the pivotal Phase III NOVA trial, maintenance therapy post platinum response with niraparib significantly improved outcomes in all subgroups, leading to the first polyadenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase inhibitors approval by the US FDA in this setting. In this review, we will focus on the role of niraparib in the treatment of EOC.
Wang Y, Wong CW, Yan M, et al.Differential regulation of the pro-inflammatory biomarker, YKL-40/CHI3L1, by PTEN/Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and JAK2/STAT3 pathways in glioblastoma.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 429:54-65 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Constitutive activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway is frequently observed in high-grade gliomas with high frequency of losing PTEN tumor suppressor. To identify transcriptomic profiles associated with a hyperactivated PI3K pathway, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed in a glioblastoma cell line stably expressing PTEN. RNA-sequencing revealed enriched transcripts of pro-inflammatory mediators, and among the genes that displayed high differential expression was the secreted glycoprotein YKL-40. Treatment with chemical inhibitors that target the PI3K/AKT pathway elicited differential effects on YKL-40 expression in selected GBM cell lines, indicating that its expression displayed tumor cell-specific variations. This variability appeared to be correlated with the ability to transactivate the immune signaling molecules JAK2 and STAT3. In summary, the differential expression of the immunomodulatory molecule YKL-40 may affect the treatment efficacy of PI3K/AKT-based pathway inhibitors in glioblastoma.
Song M, Liu X, Liu K, et al.Targeting AKT with Oridonin Inhibits Growth of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Mol Cancer Ther. 2018; 17(7):1540-1553 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Overexpression or activation of AKT is very well known to control cell growth, survival, and gene expression in solid tumors. Oridonin, an inflammatory medical and diterpenoid compound isolated from
CRISPR/Cas9 can be used for precise genetic knock-in of epitope tags into endogenous genes, simplifying experimental analysis of protein function. However, Cas9-assisted epitope tagging in primary mammalian cell cultures is often inefficient and reliant on plasmid-based selection strategies. Here, we demonstrate improved knock-in efficiencies of diverse tags (V5, 3XFLAG, Myc, HA) using co-delivery of Cas9 protein pre-complexed with two-part synthetic modified RNAs (annealed crRNA:tracrRNA) and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) repair templates. Knock-in efficiencies of ~5-30%, were achieved without selection in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural stem (NS) cells, and brain-tumor-derived stem cells. Biallelic-tagged clonal lines were readily derived and used to define Olig2 chromatin-bound interacting partners. Using our novel web-based design tool, we established a 96-well format pipeline that enabled V5-tagging of 60 different transcription factors. This efficient, selection-free and scalable epitope tagging pipeline enables systematic surveys of protein expression levels, subcellular localization, and interactors across diverse mammalian stem cells.
Patients with RUNX1 haplodeficiency have thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, and deficiencies of α-granules and dense granules. Platelet expression profiling of a patient with a heterozygous
Jin Z, Guan L, Xiang GM, Gao BARadiation resistance of the lung adenocarcinoma is related to the AKT-Onzin-POU5F1 axis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 499(3):538-543 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the predominant type of lung cancer, and shows an easily developable tolerance to radiotherapy. Cancer stem cells are suggested to be involved in the resistance against therapies. Onzin might be accumulated during the process tumor overcoming the radiation stress. To address the relationship between Onzin, stemness and radiation resistance, we treated the lung cancer tumor bearing mice with radiaotherapy and observed the differences between radiation sensitive (RS) and resistant (RR) tumors. Immunohistochemistry and HE staining were used to observe Onzin and POU5F1 expression in tumor tissues. Quantitative realtime-PCR and Western blot were applied for Onzin and POU5F1 in tumors and cells. In-vitro cellular viability was assessed by CCK8 methods for tumor derived cells. The stably transfected A549 cell lines overexpressing Onzin were generated through lentivirus transfection. After radiotherapy, those RR adenocarcinoma tumors and cells derived from them showed an increased Onzin expression. Further, RR cells were found upregulated stemness, indicated by increased sphericity and proliferation, as well as POU5F1 expression. Next, we overexpressed Onzin in the A549 cells and found an elevated POU5F1 expression, increased proliferation, and enhanced sphericity. Moreover, this could be suppressed by the AKT inhibitor MK-2260. In vivo, the A549 cells overexpressing Onzin showed not only higher tumor formation capability and growth, but also a significant resistance to radiation. Taken together, RR tumors have upregulated Onzin and POU5F1 expression. Ectopic expression of Onzin promotes the POU5F1 expression as well as stemness functions, and confers adenocarcinomas the resistance to radiotherapy.
Xiao F, Li Y, Wan Y, Xue MMircroRNA-139 sensitizes ovarian cancer cell to cisplatin-based chemotherapy through regulation of ATP7A/B.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2018; 81(5):935-947 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer remains a most malignant female cancer nowadays. The acquisition of chemoresistance to common-used cisplatin-based chemotherapy results in a decreased overall patient survival. The present study is aimed to investigate the role and mechanism by which miR-139/ ATPases7A/B axis modulates the chemoresistance of ovarian cancer to cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
METHODS: The expression of miR-139 in cisplatin-sensitive (n = 23) and cisplatin-resistant (n = 14) ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines (CAOV-3 and SNU119) was determined using real-time PCR assays; its effect on ovarian cancer cell chemoresistance to different concentrations of cisplatin was then assessed by measuring the cell viability using MTT assays. Next, miR-139 binding to the 3'UTR of ATP7A/B was confirmed using luciferase reporter gene assays. Finally, the combined effect of miR-139 and ATP7A/B on the chemoresistance of ovarian cancer cell was assessed.
RESULTS: miR-139 expression was down-regulated in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer tissues (**P < 0.01) and reduced by cisplatin treatment in ovarian cell lines (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01); miR-139 could enhance cisplatin-induced suppression on ovarian cancer cell viability, shown as reduced lC50 values; ATP7A and ATP7B protein levesincreased approximately 2 ~ fold-changein cisplatin-resistant cell lines. MiR-139 directly bound to the 3'UTR of ATP7A/B, respectively; miR-139 inhibition increased lC50 values whereas ATP7A/B knockdown reduced lC50 values of CAOV-3 and SNU119 cell lines under cisplatin treatment; the effect of miR-139 inhibition could be partially attenuated by ATP7A/B knockdown.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-139/ATP7A/B axis can be a reliable biomarker for ovarian cancer diagnosis, and may affect the chemoresistance of ovarian cancer to cisplatin-based chemotherapy; rescuing miR-139 expression thus to inhibit ATP7A/B might contribute to dealing with the chemoresistance of ovarian cancer.
Exosomes play critical roles in intercellular communication in both nearby and distant cells in individuals and organs. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF), also known as Cavin1, has previously been described as a critical factor in caveola formation, and aberrant PTRF expression has been reported in various malignancies. However, the function of PTRF in tumor progression remains controversial, and its role in glioma is poorly understood. In this study, we report that PTRF is associated with malignancy grade and poor prognosis in glioma patients. Our previous study using two proteomics methods, tandem mass tag (TMT) and data-independent acquisition (DIA), showed that EGFRvIII overexpression increased PTRF expression at the protein level. In contrast, blocking PI3K and AKT using LY294002 and MK-2206, respectively, decreased PTRF expression, showing that PTRF is regulated in the EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway. ChIP-PCR analysis showed that PTRF is transcriptionally regulated by the H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 modifications. Furthermore, PTRF overexpression increased exosome secretion and induced cell growth in vitro. More importantly, overexpressing PTRF induced the malignancy of nearby cells in vivo, suggesting that PTRF alters the microenvironment through intercellular communication via exosomes. Furthermore, analysis of clinical samples showed a positive correlation between tumor grade and PTRF expression in both tumor tissues and exosomes isolated from blood harvested from glioma patients, and PTRF expression in exosomes isolated from the sera of GBM patients was decreased after surgery. In conclusion, PTRF serves as a promising biomarker in both tumor samples and serum exosomes, thus facilitating the detection of glioma and potentially serving as a therapeutic target for glioblastoma multiforme.
Ma YS, Wu ZJ, Bai RZ, et al.DRR1 promotes glioblastoma cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via regulating AKT activation.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 423:86-94 [PubMed
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Metastatic invasion is the primary cause of treatment failure for GBM. EMT is one of the most important events in the invasion of GBM; therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of EMT is crucial for the treatment of GBM. In this study, high expression of DRR1 was identified to correlate with a shorter median overall and relapse-free survival. Loss-of-function assays using shDRR1 weakened the invasive potential of the GBM cell lines through regulation of EMT-markers. The expressions of p-AKT were significantly decreased after DRR-depletion in SHG44 and U373 cells. Moreover, the invasion was inhibited by the AKT inhibitor, MK-2206. The expression of Vimentin, N-cadherin, MMP-7, snail and slug was significantly inhibited by MK-2206, while the expression of E-cadherin was upregulated. Our results provide the first evidence that DRR1 is involved in GBM invasion and progression possibly through the induction of EMT activation by phosphorylation of AKT.
Maleva Kostovska I, Jakimovska M, Popovska-Jankovic K, et al.TIMP3 Promoter Methylation Represents an Epigenetic Marker of BRCA1ness Breast Cancer Tumours.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2018; 24(4):937-940 [PubMed
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Tumours presenting BRCAness profile behave more aggressively and are more invasive as a consequence of their complex genetic and epigenetic alterations, caused by impaired fidelity of the DNA repair processes. Methylation of promoter CpG islands represents an alternative mechanism to inactivate DNA repair and tumour suppressor genes. In our study, we analyzed the frequency of methylation changes of 24 tumour suppressor genes and explored their association with BRCAness profile. BRCA1ness profile and aberrant methylation were studied in 233 fresh frozen breast tumour tissues by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and Methylation Specific (MS)-MLPA methods, respectively. Our analyses revealed that 12.4% of the breast cancer (BC) patients had tumours with a BRCA1ness profile. TIMP3 showed significantly higher (p = 5.8х10
BACKGROUND: Post-surgical prognosis is usually poor for combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma (CHCC-CC), a rare primary liver cancer. Although midkine (MK) is a prognostic biomarker for several known cancers, it is not known whether it can be used as such in resectable CHCC-CC. This study examined whether MK expression can predict recurrence and survival in patients with resectable CHCC-CC.
METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 52 patients with resectable CHCC-CC who had received curative hepatic resections. MK expression was assessed in post-surgical immunohistochemical studies of specimens in paraffin blocks. Clinical outcomes were analyzed from medical records.
RESULTS: Two-year disease-free and three-year overall survival rates were 42.1% and 44.6%. MK was expressed in 30 patients. Univariate analysis showed patients positively expressing MK had a significantly poorer 2-year disease free and three-year overall survival. Multivariate analysis found positive MK expression independently predicted recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: Positive expression of MK predicts poor prognosis in patients with resectable CHCC-CC.
BACKGROUND: The insulin receptor (INSR) and the insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) play important roles in the etiology of both diabetes mellitus and breast cancer. We aimed to evaluate the expression of hormone and insulin-related proteins within or related to the PI3K and MAPK pathway in breast tumors of women with or without diabetes mellitus, treated with or without insulin (analogues).
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on tumor tissue of 312 women with invasive breast cancer, with or without pre-existing diabetes mellitus, diagnosed in 2000-2010, who were randomly selected from a Danish breast cancer cohort. Women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency matched by year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis to those without diabetes. Tumor Microarrays were successfully stained for p-ER, EGFR, p-ERK1/2, p-mTOR, and IGF1R, and scored by a breast pathologist. Associations of expression of these proteins with diabetes, insulin treatment (human insulin and insulin analogues) and other diabetes medication were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression adjusting for menopause and BMI; effect modification by menopausal status, BMI, and ER status was assessed using interactions terms.
RESULTS: We found no significant differences in expression of any of the proteins in breast tumors of women with (n = 211) and without diabetes (n = 101). Among women with diabetes, insulin use (n = 53) was significantly associated with higher tumor protein expression of IGF1R (OR = 2.36; 95%CI:1.02-5.52; p = 0.04) and p-mTOR (OR = 2.35; 95%CI:1.13-4.88; p = 0.02), especially among women treated with insulin analogues. Menopause seemed to modified the association between insulin and IGF1R expression (p = 0.07); the difference in IGF1R expression was only observed in tumors of premenopausal women (OR = 5.10; 95%CI:1.36-19.14; p = 0.02). We found no associations between other types of diabetes medication, such as metformin, and protein expression of the five proteins evaluated.
CONCLUSIONS: In our study, breast tumors of women with pre-existing diabetes did not show an altered expression of selected PI3K/MAPK pathway-related proteins. We observed an association between insulin treatment and increased p-mTOR and IGF1R expression of breast tumors, especially in premenopausal women. This observation, if confirmed, might be clinically relevant since the use of IGF1R and mTOR inhibitors are currently investigated in clinical trials.