Gene Summary

Gene:APRT; adenine phosphoribosyltransferase
Aliases: AMP, APRTD
Summary:Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase belongs to the purine/pyrimidine phosphoribosyltransferase family. A conserved feature of this gene is the distribution of CpG dinucleotides. This enzyme catalyzes the formation of AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate from adenine and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). It also produces adenine as a by-product of the polyamine biosynthesis pathway. A homozygous deficiency in this enzyme causes 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:adenine phosphoribosyltransferase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 21 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (19)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 21 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • DNA Repair
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Mutagenesis
  • Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase
  • alpha 1-Antitrypsin
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Skin Cancer
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Genome
  • chromium hexavalent ion
  • Chromosome 8
  • Drug Resistance
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase
  • Cesium Radioisotopes
  • Chromosome 16
  • Genetic Markers
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Carcinogenicity Tests
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Two-Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis
  • Mutation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Cultured Cells
  • Alleles
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Cell Line
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Cancer DNA
  • Genetic Variation
  • Gene Deletion
  • Transfection
  • Neurofibromatosis 1
  • Phenotype
  • Base Sequence
Tag cloud generated 21 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: APRT (cancer-related)

Brossier NM, Prechtl AM, Longo JF, et al.
Classic Ras Proteins Promote Proliferation and Survival via Distinct Phosphoproteome Alterations in Neurofibromin-Null Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Cells.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2015; 74(6):568-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2016 Related Publications
Neurofibromin, the tumor suppressor encoded by the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene, potentially suppresses the activation of H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras. However, it is not known whether these classic Ras proteins are hyperactivated in NF1-null nerve sheath tumors, how they contribute to tumorigenesis, and what signaling pathways mediate their effects. Here we show that H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras are coexpressed with their activators (guanine nucleotide exchange factors) in neurofibromin-null malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells, and that all 3 Ras proteins are activated. Dominant negative (DN) H-Ras, a pan-inhibitor of the classic Ras family, inhibited MPNST proliferation and survival, but not migration. However, NF1-null MPNST cells were variably dependent on individual Ras proteins. In some lines, ablation of H-Ras, N-Ras, and/or K-Ras inhibited mitogenesis. In others, ablation of a single Ras protein had no effect on proliferation; in these lines, ablation of a single Ras protein resulted in compensatory increases in the activation and/or expression of other Ras proteins. Using mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics, we identified 7 signaling networks affecting morphology, proliferation, and survival that are regulated by DN H-Ras. Thus, neurofibromin loss activates multiple classic Ras proteins that promote proliferation and survival by regulating several distinct signaling cascades.

Kato H, Sekine Y, Furuya Y, et al.
Metformin inhibits the proliferation of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells via the downregulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 461(1):115-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metformin is a biguanide drug that is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have shown that metformin inhibits cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor mechanisms of metformin include activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase/mTOR pathway and direct inhibition of insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-mediated cellular proliferation. However, the anti-tumor mechanism in prostate cancer remains unclear. Because activation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is required for prostate cell proliferation, IGF-1R inhibitors may be of therapeutic value. Accordingly, we examined the effects of metformin on IGF-1R signaling in prostate cancer cells. Metformin significantly inhibited PC-3 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. IGF-1R mRNA expression decreased significantly after 48 h of treatment, and IGF-1R protein expression decreased in a similar manner. IGF-1R knockdown by siRNA transfection led to inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of PC-3 cells. IGF-1 activated both ERK1/2 and Akt, but these effects were attenuated by metformin treatment. In addition, intraperitoneal treatment with metformin significantly reduced tumor growth and IGF-1R mRNA expression in PC-3 xenografts. Our results suggest that metformin is a potent inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R system and may be beneficial in prostate cancer treatment.

Kummalue T, Inoue T, Miura Y, et al.
Ribosomal protein L11- and retinol dehydrogenase 11-induced erythroid proliferation without erythropoietin in UT-7/Epo erythroleukemic cells.
Exp Hematol. 2015; 43(5):414-423.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications
Erythropoiesis is the process of proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of erythroid cells. Understanding these steps will help to elucidate the basis of specific diseases associated with abnormal production of red blood cells. In this study, we continued our efforts to identify genes involved in erythroid proliferation. Lentivirally transduced UT-7/Epo erythroleukemic cells expressing ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11) or retinol dehydrogenase 11 (RDH11) could proliferate in the absence of erythropoietin, and their cell-cycle profiles revealed G0/G1 prolongation and low percentages of apoptosis. RPL11-expressing cells proliferated more rapidly than the RDH11-expressing cells. The antiapoptotic proteins BCL-XL and BCL-2 were expressed in both cell lines. Unlike the parental UT-7/Epo cells, the expression of hemoglobins (Hbs) in the transduced cells had switched from adult to fetal type. Several signal transduction pathways, including STAT5, were highly activated in transduced cells; furthermore, expression of the downstream target genes of STAT5, such as CCND1, was upregulated in the transduced cells. Taken together, the data indicate that RPL11 and RDH11 accelerate erythroid cell proliferation by upregulating the STAT5 signaling pathway with phosphorylation of Lyn and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB).

Andruska ND, Zheng X, Yang X, et al.
Estrogen receptor α inhibitor activates the unfolded protein response, blocks protein synthesis, and induces tumor regression.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(15):4737-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 14/10/2015 Related Publications
Recurrent estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast and ovarian cancers are often therapy resistant. Using screening and functional validation, we identified BHPI, a potent noncompetitive small molecule ERα biomodulator that selectively blocks proliferation of drug-resistant ERα-positive breast and ovarian cancer cells. In a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer, BHPI induced rapid and substantial tumor regression. Whereas BHPI potently inhibits nuclear estrogen-ERα-regulated gene expression, BHPI is effective because it elicits sustained ERα-dependent activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (EnR) stress sensor, the unfolded protein response (UPR), and persistent inhibition of protein synthesis. BHPI distorts a newly described action of estrogen-ERα: mild and transient UPR activation. In contrast, BHPI elicits massive and sustained UPR activation, converting the UPR from protective to toxic. In ERα(+) cancer cells, BHPI rapidly hyperactivates plasma membrane PLCγ, generating inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3), which opens EnR IP3R calcium channels, rapidly depleting EnR Ca(2+) stores. This leads to activation of all three arms of the UPR. Activation of the PERK arm stimulates phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), resulting in rapid inhibition of protein synthesis. The cell attempts to restore EnR Ca(2+) levels, but the open EnR IP3R calcium channel leads to an ATP-depleting futile cycle, resulting in activation of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). eEF2 phosphorylation inhibits protein synthesis at a second site. BHPI's novel mode of action, high potency, and effectiveness in therapy-resistant tumor cells make it an exceptional candidate for further mechanistic and therapeutic exploration.

Finger EC, Castellini L, Rankin EB, et al.
Hypoxic induction of AKAP12 variant 2 shifts PKA-mediated protein phosphorylation to enhance migration and metastasis of melanoma cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(14):4441-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/10/2015 Related Publications
Scaffold proteins are critical hubs within cells that have the ability to modulate upstream signaling molecules and their downstream effectors to fine-tune biological responses. Although they can serve as focal points for association of signaling molecules and downstream pathways that regulate tumorigenesis, little is known about how the tumor microenvironment affects the expression and activity of scaffold proteins. This study demonstrates that hypoxia, a common element of solid tumors harboring low oxygen levels, regulates expression of a specific variant of the scaffold protein AKAP12 (A-kinase anchor protein 12), AKAP12v2, in metastatic melanoma. In turn, through a kinome-wide phosphoproteomic and MS study, we demonstrate that this scaffolding protein regulates a shift in protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation events under hypoxia, causing alterations in tumor cell invasion and migration in vitro, as well as metastasis in an in vivo orthotopic model of melanoma. Mechanistically, the shift in AKAP12-dependent PKA-mediated phosphorylations under hypoxia is due to changes in AKAP12 localization vs. structural differences between its two variants. Importantly, our work defines a mechanism through which a scaffold protein can be regulated by the tumor microenvironment and further explains how a tumor cell can coordinate many critical signaling pathways that are essential for tumor growth through one individual scaffolding protein.

Cromer MK, Choi M, Nelson-Williams C, et al.
Neomorphic effects of recurrent somatic mutations in Yin Yang 1 in insulin-producing adenomas.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(13):4062-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/10/2015 Related Publications
Insulinomas are pancreatic islet tumors that inappropriately secrete insulin, producing hypoglycemia. Exome and targeted sequencing revealed that 14 of 43 insulinomas harbored the identical somatic mutation in the DNA-binding zinc finger of the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) showed that this T372R substitution changes the DNA motif bound by YY1. Global analysis of gene expression demonstrated distinct clustering of tumors with and without YY1(T372R) mutations. Genes showing large increases in expression in YY1(T372R) tumors included ADCY1 (an adenylyl cyclase) and CACNA2D2 (a Ca(2+) channel); both are expressed at very low levels in normal β-cells and show mutation-specific YY1 binding sites. Both gene products are involved in key pathways regulating insulin secretion. Expression of these genes in rat INS-1 cells demonstrated markedly increased insulin secretion. These findings indicate that YY1(T372R) mutations are neomorphic, resulting in constitutive activation of cAMP and Ca(2+) signaling pathways involved in insulin secretion.

Mo JS, Meng Z, Kim YC, et al.
Cellular energy stress induces AMPK-mediated regulation of YAP and the Hippo pathway.
Nat Cell Biol. 2015; 17(4):500-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a transcription co-activator in the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway and controls cell growth, tissue homeostasis and organ size. YAP is inhibited by the kinase Lats, which phosphorylates YAP to induce its cytoplasmic localization and proteasomal degradation. YAP induces gene expression by binding to the TEAD family transcription factors. Dysregulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway is frequently observed in human cancers. Here we show that cellular energy stress induces YAP phosphorylation, in part due to AMPK-dependent Lats activation, thereby inhibiting YAP activity. Moreover, AMPK directly phosphorylates YAP Ser 94, a residue essential for the interaction with TEAD, thus disrupting the YAP-TEAD interaction. AMPK-induced YAP inhibition can suppress oncogenic transformation of Lats-null cells with high YAP activity. Our study establishes a molecular mechanism and functional significance of AMPK in linking cellular energy status to the Hippo-YAP pathway.

Wang W, Xiao ZD, Li X, et al.
AMPK modulates Hippo pathway activity to regulate energy homeostasis.
Nat Cell Biol. 2015; 17(4):490-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
The Hippo pathway was discovered as a conserved tumour suppressor pathway restricting cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the upstream signals that regulate the Hippo pathway in the context of organ size control and cancer prevention are largely unknown. Here, we report that glucose, the ubiquitous energy source used for ATP generation, regulates the Hippo pathway downstream effector YAP. We show that both the Hippo pathway and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were activated during glucose starvation, resulting in phosphorylation of YAP and contributing to its inactivation. We also identified glucose-transporter 3 (GLUT3) as a YAP-regulated gene involved in glucose metabolism. Together, these results demonstrate that glucose-mediated energy homeostasis is an upstream event involved in regulation of the Hippo pathway and, potentially, an oncogenic function of YAP in promoting glycolysis, thereby providing an exciting link between glucose metabolism and the Hippo pathway in tissue maintenance and cancer prevention.

Zhang Y, Duan G, Feng S
MicroRNA-301a modulates doxorubicin resistance in osteosarcoma cells by targeting AMP-activated protein kinase alpha 1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 459(3):367-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs have been implicated in drug resistance of osteosarcoma (OS). MicroRNA-301a (miR-301a) is up-regulated and functions as an oncogene in various cancers. However, little is known about the role of miR-301a in drug resistance of OS cells. In this study, we found that doxorubicin induced time-dependent expression of miR-301a in OS cells. Meantime, doxorubicin promoted HMGCR expression and inhibited AMPKα1 expression, which was further facilitated by miR-301a overexpression. Luciferase reporter assay identified AMPKα1 as direct target gene of miR-301a. Notably, miR-301a reduced doxorubicin-induced cell apoptosis whereas anti-miR-301a enhanced apoptosis in OS cells, suggesting that up-regulation of miR-301a contributed to chemoresistance of OS cells. Consistently, our data showed that miR-301a and HMGCR were up-regulated in chemotherapy-resistant OS compared to those in control OS. Our findings suggested that miR-301a might be a potential biomarker for chemotherapy-resistant OS and a promising therapeutic target for overcoming drug resistance of OS.

Shoshan E, Mobley AK, Braeuer RR, et al.
Reduced adenosine-to-inosine miR-455-5p editing promotes melanoma growth and metastasis.
Nat Cell Biol. 2015; 17(3):311-21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Although recent studies have shown that adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing occurs in microRNAs (miRNAs), its effects on tumour growth and metastasis are not well understood. We present evidence of CREB-mediated low expression of ADAR1 in metastatic melanoma cell lines and tumour specimens. Re-expression of ADAR1 resulted in the suppression of melanoma growth and metastasis in vivo. Consequently, we identified three miRNAs undergoing A-to-I editing in the weakly metastatic melanoma but not in strongly metastatic cell lines. One of these miRNAs, miR-455-5p, has two A-to-I RNA-editing sites. The biological function of edited miR-455-5p is different from that of the unedited form, as it recognizes a different set of genes. Indeed, wild-type miR-455-5p promotes melanoma metastasis through inhibition of the tumour suppressor gene CPEB1. Moreover, wild-type miR-455 enhances melanoma growth and metastasis in vivo, whereas the edited form inhibits these features. These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for RNA editing in melanoma progression.

Schuster S, Penke M, Gorski T, et al.
FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK and downregulates mTOR signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 458(2):334-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the key enzyme of the NAD salvage pathway starting from nicotinamide. Cancer cells have an increased demand for NAD due to their high proliferation and DNA repair rate. Consequently, NAMPT is considered as a putative target for anti-cancer therapies. There is evidence that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) become dysregulated during the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the effects of NAMPT inhibition by its specific inhibitor FK866 on the viability of hepatocarcinoma cells and analyzed the effects of FK866 on the nutrient sensor AMPK and mTOR complex1 (mTORC1) signaling.
RESULTS: FK866 markedly decreased NAMPT activity and NAD content in hepatocarcinoma cells (Huh7 cells, Hep3B cells) and led to delayed ATP reduction which was associated with increased cell death. These effects could be abrogated by administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the enzyme product of NAMPT. Our results demonstrated a dysregulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to non-cancerous hepatocytes with a higher expression of mTOR and a lower AMPKα activation in hepatocarcinoma cells. We found that NAMPT inhibition by FK866 significantly activated AMPKα and inhibited the activation of mTOR and its downstream targets p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 in hepatocarcinoma cells. Non-cancerous hepatocytes were less sensitive to FK866 and did not show changes in AMPK/mTOR signaling after FK866 treatment.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings reveal an important role of the NAMPT-mediated NAD salvage pathway in the energy homeostasis of hepatocarcinoma cells and suggest NAMPT inhibition as a potential treatment option for HCC.

Rose M, Schubert C, Dierichs L, et al.
OASIS/CREB3L1 is epigenetically silenced in human bladder cancer facilitating tumor cell spreading and migration in vitro.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(12):1626-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
CREB3L1 has been recently proposed as a novel metastasis suppressor gene in breast cancer. Our current study highlights CREB3L1 expression, regulation, and function in bladder cancer. We demonstrate a significant downregulation of CREB3L1 mRNA expression (n = 64) in primary bladder cancer tissues caused by tumor-specific CREB3L1 promoter hypermethylation (n = 51). Based on pyrosequencing CREB3L1 methylation was shown to be potentially associated with a more aggressive phenotype of bladder cancer. These findings were verified by an independent public data set containing data from 184 bladder tumors. In addition, immunohistochemical evaluation showed that CREB3L1 protein expression is decreased in bladder cancer tissues as well. Interestingly, protein loss is predominately observed in the nuclei of aggressive tumor cells. Based on in vitro models we clearly show that CREB3L1 re-expression mediates suppression of tumor cell migration and colony growth of high grade and invasive bladder cancer cells. The candidate tumor suppressor and TGF-β signaling inhibitor HTRA3 was furthermore identified as putative target gene of CREB3L1 in both invasive J82 bladder cells and primary bladder tumors. Hence, our data provide for the first time evidence that the transcription factor CREB3L1 may have an important role as a putative tumor suppressor in bladder cancer.

Takachi T, Takahashi M, Takahashi-Yoshita M, et al.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein represses the expression of the BCL11B tumor suppressor in T-cells.
Cancer Sci. 2015; 106(4):461-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL), which is an aggressive form of T-cell malignancy. HTLV-1 oncoproteins, Tax and HBZ, play crucial roles in the immortalization of T-cells and/or leukemogenesis by dysregulating the cellular functions in the host. Recent studies show that HTLV-1-infected T-cells have reduced expression of the BCL11B tumor suppressor protein. In the present study, we explored whether Tax and/or HBZ play a role in downregulating BCL11B in HTLV-1-infected T-cells. Lentiviral transduction of Tax in a human T-cell line repressed the expression of BCL11B at both the protein and mRNA levels, whereas the transduction of HBZ had little effect on the expression. Tax mutants with a decreased activity for the NF-κB, CREB or PDZ protein pathways still showed a reduced expression of the BCL11B protein, thereby implicating a different function of Tax in BCL11B downregulation. In addition, the HTLV-2 Tax2 protein reduced the BCL11B protein expression in T-cells. Seven HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, including three ATL-derived cell lines, showed reduced BCL11B mRNA and protein expression relative to an uninfected T-cell line, and the greatest reductions were in the cells expressing Tax. Collectively, these results indicate that Tax is responsible for suppressing BCL11B protein expression in HTLV-1-infected T-cells; Tax-mediated repression of BCL11B is another mechanism that Tax uses to promote oncogenesis of HTLV-1-infected T-cells.

Cheung J, Ginter C, Cassidy M, et al.
Structural insights into mis-regulation of protein kinase A in human tumors.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(5):1374-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
The extensively studied cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is involved in the regulation of critical cell processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell proliferation; consequentially, mis-regulation of PKA signaling is implicated in tumorigenesis. Recent genomic studies have identified recurrent mutations in the catalytic subunit of PKA in tumors associated with Cushing's syndrome, a kidney disorder leading to excessive cortisol production, and also in tumors associated with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC), a rare liver cancer. Expression of a L205R point mutant and a DnaJ-PKA fusion protein were found to be linked to Cushing's syndrome and FL-HCC, respectively. Here we reveal contrasting mechanisms for increased PKA signaling at the molecular level through structural determination and biochemical characterization of the aberrant enzymes. In the Cushing's syndrome disorder, we find that the L205R mutation abolishes regulatory-subunit binding, leading to constitutive, cAMP-independent signaling. In FL-HCC, the DnaJ-PKA chimera remains under regulatory subunit control; however, its overexpression from the DnaJ promoter leads to enhanced cAMP-dependent signaling. Our findings provide a structural understanding of the two distinct disease mechanisms and they offer a basis for designing effective drugs for their treatment.

Kim J, Jeong D, Nam J, et al.
MicroRNA-124 regulates glucocorticoid sensitivity by targeting phosphodiesterase 4B in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Gene. 2015; 558(1):173-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are chemotherapeutic drugs commonly used to treat hematological malignancies. However, a significant fraction of patients develop resistance to GCs during treatment. A better insight into how GC resistance develops is therefore needed. It was previously shown that cyclic AMP (cAMP) induces sensitivity to GCs by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/MCL1 signaling, while high levels of phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) reverse the effect of cAMP on GC responses in B-cell lymphoma. Here, we show that miR-124 influences GC-induced apoptosis by directly targeting PDE4B. Stable expression of miR-124 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines diminished PDE4B expression. This was associated with increased cAMP levels, inhibition of the AKT/mTOR/MCL1 survival pathway, upregulation of GRα expression, and improved sensitivity to GCs in the presence of forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase. Interestingly, miR-124 did not affect GC sensitivity in the absence of forskolin, indicating that the effect of this miRNA is accomplished via downregulation of PDE4B expression. Further, restoration of PDE4B expression in miR-124 cells rescued the phenotypic effect of this miRNA, demonstrating the critical role of PDE4B in miR-124-mediated regulation of the GC response. Our study supports the notion that miR-124 could be an attractive therapeutic target for overcoming GC resistance in DLBCL.

Cornella H, Alsinet C, Sayols S, et al.
Unique genomic profile of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma.
Gastroenterology. 2015; 148(4):806-18.e10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare primary hepatic cancer that develops in children and young adults without cirrhosis. Little is known about its pathogenesis, and it can be treated only with surgery. We performed an integrative genomic analysis of a large series of patients with FLC to identify associated genetic factors.
METHODS: By using 78 clinically annotated FLC samples, we performed whole-transcriptome (n = 58), single-nucleotide polymorphism array (n = 41), and next-generation sequencing (n = 48) analyses; we also assessed the prevalence of the DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion transcript associated with this cancer (n = 73). We performed class discovery using non-negative matrix factorization, and functional annotation using gene-set enrichment analyses, nearest template prediction, ingenuity pathway analyses, and immunohistochemistry. The genomic identification of significant targets in a cancer algorithm was used to identify chromosomal aberrations, MuTect and VarScan2 were used to identify somatic mutations, and the random survival forest was used to determine patient prognoses. Findings were validated in an independent cohort.
RESULTS: Unsupervised gene expression clustering showed 3 robust molecular classes of tumors: the proliferation class (51% of samples) had altered expression of genes that regulate proliferation and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling activation; the inflammation class (26% of samples) had altered expression of genes that regulate inflammation and cytokine enriched production; and the unannotated class (23% of samples) had a gene expression signature that was not associated previously with liver tumors. Expression of genes that regulate neuroendocrine function, as well as histologic markers of cholangiocytes and hepatocytes, were detected in all 3 classes. FLCs had few copy number variations; the most frequent were focal amplification at 8q24.3 (in 12.5% of samples), and deletions at 19p13 (in 28% of samples) and 22q13.32 (in 25% of samples). The DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion transcript was detected in 79% of samples. FLC samples also contained mutations in cancer-related genes such as BRCA2 (in 4.2% of samples), which are uncommon in liver neoplasms. However, FLCs did not contain mutations most commonly detected in liver cancers. We identified an 8-gene signature that predicted survival of patients with FLC.
CONCLUSIONS: In a genomic analysis of 78 FLC samples, we identified 3 classes based on gene expression profiles. FLCs contain mutations and chromosomal aberrations not previously associated with liver cancer, and almost 80% contain the DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion transcript. By using this information, we identified a gene signature that is associated with patient survival time.

Huang GM, Jiang QH, Cai C, et al.
SCD1 negatively regulates autophagy-induced cell death in human hepatocellular carcinoma through inactivation of the AMPK signaling pathway.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 358(2):180-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a key regulator in the mechanisms of cell proliferation, survival and transformation to cancer, and autophagy also plays a critical role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether SCD1 mediates autophagy in HCC remains unknown. In this study, we observed significantly elevated SCD1 expression levels and evident suppression of autophagy in HCC, and the positive SCD1 expression and autophagy defect were independently correlated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. We also found that the inhibition of SCD1 by a pharmacological inhibitor reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis and autophagy of human HCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of AMPK supported the hypothesis that the induction of autophagy caused by SCD1 inhibition relied on AMPK stimulation. Furthermore, the human HCC cells death triggered by inhibition of SCD1 was partly involved in autophagy-induced apoptosis via AMPK signaling. Our findings reveal a novel role for SCD1 in the regulation of autophagy via AMPK signaling and provide mechanistic input for the clinical exploration that the combination of SCD1 inhibition with autophagy induction may be attractive for the management of HCC.

Girgert R, Emons G, Gründker C
Inhibition of GPR30 by estriol prevents growth stimulation of triple-negative breast cancer cells by 17β-estradiol.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:935 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of ERα, triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are not susceptible to endocrine therapy using antiestrogens. However, the majority of TNBCs express the membrane bound estrogen receptor GPR30. We have recently shown that knock-down of GPR30 expression prevented growth stimulation of TNBC cell lines by 17β-estradiol. Now we analyzed whether specific inhibition of GPR30 represents a new option for therapy of TNBC.
METHODS: Growth of TNBC cells was assessed using Alamar-blue colorimetric assay. Activation of c-Src and EGF-receptor was assessed using Western blots. Expression of c-fos, cyclin D1 and aromatase was quantified by RT-PCR. Gα-specific signaling of GPR30 was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay.
RESULTS: HCC1806 cells showed the highest GPR30 expression, in HCC70 cells it was clearly lower, in MDA-MB-231 cells it was lowest. 10-8 M 17β-estradiol significantly increased proliferation of HCC1806 cells to 134 ± 12% of control (p < 0.01). Proliferation of HCC70 cells was slightly increased to 116 ± 8% of control. Estriol significantly reduced cell number of HCC1806 cells to 16 ± 12% (p < 0.01). Cell number of HCC70 cells and of MDA-MB-231 cells was reduced to 68 ± 25% and to 61 ± 10%, respectively.Activity of Src kinase increased to 150 ± 10% (p < 0.05) by 10-8 M 17β-estradiol treatment in HCC1806 and to 220 ± 20% in HCC70 cells (p < 0.01). Estriol treatment completely inhibited 17β-estradiol-induced p-src activation. Transactivation of EGF-receptor increased by estradiol treatment to 350% in HCC1806 and to 280% in HCC70 cells. Estriol completely suppressed EGF-receptor transactivation. c-fos expression increased to 260% and to 190%, respectively. Estriol reduced this induction to 160% (HCC1806) and below control in HCC70 cells. Cyclin D1 was induced to 290% (HCC1806) and 170% (HCC70) and completely inhibited by estriol. 17β-estradiol increased CREB-phosphorylation to 400%. Binding of phospho-CREB to a CRE of cyclin D1 was enhanced to 320%.
CONCLUSION: Specific pharmacological inhibition of GPR30 might become a promising targeted therapy for TNBC in future.

Cao C, Gao R, Zhang M, et al.
Role of LKB1-CRTC1 on glycosylated COX-2 and response to COX-2 inhibition in lung cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(1):358 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) directs the synthesis of prostaglandins including PGE-2 linking inflammation with mitogenic signaling. COX-2 is also an anticancer target, however, treatment strategies have been limited by unreliable expression assays and by inconsistent tumor responses to COX-2 inhibition.
METHODS: We analyzed the TCGA and Director's Challenge lung cancer datasets (n = 188) and also generated an LKB1-null lung cancer gene signature (n = 53) to search the Broad Institute/Connectivity-MAP (C-MAP) dataset. We performed ChIP analyses, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and drug testing of tumor cell lines (n = 8) and primary lung adenocarcinoma surgical resections (n = 13).
RESULTS: We show that COX-2 is a target of the cAMP/CREB coactivator CRTC1 signaling pathway. In addition, we detected a correlation between LKB1 status, CRTC1 activation, and presence of glycosylated, but not inactive hypoglycosylated COX-2 in primary lung adenocarcinoma. A search of the C-MAP drug database discovered that all high-ranking drugs positively associated with the LKB1-null signature are known CRTC1 activators, including forskolin and six different PGE-2 analogues. Somatic LKB1 mutations are present in 20.0% of lung adenocarcinomas, and we observed growth inhibition with COX-2 inhibitors in LKB1-null lung cancer cells with activated CRTC1 as compared with LKB1-wildtype cells (NS-398, P = .002 and Niflumic acid, P = .006; two-tailed t test).
CONCLUSION: CRTC1 activation is a key event that drives the LKB1-null mRNA signature in lung cancer. We also identified a positive feedback LKB1/CRTC1 signaling loop for COX-2/PGE2 regulation. These data suggest a role for LKB1 status and glycosylated COX-2 as specific biomarkers that provide a framework for selecting patients for COX-2 inhibition studies.

Jansma AL, Martinez-Yamout MA, Liao R, et al.
The high-risk HPV16 E7 oncoprotein mediates interaction between the transcriptional coactivator CBP and the retinoblastoma protein pRb.
J Mol Biol. 2014; 426(24):4030-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/12/2015 Related Publications
The oncoprotein E7 from human papillomavirus (HPV) strains that confer high cancer risk mediates cell transformation by deregulating host cellular processes and activating viral gene expression through recruitment of cellular proteins such as the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and the cyclic-AMP response element binding binding protein (CBP) and its paralog p300. Here we show that the intrinsically disordered N-terminal region of E7 from high-risk HPV16 binds the TAZ2 domain of CBP with greater affinity than E7 from low-risk HPV6b. HPV E7 and the tumor suppressor p53 compete for binding to TAZ2. The TAZ2 binding site in E7 overlaps the LxCxE motif that is crucial for interaction with pRb. While TAZ2 and pRb compete for binding to a monomeric E7 polypeptide, the full-length E7 dimer mediates an interaction between TAZ2 and pRb by promoting formation of a ternary complex. Cell-based assays show that expression of full-length HPV16 E7 promotes increased pRb acetylation and that this response depends both on the presence of CBP/p300 and on the ability of E7 to form a dimer. These observations suggest a model for the oncogenic effect of high-risk HPV16 E7. The disordered region of one E7 molecule in the homodimer interacts with the pocket domain of pRb, while the same region of the other E7 molecule binds the TAZ2 domain of CBP/p300. Through its ability to dimerize, E7 recruits CBP/p300 and pRb into a ternary complex, bringing the histone acetyltransferase domain of CBP/p300 into proximity to pRb and promoting acetylation, leading to disruption of cell cycle control.

Cho HK, Kim SY, Kyaw YY, et al.
HBx induces the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via AP1 over-expressed as a result of ER stress.
Biochem J. 2015; 466(1):115-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common risk factor for HCC. The HBV proteins can induce oncogenic or synergy effects with a hyperproliferative response on transformation into HCC. CREBH (cAMP-responsive, element-binding protein H), activated by stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is an ER-resident transmembrane bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factor that is specifically expressed in the liver. In the present study, we address the role played by CREBH activated by ER stress in HBV-induced hepatic cell proliferation. We confirmed CREBH activation by ER stress and showed that it occurred as a result of/via hepatitis B virus X (HBx)-induced ER stress. CREBH activated by HBx increased the expression of AP-1 target genes through c-Jun induction. Under pathological conditions such as liver damage or liver regeneration, activated CREBH may have an important role to play in hepatic inflammation and cell proliferation, as an insulin receptor with dual functions under these conditions. We showed that CREBH activated by HBx interacted with HBx protein, leading to a synergistic effect on the expression of AP-1 target genes and the proliferation of HCC cells and mouse primary hepatocytes. In conclusion, in HBV-infected hepatic cells or patients with chronic HBV, CREBH may induce proliferation of hepatic cells in co-operation with HBx, resulting in HCC.

Duan K, Gomez Hernandez K, Mete O
Clinicopathological correlates of adrenal Cushing's syndrome.
J Clin Pathol. 2015; 68(3):175-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisol-producing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decision-making and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease.

Tsai CH, Tsai HC, Huang HN, et al.
Resistin promotes tumor metastasis by down-regulation of miR-519d through the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(1):258-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/12/2015 Related Publications
Resistin is a recently discovered adipocyte-secreting adipokine, which may play a critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. Chondrosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor known to frequently metastasize; however, the role of resistin in the metastasis of human chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here, we found that the expression of resistin was higher in chondrosarcoma biopsy tissues than in normal cartilage. Moreover, treatment with resistin increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression and promoted cell migration in human chondrosarcoma cells. Co-transfection with microRNA (miR)-519d mimic resulted in reversed resistin-mediated cell migration and MMP-2 expression. Additionally, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 inhibitors or siRNAs reduced the resistin-increased cell migration and miR-519d suppression, and inhibition of resistin expression resulted in suppression of MMP-2 expression and lung metastasis in vivo. Taken together, our results indicate that resistin promotes chondrosarcoma metastasis and MMP-2 expression through activation of the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway and down-regulation of miR-519d expression. Therefore, resistin may represent a potential novel molecular therapeutic target in chondrosarcoma metastasis.

Ella E, Heim D, Stoyanov E, et al.
Specific genomic and transcriptomic aberrations in tumors induced by partial hepatectomy of a chronically inflamed murine liver.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(21):10318-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/12/2015 Related Publications
Resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors by partial hepatectomy (PHx) is associated with promoting hepatocarcinogenesis. We have previously reported that PHx promotes hepatocarcinogenesis in the Mdr2-knockout (Mdr2-KO) mouse, a model for inflammation-mediated HCC. Now, to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumor-promoting effect of PHx, we compared genomic and transcriptomic profiles of HCC tumors developing in the Mdr2-KO mice either spontaneously or following PHx. PHx accelerated HCC development in these mice by four months. PHx-induced tumors had major chromosomal aberrations: all were amplifications affecting multiple chromosomes. Most of these amplifications were located near the acrocentric centromeres of murine chromosomes. Four different chromosomal regions were amplified each in at least three tumors. The human orthologs of these common amplified regions are known to be amplified in HCC. All tumors of untreated mice had chromosomal aberrations, including both deletions and amplifications. Amplifications in spontaneous tumors affected fewer chromosomes and were not located preferentially at the chromosomal edges. Comparison of gene expression profiles revealed a significantly enriched expression of oncogenes, chromosomal instability markers and E2F1 targets in the post-PHx compared to spontaneous tumors. Both tumor groups shared the same frequent amplification at chromosome 18. Here, we revealed that one of the regulatory genes encoded by this amplified region, Crem, was over-expressed in the nuclei of murine and human HCC cells in vivo, and that it stimulated proliferation of human HCC cells in vitro. Our results demonstrate that PHx of a chronically inflamed liver directed tumor development to a discrete pathway characterized by amplification of specific chromosomal regions and expression of specific tumor-promoting genes. Crem is a new candidate HCC oncogene frequently amplified in this model and frequently over-expressed in human HCC.

Zheng Z, Liebers M, Zhelyazkova B, et al.
Anchored multiplex PCR for targeted next-generation sequencing.
Nat Med. 2014; 20(12):1479-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe a rapid target enrichment method for next-generation sequencing, termed anchored multiplex PCR (AMP), that is compatible with low nucleic acid input from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. AMP is effective in detecting gene rearrangements (without prior knowledge of the fusion partners), single nucleotide variants, insertions, deletions and copy number changes. Validation of a gene rearrangement panel using 319 FFPE samples showed 100% sensitivity (95% confidence limit: 96.5-100%) and 100% specificity (95% confidence limit: 99.3-100%) compared with reference assays. On the basis of our experience with performing AMP on 986 clinical FFPE samples, we show its potential as both a robust clinical assay and a powerful discovery tool, which we used to identify new therapeutically important gene fusions: ARHGEF2-NTRK1 and CHTOP-NTRK1 in glioblastoma, MSN-ROS1, TRIM4-BRAF, VAMP2-NRG1, TPM3-NTRK1 and RUFY2-RET in lung cancer, FGFR2-CREB5 in cholangiocarcinoma and PPL-NTRK1 in thyroid carcinoma. AMP is a scalable and efficient next-generation sequencing target enrichment method for research and clinical applications.

Warrington NM, Sun T, Luo J, et al.
The cyclic AMP pathway is a sex-specific modifier of glioma risk in type I neurofibromatosis patients.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(1):16-21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Identifying modifiers of glioma risk in patients with type I neurofibromatosis (NF1) could help support personalized tumor surveillance, advance understanding of gliomagenesis, and potentially identify novel therapeutic targets. Here, we report genetic polymorphisms in the human adenylate cyclase gene adenylate cyclase 8 (ADCY8) that correlate with glioma risk in NF1 in a sex-specific manner, elevating risk in females while reducing risk in males. This finding extends earlier evidence of a role for cAMP in gliomagenesis based on results in a genetically engineered mouse model (Nf1 GEM). Thus, sexually dimorphic cAMP signaling might render males and females differentially sensitive to variation in cAMP levels. Using male and female Nf1 GEM, we found significant sex differences exist in cAMP regulation and in the growth-promoting effects of cAMP suppression. Overall, our results establish a sex-specific role for cAMP regulation in human gliomagenesis, specifically identifying ADCY8 as a modifier of glioma risk in NF1.

Zhao D, Long XD, Lu TF, et al.
Metformin decreases IL-22 secretion to suppress tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(11):2556-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidemiological, preclinical and cellular studies in the last 5 years have shown that metformin exerts anti-tumoral properties, but its mode of action in cancer remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of metformin on a mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model and tumor-associated T cell immune responses. Oral metformin administration led to a significant reduction of tumor growth, which was accompanied by decreased interleukin-22 (IL-22). Meanwhile, IL-22-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and upregulation of downstream genes Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 were inhibited by metformin. At the cellular level, metformin attenuated Th1- and Th17-derived IL-22 production. Furthermore, metformin inhibited de novo generation of Th1 and Th17 cells from naive CD4(+) cells. These observations were further supported by the fact that metformin treatment inhibited CD3/CD28-induced IFN-γ and IL-17A expression along with the transcription factors that drive their expression (T-bet [Th1] and ROR-γt [Th17], respectively). The effects of metformin on T cell differentiation were mediated by downregulated STAT3 and STAT4 phosphorylation via the AMP-activated kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway. Notably, metformin led to a reduction in glucose transporter Glut1 expression, resulting in less glucose uptake, which is critical to regulate CD4(+) T cell fate. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the growth-inhibitory and immune-modulatory effects of metformin in HCC and thus, broaden our understanding about the action of metformin in liver cancer treatment.

Lee JH, Jang H, Lee SM, et al.
ATP-citrate lyase regulates cellular senescence via an AMPK- and p53-dependent pathway.
FEBS J. 2015; 282(2):361-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) is a key enzyme that is involved in de novo lipogenesis by catalyzing conversion of cytosolic citrate into acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate. Up-regulation of ACLY in various types of tumors enhances fatty acid synthesis and supplies excess acetyl CoA for histone acetylation. However, there is evidence that its enzymatic activity alone is insufficient to explain ACLY silencing-mediated growth arrest in tumor cells. In this study, we found that ACLY knockdown in primary human cells triggers cellular senescence and activation of tumor suppressor p53. Provision of acetyl CoA to ACLY knockdown cells did not alleviate ACLY silencing-induced p53 activation, suggesting an independent role for ACLY activity. Instead, ACLY physically interacted with the catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited AMPK activity. The activation of AMPK under ACLY knockdown conditions may lead to p53 activation, ultimately leading to cellular senescence. In cancer cells, ACLY silencing-induced p53 activation facilitated DNA damage-induced cell death. Taken together, our results suggest a novel function of ACLY in cellular senescence and tumorigenesis.

Song X, Kim SY, Zhang L, et al.
Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy in human colon cancer.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1504 [PubMed] Related Publications
Unresectable colorectal liver metastases remain a major unresolved issue and more effective novel regimens are urgently needed. While screening synergistic drug combinations for colon cancer therapy, we identified a novel multidrug treatment for colon cancer: chemotherapeutic agent melphalan in combination with proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin. We investigated the mechanisms of synergistic antitumor efficacy during the multidrug treatment. All experiments were performed with highly metastatic human colon cancer CX-1 and HCT116 cells, and selected critical experiments were repeated with human colon cancer stem Tu-22 cells and mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cells. We used immunochemical techniques to investigate a cross-talk between apoptosis and autophagy during the multidrug treatment. We observed that melphalan triggered apoptosis, bortezomib induced apoptosis and autophagy, rapamycin caused autophagy and the combinatorial treatment-induced synergistic apoptosis, which was mediated through an increase in caspase activation. We also observed that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the combination was linked with altered cellular metabolism, which induced adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, resulting in Beclin-1 phosphorylated at Ser 93/96. Interestingly, Beclin-1 phosphorylated at Ser 93/96 is sufficient to induce Beclin-1 cleavage by caspase-8, which switches off autophagy to achieve the synergistic induction of apoptosis. Similar results were observed with the essential autophagy gene, autophagy-related protein 7, -deficient MEF cells. The multidrug treatment-induced Beclin-1 cleavage was abolished in Beclin-1 double-mutant (D133A/D146A) knock-in HCT116 cells, restoring the autophagy-promoting function of Beclin-1 and suppressing the apoptosis induced by the combination therapy. These observations identify a novel mechanism for AMPK-induced apoptosis through interplay between autophagy and apoptosis.

Argani P, Lewin JR, Edmonds P, et al.
Primary renal sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: report of 2 cases with EWSR1-CREB3L1 gene fusion.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(3):365-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
We report the first 2 genetically confirmed cases of primary renal sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF), occurring in a 17-year-old boy and a 61-year-old woman. In both cases, the tumors demonstrated the typical epithelioid clear cell morphology associated with extensive hyalinizing fibrosis, raising the differential diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor, metanephric stromal tumor, and the sclerosing variant of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Both neoplasms demonstrated diffuse immunoreactivity for MUC4, a highly specific marker for SEF, and both demonstrated evidence of rearrangement of both the EWSR1 and CREB3L1 genes, which have recently been shown to be fused in this entity. Both neoplasms presented with metastatic disease. Primary renal SEF represents yet another translocation-associated sarcoma now shown to arise primarily in the kidney.

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