Gene Summary

Gene:APCS; amyloid P component, serum
Aliases: SAP, PTX2, HEL-S-92n
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a glycoprotein, belonging to the pentraxin family of proteins, which has a characteristic pentameric organization. These family members have considerable sequence homology which is thought to be the result of gene duplication. The binding of the encoded protein to proteins in the pathological amyloid cross-beta fold suggests its possible role as a chaperone. This protein is also thought to control the degradation of chromatin. It has been demonstrated that this protein binds to apoptotic cells at an early stage, which raises the possibility that it is involved in dealing with apoptotic cells in vivo. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:serum amyloid P-component
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (10)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Brain Stem Glioma, Childhood
  • Mutation
  • beta Catenin
  • Brain Tumours
  • K562 Cells
  • Protein Binding
  • HLA-A2 Antigen
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Transduction
  • Knockout Mice
  • Gene Expression
  • Dendritic Cells
  • Coculture Techniques
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte
  • Cytotoxicity, Immunologic
  • Transfection
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • Chromosome 1
  • Tumor Markers
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Brain Tumours
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Antigen Presentation
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Cytokines
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Tumor Antigens
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Phagocytosis
  • Cultured Cells
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • gp100 Melanoma Antigen
  • Transcription Factors
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: APCS (cancer-related)

Siatecka M, Soni S, Planutis A, Bieker JJ
Transcriptional activity of erythroid Kruppel-like factor (EKLF/KLF1) modulated by PIAS3 (protein inhibitor of activated STAT3).
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(15):9929-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
Erythroid Kruppel-like factor (EKLF or KLF1) is a transcription factor crucial for red cell development that is directly involved in regulation of a large number of erythroid genes. EKLF serves mostly as an activator of expression of these genes; however, it can act also as a repressor. Here, we present evidence that EKLF interacts with proteins from the PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family that convey repressive activity to EKLF in the absence of sumoylation. Our studies identify PIAS3 as a transcriptional corepressor of EKLF for at least a subset of its target genes during erythropoiesis (e.g. β-globin, α-hemoglobin stabilizing protein). We demonstrate an interaction between EKLF and PIAS proteins confirmed by in vivo coimmunoprecipitation assays with both exogenous and endogenous proteins. We identified an LXXLL signature motif located near the N terminus of PIAS proteins that, although not involved in the EKLF-PIAS3 interaction, is required for the transrepression activity. Knockdown of endogenous PIAS3 accelerates differentiation of both murine erythroleukemia cells, as well as fetal liver cells, whereas an increase in PIAS3 levels inhibits this increase. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show that PIAS3 preferentially occupies the β-globin promoter in undifferentiated murine erythroleukemia cells. Together these results demonstrate that an interaction between EKLF and PIAS3 provides a novel mode of regulation of EKLF activity in the absence of sumolylation and furthermore shows an important involvement of PIAS proteins in erythropoiesis.

Liao YC, Lin TH, Chen CY, et al.
The antileukemia activity of natural product HQ17(3) is possibly associated with downregulation of miR-17-92 cluster.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:306718 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
The compound 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)] was purified from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea. HQ17(3) has cytotoxic effect on cancer cells and can inhibit topoisomerase (topo) IIα activity. We treated various cancer cells with different doses of HQ17(3) and found that leukemia cells were most sensitive to HQ17(3). After analysis of microRNA (miRNA) profiling, we found that treatment with HQ17(3) caused downregulation of miR-17-92 cluster in some leukemia cells. These changes partially restored the normal levels from leukemia-specific miRNA expression signature. Messenger RNAs of tumor suppressor proteins, such as pRB, PTEN, and Dicer, are targets of miR-17-92 cluster. Their protein levels were increased after the treatment. c-Myc is a regulatory protein for miR-17-92 gene. Similar to topo IIα, we found that c-Myc decreased its activity after the HQ17(3) treatment, which may explain the downregulation of miR-17-92 cluster. Combined with 5-fluorouracil, NaAsO2, or ABT-737, HQ17(3) elicited additive inhibitory effects on leukemia cells. In conclusion, the high sensitivity of leukemia cells to HQ17(3) may be associated with the reduction of topo IIα and c-Myc activities, as well as with the downregulation of the miR-17-92 cluster expression.

Rasoulpour RJ, Terry C, LeBaron MJ, et al.
Mode-of-action and human relevance framework analysis for rat Leydig cell tumors associated with sulfoxaflor.
Crit Rev Toxicol. 2014; 44 Suppl 2:25-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sulfoxaflor, a molecule that targets sap-feeding insects, was assessed for carcinogenic potential in groups of 50 Fischer rats fed with diets containing 0, 25, 100, 500 (males), or 750 (females) ppm sulfoxaflor for 2 years according to OECD 453. Sulfoxaflor did not alter the number of rats with Leydig cell tumors (LCTs: 88% of controls and 90-92% in treated groups). The size of LCT was increased at 100 and 500 ppm. The spontaneous incidence of LCT in Fischer rat is 75-100% compared with less than 0.01% in humans. These fundamental interspecies differences in spontaneous incidence of LCT are the result of quantitative and qualitative differences in Leydig cell response to hormonal stimuli. There are nine known modes of actions (MoA) for LCT induction. Analysis sulfoxaflor data suggested a hormone-based dopamine enhancement MoA causing the LCT effect through: 1) increased neuronal dopamine release via specific dopaminergic neuron-based nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonism, leading to 2) decreased serum prolactin (Prl) levels, 3) downregulation of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) gene expression in Leydig cells, 4) transient decreases in serum testosterone, 5) increased serum LH levels, and 6) promotion of LCTs. The analysis suggested that sulfoxaflor promoted LCTs through a subtle stimulation of dopamine release. The MoA for LCT promotion in the carcinogenicity study is considered to have no relevance to humans due to qualitative and quantitative differences between rat and human Leydig cells. Therefore, the Fischer 344 rat LCT promotion associated with lifetime administration of high-dose levels of sulfoxaflor would not pose a cancer hazard to humans.

Gelao L, Criscitiello C, Esposito A, et al.
Dendritic cell-based vaccines: clinical applications in breast cancer.
Immunotherapy. 2014; 6(3):349-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in the carcinogenesis process and the antitumor immune responses impact the clinical outcome, thus emphasizing the concept of cancer immune surveillance. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) seem to play a crucial role, as they are the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and are able to stimulate naive T lymphocytes and to generate memory T lymphocytes. Immunotherapy with DC-based vaccines is a very attractive approach to treat cancer, offering the potential for high tumor-specific cytotoxicity. Although breast cancer (BC) is traditionally considered a poorly immunogenic tumor, increasing numbers of both preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that vaccination with DCs is capable of inducing an antitumor-specific response, while being well tolerated and safe. However, clinical objective responses are still disappointing and many reasons may explain the difficulty of developing effective DC-based therapies for BC. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of DCs, and the major clinical indications for DC-based immunotherapy in BC with related drawbacks.

Wank R, Song X, Gu S, Laumbacher B
Benefits of a continuous therapy for cancer patients with a novel adoptive cell therapy by cascade priming (CAPRI).
Immunotherapy. 2014; 6(3):269-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
A growing body of evidence shows that immune cells are pivotal in the fight against cancer. First, association studies have identified immune-protective immune response genes against cancer. Second, the presence of immune cells in the respective malignant tumor correlated with a better prognosis for the patients. Third, adoptive cell therapy (ACT) showed, in recent reports, an efficient reduction or even cure for malignant tumors. The focus of this review is a novel in vitro ACT technique, using the patient's cascade-primed immune cells. The cascade-priming procedure stimulates APCs from the peripheral blood. Stimulated APCs digest and present tumor material better and differentiate naive cytotoxic T-lymphocyte effector cells against the patient's cancer. The principle and the impressive results of the cascade-primed immune cell treatment in patient case series is compared with the ACT concepts of lymphokine-activated killer, macrophage-activated killer, macrophage-activated killer-dendritic cell, cytokine-induced killer and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte methods.

Ngo MC, Ando J, Leen AM, et al.
Complementation of antigen-presenting cells to generate T lymphocytes with broad target specificity.
J Immunother. 2014; 37(4):193-203 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
Antigen-specific T cells provide a therapy for cancer that is highly specific, self-replicating, and potentially devoid of toxicity. Ideally, tumor-specific T cells should recognize multiple epitopes on multiple antigens to prevent tumor immune escape. However the large-scale expansion of such broad-spectrum T cells has been limited by the availability of potent autologous antigen-presenting cells that can present antigens on the polymorphic array of each patient's HLA allotype. We evaluated a novel antigen-presenting complex (KATpx) in which antigens in the form of peptide libraries can be presented by autologous activated T cells, whereas costimulation is complemented in trans by an HLA-negative K562 cell line genetically modified to express CD80, CD83, CD86, and 4-1BBL (K562cs). The additional costimulation provided by K562cs significantly enhanced T-cell expansion in culture over autologous activated T cells alone while maintaining antigen specificity. We validated this antigen-presenting system by generating Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigen-specific T cells from healthy donors and from patients with EBV-positive malignancies including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and multiply relapsed EBV-positive lymphoma. These T cells were specific for EBNA1, LMP1, and LMP2, the viral antigens expressed in these type 2 latency EBV-associated malignancies. The KATpx system consistently activated and expanded antigen-specific T cells both from healthy donors and from 5 of 6 patients with lymphoma and 6 of 6 with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, while simplifying the process for generating APCs by eliminating the need for live virus (EBV) or viral vectors to force expression of transgenic EBV antigens. Hence, KATpx provides a robust, reliable, and scalable process to expand tumor-directed T cells for the treatment of virus-associated cancers.

Stojanovic A, Fiegler N, Brunner-Weinzierl M, Cerwenka A
CTLA-4 is expressed by activated mouse NK cells and inhibits NK Cell IFN-γ production in response to mature dendritic cells.
J Immunol. 2014; 192(9):4184-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
NK cells express an array of activating and inhibitory receptors that determine NK cell responses upon triggering by cognate ligands. Although activating NK cell receptors recognize mainly ligands expressed by stressed, virus-infected, or transformed cells, most inhibitory receptors engage MHC class I, preventing NK cell activation in response to healthy cells. In this study, we provide insight into the regulation and function of additional receptors involved in mouse NK cell responses: CTLA-4 and CD28. CTLA-4 and CD28 engage the same ligands, B7-1 and B7-2, which are primarily expressed by APCs, such as dendritic cells. Our data demonstrate that activation of mouse NK cells with IL-2 induces the expression of CTLA-4 and upregulates CD28. CTLA-4 expression in IL-2-expanded NK cells was further up- or downregulated by IL-12 or TGF-β, respectively. Using gene-deficient NK cells, we show that CD28 induces, and CTLA-4 inhibits, IFN-γ release by NK cells upon engagement by the recombinant ligand, B7-1, or upon coculture with mature dendritic cells. Notably, we show that mouse NK cells infiltrating solid tumors express CD28 and CTLA-4 and respond to stimulation with recombinant B7-1, suggesting that the NK cell responses mediated by the CD28/CTLA-4:B7-1/B7-2 system could be of importance during malignant disease. Accordingly, our study might have implications for immunotherapy of cancer based on blocking anti-CTLA-4 mAbs.

Gurbuz I, Ferralli J, Roloff T, et al.
SAP domain-dependent Mkl1 signaling stimulates proliferation and cell migration by induction of a distinct gene set indicative of poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The main cause of death of breast cancer patients is not the primary tumor itself but the metastatic disease. Identifying breast cancer-specific signatures for metastasis and learning more about the nature of the genes involved in the metastatic process would 1) improve our understanding of the mechanisms of cancer progression and 2) reveal new therapeutic targets. Previous studies showed that the transcriptional regulator megakaryoblastic leukemia-1 (Mkl1) induces tenascin-C expression in normal and transformed mammary epithelial cells. Tenascin-C is known to be expressed in metastatic niches, is highly induced in cancer stroma and promotes breast cancer metastasis to the lung.
METHODS: Using HC11 mammary epithelial cells overexpressing different Mkl1 constructs, we devised a subtractive transcript profiling screen to identify the mechanism by which Mkl1 induces a gene set co-regulated with tenascin-C. We performed computational analysis of the Mkl1 target genes and used cell biological experiments to confirm the effect of these gene products on cell behavior. To analyze whether this gene set is prognostic of accelerated cancer progression in human patients, we used the bioinformatics tool GOBO that allowed us to investigate a large breast tumor data set linked to patient data.
RESULTS: We discovered a breast cancer-specific set of genes including tenascin-C, which is regulated by Mkl1 in a SAP domain-dependent, serum response factor-independent manner and is strongly implicated in cell proliferation, cell motility and cancer. Downregulation of this set of transcripts by overexpression of Mkl1 lacking the SAP domain inhibited cell growth and cell migration. Many of these genes are direct Mkl1 targets since their promoter-reporter constructs were induced by Mkl1 in a SAP domain-dependent manner. Transcripts, most strongly reduced in the absence of the SAP domain were mechanoresponsive. Finally, expression of this gene set is associated with high-proliferative poor-outcome classes in human breast cancer and a strongly reduced survival rate for patients independent of tumor grade.
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights a crucial role for the transcriptional regulator Mkl1 and its SAP domain during breast cancer progression. We identified a novel gene set that correlates with bad prognosis and thus may help in deciding the rigor of therapy.

Tembhare PR, Yuan CM, Venzon D, et al.
Flow cytometric differentiation of abnormal and normal plasma cells in the bone marrow in patients with multiple myeloma and its precursor diseases.
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(3):371-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
Flow cytometric (FC) enumeration of abnormal plasma cells (APCs) for diagnosis and prognostication of plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD) is challenging. We studied antigen expression in normal plasma cells (NPC) (N = 34) and APC in a series of unselected PCD (N = 59). NPC subpopulations often demonstrated CD19(-), CD20(+), CD45(-) or dim and CD56(+), an immunophenotype observed in PCD. However abnormal CD81 was only observed in APCs (APC detection sensitivity 95%; specificity 100%). We evaluated differences in antigen expression patterns among MGUS (N = 14), SMM (N = 35) and MM (N = 10), finding the combination of CD45 and CD56 helpful in differentiating MGUS from SMM and MM (p = 0.0002).

He X, Wang Y, Zhang W, et al.
Screening differential expression of serum proteins in AFP-negative HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma using iTRAQ -MALDI-MS/MS.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(1):17-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is serious condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Therefore is an urgent need to develop novel noninvasive techniques for early diagnosis, particularly for patients with AFP-negative [AFP(-)] HCC. In this study, iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC compared with non-cancerous hepatitis B virus (HBV) and healthy controls subjects.Serum was obtained from 18 patients with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC, 18 matched patients with HBV without HCC and 18 healthy control subjects. High abundance proteins were removed from serum and the differentially expressed proteins from the three groups were screened out using iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology (GO) function and the interaction networks of differentially expressed proteins were then analyzed. A total of 24 expressed differential proteins associated with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC were screened out, 15 proteins were up-regulated and 9 down-regulated. The most common molecular function of the 24 differentially expressed proteins was enzyme inhibition. Interaction network of the 24 differentially expressed proteins showed that 14 proteins (C5, KNG1, FN1, LRG1, HRG, SERPINC1, CRP, APOB, SAA1, APCS, C4BPA, CFI, CFB and GSN) were central to the functional network. The expression levels of the GSN protein were down-regulated in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC subjects compared with healthy controls and the HBV group (p<0.01), consistent with the iTRAQ results.The 14 proteins from the serum of AFP(-) HBV-related HCC appeared at the fulcrum of the functional network and were differentially expressed compare to HBV and healthy controls suggesting a possible association with HCC progression.

Bolhassani A, Javanzad S, Saleh T, et al.
Polymeric nanoparticles: potent vectors for vaccine delivery targeting cancer and infectious diseases.
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014; 10(2):321-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
Nanocarriers with various compositions and biological properties have been extensively applied for in vitro/in vivo drug and gene delivery. The family of nanocarriers includes polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers (liposomes/micelles), dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and gold nanoparticles (nanoshells/nanocages). Among different delivery systems, polymeric carriers have several properties such as: easy to synthesize, inexpensive, biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, non-toxic, and water soluble. In addition, cationic polymers seem to produce more stable complexes led to a more protection during cellular trafficking than cationic lipids. Nanoparticles often show significant adjuvant effects in vaccine delivery since they may be easily taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Natural polymers such as polysaccharides and synthetic polymers have demonstrated great potential to form vaccine nanoparticles. The development of new adjuvants or delivery systems for DNA and protein immunization is an expanding research field. This review describes polymeric carriers especially PLGA, chitosan, and PEI as vaccine delivery systems.

Ahn JM, Sung HJ, Yoon YH, et al.
Integrated glycoproteomics demonstrates fucosylated serum paraoxonase 1 alterations in small cell lung cancer.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014; 13(1):30-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive type of lung cancer, and the detection of SCLCs at an early stage is necessary for successful therapy and for improving cancer survival rates. Fucosylation is one of the most common glycosylation-based modifications. Increased levels of fucosylation have been reported in a number of pathological conditions, including cancers. In this study, we aimed to identify and validate the aberrant and selective fucosylated glycoproteins in the sera of patients with SCLC. Fucosylated glycoproteins were enriched by the Aleuria aurantia lectin column after serum albumin and IgG depletion. In a narrowed down and comparative data analysis of both label-free proteomics and isobaric peptide-tagging chemistry iTRAQ approaches, the fucosylated glycoproteins were identified as up- or down-regulated in the sera of limited disease and extensive disease stage patients with SCLC. Verification was performed by multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry to select reliable markers. Four fucosylated proteins, APCS, C9, SERPINA4, and PON1, were selected and subsequently validated by hybrid A. aurantia lectin ELISA (HLE) and Western blotting. Compared with Western blotting, the HLE analysis of these four proteins produced more optimal diagnostic values for SCLC. The PON1 protein levels were significantly reduced in the sera of patients with SCLC, whereas the fucosylation levels of PON1 were significantly increased. Fucosylated PON1 exhibited an area under curve of 0.91 for the extensive disease stage by HLE, whereas the PON1 protein levels produced an area under curve of 0.82 by Western blot. The glycan structural analysis of PON1 by MS/MS identified a biantennary fucosylated glycan modification consisting of a core + 2HexNAc + 1Fuc at increased levels in the sera of patients with SCLC. In addition, the PON1 levels were decreased in the sera of the Lewis lung carcinoma lung cancer mouse model that we examined. Our data suggest that fucosylated protein biomarkers, such as PON1, and their fucosylation levels and patterns can serve as diagnostic and prognostic serological markers for SCLC.

Wang L, Wang G, Yang D, et al.
Euphol arrests breast cancer cells at the G1 phase through the modulation of cyclin D1, p21 and p27 expression.
Mol Med Rep. 2013; 8(4):1279-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Euphorbia tirucalli is a long‑established treatment for a wide variety of cancers. However, the mechanism of its anticancer effect is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the anticancer effect of euphol, a tetracyclic triterpene alcohol isolated from the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli, in T47D human breast cancer cells. Following the treatment of cells with different doses of euphol for 24, 48 and 72 h, the cell proliferation, cell cycle, and mRNA and protein levels of cell cycle regulatory molecules were analyzed, respectively. Treatment of the cells with euphol resulted in decreased cell viability, which was accompanied by an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase. Further studies demonstrated that euphol treatment downregulated cyclin D1 expression and the hypophosphorylation of Rb. Furthermore, this effect was correlated with the downregulation of cyclin‑dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) expression and the upregulation of the CDK inhibitors p21 and p27. Reduced expression levels of cyclin A and B1 were also observed, corresponding to the decreased distribution of cells in the S and G2/M phases, respectively. These findings indicated that euphol is an active agent in Euphorbia tirucalli that exerts anticancer activity by arresting the cell cycle of cancer cells.

Lu H, Wang D, Kazane S, et al.
Site-specific antibody-polymer conjugates for siRNA delivery.
J Am Chem Soc. 2013; 135(37):13885-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
We describe here the development of site-specific antibody-polymer conjugates (APCs) for the selective delivery of small interference RNAs (siRNAs) to target cells. APCs were synthesized in good yields by conjugating an aminooxy-derivatized cationic block copolymer to an anti-HER2 Fab or full-length IgG by means of genetically encoded p-acetyl phenylalanine (pAcF). The APCs all showed binding affinity comparable to that of HER2 as their native counterparts and no significant cellular cytotoxicity. Mutant S202-pAcF Fab and Q389-pAcF IgG polymer conjugates specifically delivered siRNAs to HER2(+) cells and mediated potent gene silencing at both the mRNA and protein levels. However, a mutant A121-pAcF IgG polymer conjugate, despite its high binding affinity to HER2 antigen, did not induce a significant RNA interference response in HER2(+) cells, presumably due to steric interference with antigen binding and internalization. These results highlight the importance of conjugation site on the activity of antibody-polymer-based therapeutics and suggest that such chemically defined APCs may afford a useful targeted delivery platform for siRNAs or other nucleic acid-based therapies.

Hyun TK, Kim MO, Lee H, et al.
Evaluation of anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties of Dendropanax morbifera Léveille.
Food Chem. 2013; 141(3):1947-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dendropanax morbifera Léveille, an endemic species in Korea, is best known as a tree that produces a resinous sap. Although D. morbifera is used in folk medicine, its biological activities are poorly understood. In this study, the methanolic extracts of D. morbifera branches, debarked stems, bark, and two different stages of leaves were evaluated for anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer potential. The debarked stem extract exhibited strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and reducing power compared with other samples. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of these extracts were investigated in human tumour cell lines. The results suggested that the extracts of debarked stems, green leaves, and yellow leaves were the potent source of anti-cancer compounds, particularly in Huh-7 cells. Furthermore, treatment with the extracts of debarked stems, green leaves, and yellow leaves caused an increase of apoptotic or senescent cells in Huh-7 cells. Twenty-four hour treatment with debarked stems extract resulted in the strong induction of p53 and p16, whereas both leaf extracts inhibited the activation of ERK. The debarked stems and green leaf extracts reduced Akt levels in Huh-7 cells, indicating that D. morbifera extracts caused the activation of p16 and p53 pathways. This, together with the inhibition of Akt or ERK signalling, resulted in suppression of Huh-7 cell proliferation. These results suggest that methanolic leaf and debarked stems extracts are a source of anti-oxidant and anti-cancer compounds, and could be developed as a botanical drug.

Veillette A, Guo H
CS1, a SLAM family receptor involved in immune regulation, is a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2013; 88(1):168-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family receptors have been implicated in normal immunity, immunodeficiencies and autoimmunity. CS1 (also known as CRACC, CD319 and SLAMF7) is a member of the SLAM family expressed on several normal hematopoietic cell types. It is also highly and nearly universally expressed on multiple myeloma (MM) cells. This review focuses on the biology of CS1, both in normal hematopoietic cells and in MM cells. It also discusses the preclinical and clinical data on the use of a humanized anti-CS1 monoclonal antibody, elotuzumab, for the treatment of MM. Based on current knowledge, CS1 is a compelling new target for the treatment of MM.

Zhao W, Yang Z, Liu X, et al.
Identification of α1-antitrypsin as a potential prognostic biomarker for advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer treated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors by proteomic analysis.
J Int Med Res. 2013; 41(3):573-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study attempted to identify serum biomarkers that could help to indicate treatment response in advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment.
METHODS: Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to identify proteins expressed in serum samples from NSCLC patients with long (>6-month) progression-free survival (PFS) periods, following EGFR-TKI treatment.
RESULTS: Serum amyloid P component (APCS), α1-antitrypsin (AAT), fibrinogen-α (FGA), keratin type I cytoskeletal 10 (KRT10) and serotransferrin (TF) expression differed between samples taken from 18 patients before treatment (baseline) and when progressive disease (PD) was observed, during treatment. Changes in AAT, KRT10 and APCS levels were validated by Western blot analysis in the sample pool; findings were further validated by Western blot analysis in a random sample of four patients. These proteins were also present in serum samples obtained from the same patients at the partial response (PR) timepoint during EGFR-TKI treatment. AAT was upregulated at PD compared with baseline, but downregulated during the PR phase.
CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that AAT could be used as a serological biomarker for predicting the utility of EGFR-TKI treatment for advanced NSCLC.

Das R, Bassiri H, Guan P, et al.
The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation.
Blood. 2013; 121(17):3386-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells. The strict developmental requirement for SAP has made it difficult to discern its possible involvement in mature iNKT cell functions. By using temporal Cre recombinase-mediated gene deletion to ablate SAP expression after completion of iNKT cell development, we demonstrate that SAP is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced iNKT cell cytotoxicity against T-cell and B-cell leukemia targets in vitro and iNKT-cell-mediated control of T-cell leukemia growth in vivo. These findings are not restricted to the murine system: silencing RNA-mediated suppression of SAP expression in human iNKT cells also significantly impairs TCR-induced cytolysis. Mechanistic studies reveal that iNKT cell killing requires the tyrosine kinase Fyn, a known SAP-binding protein. Furthermore, SAP expression is required within iNKT cells to facilitate their interaction with T-cell targets and induce reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center to the immunologic synapse (IS). Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.

Casucci M, Perna SK, Falcone L, et al.
Graft-versus-leukemia effect of HLA-haploidentical central-memory T-cells expanded with leukemic APCs and modified with a suicide gene.
Mol Ther. 2013; 21(2):466-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical family donor (haplo-HSCT) is a readily available and potentially curative option for high-risk leukemia. In haplo-HSCT, alloreactivity plays a major role in the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect, which, however, is frequently followed by relapse due to emerging leukemic cell variants that have lost the unshared HLA haplotype as a mechanism of immune escape. We report that stimulation of HLA-haploidentical donor T lymphocytes with leukemic antigen-presenting cells (L-APCs) expands a population of leukemia-reactive T cells, which, besides alloreactivity to unshared HLAs, contain leukemia-associated specificities restricted by shared HLAs. According to a preferential central-memory (T(CM)) phenotype and to high interleukin (IL)-7Rα expression, these T cells persist in vivo and sustain a major GVL effect in a clinically relevant xenograft model. Moreover, we demonstrate that modifying L-APC-expanded T cells to express the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) suicide gene enables their elimination with the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV), therefore providing a safety switch in case of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). These results warrant the clinical investigation of L-APC-expanded T cells modified with a suicide gene in the setting of haplo-HSCT.

Xue G, Cheng Y, Ran F, et al.
SLC gene-modified dendritic cells mediate T cell-dependent anti-gastric cancer immune responses in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(2):595-604 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the ability to prime naïve T cells, and play an important role in the initiation and regulation of immune responses. In this study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus carrying the SLC gene (Ad-SLC), and detected the biological effects of Ad-SLC-modified DCs as an adjuvant for the initiation of gastric cancer immune responses. Human DCs were transfected with Ad-SLC and the recombinant adenovirus carrying the β-galactosidase gene, Ad-LacZ, respectively. Modified DCs were pulsed with the cell lysate antigen of SGC-7901 cells (a type of gastric cancer cell line) and co-cultured with autologous T cells. The T cells were harvested and incubated with SGC-7901 cells and the cytotoxic function of the T cells was detected. Based on the data, the expression of mature DC phenotypes CD83 and CCR7 was upregulated after transfection with Ad-SLC and the chemotaxis function of DCs was augmented after transfection with Ad-SLC. Moreover, the expression of RANTES in DCs was upregulated by Ad-SLC transfection, while expression levels of IL-12p70 and IL-10 were not significantly altered. When co-cultured with autologous T cells, DCs modified with the SLC gene and pulsed with SGC-7901 cell lysates significantly promoted the proliferation of autologous T cells and induced Th1 differentiation, and displayed a strong cytotoxicity to SGC-7901 cells. In conclusion, Ad-SLC promoted DC maturation, enhancing the ability of DCs for T-cell chemotaxis and T-cell stimulation, and induced specific anti-gastric cancer cellular immunity. Recombinant Ad-SLC-modified DCs may be used as an adjuvant to induce an effective anti-gastric cancer immune response.

González-Sarrías A, Ma H, Edmonds ME, Seeram NP
Maple polyphenols, ginnalins A-C, induce S- and G2/M-cell cycle arrest in colon and breast cancer cells mediated by decreasing cyclins A and D1 levels.
Food Chem. 2013; 136(2):636-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in plant foods. Ginnalins A-C are polyphenols present in the sap and other parts of the sugar and red maple species which are used to produce maple syrup. Here we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of ginnalins A-C on colon (HCT-116) and breast (MCF-7) tumourigenic and non-tumourigenic colon (CCD-18Co) cells and investigated whether these effects were mediated through cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Ginnalins A-C were twofold more effective against the tumourigenic than non-tumourigenic cells. Among the polyphenols, ginnalin A (84%, HCT-116; 49%, MCF-7) was more effective than ginnalins B and C (50%, HCT-116; 30%, MCF-7) at 50 μM concentrations. Ginnalin A did not induce apoptosis of the cancer cells but arrested cell cycle (in the S- and G(2)/M-phases) and decreased cyclins A and D1 protein levels. These results suggest that maple polyphenols may have potential cancer chemopreventive effects mediated through cell cycle arrest.

Vlad G, Suciu-Foca N
Induction of antigen-specific human T suppressor cells by membrane and soluble ILT3.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2012; 93(3):294-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
Antigen-specific CD8 suppressor T cells (CD8(+) Ts) are adaptive regulatory T cells that are induced in vivo and in vitro by chronic antigenic stimulation of human T cells. CD8(+) Ts induce the upregulation of the inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4 on monocytes and dendritic cells rendering these antigen presenting cells (APCs) tolerogenic. Tolerogenic APCs induce CD4(+) T helper anergy and elicit the differentiation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T regulatory/suppressor cells. Overexpression of membrane ILT3 in APC results in inhibition of NF-κB activation, transcription of inflammatory cytokines and costimulatory molecules. Soluble ILT3-Fc which contains only the extracellular, Ig-like domain linked to mutated IgG1 Fc, is strongly immunosuppressive. ILT3-Fc, induces the differentiation of human CD8(+) Ts which inhibit CD4(+) Th and CD8(+) CTL effector function both in vitro and in vivo. The acquisition of Ts' function by primed CD8(+) T cells treated with ILT3-Fc was demonstrated to be the effect of the significant upregulation of BCL6, a transcriptional repressor of IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-5 and granzyme B. The upregulated expression of BCL6, SOCS1 and DUSP10 is integral to the signature of ILT3-Fc-induced CD8(+) Ts. These genes are known inhibitors of cytokine production and TCR signaling and are targeted by miRNAs which are suppressed by ILT3-Fc. ILT3-Fc induces tolerance to allogeneic human islets and reverses rejection after its onset in a humanized NOD/SCID mouse model. Based on these findings we postulate that ILT3-Fc may become an important new agent for treatment of autoimmunity and transplant rejection.

Doubrovina E, Carpenter T, Pankov D, et al.
Mapping of novel peptides of WT-1 and presenting HLA alleles that induce epitope-specific HLA-restricted T cells with cytotoxic activity against WT-1(+) leukemias.
Blood. 2012; 120(8):1633-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
The Wilms tumor protein (WT-1) is widely recognized as a tumor antigen that is expressed differentially by several malignancies. However, WT-1 peptides known to induce tumoricidal T cells are few. In the present study, we evaluated T-cell responses of 56 healthy donors to in vitro sensitization with autologous APCs loaded with a pool of overlapping 15-mer peptides spanning the sequence of WT-1. Thereafter, we mapped the WT-1 peptides eliciting responses in each individual, defined the immunogenic peptides, and identified their presenting HLA alleles. We report 41 previously unreported epitopes of WT-1: 5 presented by class II and 36 by class I alleles, including 10 that could be presented by more than 1 class I allele. IFNγ(+) T cells responding to 98% of the class I and 60% of the class II epitopes exhibited HLA-restricted cytotoxicity against peptide-loaded targets. T cells specific for 36 WT-1 peptides were evaluable for leukemocidal activity, of which 27 (75%) lysed WT-1(+) leukemic targets sharing their restricting HLA allele. Each epitope identified induced T-cell responses in most donors sharing the epitopes' presenting allele; these responses often exceeded responses to flanking peptides predicted to be more immunogenic. This series of immunogenic epitopes of WT-1 should prove useful for immunotherapies targeting WT-1(+) malignancies.

Roberts DM, Pronobis MI, Poulton JS, et al.
Regulation of Wnt signaling by the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli does not require the ability to enter the nucleus or a particular cytoplasmic localization.
Mol Biol Cell. 2012; 23(11):2041-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
Wnt signaling plays key roles in development and disease. The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is an essential negative regulator of Wnt signaling. Its best-characterized role is as part of the destruction complex, targeting the Wnt effector β-catenin (βcat) for phosphorylation and ultimate destruction, but several studies suggested APC also may act in the nucleus at promoters of Wnt-responsive genes or to shuttle βcat out for destruction. Even in its role in the destruction complex, APC's mechanism of action remains mysterious. We have suggested APC positions the destruction complex at the appropriate subcellular location, facilitating βcat destruction. In this study, we directly tested APC's proposed roles in the nucleus or in precisely localizing the destruction complex by generating a series of APC2 variants to which we added tags relocalizing otherwise wild-type APC to different cytoplasmic locations. We tested these for function in human colon cancer cells and Drosophila embryos. Strikingly, all rescue Wnt regulation and down-regulate Wnt target genes in colon cancer cells, and most restore Wnt regulation in Drosophila embryos null for both fly APCs. These data suggest that APC2 does not have to shuttle into the nucleus or localize to a particular subcellular location to regulate Wnt signaling.

Chandra SH, Wacker I, Appelt UK, et al.
A common role for various human truncated adenomatous polyposis coli isoforms in the control of beta-catenin activity and cell proliferation.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e34479 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
The tumour suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is mutated in most colorectal cancer cases, leading to the synthesis of truncated APC products and the stabilization of β-catenin. Truncated APC is almost always retained in tumour cells, suggesting that it serves an essential function. Here, RNA interference has been used to down-regulate truncated APC in several colorectal cancer cell lines expressing truncated APCs of different lengths, thereby performing an analysis covering most of the mutation cluster region (MCR). The consequences on proliferation in vitro, tumour formation in vivo and the level and transcriptional activity of β-catenin have been investigated. Down-regulation of truncated APC results in an inhibition of tumour cell population expansion in vitro in 6 cell lines out of 6 and inhibition of tumour outgrowth in vivo as analysed in one of these cell lines, HT29. This provides a general rule explaining the retention of truncated APC in colorectal tumours and defines it as a suitable target for therapeutic intervention. Actually, we also show that it is possible to design a shRNA that targets a specific truncated isoform of APC without altering the expression of wild-type APC. Down-regulation of truncated APC is accompanied by an up-regulation of the transcriptional activity of β-catenin in 5 out of 6 cell lines. Surprisingly, the increased signalling is associated in most cases (4 out of 5) with an up-regulation of β-catenin levels, indicating that truncated APC can still modulate wnt signalling through controlling the level of β-catenin. This control can happen even when truncated APC lacks the β-catenin inhibiting domain (CiD) involved in targeting β-catenin for proteasomal degradation. Thus, truncated APC is an essential component of colorectal cancer cells, required for cell proliferation, possibly by adjusting β-catenin signalling to the "just right" level.

Li H, Wu K, Tao K, et al.
Tim-3/galectin-9 signaling pathway mediates T-cell dysfunction and predicts poor prognosis in patients with hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2012; 56(4):1342-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The interaction between T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule (Tim-3) expressed on T helper 1 (Th1) cells, and its ligand, galectin-9, negatively regulates Th1-mediated immune responses. However, it is poorly understood if and how the Tim-3/galectin-9 signaling pathway is involved in immune escape in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we studied the expression, function, and regulation of the Tim-3/galectin-9 pathway in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated HCC. We detected different levels of galectin-9 expression on antigen-presenting cell (APC) subsets including Kupffer cells (KCs), myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), and plasmacytoid DCs in HCC. The highest galectin-9 expression was on KCs in HCC islets, not in the adjacent tissues. Furthermore, Tim-3 expression was increased on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in HCC as compared to the adjacent tissues, and Tim-3(+) T cells were replicative senescent and expressed surface and genetic markers for senescence. Interestingly, tumor-infiltrating T-cell-derived interferon (IFN)-γ stimulated the expression of galectin-9 on APCs in the HCC microenvironment. Immunofluorescence staining revealed a colocalization of Tim-3(+) T cells and galectin-9(+) KCs in HCC. Functional studies demonstrated that blockade of the Tim-3/galectin-9 signaling pathway importantly increased the functionality of tumor-infiltrating Tim-3(+) T cells as shown by increased T-cell proliferation and effector cytokine production. Finally, we show that the numbers of Tim-3(+) tumor-infiltrating cells were negatively associated with patient survival.
CONCLUSION: Our work demonstrates that the Tim-3/galectin-9 signaling pathway mediates T-cell senescence in HBV-associated HCC. The data suggest that this pathway could be an immunotherapeutic target in patients with HBV-associated HCC.

Xie XH, Gao MH, Zhang B, et al.
Post-transcriptional CD59 gene silencing by siRNAs induces enhanced human T lymphocyte response to tumor cell lysate-loaded DCs.
Cell Immunol. 2012; 274(1-2):1-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD59 is a complement regulatory protein known to prevent the membrane attack complex (MAC) from assembling. To investigate the role of CD59 molecules in human T cell activation in response to exogenous antigens, gene silencing via small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) was carried out. Subsequent T cell activation in response to both autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumor lysate and beads coated with anti-CD3, anti-CD28 and anti-CD59 antibodies was investigated. The findings demonstrated that decreased CD59 expression on T cells significantly enhanced activation and proliferation of CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells while the expansion of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was not affected, and CD59 mediated inhibition of T cell activation requires the binding of CD59 with its ligand on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The data support that CD59 down-regulates antigen-specific activation of human T lymphocytes in a ligand-dependent manner.

Cedeno-Laurent F, Opperman M, Barthel SR, et al.
Galectin-1 triggers an immunoregulatory signature in Th cells functionally defined by IL-10 expression.
J Immunol. 2012; 188(7):3127-37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a β-galactoside-binding protein, can alter fate and effector function of Th cells; however, little is known about how Gal-1 induces Th cell differentiation. In this article, we show that both uncommitted and polarized Th cells bound by Gal-1 expressed an immunoregulatory signature defined by IL-10. IL-10 synthesis was stimulated by direct Gal-1 engagement to cell surface glycoproteins, principally CD45, on activated Th cells and enhanced by IL-21 expression through the c-Maf/aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway, independent of APCs. Gal-1-induced IL-10(+) T cells efficiently suppressed T cell proliferation and T cell-mediated inflammation and promoted the establishment of cancer immune-privileged sites. Collectively, these findings show how Gal-1 functions as a major glycome determinant regulating Th cell development, inflammation, and tumor immunity.

Rehani S, Rao NN, Rao A, et al.
Spectrophotometric analysis of the expression of secreted aspartyl proteinases from Candida in leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J Oral Sci. 2011; 53(4):421-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Candida species are a normal commensal of the oral cavity in healthy individuals, but can become an opportunistic pathogen when the oral ecosystem is unbalanced. Several virulence attributes have been identified in candidal infection, among which are the hydrolases, including the secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps). This study evaluated and compared the in vitro level of Saps from Candida albicans in nonsmokers, smokers, and patients with leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Candida cell count (CCC) at 48 h was also assessed. The Sap level was measured by spectrophotometry in 38 clinical isolates of C. albicans obtained from the oral cavity of the four different groups. Culturing was done in yeast carbon base-bovine serum albumin. Speciation of Candida was performed by using a Candida identification kit, and CCC was measured by hemocytometer. Sap levels and CCC were higher in individuals with leukoplakia and OSCC than in nonsmokers or smokers (P = 0.001); however, there was no significant difference in Sap levels or CCC between smokers and nonsmokers (P = 0.529). Further, an intragroup correlation between CCC and Sap level was also observed. The higher level of Saps from C. albicans in individuals with leukoplakia and OSCC suggests that this pathogen plays a role in disease development and could aid in identifying the pathogenic commensal.

Palendira U, Low C, Chan A, et al.
Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.
PLoS Biol. 2011; 9(11):e1001187 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+) and SAP(-) cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+) T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+) and SAP(-) populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+). The preferential recruitment of SAP(+) cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+) T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(-) clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(-) CD8(+) T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

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