Gene Summary

Gene:ANXA8; annexin A8
Aliases: ANX8, CH17-360D5.2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the annexin family of evolutionarily conserved Ca2+ and phospholipid binding proteins. The encoded protein may function as an an anticoagulant that indirectly inhibits the thromboplastin-specific complex. Overexpression of this gene has been associated with acute myelocytic leukemia. A highly similar duplicated copy of this gene is found in close proximity on the long arm of chromosome 10. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:annexin A8
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
ANXA8 is implicated in:
- blood coagulation
- calcium ion binding
- calcium-dependent phospholipid binding
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ANXA8 (cancer-related)

Mallawaaratchy DM, Buckland ME, McDonald KL, et al.
Membrane proteome analysis of glioblastoma cell invasion.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2015; 74(5):425-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor invasion is facilitated by cell migration and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Invadopodia are actin-rich structures that protrude from the plasma membrane in direct contact with the extracellular matrix and are proposed to participate in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We characterized the invasiveness of 9 established GBM cell lines using an invadopodia assay and performed quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses on enriched membrane fractions. All GBM cells produced invadopodia, with a 65% difference between the most invasive cell line (U87MG) and the least invasive cell line (LN229) (p = 0.0001). Overall, 1,141 proteins were identified in the GBM membrane proteome; the levels of 49 proteins correlated with cell invasiveness. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted activation "cell movement" (z-score = 2.608, p = 3.94E(-04)) in more invasive cells and generated a network of invasion-associated proteins with direct links to key regulators of invadopodia formation. Gene expression data relating to the invasion-associated proteins ITGA5 (integrin α5), CD97, and ANXA1 (annexin A1) showed prognostic significance in independent GBM cohorts. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated ITGA5, CD97, and ANXA1 localization in invadopodia assays, and small interfering RNA knockdown of ITGA5 reduced invadopodia formation in U87MG cells. Thus, invasion-associated proteins, including ITGA5, may prove to be useful anti-invasive targets; volociximab, a therapeutic antibody against integrin α5β1, may be useful for treatment of patients with GBM.

Wu PC, Lu JW, Yang JY, et al.
H3K9 histone methyltransferase, KMT1E/SETDB1, cooperates with the SMAD2/3 pathway to suppress lung cancer metastasis.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(24):7333-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant histone methylation is a frequent event during tumor development and progression. KMT1E (also known as SETDB1) is a histone H3K9 methyltransferase that contributes to epigenetic silencing of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells. In this report, we demonstrate that KMT1E acts as a metastasis suppressor that is strongly downregulated in highly metastatic lung cancer cells. Restoring KMT1E expression in this setting suppressed filopodia formation, migration, and invasive behavior. Conversely, loss of KMT1E in lung cancer cells with limited metastatic potential promoted migration in vitro and restored metastatic prowess in vivo. Mechanistic investigations indicated that KMT1E cooperates with the TGFβ-regulated complex SMAD2/3 to repress metastasis through ANXA2. Together, our findings defined an essential role for the KMT1E/SMAD2/3 repressor complex in TGFβ-mediated lung cancer metastasis.

Quabius ES, Görögh T, Fischer GS, et al.
The antileukoprotease secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and its role in the prevention of HPV-infections in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 357(1):339-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between HPV-infection and SLPI-expression suggesting that SLPI protects against HPV-infection of HNSCC. Here we analyzed in a single lab setting 307 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded HNSCC cases (tonsillar n = 135; non-tonsillar: n = 172) from eight health care centers. Samples were analyzed for SLPI gene- and protein-expression. Annexin A2, its heterotetramer A2t, putatively facilitating HPV- and SLPI-cell entry, was measured to study the correlation between SLPI and annexin A2. Data were correlated with tobacco consumption and HPV-status. Overall, HPV-DNA prevalence was 23.5% (72/307); attributed to: 43.7% (59/135) tonsillar and 7.6% (13/172) non-tonsillar cases. Smoking resulted in 6.44-fold increased and HPV-infection in 3.46-fold decreased SLPI-gene expression in all HNSCC with similar significant results obtained in tonsillar and non-tonsillar SCC separately. Correlating annexin A2- and SLPI-gene expression showed a significant surplus of annexin A2 in HPV-positive tumors (4.21× more annexin A2) and 6.72× more annexin A2 than SLPI in nonsmokers in all HNSCCs and similar significant results for both tumor entities separately. The surplus of annexin A2 in non-smokers and HPV-positive patients supports our hypothesis that decreased SLPI levels facilitate HPV-infection i.e., increased SLPI-expression may protect against HPV-infection of tonsillar and non-tonsillar SCC.

Zhuang H, Tan M, Liu J, et al.
The expression of annexin II and Lewis y antigen in ovarian epithelial tumors and the correlation between them.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2343-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The main aim of this study was to explore the molecular structural relationship between annexin II (ANXA2) and Lewis y antigen by determining their expression patterns and clinical significance in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. The structural relationship between ANXA2 and Lewis y antigen was examined using immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy in two ovarian caner cell lines ES-2 and CaoV-3. We also constracted the stably transfected cell lines with low ANXA2 gene expression in order to detect the expression level between ANXA2 and Lewis y. ANXA2 and Lewis y were detected in tissues from malignant, borderline, benign, and normal ovarian tissues using immunohistochemical analysis. ANXA2 and Lewis y were present in both two ovarian cancer cells and ANXA2 contained Lewis y antigen. Moreover, expression of Lewis y antigen in ANXA2 from cell after transfection was higher than that before. Our immunohistochemistry data revealed significantly higher positive expression rates of ANXA2 in malignant ovarian tissues, compared to benign tumor and normal tissue, similar to Lewis y antigen levels in ovarian cancer. Notably, tissues displaying marked expression of ANXA2 simultaneously expressed high levels of Lewis y antigen. A linear correlation between the expression patterns of ANXA2 and Lewis y antigen was evident. Consistently, double-labeling immunofluorescence experiments illustrated co-localization of ANXA2 and Lewis y antigen within the same area. In conclusions, ANXA2 contains Lewis y antigen. Our results further demonstrate a close correlation between the expression levels of the two antigens, which are significantly high in ovarian cancer.

Didiasova M, Wujak L, Wygrecka M, Zakrzewicz D
From plasminogen to plasmin: role of plasminogen receptors in human cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(11):21229-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell surface-associated proteolysis mediated by plasmin (PLA) is an essential feature of wound healing, angiogenesis and cell invasion, processes that are dysregulated in cancer development, progression and systemic spread. The generation of PLA, initiated by the binding of its precursor plasminogen (PLG) to the cell surface, is regulated by an array of activators, inhibitors and receptors. In this review, we will highlight the importance of the best-characterized components of the PLG/PLA cascade in the pathogenesis of cancer focusing on the role of the cell surface-PLG receptors (PLG-R). PLG-R overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis of cancer patients and resistance to chemotherapy. We will also discuss recent findings on the molecular mechanisms regulating cell surface expression and distribution of PLG-R.

Zhuang H, Tan M, Liu J, et al.
Human epididymis protein 4 in association with Annexin II promotes invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:243 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The objective of the present study was to identify human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) interacting proteins and explore the mechanisms underlying their effect on ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
METHODS: HE4 interacting proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and validated by co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. The scratch test, the Transwell assay and animal experiments were used to assess the invasive and metastatic abilities of ovarian cancer cells before and after transfection and HE4 protein treatment. HE4 and annexin II protein expression in epithelial ovarian tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the relation between their expression levels was examined.
RESULTS: Annexin II was identified as an HE4 interacting protein. HE4 and annexin II binding interaction promoted ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis. HE4 and annexin II expression levels were significantly higher in malignant epithelial ovarian tissues than in benign and normal epithelial ovarian tissues, and they were higher in tissues with lymph node metastases than in those without. HE4 gene interference downregulated the expression of MAPK and the FOCAL adhesion signaling pathway-associated molecules MKNK2 and LAMB2, and HE4 protein supplementation reversed this effect.
CONCLUSION: The binding interaction between HE4 and annexin II activates the MAPK and FOCAL adhesion signaling pathways, promoting ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

Maeda M, Chen Y, Hayashi H, et al.
Chronic exposure to asbestos enhances TGF-β1 production in the human adult T cell leukemia virus-immortalized T cell line MT-2.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(6):2522-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Asbestos exposure causes various tumors such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. To elucidate the immunological alteration in asbestos-related tumors, an asbestos-induced apoptosis-resistant subline (MT-2Rst) was established from a human adult T cell leukemia virus-immortalized T cell line (MT-2Org) by long-term exposure to asbestos chrysotile-B (CB). In this study, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) knockdown using lentiviral vector-mediated RNA interference showed that MT-2Rst cells secreted increased levels of TGF-β1, and acquired resistance to TGF-β1-mediated growth inhibition. We showed that exposure of MT-2Org cells to CB activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), ERK1/2, p38 and JNK1. Furthermore, TGF-β1-knockdown cells and treatment with MAPK inhibitors revealed that MT-2Rst cells secreted a high level of TGF-β1 mainly through phosphorylation of p38. However, an Annexin V assay indicated that TGF-β1 resistance in MT-2Rst cells was not directly involved in the acquisition of resistance to apoptosis that is triggered by CB exposure. The overall results demonstrate that long-term exposure of MT-2Org cells to CB induces a regulatory T cell-like phenotype, suggesting that chronic exposure to asbestos leads to a state of immune suppression.

Cai ZK, Chen Q, Chen YB, et al.
microRNA-155 promotes the proliferation of prostate cancer cells by targeting annexin 7.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(1):533-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Micro (mi)RNAs are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules that have been demonstrated to regulate the expression of genes involved in tumorigenesis. The relevance of microRNAs in the development, progression and prognosis of prostate cancer is not fully understood. miR-155 has been implicated in the induction of breast, lung and liver cancer, but its role in prostate cancer has not been investigated. In the present study, the biological function of miR-155 was investigated in prostate cancer for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. It was demonstrated that the expression of miR-155 was upregulated in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines as determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-155 promoted cell proliferation, as indicated by MTT assay. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that inhibition of miR-155 induced cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. In addition, western blot analysis indicated that annexin (ANX)7 was significantly downregulated in prostate cancer tissues and cells. A luciferase reporter assay indicated that ANX7 was a target of miR-155, which suggested that miRNA-155 promoted the proliferation of prostate cancer cells by regulating ANX7 expression levels.

Yu S, Meng Q, Hu H, Zhang M
Correlation of ANXA1 expression with drug resistance and relapse in bladder cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(9):5538-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of annexin a1 (ANXA1) in adriamycin-resistant human bladder cancer cell line (pumc-91/ADM) compared with the parental cell line (pumc-91) and its relevance to the drug resistance of bladder cancer, as well as explore the relevance of ANXA1 in recurrent bladder cancer tissues as pertinent to relapse.
METHODS: qRT-PCR and Western blot were implemented to research the level of ANXA1 in two cell lines (pumc-91/ADM and pumc-91). Immunohistochemistry was applied to explore ANXA1 expression in bladder cancer tissues of different intervals of relapse. The association of ANXA1 with clinicopathological parameters was analyzed.
RESULTS: The expression of ANXA1 was downregulated in drug-resistant cell line pumc-91/ADM compared to pumc-91. The bladder cancer tissues recurring two years later exhibited higher ANXA1 levels. ANXA1 expression level was positively correlated with T stage, while it was not connected with histological grade strongly. The expression level and influencing factors of ANXA1 in recurrent tissues of bladder cancer were clarified for the first time.
CONCLUSION: ANXA1 may become a promising marker to predict the recurrence and drug resistance of bladder cancer and provide guidance for surveillance.

Wang J, Zhang Y, Liu X, et al.
Annexin A5 inhibits diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell invasion and chemoresistance through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(6):2557-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma worldwide. Although patient outcomes have significantly improved to a greater than 40% cure rate by the combinatorial cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy, which is widely used, resistance to the CHOP regimen continues to pose a problem in managing or curing DLBCL. While it promotes the malignancy and chemo-resistance in certain types of cancer, Annexin A5 is negatively correlated with those in other cancers, including DLBCL. In the present study, we explored the effects of Annexin A5 on DLBCL cell invasion and chemoresistance to CHOP. Stable overexpression and knockdown of Annexin A5 were performed in Toledo and Pfeiffer human DLBCL cell lines. Overexpression of Annexin A5 in both cell lines significantly decreased cell invasion, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression/activity, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity/Akt phosphorylation, and cell survival against CHOP-induced apoptosis. On the other hand, knockdown of Annexin A5 markedly increased cell invasion, MMP-9 expression/activity, PI3K activity/Akt phosphorylation, and CHOP-induced apoptosis in the DLBCL cell lines, which was abolished by selective PI3K inhibitor BKM120. In conclusion, our study provides the first in vitro evidence that Annexin A5 inhibits DLBCL cell invasion, MMP-9 expression/activity, and chemoresistance to CHOP through a PI3K-dependent mechanism; it provides new insight not only into the biological function of Annexin A5, but also into the molecular mechanisms underlying DLBCL progression and chemoresistance.

Liu A, Huang W, Zeng G, et al.
Expression of the Annexin A1 gene is associated with suppression of growth, invasion and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(6):3059-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a highly increased incidence rate (20/100,000) in Southern regions of China, while being rare in the rest of the world. NPC is a malignant type of cancer due to its high occurrence rate of metastasis; however, biomarkers for effective diagnosis and treatment are yet to be identified. Annexin A1 is a glucocorticoid‑regulated member of a large superfamily of calcium and phospholipid‑binding proteins and has been shown to have important roles in tumor development and progression, and was demonstrated to be a prognostic biomarker for head and neck cancer types. A previous study by our group showed that Annexin A1 was decreased in NPC tissue as compared with normal adjacent tissue. To investigate whether Annexin A1 is a potential biomarker for NPC, the present study assessed the effect of the Annexin A1 on the biological behavior (i.e., invasion and metastasis) of the highly metastatic NPC cell line 5‑8F and the non‑metastatic NPC cell line 6‑10B. The expression levels of Annexin A1 in the above two cell lines were determined by western blot analysis. Next, the recombinant plasmid pEGFP‑C1‑Annexin A1 and the small interfering (si)RNA plasmid pRNAT‑U6.1‑Annexin A1 were used and stably transfected into 5‑8F and 6‑10B cells, respectively. These established recombinant cell lines were then used to study the up- and downregulation of Annexin A1, respectively. The correlation of Annexin A1 expression levels with the biological behavior of NPC cell lines was analyzed using a cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, soft agar colony formation assay, as well as Transwell invasion and migration assays. The results demonstrated that upregulation of Annexin A1 suppressed the proliferation, invasion and migration of NPC cells, while downregulation of Annexin A1 promoted the proliferation, invasion and migration of NPC cells. These findings suggested that Annexin A1 may be a potential biomarker for the development and prognosis of NPC, and its dysregulation may have an important role in its underlying pathogenesis.

Biaoxue R, Shuanying Y, Wei L, et al.
Co-overexpression of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 with a significantly positive correlation contributes to the diagnosis of lung cancer.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2014; 14(8):1067-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Hsp90-β and annexin A1 have been demonstrated to be associated with tumorigenesis. However, the effect of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 in lung cancer remains poorly understood. In this research, the correlation of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 in lung cancer patients were analyzed.
METHODS: The expression levels of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 were examined by immunohistochemistry and ELISA.
RESULTS: Lung cancer tissues and serum exhibited higher co-expression of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 than control groups (p < 0.05). Hsp90-β and annexin A1 could discriminate lung cancer from the control groups (sensitivity of Hsp90-β was 80.2% in tissues and 96% in serum; specificity of Hsp90-β was 80% in tissues and 83.33% in serum; sensitivity of annexin A1 was 68.76% in tissues and 95.23% in serum; specificity of annexin A1 was 75% in tissues and 85.7% in serum) and multi-index combined detection had a better diagnostic value.
CONCLUSION: The expression levels of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 positively correlated and such co-overexpression of Hsp90-β and annexin A1 contributed to lung cancer diagnosis.

Wu L, Yang L, Xiong Y, et al.
Annexin A5 promotes invasion and chemoresistance to temozolomide in glioblastoma multiforme cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):12327-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the prevalent and most fatal brain tumor in adults. Invasion and a high rate of recurrence largely contribute to the poor prognosis of GBM. The current standard therapy for GBM includes surgery with maximum feasible resection, radiotherapy, and treatment with chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. Annexin A5 reportedly promotes progression and chemoresistance in a variety of cancers. In the present study, we explored the effects of annexin A5 on GBM cell invasion and chemoresistance to temozolomide. Stable overexpression and knockdown of annexin A5 were performed in both U-87 MG and U-118 MG human GBM cell lines. Overexpression of annexin A5 in both cell lines significantly increased cell invasion, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression/activity, Akt phosphorylation at serine 473, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of temozolomide and markedly decreased temozolomide-induced apoptosis, all of which were abolished by selective PI3K inhibitor BKM120. On the other hand, knockdown of annexin A5 markedly decreased cell invasion, MMP-2 expression/activity, Akt phosphorylation at serine 473, and the IC50 values of temozolomide and significantly increased temozolomide-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence that annexin A5 promotes GBM cell invasion, MMP-2 expression/activity, and chemoresistance to temozolomide through a PI3K-dependent mechanism. It adds new insights not only into the biological function of annexin A5 but also into the molecular mechanisms underlying GBM progression and chemoresistance.

Hui KF, Leung YY, Yeung PL, et al.
Combination of SAHA and bortezomib up-regulates CDKN2A and CDKN1A and induces apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus-positive Wp-restricted Burkitt lymphoma and lymphoblastoid cell lines.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 167(5):639-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent proteins exert anti-apoptotic effects on EBV-transformed lymphoid cells by down-regulating BCL2L11 (BIM), CDKN2A (p16(INK4A) ) and CDKN1A (p21(WAF1) ). However, the potential therapeutic effects of targeting these anti-apoptotic mechanisms remain unexplored. Here, we tested both in vitro and in vivo effects of the combination of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and proteasome inhibitors on the apoptosis of six endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lines of different latency patterns (types I and III and Wp-restricted) and three lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). We found that the combination of HDAC and proteasome inhibitors (e.g. SAHA/bortezomib) synergistically induced the killing of Wp-restricted and latency III BL and LCLs but not latency I BL cells. The synergistic killing was due to apoptosis, as evidenced by the high percentage of annexin V positivity and strong cleavage of PARP1 (PARP) and CASP3 (caspase-3). Concomitantly, SAHA/bortezomib up-regulated the expression of CDKN2A and CDKN1A but did not affect the level of BCL2L11 or BHRF1 (viral homologue of BCL2). The apoptotic effects were dependent on reactive oxygen species generation. Furthermore, SAHA/bortezomib suppressed the growth of Wp-restricted BL xenografts in nude mice. This study provides the rationale to test the novel application of SAHA/bortezomib on the treatment of EBV-associated Wp-restricted BL and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

Zhang ZD, Li Y, Fan Q, et al.
Annexin A2 is implicated in multi-drug-resistance in gastric cancer through p38MAPK and AKT pathway.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(6):627-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies have shown that Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is related with tumor proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, invasion, migration, and drug resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role and its mechanisms of ANXA2 in multi-drug-resistance (MDR) in gastric cancer. ANXA2 expression in both gastric cancer tissues and cell lines were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. The cell proliferation was measured by SRB assay. The pool of siRNA against ANXA2 was designed and synthesized and then transfected into resistant gastric cancer SGC7901/DDP cells. ANXA2 expression was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Drug sensitivities of SGC7901/DDP cells to P-gp-related drug (doxorubicin) and P-gp-non-related drugs (5-FU and cisplatin) were measured by SRB assay. Expression of MDR-related genes and phosphorylation of AKT and MAPKs were also detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Results showed that ANXA2 expression was significantly higher in gastric specimens than that in normal tissues, and negatively correlated with the differentiation level of gastric cancer. In addition, ANXA2 expression level was higher in SGC7901/DDP cells than that in parent SGC7901 cells. After knock-down ANXA2 expression using ANXA2 small interfering RNA, the drug sensitivity of SGC7901/DDP cells to doxorubicin, 5-FU and DDP increased. Delivery of ANXA2 siRNA significantly downregulated the expression of P-gp, MRP1 and Bcl-2, while markedly upregulated Bax in SGC7901/DDP cells. However, several other MDR factors such as GST-π, TOPO-I and TOPO-II had no obvious changes. Additionally, phosphorylation of P38MAPK and AKT, but not ERK1/2 or JNKs was specifically decreased in SGC7901/DDP cells after ANXA2 siRNA delivery. Importantly, P38MAPK and AKT inhibitor increased the drug sensitivity of SGC701/DDP cells in a similar way as ANXA2 siRNAs does. ANXA2 is involved in gastric cancer MDR through regulating p38MAPK and AKT pathways as well as certain MDR factors.

Wiland HO, Shadrach B, Allende D, et al.
Morphologic and molecular characterization of traditional serrated adenomas of the distal colon and rectum.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(9):1290-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Of the serrated polyps, the origin, morphologic features, molecular alterations, and natural history of traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) are the least understood. Recent studies suggest that these polyps may arise from precursor lesions. The frequencies of KRAS and BRAF mutations vary between these studies, and only 1 small study has measured CpG island methylation using current markers of methylation. Mutations in GNAS, a gene commonly mutated in colorectal villous adenomas, have not been fully evaluated in TSAs. Finally, the expression of annexin A10 (ANXA10), a recently discovered marker of sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, has not been studied in these polyps. To further characterize these polyps, 5 gastrointestinal pathologists reviewed 55 left-sided polyps diagnosed as TSA at a single institution. Pathologists assessed various histologic features including cytoplasmic eosinophilia, ectopic crypt foci, presence of conventional dysplasia, and presence of precursor serrated lesions. KRAS, BRAF, and GNAS mutational analysis was performed, as well as CpG island methylation and ANXA10 immunohistochemistry. Ectopic crypt foci were seen in 62% of TSAs. Precursor lesions were seen in 24% of the study polyps, most of which were hyperplastic polyps. KRAS and BRAF mutations were common and were present in 42% and 48% of polyps, respectively. GNAS mutations occurred in 8% of polyps, often in conjunction with a BRAF mutation. Unlike sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, TSAs rarely had diffuse expression of ANXA10. Importantly, BRAF-mutated TSAs had more widespread methylation of a 5-marker CpG island panel compared with KRAS-mutated polyps. However, ectopic crypt foci, a proposed defining feature of TSA, were not associated with any specific molecular alteration.

Nikhil K, Sharan S, Singh AK, et al.
Anticancer activities of pterostilbene-isothiocyanate conjugate in breast cancer cells: involvement of PPARγ.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e104592 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxystilbene (PTER), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol, preferentially induces certain cancer cells to undergo apoptosis and could thus have a role in cancer chemoprevention. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-dependent transcription factor whose activation results in growth arrest and/or apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Here we investigated the potential of PTER-isothiocyanate (ITC) conjugate, a novel class of hybrid compound (PTER-ITC) synthesized by appending an ITC moiety to the PTER backbone, to induce apoptotic cell death in hormone-dependent (MCF-7) and -independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines and to elucidate PPARγ involvement in PTER-ITC action. Our results showed that when pre-treated with PPARγ antagonists or PPARγ siRNA, both breast cancer cell lines suppressed PTER-ITC-induced apoptosis, as determined by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and cleaved caspase-9 expression. Furthermore, PTER-ITC significantly increased PPARγ mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner and modulated expression of PPARγ-related genes in both breast cancer cell lines. This increase in PPARγ activity was prevented by a PPARγ-specific inhibitor, in support of our hypothesis that PTER-ITC can act as a PPARγ activator. PTER-ITC-mediated upregulation of PPARγ was counteracted by co-incubation with p38 MAPK or JNK inhibitors, suggesting involvement of these pathways in PTER-ITC action. Molecular docking analysis further suggested that PTER-ITC interacted with 5 polar and 8 non-polar residues within the PPARγ ligand-binding pocket, which are reported to be critical for its activity. Collectively, our observations suggest potential applications for PTER-ITC in breast cancer prevention and treatment through modulation of the PPARγ activation pathway.

Li LH, Wu P, Lee JY, et al.
Hinokitiol induces DNA damage and autophagy followed by cell cycle arrest and senescence in gefitinib-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e104203 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite good initial responses, drug resistance and disease recurrence remain major issues for lung adenocarcinoma patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations taking EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). To discover new strategies to overcome this issue, we investigated 40 essential oils from plants indigenous to Taiwan as alternative treatments for a wide range of illnesses. Here, we found that hinokitiol, a natural monoterpenoid from the heartwood of Calocedrus formosana, exhibited potent anticancer effects. In this study, we demonstrated that hinokitiol inhibited the proliferation and colony formation ability of lung adenocarcinoma cells as well as the EGFR-TKI-resistant lines PC9-IR and H1975. Transcriptomic analysis and pathway prediction algorithms indicated that the main implicated pathways included DNA damage, autophagy, and cell cycle. Further investigations confirmed that in lung cancer cells, hinokitiol inhibited cell proliferation by inducing the p53-independent DNA damage response, autophagy (not apoptosis), S-phase cell cycle arrest, and senescence. Furthermore, hinokitiol inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors in association with DNA damage and autophagy but exhibited fewer effects on lung stromal fibroblasts. In summary, we demonstrated novel mechanisms by which hinokitiol, an essential oil extract, acted as a promising anticancer agent to overcome EGFR-TKI resistance in lung cancer cells via inducing DNA damage, autophagy, cell cycle arrest, and senescence in vitro and in vivo.

Bagheri F, Safarian S, Eslaminejad MB, Sheibani N
Stable overexpression of DNA fragmentation factor in T-47D cells: sensitization of breast cancer cells to apoptosis in response to acetazolamide and sulfabenzamide.
Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(11):7387-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alterations in expression of the DFF40 gene have been reported in some cancers. This study is an in vitro study of the therapeutic effects of gene transfer that lead to elevation in DFF40 expression within T-47D cells in the presence of sulfonamide drugs. In this study, we have constructed a eukaryotic expression vector for DFF40 and transfected it into T-47D cancer cells. We used real time RT-PCR to detect the expression of DFF40 and the MTT assay to determine effects of the sulfonamide drugs acetazolamide, sulfabenzamide, sulfathiazole and sulfacetamide on cell viability in the presence of increased and normal DFF40 levels. Cell cycle distribution was assessed by propidium iodide (PI) staining and the rates of apoptosis by annexin V/PI staining. The DNA laddering analysis was employed to evaluate apoptosis. We observed that overexpression of DFF40 was only effective in decreasing viability in cells incubated with acetazolamide and sulfabenzamide. There was enhanced apoptosis in these groups, particularly with acetazolamide. The cell cycle distribution analysis showed that in the presence of sulfonamide drugs there were no substantial changes in empty-vector or DFF40-transfected cells, except for those cells treated with sulfabenzamide or sulfathiazole. There was no DNA laddering in cells that expressed the empty vector when incubated with sulfonamide drugs. In contrast, we observed DNA laddering in cells that expressed DFF40 in the presence of acetazolamide. Our results have demonstrated that combinatorial use of some sulfonamides such as acetazolamide along with increased expression of DFF40 can potently kill tumor cells via apoptosis and may be beneficial for treatment of some chemoresistant cancers.

Gao Y, Chen Y, Xu D, et al.
Differential expression of ANXA1 in benign human gastrointestinal tissues and cancers.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:520 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Annexin-1 contributes to the pathological consequence and sequelae of most serious human diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Although diverse roles in carcinogenesis have been postulated, its role in human gastrointestinal cancers still remains controversial.
METHODS: The mRNA and protein expression profiles of ANXA1 were studied in human esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colorectal, liver, and bile duct cancers using Real-Time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Gain/loss-of-function by pcDNA3.1-ANXA1 and ANXA1-shRNA was performed in gastric cancer cells.
RESULTS: ANXA1 was widely expressed in adult gastrointestinal tissue. All methods showed that ANXA1 was down-regulated in esophageal, gastric, and bile duct cancers, but up-regulated in pancreatic cancer. Forced ANXA1 expression in gastric cancer cells leads to cell growth inhibition and concomitantly modulates COX-2 expression. We confirm loss of ANXA1 and overexpression of COX-2 in clinical gastric cancer, suggesting that the anti-proliferative function of ANXA1 against COX-2 production might be lost.
CONCLUSIONS: ANXA1 expression is "tumor-specific" and might play a multifaceted role in cancer development and progression. ANXA1 was widely expressed in normal gastrointestinal epithelium, suggesting its role in the maintenance of cellular boundaries. Furthermore, ANXA1 regulates GC cell viability via the COX-2 pathway.

Kim JH, Rhee YY, Kim KJ, et al.
Annexin A10 expression correlates with serrated pathway features in colorectal carcinoma with microsatellite instability.
APMIS. 2014; 122(12):1187-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Annexin A10 (ANXA10) has recently been identified as a marker of sessile serrated adenomas/polyps of the colorectum. Although the serrated neoplasia pathway is thought to be involved in the majority of microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) sporadic colorectal carcinomas (CRCs), the clinicopathological implications of ANXA10 expression in CRC are unknown. Here, we evaluated ANXA10 expression status in 168 MSI-H CRCs by immunohistochemistry. Among 168 MSI-H CRCs, nuclear staining for ANXA10 in tumor cells revealed 28 cases (17%) with ANXA10-positive (ANXA10+) tumors. Most of the ANXA10+ tumors were located in the proximal colon (96%, p < 0.001). The ANXA10+ phenotype in MSI-H CRC was significantly associated with female gender (68%, p = 0.016), CpG island methylator phenotype-high (CIMP-H) (68%, p < 0.001), MLH1 promoter hypermethylation (61%, p < 0.001), loss of MLH1 expression (82%, p = 0.019), and wild-type KRAS status (96%, p = 0.023). Survival analysis revealed no prognostic significance of ANXA10 expression in MSI-H CRC. In conclusion, ANXA10+ MSI-H colon carcinomas are characterized by serrated pathway features, including proximal location, female predominance, and high frequencies of CIMP-H status and MLH1 methylation.

Ferrarese R, Harsh GR, Yadav AK, et al.
Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(7):2861-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones.

Srivastava M, Leighton X, Starr J, et al.
Diverse effects of ANXA7 and p53 on LNCaP prostate cancer cells are associated with regulation of SGK1 transcription and phosphorylation of the SGK1 target FOXO3A.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:193635 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor suppressor function of the calcium/phospholipid-binding Annexin-A7 (ANXA7) has been shown in Anxa7-deficient mice and validated in human cancers. In the androgen-resistant prostate cancer cells, ANXA7 and p53 showed similar cytotoxicity levels. However, in the androgen-sensitive LNCaP, ANXA7 greatly exceeded the p53-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that the p53 underperformance in LNCaP could be due to the involvement of p53-responsive SGK1 and FOXO3A. In this study, we show that p53 failed to match programmed cell death (PCD) and G1-arrest that were induced by ANXA7 in LNCaP. WT-ANXA7 preserved total FOXO3A expression with no hyperphosphorylation that could enable FOXO3A nuclear translocation and proapoptotic transcription. In contrast, in the p53-transfected LNCaP cells with maintained cell proliferation, the phosphorylated (but not total) FOXO3A fraction was increased implying a predominantly cytoplasmic localization and, subsequently, a lack of FOXO3A proapoptotic transcription. In addition, p53 reduced the expression of aberrant SGK1 protein form in LNCaP. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and p53-signature genes, we elucidated the role of distinct SGK1/FOXO3A-associated regulation in p53 versus ANXA7 responses and proposed that aberrant SGK1 could affect reciprocal SGK1-FOXO3A-Akt regulation. Thus, the failure of the cell growth regulator p53 versus the phospholipid-binding ANXA7 could be potentially attributed to its diverse effects on SGK1-FOXO3A-Akt pathway in the PTEN-deficient LNCaP.

Arroyo-Berdugo Y, Alonso S, Ribas G, et al.
Involvement of ANXA5 and ILKAP in susceptibility to malignant melanoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95522 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Single nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) are a source of diversity among human population, which may be responsible for the different individual susceptibility to diseases and/or response to drugs, among other phenotypic traits. Several low penetrance susceptibility genes associated with malignant melanoma (MM) have been described, including genes related to pigmentation, DNA damage repair and oxidative stress pathways. In the present work, we conducted a candidate gene association study based on proteins and genes whose expression we had detected altered in melanoma cell lines as compared to normal melanocytes. The result was the selection of 88 loci and 384 SNPs, of which 314 fulfilled our quality criteria for a case-control association study. The SNP rs6854854 in ANXA5 was statistically significant after conservative Bonferroni correction when 464 melanoma patients and 400 controls were analyzed in a discovery Phase I. However, this finding could not be replicated in the validation phase, perhaps because the minor allele frequency of SNP rs6854854 varies depending on the geographical region considered. Additionally, a second SNP (rs6431588) located on ILKAP was found to be associated with melanoma after considering a combined set of 1,883 MM cases and 1,358 disease-free controls. The OR was 1.29 (95% CI 1.12-1.48; p-value = 4×10-4). Both SNPs, rs6854854 in ANXA5 and rs6431588 in ILKAP, show population structure, which, assuming that the Spanish population is not significantly structured, suggests a role of these loci on a specific genetic adaptation to different environmental conditions. Furthermore, the biological relevance of these genes in MM is supported by in vitro experiments, which show a decrease in the transcription levels of ANXA5 and ILKAP in melanoma cells compared to normal melanocytes.

Andey T, Marepally S, Patel A, et al.
Cationic lipid guided short-hairpin RNA interference of annexin A2 attenuates tumor growth and metastasis in a mouse lung cancer stem cell model.
J Control Release. 2014; 184:67-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of side populations (SP) or cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in promoting the resistance phenotype presents a viable anticancer target. Human-derived H1650 SP cells over-express annexin A2 (AnxA2) and SOX2, and are resistant to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. AnxA2 and SOX2 bind to proto-oncogenes, c-Myc and c-Src, and AnxA2 forms a functional heterotetramer with S100A10 to promote tumor motility. However, the combined role of AnxA2, S100A10 and SOX2 in promoting the resistant phenotype of SP cells has not been investigated. In the current studies, we examined for the first time a possible role of AnxA2 in regulating SA100A10 and SOX2 in promoting a resistant phenotype of lung tumors derived from H1650 SP cells. The resistance of H1650 SP cells to chemotherapy compared to H1650 MP cells was investigated by cell viability studies. A short hairpin RNA targeting AnxA2 (shAnxA2) was formulated in a liposomal (cationic ligand-guided, CLG) carrier and characterized for size, charge and entrapment and loading efficiencies; CLG carrier uptake by H1650 SP cells was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, and knockdown of AnxA2 confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Targeting of xenograft and orthotopic lung tumors was demonstrated with fluorescent (DiR) CLG carriers in mice. The therapeutic efficacy of CLG-AnxA2, compared to that of placebo, was investigated after 2 weeks of treatment in terms of tumor weights and tumor burden in vivo. Compared to mixed population cells, H1650 SP cells showed exponential resistance to docetaxel (15-fold), cisplatin (13-fold), 5-fluorouracil (31-fold), camptothecin (7-fold), and gemcitabine (16-fold). CLG carriers were nanoparticulate (199nm) with a slight positive charge (21.82mV); CLG-shAnx2 was of similar size (217nm) with decreased charge (12.11mV), and entrapment and loading efficiencies of 97% and 6.13% respectively. Fluorescence microscopy showed high uptake of CLG-shAnxA2 in H1650 SP cells after 2h resulting in a 6-fold reduction in AnxA2 mRNA expression and 92% decreased protein expression. Fluorescence imaging confirmed targeting of tumors and lungs by DiR-CLG carriers with sustained localization up to 4h in mice. CLG-shAnxA2 treatment of mice significantly reduced the weights of lung tumors derived from H1650 SP cells and tumor burden was reduced to only 19% of controls. The loss in tumor weights in response to CLG-shAnxA2 was associated with a significant loss in the relative levels of AnxA2, SOX2, total β-catenin and S100A10, both at the RNA and protein levels. These results suggest the intriguing possibility that AnxA2 may directly or indirectly regulate relative levels of β-catenin, S100A10 and SOX2, and that the combination of these factors may contribute to the resistant phenotype of H1650 SP cells. Thus down-regulating AnxA2 using RNAi methods may provide a useful method for targeting cancer stem cells and help advance therapeutic efficacy against lung cancers.

Rossi AF, Duarte MC, Poltronieri AB, et al.
Deregulation of annexin-A1 and galectin-1 expression in precancerous gastric lesions: intestinal metaplasia and gastric ulcer.
Mediators Inflamm. 2014; 2014:478138 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Annexin-A1 (ANXA1/AnxA1) and galectin-1 (LGALS1/Gal-1) are mediators that play an important role in the inflammatory response and are also associated with carcinogenesis. We investigated mRNA and protein expression in precancerous gastric lesions that participate in the progression cascade to gastric cancer, such as intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric ulcer (GU).
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemical techniques were used to analyze the relative quantification levels (RQ) of ANXA1 and LGALS1 mRNA and protein expression, respectively.
RESULTS: Increased relative expression levels of ANXA1 were found in 100% of cases, both in IM (mean RQ = 6.22 ± 0.06) and in GU (mean RQ = 6.69 ± 0.10). However, the LGALS1 presented basal expression in both groups (IM: mean RQ = 0.35 ± 0.07; GU: mean RQ = 0.69 ± 0.09). Immunohistochemistry revealed significant positive staining for both the AnxA1 and Gal-1 proteins in the epithelial nucleus and cytoplasm as well as in the stroma of the IM and GU groups (P < 0.05) but absence or low immunorectivity in normal mucosa.
CONCLUSION: Our results bring an important contribution by evidencing that both the AnxA1 and Gal-1 anti-inflammatory proteins are deregulated in precancerous gastric lesions, suggesting their involvement in the early stages of gastric carcinogenesis, possibly due to an inflammatory process in the gastric mucosa.

Schroder WA, Major LD, Le TT, et al.
Tumor cell-expressed SerpinB2 is present on microparticles and inhibits metastasis.
Cancer Med. 2014; 3(3):500-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Expression of SerpinB2 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2/PAI-2) by certain cancers is associated with a favorable prognosis. Although tumor-associated host tissues can express SerpinB2, no significant differences in the growth of a panel of different tumors in SerpinB2(-/-) and SerpinB2(+/+) mice were observed. SerpinB2 expression by cancer cells (via lentiviral transduction) also had no significant effect on the growth of panel of mouse and human tumor lines in vivo or in vitro. SerpinB2 expression by cancer cells did, however, significantly reduce the number of metastases in a B16 metastasis model. SerpinB2-expressing B16 cells also showed reduced migration and increased length of invadopodia-like structures, supporting the classical view that that tumor-derived SerpinB2 is inhibiting extracellular urokinase. Importantly, although SerpinB2 is usually poorly secreted, we found that SerpinB2 effectively reaches the extracellular milieu on the surface of 0.5-1 μm microparticles (MPs), where it was able to inhibit urokinase. We also provide evidence that annexins mediate the binding of SerpinB2 to phosphatidylserine, a lipid characteristically exposed on the surface of MPs. The presence of SerpinB2 on the surface of MPs provides a physiological mechanism whereby cancer cell SerpinB2 can reach the extracellular milieu and access urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). This may then lead to inhibition of metastasis and a favorable prognosis.

Li CH, Wu DF, Ding H, et al.
Berberine hydrochloride impact on physiological processes and modulation of twist levels in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1 cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(4):1851-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of berberine hydrochloride (BH) on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of CNE-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Our results shed light on the functional components of traditional Chinese herbs for potential use in modern medicine.
METHODS: The CNE-1 cell line was treated with different concentrations of BH and effects on cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Anti-migratory and anti-invasive actions of BH were investigated using wound healing assays and the Millicell Hanging cell culture insert system, respectively. Expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related gene twist (Twist) was analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Apoptosis was estimated with an annexin-V fluorescein (FITC) apoptosis detection kit, as well as with reference to levels of activated caspase-3 of CNE-1 cells before and after treatment with BH utilizing fluorescence spectroscopy.
RESULTS: BH was capable of reducing proliferation and viability of CNE-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, also demonstrating anti-migratory and anti-invasive capacities which correlated with reduction in expression of Twist. Finally, BH was able to induce significant amounts of apoptosis in CNE-1 cells, as demonstrated by an increase in the activity of caspase-3 and in annexin-V staining following treatment.
CONCLUSION: BH extracted from rhizoma coptidis demonstrated an ability to block proliferation, induce apoptosis, and impair the migration and invasion of the CNE-1 cell line Considering these properties, our results suggest that BH could be an important compound for consideration in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Ma RL, Shen LY, Chen KN
Coexpression of ANXA2, SOD2 and HOXA13 predicts poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(5):2157-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the main type of esophageal cancer, and is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related mortality among all types of cancers. Previously, we found that the homeobox A13 gene (HOXA13) plays a crucial role in the carcinogenesis of ESCC and both Annexin A2 (ANXA2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were its potential targets. Samples from 258 patients from two independent cohorts were collected. RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to detect the expression levels of HOXA13, ANXA2 and SOD2. Kaplan‑Meier survival curve analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model were employed to determine their prognostic significance. Results showed that ESCC tissues had higher ANXA2 and SOD2 mRNA and protein levels than the non-cancerous tissues. ANXA2 and SOD2 were found to be positively correlated with HOXA13 expression not only at the mRNA level but also at the protein level. In both the study cohort and the validation cohort, the median overall survival time of patients with high expression of HOXA13, ANXA2 and SOD2 was shorter than the survival time of the patients with low expression. The Cox proportional hazards model revealed that both TNM stage and coexpression of HOXA13/ANXA2/SOD2 are independent predictors of overall survival of ESCC patients. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ANXA2 and SOD2 are potential target genes of HOXA13 and their coexpression predicts the poor prognosis of ESCC patients.

Pai RK, Shadrach BL, Carver P, et al.
Immunohistochemistry for annexin A10 can distinguish sporadic from Lynch syndrome-associated microsatellite-unstable colorectal carcinoma.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(4):518-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Differentiating sporadic microsatellite-unstable colorectal carcinoma due to MLH1 promoter hypermethylation from Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated tumors due to mutations in mismatch-repair proteins is time consuming, cost intensive, and requires advanced laboratory testing. A mutation in BRAF has been shown to be highly specific for sporadic tumors; however, a significant proportion of sporadic microsatellite-unstable tumors lack BRAF mutations. MLH1 promoter methylation analysis is subsequently used to differentiate LS and sporadic tumors, but both tests require specialized laboratories and are costly. Through previous gene expression profiling of serrated polyps, we identified annexin A10 as a protein highly expressed in sessile serrated adenomas/polyps. As these polyps give rise to the majority of sporadic microsatellite-unstable tumors, we evaluated the ability of annexin A10 expression to discriminate between LS and sporadic tumors. A marked increase in annexin A10 mRNA was observed in sporadic microsatellite-unstable tumors compared with LS tumors (378-fold increase, P<0.001). Using immunohistochemistry, annexin A10 was expressed in 23/53 (43%) BRAF-mutated and 9/22 (41%) BRAF wild-type sporadic tumors. In contrast, only 3/56 (5%) LS tumors were positive for annexin A10 (P<0.0001). One patient had a deleterious MSH2 mutation, and another had a variant of uncertain significance in MSH6. These 2 tumors could be easily distinguished from sporadic tumors using mismatch-repair protein immunohistochemistry. Only 1/28 (4%) LS tumors with loss of MLH1 was positive for annexin A10. This patient did not have a deleterious MLH1 mutation but rather germline promoter hypermethylation of MLH1. On the basis of these results, immunohistochemistry for annexin A10 may be a useful marker to distinguish sporadic from LS-associated microsatellite-unstable colon cancer.

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