Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ANXA8 (cancer-related)
It is now widely accepted that several gene alterations including transcription factors are critically involved in cancer progression and metastasis. Forkhead Box Class O proteins (FoxOs) including FoxO1/FKHR, FoxO3/FKHRL1, FoxO4/AFX and FoxO6 transcription factors are known to play key roles in proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, cell metabolism, aging and cancer biology through their phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and methylation. Though FoxOs are proved to be mainly regulated by upstream phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3 K)/Akt signaling pathway, the role of FoxOs in cancer progression and metastasis still remains unclear so far. Thus, with previous experimental evidences, the present review discussed the role of FoxOs in association with metastasis related molecules including cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1), Cdc25A/Cdk2, Src, serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinases (SGKs), CXCR4, E-cadherin, annexin A8 (ANXA8), Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and mRNAs such as miR-182, miR-135b, miR-499-5p, miR-1274a, miR-150, miR-34b/c and miR-622, subsequently analyzed the molecular mechanism of some natural compounds targeting FoxOs and finally suggested future research directions in cancer progression and metastasis.
Rossetti S, Bshara W, Reiners JA, et al.Harnessing 3D models of mammary epithelial morphogenesis: An off the beaten path approach to identify candidate biomarkers of early stage breast cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 380(2):375-83 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Regardless of the etiological factor, an aberrant morphology is the common hallmark of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which is a highly heterogeneous disease. To test if critical core morphogenetic mechanisms are compromised by different mutations, we performed proteomics analysis of five mammary epithelial HME1 mutant lines that develop a DCIS-like morphology in three dimensional (3D) culture. Here we show first, that all HME1 mutant lines share a common protein signature highlighting an inverse deregulation of two annexins, ANXA2 and ANXA8. Either ANXA2 downregulation or ANXA8 upregulation in the HME1 cell context are per se sufficient to confer a 3D DCIS-like morphology. Seemingly, different mutations impinged on a common mechanism that differentially regulates the two annexins. Second, we show that ANXA8 expression is significantly higher in DCIS tissue samples versus normal breast tissue and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH). Apparently, ANXA8 expression is significantly more upregulated in ER-negative versus ER-positive cases, and significantly correlates with tumor stage, grade and positive lymph node. Based on our study, 3D mammary morphogenesis models can be an alternate/complementary strategy for unraveling new DCIS mechanisms and biomarkers.
Cervical lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but its accurate assessment after sentinel node biopsy or neck dissection is often limited to the histopathological examination of only one or two sections. Previous our study showed the usefulness of the reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) targeting keratin 19 (KRT19) mRNA for the genetic detection of lymph node metastasis, but the sensitivity was insufficient. Here, we have attempted to identify novel molecular markers for OSCC cells in lymph nodes. We performed microarray analysis to identify genes overexpressed in 7 metastatic lymph nodes from OSCC patients, compared to 1 normal lymph node and 5 salivary glands from non-cancer patients. We then used real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and RT-LAMP to compare the expression of these genes in newly resected metastatic and normal lymph nodes. Of 4 genes identified by microarray analysis, annexin A8 (ANXA8) and desmoglein 3 mRNA were detected by qRT-PCR in metastatic lymph nodes but not in normal lymph nodes. Furthermore, ANXA8 mRNA expression was detected in all KRT19-negative metastatic lymph nodes. Both KRT19 and ANXA8 mRNA may be useful markers for detecting lymph node metastases in OSCC patients.
Activity of GLI transcription factors of Hedgehog signaling is key for various cancer cell properties, especially in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Zinc-finger transcriptional regulators ZIC1 to ZIC5 of ZIC gene family were demonstrated to associate with GLI to increase the nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity of GLI. Notwithstanding this supportive role for GLI-dependent transcription, it was not fully understood whether ZIC plays an independent role in cancer cell biology. Here, we found that ZIC2 is indispensable in the regulation of PDAC cell apoptosis. We found that human PDAC cell lines uniquely express ZIC2. ZIC2 knockdown induced PDAC cell apoptosis; conversely, ZIC2 over-expression enhanced the cellular proliferation. Through a comprehensive screening, we identified fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and ANNEXIN A8 (ANXA8) as genes up-regulated by ZIC2 in PDAC cells. The forced expression of these two genes cooperatively rescued the apoptosis of ZIC2-knockdown cells. Immunohistochemical analyses further supported the correlation of ZIC2 expression and these genes in human pancreata harboring PDAC. Intriguingly, the ZIC2-mediated up-regulation of FGFR3 and ANXA8 was indicated to be GLI -independent. This evidence highlights the indispensable role of ZIC2 in regulating cellular proliferation and apoptosis during PDAC development and suggests a potential therapeutic target for PDAC.
Calderón-González KG, Valero Rustarazo ML, Labra-Barrios ML, et al.Determination of the protein expression profiles of breast cancer cell lines by quantitative proteomics using iTRAQ labelling and tandem mass spectrometry.
J Proteomics. 2015; 124:50-78 [PubMed
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UNLABELLED: Breast cancer is the principal cancer in women worldwide. Although there are serum tumor markers such as CEA and HER2, they are detected in advanced stages of the disease and used as progression and recurrence markers. Therefore, there is a necessity for the identification of new markers that might lead to an early detection and also provide evidence of an effective treatment. The aim of this work was to determine the differential protein expression profiles of four breast cancer cell lines in comparison to a normal control cell line by iTRAQ labelling and tandem mass spectrometry, in order to identify putative biomarkers of the disease. We identified 1,020 iTRAQ-labelled polypeptides with at least one peptide identified with more than 95% in confidence. Overexpressed polypeptides in all cancer cell lines were 78, whilst the subexpressed were 128. We categorised them with PANTHER program into biological processes, being the metabolic pathways the most affected. We detected six groups of proteins with the STRING program involved in DNA topology, glycolysis, translation initiation, splicing, pentose pathway, and proteasome degradation. The main subexpressed protein network included mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. We propose BAG6, DDX39, ANXA8 and COX4 as putative biomarkers in breast cancer.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: We report a set of differentially expressed proteins in the MCF7 and T47D (Luminal A), MDA-MB-231 (Claudin low) and SK-BR-3 (HER2(+)) breast cancer cell lines that have not been previously reported in breast cancer disease. From these proteins, we propose BAG6, DDX39, ANXA8 and COX4 as putative biomarkers in breast cancer. On the other hand, we propose sets of unique polypeptides in each breast cancer cell line that can be useful in the classification of different subtypes of breast cancer.
Bachet JB, Tabone-Eglinger S, Dessaux S, et al.Gene expression patterns of hemizygous and heterozygous KIT mutations suggest distinct oncogenic pathways: a study in NIH3T3 cell lines and GIST samples.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61103 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Most gain of function mutations of tyrosine kinase receptors in human tumours are hemizygous. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) with homozygous mutations have a worse prognosis. We aimed to identify genes differentially regulated by hemizygous and heterozygous KIT mutations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of 94 genes and 384 miRNA was analysed with low density arrays in five NIH3T3 cell lines expressing the full-length human KIT cDNA wild-type (WT), hemizygous KIT mutation with del557-558 (D6) or del564-581 (D54) and heterozygous WT/D6 or WT/D54. Expression of 5 of these genes and 384 miRNA was then analysed in GISTs samples.
RESULTS: Unsupervised and supervised hierarchical clustering of the mRNA and miRNA profiles showed that heterozygous mutants clustered with KIT WT expressing cells while hemizygous mutants were distinct. Among hemizygous cells, D6 and D54 expressing cells clustered separately. Most deregulated genes have been reported as potentially implicated in cancer and severals, as ANXA8 and FBN1, are highlighted by both, mRNA and miRNA analyses. MiRNA and mRNA analyses in GISTs samples confirmed that their expressions varied according to the mutation of the alleles. Interestingly, RGS16, a membrane protein of the regulator of G protein family, correlate with the subcellular localization of KIT mutants and might be responsible for regulation of the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway.
CONCLUSION: Patterns of mRNA and miRNA expression in cells and tumours depend on heterozygous/hemizygous status of KIT mutations, and deletion/presence of TYR568 & TYR570 residues. Thus each mutation of KIT may drive specific oncogenic pathways.
Hata H, Tatemichi M, Nakadate TInvolvement of annexin A8 in the properties of pancreatic cancer.
Mol Carcinog. 2014; 53(3):181-91 [PubMed
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Although Annexin A8 (ANXA8), a member of a superfamily of calcium and phospholipid binding proteins, is physiologically expressed in a tissue-specific manner, recent microarray studies reported that ANXA8 was also ectopically expressed in pancreatic cancers. We investigated the molecular mechanism of expression of ANXA8 in cancer cells and its functional role in pancreatic cancer cells. ANXA8 was diversely expressed in human cancer cell lines. Expression was enhanced by treatment with 5-aza-dC and butyrate, and correlated with methylation status at CpG in the promoter-exon 1 region. Inhibition of ANXA8 using siRNA in BxPC-3 cells which express ANXA8 at a high level elevated caspase-3 and -7 activities. In in vitro invasion assay, inhibition of ANXA8 using siRNA in BxPC-3 reduced the numbers of migrating cells, and down-regulated HIF-1α mRNA transcription. Overexpression of ANXA8 increased the number of viable cells and BrdU incorporation in PANC-1 cells, which express ANXA8 at a low level. Expression of ANXA8 was induced under conditions of nutrient deprivation, and overexpression of ANXA8 showed resistance against serum starvation in PANC-1 cells. In a promoter assay, co-transfection with the expression vector of ANXA8 and the vector of a reporter gene containing the promoter of HIF-1α enhanced HIF-1α promoter activity. In contrast, this effect of ANXA8 was inhibited by administration of BAPTA-AM, an intracellular Ca²⁺ chelator. These results suggest that ectopic ANXA8 expression in cancer cells might involve an epigenetic mechanism. ANXA8 might play an important role in calcium fluctuation-mediated HIF-1α transcriptional activation and cell viability.
Imadome K, Iwakawa M, Nakawatari M, et al.Subtypes of cervical adenosquamous carcinomas classified by EpCAM expression related to radiosensitivity.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2010; 10(10):1019-26 [PubMed
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Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) is a relatively uncommon histological subtype of cervical cancer (CC). A point of controversy is the relative prognosis of ASC compared to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We hypothesized that ASC could be classified into two intrinsic molecular subtypes with different outcomes. We examined 143 biopsy samples of CC patients to identify a molecule for classification using microarray expression analysis and immunohistochemical analysis (IHA). We found specific expression profiles of candidate genes that distinguished two clusters. All adenocarcinoma (AC) patients were classified into one cluster, and most SCC patients fell into the other cluster. ASC patients were classified across the two clusters, which showed significantly different prognoses. The SCC-like expression signature comprised ANXA8, CK5, IFI16, and nectin-1; and the AC-like signature comprised EpCAM, and TMEM98. These signature-specific genes hypothetically indicated specific pathways by ontological analysis. The AC-like signature suggested an epithelial-mesenchymal transition and activated β-catenin pathway, while the SCC-like signature suggested keratinocyte differentiation, HPV infection, and p53-mediated apoptosis. IHA revealed that positive expression of the most promising protein, EpCAM, was significantly associated with poor prognosis. In addition, the inhibition of EpCAM expression using siRNA significantly increased radiation-induced cell death in the cervical cell line, ME-180. In conclusion, we identified two possible ASC subtypes associated with different expression profiles and different prognoses. This work provides a novel set of genes that could be used as independent prognostic markers and therapy targets.
Lee MJ, Yu GR, Yoo HJ, et al.ANXA8 down-regulation by EGF-FOXO4 signaling is involved in cell scattering and tumor metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma.
Gastroenterology. 2009; 137(3):1138-50, 1150.e1-9 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND & AIMS: The sarcomatoid change in cholangiocarcinoma (CC) contributes to more aggressive intrahepatic spread and widespread metastasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms of CC metastasis during tumor progression and sarcomatoid change.
METHODS: Using the subtraction suppression hybridization (SSH) method, we identified altered expression of the candidate gene ANXA8 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in sarcomatoid CC cells. We assessed ANXA8 expression during the progression of CC in cells and tissues and examined its functional significance by performing in vitro cell experiments and using in vivo animal models.
RESULTS: ANXA8 is highly expressed in human and hamster CCs but is down-regulated with tumor dedifferentiation. ANXA8 is transcriptionally down-regulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF), which is correlated with the morphologic changes of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the CC cells. Furthermore, ectopic ANXA8 reverses the morphology of cells, and this is associated with focal adhesion kinase expression and altered F-actin dynamics. EGFR and its downstream targets, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Akt, are linked to the phosphorylation of FOXO4, which leads to the inhibition of ANXA8 transcription. In addition, an in vitro cell invasion assay and in vivo spontaneous metastasis assay reveal that ANXA8 inhibits the cell migratory and metastatic characteristics of CC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that FOXO4 and ANXA8 play key roles in growth factor-mediated tumor progression and metastasis during the EMT change in CC.
Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is an intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma with a high mortality rate and a poor prognosis. Sarcomatous change/epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CC frequently leads to aggressive intrahepatic spread and metastasis. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic alterations and gene expression pattern that might be associated with the sarcomatous change in CC. Previously, we established 4 human CC cell lines (SCK, JCK1, Cho-CK, and Choi-CK). In the present study, we characterized a typical sarcomatoid phenotype of SCK, and classified the other cell lines according to tumor cell differentiation (a poorly differentiated JCK, a moderately differentiated Cho-CK, and a well differentiated Choi-CK cells), both morphologically and immunocytologically. We further analyzed the genetic alterations of two tumor suppressor genes (p53 and FHIT) and the expression of Fas/FasL gene, well known CC-related receptor and its ligand, in these four CC cell lines. The deletion mutation of p53 was found in the sarcomatoid SCK cells. These cells expressed much less Fas/FasL mRNAs than did the other ordinary CC cells. We further characterize the gene expression pattern that is involved in the sarcomatous progression of CC, using cDNA microarrays that contained 18,688 genes. Comparison of the expression patterns between the sarcomatoid SCK cells and the differentiated Choi-CK cells enabled us to identify 260 genes and 247 genes that were significantly over-expressed and under-expressed, respectively. Northern blotting of the 14 randomly selected genes verified the microarray data, including the differential expressions of the LGALS1, TGFBI, CES1, LDHB, UCHL1, ASPH, VDAC1, VIL2, CCND2, S100P, CALB1, MAL2, GPX1, and ANXA8 mRNAs. Immunohistochemistry also revealed in part the differential expressions of these gene proteins. These results suggest that those genetic and gene expression alterations may be relevant to the sarcomatous change/EMT in CC cells.
Chao A, Wang TH, Lee YS, et al.Molecular characterization of adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix using microarray analysis of gene expression.
Int J Cancer. 2006; 119(1):91-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In an attempt to understand the molecular mechanisms for the different clinical features between adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (AC/ASC) and squamous carcinoma (SC) of the uterine cervix, we analyzed gene expression profiles of different histological subtypes of cervical cancer. Cancer specimens and the surrounding normal tissue counterparts were separately collected from cervical cancer patients undergoing type III radical hysterectomy. Paired total RNA (cancer and normal tissues) was isolated and analyzed with cDNA microarrays containing duplicate spots of 7 334 sequence-verified human cDNA clones. Selected differentially expressed genes specific for AC or SC were further verified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTQ-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Genes, including CEACAM5, TACSTD1, S100P and MSLN were upregulated in AC. Contrarily, genes involved in epidermal differentiation complex such as S100A9 and ANXA8 were upregulated in SC. Cross-validation of the results using an independent but comparable group of patients with known long-term outcomes (n = 63, median follow-up 70.3 months; range, 4-208 months) showed that the correlation between the selected 6 differentially expressed genes and histology was highly significant. CEACAM5 (p < 0.0001) and TACSTD1 (p = 0.009) were significant prognostic factors by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. The combination of cDNA microarray, RTQ-PCR and immunohistochemical results of this study showed that it is possible to define different gene profiles for AC and SC. Moreover, TACSTD1 expression may be a novel poor prognostic factor.