Gene Summary

Gene:AMPH; amphiphysin
Aliases: AMPH1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein associated with the cytoplasmic surface of synaptic vesicles. A subset of patients with stiff-man syndrome who were also affected by breast cancer are positive for autoantibodies against this protein. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional splice variants have been described, but their full length sequences have not been determined. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 11.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 27 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Homeobox Genes
  • Lymph Nodes
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Epigenomics
  • Genetic Techniques
  • Transcription
  • HOXA11
  • Polycomb-Group Proteins
  • DNA Methylation
  • Epigenetics
  • Polycomb Repressive Complex 2
  • Gene Silencing
  • Chromosome 7
  • Cyclin D1
  • CCND1
  • CpG Islands
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Hyperplasia
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Breast Cancer
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Infections
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • SUZ12
  • Genotype
  • Cancer DNA
  • Follicular Lymphoma
  • Carrier Proteins
Tag cloud generated 27 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: AMPH (cancer-related)

Moon J, Lee ST, Shin JW, et al.
Non-stiff anti-amphiphysin syndrome: clinical manifestations and outcome after immunotherapy.
J Neuroimmunol. 2014; 274(1-2):209-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amphiphysin antibody causes paraneoplastic stiff-person syndrome and can also result in a variety of neurological manifestations. Here, we investigated the clinical spectrum of 20 patients with non-stiff anti-amphiphysin syndrome and their responses to immunotherapy. The most common neurological manifestation was limbic encephalitis (n=10), followed by dysautonomia (n=9), and cerebellar dysfunction (n=6). Cancer was detected in only seven patients. Intravenous immunoglobulin or steroid treatment was effective in most patients, but three improved only after rituximab treatment. Our study suggests that anti-amphiphysin syndrome can manifest as non-stiff encephalomyelitis and is only partially associated with cancer. Active immunotherapy, including rituximab, would be beneficial.

Prokic I, Cowling BS, Laporte J
Amphiphysin 2 (BIN1) in physiology and diseases.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2014; 92(5):453-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amphiphysin 2, also named bridging integrator-1 (BIN1) or SH3P9, has been recently implicated in rare and common diseases affecting different tissues and physiological functions. BIN1 downregulation is linked to cancer progression and also correlates with ventricular cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia preceding heart failure. Increased BIN1 expression is linked to increased susceptibility for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. In addition, altered splicing may account for the muscle component of myotonic dystrophies, while recessive germinal mutations cause centronuclear myopathy. Despite undoubtedly underlining the relevance of BIN1 in human diseases, the molecular and cellular bases leading to such different diseases are unclear at present. BIN1 is a key regulator of endocytosis and membrane recycling, cytoskeleton regulation, DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. In light of the recent findings on the molecular, cellular, and physiological roles of BIN1, we discuss potential pathological mechanisms and highlight common disease pathways and also tissue-specific regulation. Next challenges will be to validate BIN1 both as a prognostic marker for the related diseases and as a potential therapeutic target.

Torres B, Ruoho AE
N-terminus regulation of VMAT2 mediates methamphetamine-stimulated efflux.
Neuroscience. 2014; 259:194-202 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The 20 amino acid (AA) N-terminus of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) was examined as a regulator of VMAT2 function. Removal of the first 16 or 19 AAs of the N-terminus resulted in a molecule with reduced ability to sequester [(3)H]-5HT. A glutathione-S-transferase-construct of the N-terminus underwent phosphorylation in the presence of PKC at serines 15 and 18. These putative phosphorylation sites were examined for effects on function. Phospho-mimetic substitution of serines 15 and 18 with aspartate in the full-length VMAT2 resulted in reduced [(3)H]-5HT sequestration and reduced methamphetamine (METH)-stimulated efflux of preloaded [(3)H]-5HT. In contrast, mutation of serines 15 and 18 to alanines maintained intact net substrate sequestration but eliminated METH-stimulated efflux of pre-accumulated [(3)H]-5HT. In summary, these data suggest a model in which the VMAT2 N-terminus regulates monoamine sequestration.

Yanagihashi M, Kawabe K, Ikeda K
Presence of paraneoplastic antibodies in non-carcinomatous patients with neurological involvements of unknown cause.
J Neurol Sci. 2013; 335(1-2):197-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic antibodies (PAs) play a crucial role in the diagnostic approach of paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS). We clarified the frequency and the clinical profile of PA-positive non-carcinomatous patients with neurological involvements of unknown cause.
METHODS: PAs were analyzed in sera of 222 consecutive non-carcinomatous patients (122 men and 100 women) defined as acute or subacute onset of unknown-causative symptoms involving the neuromuscular junction, the central and/or the peripheral nervous system between 2006 and 2009. PAs contained antineuronal nuclear autoantibody type 1, 2, 3, Purkinje cell cytoplasmic autoantibody type 1, 2, anti-Tr, amphiphysin, CRMP-5, P/Q-type, N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC), voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKCC) and neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antibodies. PA-seropositive patients received detailed examination of carcinoma in the whole body for the following 2 years.
RESULTS: Nine patients were PA-positive. VGKCC antibodies were found in four patients, P/Q-type VGCC antibodies in two, N-type VGCC antibodies in two and nAChR antibodies in one. Neurological features revealed limbic encephalitis in four patients, sensorimotor neuropathy in three and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome in two. One year later, 2 patients developed myelodysplastic syndrome and lung adenocarcinoma (one patient each).
CONCLUSION: We conclude that PA-seropositive frequency is 4.1% in non-carcinomatous neurological patients at examination. VGKCC, P/Q-type and N-type VGCC, and nAChR antibodies have benefits for screening non-carcinomatous PNS patients with acute or subacute neurological deficits of unknown cause.

Höftberger R, Titulaer MJ, Sabater L, et al.
Encephalitis and GABAB receptor antibodies: novel findings in a new case series of 20 patients.
Neurology. 2013; 81(17):1500-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical features of 20 newly diagnosed patients with GABAB receptor (GABABR) antibodies and determine the frequency of associated tumors and concurrent neuronal autoantibodies.
METHODS: Clinical data were retrospectively obtained and evaluated. Serum and CSF samples were examined for additional antibodies using methods previously reported.
RESULTS: Seventeen patients presented with seizures, memory loss, and confusion, compatible with limbic encephalitis (LE), one patient presented with ataxia, one patient presented with status epilepticus, and one patient presented with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS). Nineteen (95%) patients eventually developed LE during the course of the disease. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) was identified in 10 (50%) patients, all with LE. Treatment and outcome was available from 19 patients: 15 showed complete (n = 7) or partial (n = 8) neurologic improvement after steroids, IV immunoglobulins, or plasma exchange and oncologic treatment when indicated; 1 patient died of tumor progression shortly after the first cycle of immunotherapy, and 3 were not treated. Five patients with SCLC had additional onconeuronal antibodies (Ri, amphiphysin, or SOX1), and 2 without tumor had GAD65 and NMDAR antibodies, respectively. GABABR antibodies were not detected in serum of 116 patients with SCLC without neurologic symptoms.
CONCLUSION: Our study confirms GABABR as an autoantigen of paraneoplastic and nonparaneoplastic LE and expands the phenotype of GABABR antibodies to ataxia, OMS, and status epilepticus. The long-term prognosis is dictated by the presence of a tumor. Recognition of syndromes associated with GABABR antibodies is important because they usually respond to treatment.

Chou IJ, Wang HS, Lin JJ, et al.
Limbic encephalitis in Taiwanese children and adolescence: a single center study.
Pediatr Neonatol. 2013; 54(4):246-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-viral limbic encephalitis, which may be paraneoplastic or idiopathic, is increasingly recognized in adults and children. Early identification of potential patients, who have neuronal autoantibodies to intracellular or neuronal surface antigens in order to give appropriate immunotherapy, is key to improving the prognosis. This cross-sectional study describes the clinical manifestation and the serological evidence of the presence of neuronal antibodies in Taiwanese children with limbic encephalitis.
METHOD: We enrolled children and adolescents who had been hospitalized due to nonviral limbic encephalitis. Serum samples from these patients were collected to screen antibodies against intracellular antigens [amphiphysin, Ma2, Ri, Yo, Hu and antiglutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)] and neuronal surface antigens [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, γ-amino butyric acid (GABAB) receptor and voltage-gated potassium channel complexes (VGKCs)].
RESULTS: All of the 10 enrolled patients had acute onset of fever and rapid clinical deterioration. They had persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms and 90% developed refractory epilepsy, despite six patients having been treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) at the acute stage. In the laboratory findings, half of the cases were positive for antibodies with regards to intracellular antigens (amphiphysin or GAD). The general outcomes, assessed by Glasgow Outcome Scale, were similar between patients with and those without the antibodies (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.43). One patient, who was positive for antibodies to amphiphysin 10 years after disease onset, still had a significant response to oral prednisolone therapy. At the end of the follow-up period, no cancer or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was detected in any of the patients.
CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for a potential association between antibodies and limbic encephalitis. The presence of antibodies, especially antibodies to GAD, may serve as an indicator for immunotherapy.

Maat P, Brouwer E, Hulsenboom E, et al.
Multiplex serology of paraneoplastic antineuronal antibodies.
J Immunol Methods. 2013; 391(1-2):125-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are devastating neurological disorders secondary to cancer, associated with onconeural autoantibodies. Such antibodies are directed against neuronal antigens aberrantly expressed by the tumor. The detection of onconeural antibodies in a patient is extremely important in diagnosing a neurological syndrome as paraneoplastic (70% is not yet known to have cancer) and in directing the search for the underlying neoplasm. At present six onconeural antibodies are considered 'well characterized' and recognize the antigens HuD, CDR62 (Yo), amphiphysin, CRMP-5 (CV2), NOVA-1 (Ri), and Ma2. The gold standard of detection is the characteristic immunohistochemical staining pattern on brain tissue sections combined with confirmation by immunoblotting using recombinant purified proteins. Since all six onconeural antibodies are usually analyzed simultaneously and objective cut-off values for these analyses are warranted, we developed a multiplex assay based on Luminex technology. Reaction of serial dilutions of six onconeural standard sera with microsphere-bound antigens showed lower limits of detection than with Western blotting. Using the six standard sera at a dilution of 1:200, the average within-run coefficient of variation (CV) was 4% (range 1.9-7.3%). The average between-run within-day CV was 5.1% (range 2.9-6.7%) while the average between-day CV was 8.1% (range 2.8-11.6%). The shelf-life of the antigen coupled microspheres was at least two months. The sensitivity of the multiplex assay ranged from 83% (Ri) to 100% (Yo, amphiphysin, CV2) and the specificity from 96% (CV2) to 100% (Ri). In conclusion, Luminex-based multiplex serology is highly reproducible with high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of onconeural antibodies. Conventional immunoblotting for diagnosis of onconeural antibodies in the setting of a routine laboratory may be replaced by this novel, robust technology.

Tanriverdi O, Meydan N, Barutca S, et al.
Anti-Yo antibody-mediated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in a female patient with pleural malignant mesothelioma.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2013; 43(5):563-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is a rare non-metastatic complication of malignancies. It presents with acute or subacute onset of ataxia, dysarthria and intention tremor. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is most commonly associated with malignancies of the ovary, breast and lung. The anti-Yo (anti-Purkinje cells) antibodies that specifically damage the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum are found in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Anti-Yo-related paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is most commonly found in women with gynecological and breast cancers, but it is reported in other malignancies. Patients with paraneoplastic syndromes most often present with neurologic symptoms before an underlying cancer is detected. We report a case of anti-Yo-related paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration associated with pleural malignant mesothelioma in a 51-year-old female patient. She presented to our department with a 2-week history after the last chemotherapy of progressive dizziness related to head movement, nausea, vomiting, ataxia and unsteady gait. A western blot assay was negative for anti-Hu, anti-Ri, anti-Ma2, anti-CV2 and anti-amphiphysin paraneoplastic antibody markers but positive for anti-Yo. In conclusion, we report a case of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in a patient with pleural malignant mesothelioma because of the rarity of this neurologic presentation after the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma and of the association with anti-Yo antibodies.

Krishna VR, Knievel K, Ladha S, Sivakumar K
Lower extremity predominant stiff-person syndrome and limbic encephalitis with amphiphysin antibodies in breast cancer.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis. 2012; 14(2):72-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 54-year-old woman presented with several weeks of psychiatric symptoms, partial-onset seizures, and painful spasms of the lower extremities. On examination, she exhibited severe stiffness and intermittent extensor spasms of the lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed T2 hyperintensity in the left temporal lobe with enhancement after gadolinium administration on T1-weighted images. Amphiphysin antibodies were present in the serum. Radiographic screening for malignancy disclosed a metastatic breast cancer. The case is a unique example of amphiphysin autoimmunity, illustrating the possibility of paraneoplastic stiff-person syndrome and limbic encephalitis coexisting in a patient with a "classical" presentation of stiff-person syndrome confined to the lower extremities.

Graus F, Dalmau J
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes.
Curr Opin Neurol. 2012; 25(6):795-801 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes relevant advances in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) with emphasis on particular syndromes and the impact of antibodies against surface antigens in their management.
RECENT FINDINGS: PNS may present with symptoms that do not raise the suspicion of a paraneoplastic origin. The best example is anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis that in adult women frequently associates with ovarian teratoma. An electroencephalogram pattern described as 'extreme delta brush' was recently identified in 30% of patients with this disorder. Isolated myelopathy may have a paraneoplastic origin associated with amphiphysin or CV2 (CRMP5) antibodies. Jaw dystonia and laryngospasm can be the predominant symptom of the brainstem encephalitis associated with Ri antibodies. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)(B) receptor antibodies are the most common antibodies found in patients with limbic encephalitis and small cell lung cancer, and contactin-associated protein 2 antibodies in patients with Morvan's syndrome and thymoma. Lastly, a recent study identified delta/notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor (DNER) as the target antigen of Tr antibodies, a marker of cerebellar ataxia and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
SUMMARY: The number of antibodies relevant to PNS is now expanded to those against surface antigens. These antibodies do not confirm the paraneoplastic origin of the syndrome but predict a better response to immunotherapy.

Byrne TN, Isakoff SJ, Rincon SP, Gudewicz TM
Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 27-2012. A 60-year-old woman with painful muscle spasms and hyperreflexia.
N Engl J Med. 2012; 367(9):851-61 [PubMed] Related Publications

Kawanishi K, Ohyama Y, Kanai Y, et al.
Sub-acute demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy as an initial symptom of peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS).
Intern Med. 2012; 51(15):2015-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here we report the first case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), who initially presented with peripheral neuropathy. Nerve conduction, cerebral spinal fluid studies and his clinical course were compatible with sub-acute demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. In addition, left cervical lymph node swelling was observed on admission. Diagnosis of PTCL-NOS was made by the histological, immunohistochemical, and Southern blot analyses on the biopsy specimen from the enlarged lymph node. Combination chemotherapy composed of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and prednisolone (CHOP) was effective for polyneuropathy as well as for lymphoma. Several antibodies relating to paraneoplastic syndrome such as Ma1, Ma2, Amphiphysin, CV2, Ri, Yo and Hu were all negative. Because sural nerve biopsy performed prior to CHOP therapy revealed no infiltration of lymphoma cells, immune dysfunction mediated by some cytokine or unidentified autoantibody related to PTCL-NOS was thought to be involved in the polyradiculoneuropathy.

Kwok E, Everingham S, Zhang S, et al.
FES kinase promotes mast cell recruitment to mammary tumors via the stem cell factor/KIT receptor signaling axis.
Mol Cancer Res. 2012; 10(7):881-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
KIT receptor is required for mast cell development, survival, and migration toward its ligand stem cell factor (SCF). Many solid tumors express SCF and this leads to mast cell recruitment to tumors and release of mediators linked to tumor angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis. Here, we investigate whether FES protein-tyrosine kinase, a downstream effector of KIT signaling in mast cells, is required for migration of mast cells toward SCF-expressing mammary tumors. Using a novel agarose drop assay for chemotaxis of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) toward SCF, we found that defects in chemotaxis of fes-null BMMCs correlated with disorganized microtubule networks in polarized cells. FES displayed partial colocalization with microtubules in polarized BMMCs and has at least two direct microtubule binding sites within its N-terminal F-BAR and SH2 domains. An oligomerization-disrupting mutation within the Fer/CIP4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) domain had no effect on microtubule binding, whereas microtubule binding to the SH2 domain was dependent on the phosphotyrosine-binding pocket. FES involvement in mast cell recruitment to tumors was tested using the AC2M2 mouse mammary carcinoma model. These tumor cells expressed SCF and promoted BMMC recruitment in a KIT- and FES-dependent manner. Engraftment of AC2M2 orthotopic and subcutaneous tumors in control or fes-null mice, revealed a key role for FES in recruitment of mast cells to the tumor periphery. This may contribute to the reduced tumor growth and metastases observed in fes-null mice compared with control mice. Taken together, FES is a potential therapeutic target to limit the progression of tumors with stromal mast cell involvement.

Maat P, VanDuijn M, Brouwer E, et al.
Mass spectrometric detection of antigen-specific immunoglobulin peptides in paraneoplastic patient sera.
J Autoimmun. 2012; 38(4):354-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are severe immune mediated effects of cancer. The presence of IgG autoantibodies against onconeural antigens in serum is a hallmark of the disease. Multiple paraneoplastic antibodies have been described, including antibodies against HuD, Yo, amphiphysin and CV2. In this study, we test the hypothesis that primary amino-acid structures of the antigen binding part of antibodies from various individuals share common sequences that are specific for each auto-antigen. We selected 60 patients with PNS, associated with antibodies against HuD, Yo, Amp or CV2. Affinity purified IgG was separated using SDS-PAGE and IgG heavy chains were excised, trypsinized and subjected to tandem mass spectrometry. We selected masses that uniquely identified a PNS autoantibody group, and used MS/MS fragmentation spectra to obtain information on peptide sequences. Out of 19,173 unique masses, 28 immunoglobulin-derived peptides were found exclusively in samples from a single autoantibody defined PNS group. Our results confirm that specific peptide structures exist in the antigen binding site of IgG that are shared between individuals harboring autoantibodies against the same onconeural antigen. Thus, the immune response in these patients followed converging paths during the rearrangement, selection and maturation of immunoglobulin sequences. The identified peptides can be applied in the diagnosis of PNS, but these data also indicate that a similar approach in a variety of other diseases involving an immune response would have an appealing outlook.

McKeon A, Robinson MT, McEvoy KM, et al.
Stiff-man syndrome and variants: clinical course, treatments, and outcomes.
Arch Neurol. 2012; 69(2):230-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Little information is available about the incidence of stiff-man syndrome (SMS) (the classic form or its variants) or about long-term treatment responses and outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively describe the characteristics of a cohort of patients with SMS.
DESIGN: Observational study.
SETTING: Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
PATIENTS: Ninety-nine patients with classic SMS vs variants of the disorder, both glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 kD isoform (GAD65) antibody seropositive and seronegative.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neurological, autoimmune, serological, and oncological findings; treatments; and outcomes between January 1984 and December 2008.
RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 5 years (range, 0-23 years). Seventy-nine patients (59 having classic SMS, 19 having partial SMS, and 1 having progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus [PERM]) were GAD65 antibody seropositive. Sixty-seven percent (53 of 79) of them had at least 1 coexisting autoimmune disease, and 4% (3 of 79) had cancer. GAD65 antibody values at initial evaluation were significantly higher among patients with classic SMS (median value, 623 nmol/L) than among patients with partial SMS (median value, 163 nmol/L) (P < .001). The initial GAD65 antibody value was positively correlated with the last follow-up Rankin score (P = .03). Among 20 patients who were GAD65 antibody seronegative (6 with classic SMS, 12 with partial SMS, and 2 with PERM), 15% (3 of 20) had at least 1 coexisting autoimmune disease, and 25% (5 of 20) had cancer (3 with amphiphysin autoimmunity and breast carcinoma and 2 with Hodgkin lymphoma). Excluding patients with PERM, all patients but 1 had sustained improvements with at least 1 γ-aminobutyric acid agent, usually diazepam; the median dosage for patients with classic SMS was 40.0 mg/d. Additional improvements occurred among 14 of 34 patients (41%) who received immunotherapy (intravenous immune globulin, azathioprine, prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil, or cyclophosphamide). Sixteen of 25 patients (64%) with extended follow-up duration remained ambulatory.
CONCLUSIONS: Recognition of classic SMS vs variants is important because appropriate therapy improves symptoms in most patients. Classification by anatomical extent and by GAD65 antibody serostatus gives important diagnostic and prognostic information.

Yu D, Zhan XH, Zhao XF, et al.
Mice deficient in MIM expression are predisposed to lymphomagenesis.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(30):3561-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Missing in metastasis (MIM) is a member of newly emerged inverse Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain protein family and a putative metastasis suppressor. Although reduced MIM expression has been associated with bladder, breast and gastric cancers, evidence for the role of MIM in tumor progression remains scarce and controversial. Herein we characterized a MIM knockout mouse strain and observed that MIM-deficient mice often developed enlarged spleens. Autopsy and histological analysis revealed that nearly 78% of MIM(-/-) mice developed tumors with features similar to diffuse large B lymphoma during a period from 1 to 2 years. MIM(-/-) mice also exhibited abnormal distribution of B cells in lymphoid organs with decrease in the spleen but increase in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. Furthermore, the bone marrow of MIM(-/-) mice contained a higher percentage of pre-B2 cells but fewer immature B-cells than wild-type mice. In response to CXCL13, a B-cell chemokine released from splenic stromal cells, MIM-deficient B-cells did not undergo chemotaxis or morphological changes in response to the chemokine and also did not internalize CXCR5, the receptor of CXCL13. Microarray analyses demonstrated that MIM is the only member of the I-BAR domain family that was highly expressed in human B cells. However, low or absent MIM expression was common in either primary B-cell malignancies or established B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia or lymphomas. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time an important role for MIM in B-cell development and suggest that predisposition of MIM-null mice to lymphomagenesis may involve aberrant interactions between B lineage cells and the lymphoid microenvironment.

Matsusaka K, Kaneda A, Nagae G, et al.
Classification of Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancers by definition of DNA methylation epigenotypes.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(23):7187-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, opportunistic lymphomas in immunocompromised hosts, and a fraction of gastric cancers. Aberrant promoter methylation accompanies human gastric carcinogenesis, though the contribution of EBV to such somatic methylation changes has not been fully clarified. We analyzed promoter methylation in gastric cancer cases with Illumina's Infinium BeadArray and used hierarchical clustering analysis to classify gastric cancers into 3 subgroups: EBV(-)/low methylation, EBV(-)/high methylation, and EBV(+)/high methylation. The 3 epigenotypes were characterized by 3 groups of genes: genes methylated specifically in the EBV(+) tumors (e.g., CXXC4, TIMP2, and PLXND1), genes methylated both in EBV(+) and EBV(-)/high tumors (e.g., COL9A2, EYA1, and ZNF365), and genes methylated in all of the gastric cancers (e.g., AMPH, SORCS3, and AJAP1). Polycomb repressive complex (PRC) target genes in embryonic stem cells were significantly enriched among EBV(-)/high-methylation genes and commonly methylated gastric cancer genes (P = 2 × 10(-15) and 2 × 10(-34), respectively), but not among EBV(+) tumor-specific methylation genes (P = 0.2), suggesting a different cause for EBV(+)-associated de novo methylation. When recombinant EBV was introduced into the EBV(-)/low-methylation epigenotype gastric cancer cell, MKN7, 3 independently established subclones displayed increases in DNA methylation. The promoters targeted by methylation were mostly shared among the 3 subclones, and the new methylation changes caused gene repression. In summary, DNA methylation profiling classified gastric cancer into 3 epigenotypes, and EBV(+) gastric cancers showed distinct methylation patterns likely attributable to EBV infection.

Stich O, Klages E, Bischler P, et al.
SOX1 antibodies in sera from patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes.
Acta Neurol Scand. 2012; 125(5):326-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: SOX1 antibodies have been described in patients with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) in association with voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies as serological markers of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). This study was aimed to screen for additional SOX1 autoimmunity in onconeural antibody-positive sera from patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) other than LEMS and to identify the clinical-immunological profile and associated tumours of patients with coexisting SOX1 antibodies.
METHODS: We retrospectively analysed sera from 55 patients with different PNS positive for well-characterized antineuronal antibodies for the presence of SOX1 antibodies by recombinant ELISA and immunoblot.
RESULTS: Eight (14.5%) patients showed additional SOX1 antibodies in the ELISA and the recombinant immunoblot. Five patients had coexisting Hu antibodies, while the other three showed coexisting CV2/CRMP5, amphiphysin, and coexisting CV2/CRMP5 and Hu antibodies, respectively. PNS included (partially overlapping) subacute sensory neuropathy, subacute sensorimotor neuropathy, cerebellar degeneration, brainstem encephalitis, encephalomyelitis and limbic encephalitis. No tumour was detected in two patients, while the others had lung cancer (four SCLC and two non-SCLC). One patient showed SOX1-specific intrathecal antibody synthesis.
CONCLUSIONS: We describe SOX1 reactivity for the first time overlapping with CV2/CRMP5 and amphiphysin antibodies. SOX1 reactivity is predominantly associated with Hu antibodies and SCLC, but can occur also in other types of lung cancer. Neurological manifestations present in patients with coexisting SOX1 antibodies and well-characterized antineuronal antibodies do not differ from those previously described in patients positive for antineuronal antibodies but no SOX1-specific anti-glial antibodies.

Raspotnig M, Vedeler CA, Storstein A
Onconeural antibodies in patients with neurological symptoms: detection and clinical significance.
Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 2011; (191):83-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Onconeural antibodies are strongly associated with cancer and paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). Most of these antibodies are well-characterized (antibodies against Hu, Yo, Ri, CRMP5, amphiphysin, Ma2 and Tr) and are in common use for the diagnosis of definite PNS.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature on detection and clinical significance of onconeural antibodies were identified by using relevant search terms in PubMed and reviewed.
CONCLUSIONS: The onconeural antibodies are directed against intracellular antigens and their pathogenic role is still largely unknown. They are highly specific markers of paraneoplastic aetiology in patients with neurological symptoms. Detection of an onconeural antibody in a patient with neurological symptoms should lead to prompt investigation for cancer. However, absence of detectable onconeural antibodies does not exclude the PNS diagnosis. In particular, failure to detect antibodies in patients without classical PNS symptoms may result in less vigorous cancer screening and diagnostic delay. Neuronal antibodies that are directed to synaptic proteins or proteins of the cell membrane are also associated with neurological symptoms, and probably have pathogenic effects. The association between these antibodies and cancer is less robust, and they are usually not included among the onconeural antibodies.

Flanagan EP, McKeon A, Lennon VA, et al.
Paraneoplastic isolated myelopathy: clinical course and neuroimaging clues.
Neurology. 2011; 76(24):2089-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical phenotype and outcome of isolated paraneoplastic myelopathy.
METHODS: We systematically reviewed clinical, serologic, and MRI data for 31 patients (20 female) who presented with an isolated myelopathy and coexisting cancer: carcinoma (lung, 9; breast, 7; kidney, 2; thyroid, 2; ovary/endometrium, 2), melanoma (2), or other cancer (3), or a paraneoplastic autoantibody with strong cancer association (amphiphysin-immunoglobulin G [IgG], 9; collapsin response-mediator protein 5-IgG, 9; Purkinje-cell cytoplasmic autoantibody type 1, 2; antineuronal nuclear autoantibody [ANNA]-1, 1; ANNA-3, 1).
RESULTS: Of 31 patients who presented with a progressive myelopathy, symptom onset was subacute in 16 (52%). The median age was 62 years. CSF abnormalities included elevated protein (>45 mg/dL), 22; pleocytosis, 15; excess oligoclonal bands (normal <4), 7. MRI cord abnormalities identified in 20 patients were longitudinally extensive (>3 vertebral segments), 14; symmetric tract or gray matter-specific signal abnormality, 15 (enhancing in 13). Myelopathy preceded cancer diagnosis in 18 patients (median interval 12 months; range 2-44). After myelopathy onset, 26 patients underwent oncologic treatment, immunosuppressive treatment (median delay to commencing immunotherapy 9.5 months [range 1-54]), or both; only 8 improved (31%). At last neurologic evaluation (median interval after onset 17 months; range 1-165 months), 16 patients (52%) were wheelchair-dependent (median time from onset to wheelchair 9 months [range 1-21]). Ten patients died after a median of 38 months from symptom onset (range 7-152).
CONCLUSION: Symmetric, longitudinally extensive tract or gray matter-specific changes on spinal MRI should raise suspicion for a paraneoplastic myelopathy. Resulting disability is often severe. Only a minority of patients improve with treatment.

Panzer J, Dalmau J
Movement disorders in paraneoplastic and autoimmune disease.
Curr Opin Neurol. 2011; 24(4):346-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The most relevant advances in immune-mediated movement disorders are described, with emphasis on the clinical--immunological associations, novel antigens, and treatment.
RECENT FINDINGS: Many movement disorders previously considered idiopathic or degenerative are now recognized as immune-mediated. Some disorders are paraneoplastic, such as anti-CRMP5-associated chorea, anti-Ma2 hypokinesis and rigidity, anti-Yo cerebellar ataxia and tremor, and anti-Hu ataxia and pesudoathetosis. Other disorders such as Sydenham's chorea, or chorea related to systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome occur in association with multiple antibodies, are not paraneoplastic, and are triggered by molecular mimicry or unknown mechanisms. Recent studies have revealed a new category of disorders that can be paraneoplastic or not, and associate with antibodies against cell-surface or synaptic proteins. They include anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis, which may cause dyskinesias, chorea, ballismus or dystonia (NMDAR antibodies), the spectrum of Stiff-person syndrome/muscle rigidity (glutamic acid decarboxylase, amphiphysin, GABA(A)-receptor-associated protein, or glycine receptor antibodies), neuromyotonia (Caspr2 antibodies), and opsoclonus--myoclonus--ataxia (unknown antigens).
SUMMARY: Neurologists should be aware that many movement disorders are immune-mediated. Recognition of these disorders is important because it may lead to the diagnosis of an occult cancer, and a substantial number of patients, mainly those with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins, respond to immunotherapy.

Hirai Y, Ainoda Y, Shoji T, et al.
Disseminated cryptococcosis in a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patient with late-onset neutropenia following rituximab-CHOP chemotherapy: a case report and literature review.
Mycopathologia. 2011; 172(3):227-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rituximab-related late-onset neutropenia (R-LON) is an adverse event associated with rituximab. A 65-year-old woman presented with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the kidney without bone marrow involvement. She was treated with 4 cycles of CHOP chemotherapy consisting of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone at 4-week intervals. Rituximab was also administrated of the second, third, fourth CHOP cycles. She developed a high fever of 38°C, nausea, and severe neutropenia following the four cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy. Her leukocyte count was 160/μl without neutrophils. Initially, a blood and pleural fluid and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. Once she became asymptomatic following treatment with fluconazole and neutropenia was recovered with lenograstim, she had neck stiffness and admitted soon. Cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) culture was positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. Treatment with amphotericin B(AMPH-B) and flucytosine(5-FC) was initiated as diagnosis of cryptococcus meningitis. Lenograstim was administrated for 9 months, and amount of dose was 9,750 μg. Cryptococcosis with malignant lymphoma is rare disease, and previously 17 cases were reported. Of note, mortality of disseminated cryptococcosis with malignant lymphoma is 54%. The more and more rituximab is widely used; the cases of severe infection in R-LON may increase.

Gozzard P, Maddison P
Which antibody and which cancer in which paraneoplastic syndromes?
Pract Neurol. 2010; 10(5):260-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes can be associated with the presence of onconeural antibodies. These antibodies are the result of an immune response against a tumour that is ectopically expressing a neuronal antigen. The 'classical' onconeural antibodies (anti-Hu, Yo, Ma2, CRMP-5, amphiphysin and Ri) are directed against intracellular antigens and are strongly associated with underlying malignancy. By contrast, onconeural antibodies directed against cell surface antigens (eg, anti-NMDA, VGKC, AChR) have a weaker tumour association. This article gives a practical overview of the tumour associations, and the neurological associations, of the onconeural antibodies. There is also guidance on how to investigate occult malignancy in antibody positive cases.

Yamamoto T, Tsuji S
[Neurological syndromes, encephalitis].
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2010; 37(6):995-1005 [PubMed] Related Publications
The remote effects of malignant tumors in most cases of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes(PNS)are mediated by autoimmune processes against antigens shared by the tumor cells and the nervous tissue(onconeural antigens). Onconeural (or paraneoplastic)antibodies are broadly categorized into two groups according to the location of the corresponding onconeural antigens, inside or on the surface of neurons. Antibodies established as clinically relevant diagnostic markers for PNS are designated as well-characterized onconeural antibodies (or classical antibodies)that target intracellular antigens(Hu, Yo, Ri, CV2/CRMP5,Ma2, and amphiphysin). They also serve as useful markers in detecting primary tumors. Recent identification of new antibodies as markers of subtypes of limbic encephalitis has also expanded the concept of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. These autoantibodies are directed to neuronal cell-surface antigens including neurotransmitter receptors(NMDA, AMPA, and GABAB receptors)and ion channels(VGKC). They are less frequently associated with cancer, so that they cannot be used as specific markers for PNS. Autoimmune limbic encephalitis with anti-neuronal cell surface antobodies and paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis with classical antibodies overlap in some clinical features but are pathophysiologically distinct. Classical antibodies are not simple tumor markers. They seem to be closely related to the disease mechanisms because specific intrathecal synthesis has been shown in PNS patients. However, attempts to produce an animal model of PNS by passive transfer of these antibodies have been unsuccessful, and there is no direct evidence demonstrating the pathogenic role of classical antibodies. Instead, some circumstantial evidence, including pathological studies showing extensive infiltrates of T cells in the CNS of the patients, supports the hypothesis that cytotoxic-T cell mechanisms cause irreversible neuronal damage. On the other hand, humoral immune response is probably the principal mechanism in autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against neuronal cell-surface antigens. Those antibodies are supposed to mediate neural dysfunction which may be reversed by immunosuppression therapy, while the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated. Further accumulation of the cases and longer observation would be necessary to delineate the clinical spectrum of each type of newly-identified autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Early diagnosis and optimal oncological treatment is a prerequisite for better prognosis of PNS patients. Detection of the primary tumor at very early stages including carcinoma in situ is a challenging issue. Optimization of immunosuppression/ immunomodulation therapy for each patient according to the underlying pathophysiological processes is another important clinical issue.

Ishii A
[Stiff-person syndrome and other myelopathies constitute paraneoplastic neurological syndromes].
Brain Nerve. 2010; 62(4):377-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is an autoimmune neurological disorder characterized by rigidity of the trunk and proximal limb muscles, intermittent superimposed spasms, and increased sensitivity to external stimuli. It has been more than 50 years since Moerch and Woltman reported the first 14 cases with this syndrome. During the last half century, many autoantibodies discovered, such as anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), anti-amphiphysin, anti-gephyrin, and anti-gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) antibodies. There is strong evidence that in SPS, GABAergic neurotransmission is impaired by these pathogenic autoantibodies; however, the exact antigenic target remains unknown. This chapter focuses on the recent advances in the diagnosis, immunopathogenesis, and treatment of paraneoplastic SPS. Paraneoplastic SPS accounts for approximately 5% of all cases of SPS, and is associated with anti-amphiphysin, anti-gephyrin, and anti-Ri antibodies. In addition, author has reported cases of patients with SPS who were positive for anti-GAD antibodies and subsequently developed cancer. Because SPS often develops before the diagnosis of cancer, patients diagnosed with SPS should be monitored for the development of cancer. The treatment of SPS includes the administration of GABA enhancing and antispasmogenic drugs and immunomodulating therapies such as the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Treatments for cancer occasionally produce symptomatic improvement in patients with paraneoplastic SPS. Although the understanding and treatment of SPS have evolved, the disease remains underdiagnosed. In the past, some patients with SPS have been diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. Therefore, it is important to increase awareness of SPS among practicing physicians.

Morita A, Kamei S
[Limbic encephalitis with antibodies against intracellular antigens].
Brain Nerve. 2010; 62(4):347-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Limbic encephalitis is a paraneoplastic syndrome that is often associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), breast cancer, testicular tumors, teratoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and thymoma. The common clinical manifestations of limbic encephalitis are subacute onset, cognitive dysfunction, seizures and psychiatric symptoms. Paraneoplastic neurological disorders are considered to occur because of cytotoxic T cell responses and antibodies against target neuronal proteins that are usually expressed by an underlying tumor. The main intracellular antigens related to limbic encephalitis are Hu, Ma2, and less frequently CV2/CRMP5 and amphiphysin. The anti-Hu antibody, which is involved in cerebellar degeneration and extensive or multifocal encephalomyelitis such as limbic encephalitis is closely associated with a history of smoking and SCLC. The anti-Ma2 antibody is associated with encephalitis of the limbic system, hypothalamus and brain-stem. For this reason, some patients with limbic encephalitis have sleep disorders (including REM sleep abnormalities), severe hypokinesis and gaze palsy in addition to limbic dysfunction. In men aged less than 50 years, anti-Ma2 antibody encephalitis is almost always associated with testicular germ-cell tumors that are occasionally difficult to detect. In older men and women, the most common tumors are non-SCLC and breast cancer. Limbic encephalitis associated with cell-surface antigens (e.g., voltage-gated potassium channels, NMDA receptors) is mediated by antibodies and often improves after a reduction in the antibody titer and after tumor resection. Patients with antibodies against intracellular antigens, except for those with anti-Ma2 antibodies and testicular tumors, are less responsive. Early diagnosis and treatment with immunotherapy, tumor resection or both are important for improving or stabilizing the condition of limbic encephalitis.

Greenlee JE, Clawson SA, Hill KE, et al.
Antineuronal autoantibodies in paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration associated with adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
J Neurol Sci. 2010; 291(1-2):74-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are unusual in prostatic cancer, and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration associated with adenocarcinoma of the prostate is rare. Here we report a 68year old man who developed progressive ataxia in the setting of stage D2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate and whose MRI showed cerebellar atrophy. The patient's serum produced a previously undescribed pattern of immunoreactivity, binding to nuclei and cytoplasm of Purkinje cells, deep cerebellar neurons, scattered cells in the molecular and granule cell layers, and neuronal populations in thalamus, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus but not with liver or kidney. The patient's IgG also labeled a 65kDa protein, discrete from Yo antigen, in Western blots of Purkinje cell lysates and did not react with blotted recombinant HuD, Ri, Yo, or amphiphysin proteins. Sera from neurologically normal patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate did not contain this antibody, and the patient's serum did not react with normal prostate or with prostatic adenocarcinomas from other individuals. Prostatic adenocarcinoma may occasionally be accompanied by development of anticerebellar antibodies. Adenocarcinoma of the prostate should be considered as a possible underlying malignancy in older males with unexplained progressive cerebellar degeneration.

Dupond JL, Essalmi L, Gil H, et al.
Rituximab treatment of stiff-person syndrome in a patient with thymoma, diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroiditis.
J Clin Neurosci. 2010; 17(3):389-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is an autoimmune neurological disorder characterized by stiffness of the skeletal muscle with superimposed spasms and production of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and amphiphysin. The disorder results from B cell-mediated clonal production of autoantibodies, requiring treatment with immunosuppressors; however, treatment results have been somewhat inconsistent. We report the results of rituximab treatment in a patient with SPS associated with a thymoma, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis and the presence of anti-GAD and anti-amphiphysin autoantibodies. The patient experienced a partial improvement following a thymectomy and the administration of prednisone, intravenous immunoglobulins and mycophenolate mofetil. Treatment with rituximab was followed by a complete sustained remission and the disappearance of serum anti-amphiphysin antibodies.

Grant R, Graus F
Paraneoplastic movement disorders.
Mov Disord. 2009; 24(12):1715-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paraneoplastic movement disorders are rare autoimmune nonmetastatic complications of cancer. Common paraneoplastic movement disorders include cerebellar syndrome, opsoclonus myoclonus, basal ganglia disorders, stiff person syndrome, and neuromyotonia. Syndromes usually present before cancer diagnosis and are commonly associated with one or more serum antibodies. Increasing numbers of antibodies have been identified (Hu, Yo, Ri, CV2, amphiphysin, Ma, Ta, Tr, NMDA, mGluR1, PCA2, ANNA-3, VGCCA). Antibodies are highly correlated with the likelihood of an underlying cancer and are closely associated with certain tumors. Clinical clues to paraneoplastic aetiology include speed of onset, severity, speed of progression, resistance to treatment, and more widespread neurological signs than one would expect from nonparaneoplastic aetiologies. Cancer should be sought in those with classical presentations and those with possible presentations who have paraneoplastic antibodies. If no tumor is found on initial investigation, interval screening is advisable. The most common associated cancers found are small cell lung cancer, breast, gynaecological, testicular, lymphoma, and thymoma. Early identification and treatment sometimes leads to neurological improvement and may improve cancer prognosis. Prognosis is dependent on the tumor type and its likely response to treatment.

Bennett LB, Schnabel JL, Kelchen JM, et al.
DNA hypermethylation accompanied by transcriptional repression in follicular lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2009; 48(9):828-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
High-throughput microarray technologies were used to study DNA methylation accompanied by transcriptional changes in follicular lymphoma (FL). Using Methylated CpG Island Amplification with Microarrays to study CpG Island DNA methylation in FL, we discovered widespread hypermethylation of homeobox genes and previously identified targets of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in cell lines and primary tumors, but not in benign follicular hyperplasia (BFH). DNA methylation for HOXA11, HOXD10, HOXB7, HOXC12, PAX6, LHX9, SFMBT2, EN2, and PAX7 was independently validated in the RL cell line and HOXA11, HOXD10, PAX6, and EN2 in primary tumors. Combined Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA) also established DNA methylation for the previously identified PRC2 targets DCC, DES, GAD2, AQP5, GPR61, GRIA4, GJD2, and AMPH in FL but not in BFH. Gene expression analyses revealed 411 genes that were hypermethylated and transcriptionally repressed in RL, 74% of which were reactivated by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-azaD) plus or minus the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Forty genes were also downregulated in primary FL. Our results suggest that extensive hypermethylation in promoters of polycomb target genes is a characteristic of FL and that loss of expression of certain SUZ12 target genes could be functionally relevant for lymphomagenesis.

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