ALOX5

Gene Summary

Gene:ALOX5; arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Aliases: 5-LO, 5LPG, LOG5, 5-LOX
Location:10q11.2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the lipoxygenase gene family and plays a dual role in the synthesis of leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. The encoded protein, which is expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived cells, catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, and further to the allylic epoxide 5(S)-trans-7,9-trans-11,14-cis-eicosatetrenoic acid (leukotriene A4). Leukotrienes are important mediators of a number of inflammatory and allergic conditions. Mutations in the promoter region of this gene lead to a diminished response to antileukotriene drugs used in the treatment of asthma and may also be associated with atherosclerosis and several cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ALOX5 (cancer-related)

Sarveswaran S, Chakraborty D, Chitale D, et al.
Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase selectively triggers disruption of c-Myc signaling in prostate cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(8):4994-5006 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
Myc is up-regulated in almost all cancer types and is the subject of intense investigation because of its pleiotropic effects controlling a broad spectrum of cell functions. However, despite its recognition as a stand-alone molecular target, development of suitable strategies to block its function is hindered because of its nonenzymatic nature. We reported earlier that arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) plays an important role in the survival and growth of prostate cancer cells, although details of the underlying mechanisms have yet to be characterized. By whole genome gene expression array, we observed that inhibition of 5-Lox severely down-regulates the expression of c-Myc oncogene in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, inhibition of 5-Lox dramatically decreases the protein level, nuclear accumulation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activities of c-Myc. Both the 5-Lox inhibition-induced down-regulation of c-Myc and induction of apoptosis are mitigated when the cells are treated with 5-oxoeicosatetraenoic acid, a metabolite of 5-Lox, confirming a role of 5-Lox in these processes. c-Myc is a transforming oncogene widely expressed in prostate cancer cells and maintains their transformed phenotype. Interestingly, MK591, a specific 5-Lox inhibitor, strongly affects the viability of Myc-overactivated prostate cancer cells and completely blocks their invasive and soft agar colony-forming abilities, but it spares nontransformed cells where expression of 5-Lox is undetectable. These findings indicate that the oncogenic function of c-Myc in prostate cancer cells is regulated by 5-Lox activity, revealing a novel mechanism of 5-Lox action and suggesting that the oncogenic function of c-Myc can be suppressed by suitable inhibitors of 5-Lox.

Lucas CM, Harris RJ, Giannoudis A, et al.
Low leukotriene B4 receptor 1 leads to ALOX5 downregulation at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(11):1710-5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
ALOX5 is implicated in chronic myeloid leukemia development in mouse leukemic stem cells, but its importance in human chronic myeloid leukemia is unknown. Functional ALOX5 was assessed using an LTB4 ELISA and ALOX5, and LTB4R1 mRNA expression was determined via a TaqMan gene expression assay. LTB4R1 and 5-LOX protein levels were assessed by cell surface flow cytometry analysis. At diagnosis ALOX5 was below normal in both blood and CD34(+) stem cells in all patients. On treatment initiation, ALOX5 levels increased in all patients except those who were destined to progress subsequently to blast crisis. LTB4 levels were increased despite low ALOX5 expression, suggesting that the arachidonic acid pathway is functioning normally up to the point of LTB4 production. However, the LTB4 receptor (BLT1) protein in newly diagnosed patients was significantly lower than after a period of treatment (P<0.0001). The low level of LTB4R1 at diagnosis explains the downregulation of ALOX5. In the absence of LTB4R1, the arachidonic acid pathway intermediates (5-HEPTE and LTA4) negatively regulate ALOX5. ALOX5 regulation is aberrant in chronic myeloid leukemia patients and may not be important for the development of the disease. Our data suggest caution when extrapolating mouse model data into human chronic myeloid leukemia.

Wen Z, Liu H, Li M, et al.
Increased metabolites of 5-lipoxygenase from hypoxic ovarian cancer cells promote tumor-associated macrophage infiltration.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(10):1241-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), a member of the lipoxygenase gene family, is a key enzyme assisting in the conversion of arachidonic acid to 5-HETE and leukotrienes. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have a critical role in the progression and metastasis of many tumors, including ovarian tumors. Moreover, TAMs are often found in a high density in the hypoxic areas of tumors. However, the relevant mechanisms have not been studied explicitly until now. In this study, we found that the expression of 5-LOX strongly correlated with the density of TAMs in hypoxic areas of human ovarian tumor tissues. In cultured ovarian cancer cells, 5-LOX metabolites were increased under hypoxic conditons. Increased 5-LOX metabolites from hypoxic ovarian cancer cells promoted migration and invasion of macrophages, which was further demonstrated to be mediated by the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 expression through the p38 pathway. Besides, we also showed that 5-LOX metabolites enhanced the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor through upregulation of MMP-7. Furthermore, in animal models, Zileuton (a selective and specific 5-LOX inhibitor) reduced the MMP-7 expression and the number of macrophages infiltrating in the xenograft. Our findings suggest for the first time that increased metabolites of 5-LOX from hypoxic ovarian cancer cells promote TAM infiltration. These results of this study have immediate translational implications for the therapeutic exploitation of TAMs.

DeKelver RC, Lewin B, Lam K, et al.
Cooperation between RUNX1-ETO9a and novel transcriptional partner KLF6 in upregulation of Alox5 in acute myeloid leukemia.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(10):e1003765 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
Fusion protein RUNX1-ETO (AML1-ETO, RUNX1-RUNX1T1) is expressed as the result of the 8q22;21q22 translocation [t(8;21)], which is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities found in acute myeloid leukemia. RUNX1-ETO is thought to promote leukemia development through the aberrant regulation of RUNX1 (AML1) target genes. Repression of these genes occurs via the recruitment of the corepressors N-COR and SMRT due to their interaction with ETO. Mechanisms of RUNX1-ETO target gene upregulation remain less well understood. Here we show that RUNX1-ETO9a, the leukemogenic alternatively spliced transcript expressed from t(8;21), upregulates target gene Alox5, which is a gene critically required for the promotion of chronic myeloid leukemia development by BCR-ABL. Loss of Alox5 expression reduces activity of RUNX1-ETO9a, MLL-AF9 and PML-RARα in vitro. However, Alox5 is not essential for the induction of leukemia by RUNX1-ETO9a in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that the upregulation of Alox5 by RUNX1-ETO9a occurs via the C₂H₂ zinc finger transcription factor KLF6, a protein required for early hematopoiesis and yolk sac development. Furthermore, KLF6 is specifically upregulated by RUNX1-ETO in human leukemia cells. This identifies KLF6 as a novel mediator of t(8;21) target gene regulation, providing a new mechanism for RUNX1-ETO transcriptional control.

Jin TB, Li XL, Yang H, et al.
Association of polymorphisms in FLT3, EGFR, ALOX5, and NEIL3 with glioblastoma in the Han Chinese population.
Med Oncol. 2013; 30(4):718 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the highest-grade glioma in astrocytoma. Patients often have poor prognosis due to therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Identification of the genetic factors of GBM could be important contribution to early prevention of this disease. We genotyped 17 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) from nine genes in this study, including 72 cases and 302 controls. SNP genotyping was conducted using Sequenom MassARRAY RS1000. Statistical analysis of the association between tSNPs and GBM was performed using the χ (2) test and SNPStats software. The rs3829382 in FLT3 was associated with increased odds of developing GBM using the χ (2) test. When we analyzed tSNPs under different inheritance models, we found rs9642393 in EGFR increased odds of developing GBM in the dominant model. After stratification by gender, we found that rs12645561 in NEIL3 and rs2291427 in ALOX5 were associated with developing GBM. Polymorphisms within FLT3, EGFR, NEIL3, and ALOX5 may contribute to the occurrence of GBM in the Han Chinese population. However, the functional significance of these polymorphisms needs further investigation.

Bell E, Ponthan F, Whitworth C, et al.
Cell survival signalling through PPARδ and arachidonic acid metabolites in neuroblastoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68859 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
Retinoic acid (RA) has paradoxical effects on cancer cells: promoting cell death, differentiation and cell cycle arrest, or cell survival and proliferation. Arachidonic acid (AA) release occurs in response to RA treatment and, therefore, AA and its downstream metabolites may be involved in cell survival signalling. To test this, we inhibited phospholipase A2-mediated AA release, cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases with small-molecule inhibitors to determine if this would sensitise cells to cell death after RA treatment. The data suggest that, in response to RA, phospholipase A2-mediated release of AA and subsequent metabolism by lipoxygenases is important for cell survival. Evidence from gene expression reporter assays and PPARδ knockdown suggests that lipoxygenase metabolites activate PPARδ. The involvement of PPARδ in cell survival is supported by results of experiments with the PPARδ inhibitor GSK0660 and siRNA-mediated knockdown. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR studies demonstrated that inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase after RA treatment resulted in a strong up-regulation of mRNA for PPARδ2, a putative inhibitory PPARδ isoform. Over-expression of PPARδ2 using a tetracycline-inducible system in neuroblastoma cells reduced proliferation and induced cell death. These data provide evidence linking lipoxygenases and PPARδ in a cell survival-signalling mechanism and suggest new drug-development targets for malignant and hyper-proliferative diseases.

Li Y, Zhao H, Wang Y, et al.
Isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating arachidonic acid metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013; 272(1):37-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids and its downstream pathways have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in growth control of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid phytoestrogen from licorice, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating multiple key enzymes in AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer. Isoliquiritigenin diminished cell viability, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and clonogenic ability in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231cells, and induced apoptosis as evidenced by an analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and hoechst staining. Furthermore, isoliquiritigenin inhibited mRNA expression of multiple forms of AA-metabolizing enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenases (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, and decreased secretion of their products, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), without affecting COX-1, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). In addition, it downregulated the levels of phospho-PI3K, phospho-PDK (Ser(241)), phospho-Akt (Thr(308)), phospho-Bad (Ser(136)), and Bcl-xL expression, thereby activating caspase cascades and eventually cleaving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Conversely, the addition of exogenous eicosanoids, including PGE2, LTB4 and a 20-HETE analog (WIT003), and caspase inhibitors, or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed isoliquiritigenin-induced apoptosis. Notably, isoliquiritigenin induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice, together with decreased intratumoral levels of eicosanoids and phospho-Akt (Thr(308)). Collectively, these data suggest that isoliquiritigenin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis through downregulating AA metabolic network and the deactivation of PI3K/Akt in human breast cancer.

Holm JB, Grygorczyk R, Lambert IH
Volume-sensitive release of organic osmolytes in the human lung epithelial cell line A549: role of the 5-lipoxygenase.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013; 305(1):C48-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pathophysiological conditions challenge cell volume homeostasis and perturb cell volume regulatory mechanisms leading to alterations of cell metabolism, active transepithelial transport, cell migration, and death. We report that inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) with AA861 or ETH 615-139, the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor (CysLT₁) with the antiasthmatic drug Zafirlukast, or the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC) with DIDS blocks the release of organic osmolytes (taurine, meAIB) and the concomitant cell volume restoration following hypoosmotic swelling of human type II-like lung epithelial cells (A549). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in A549 cells upon hypotonic cell swelling by a diphenylene iodonium-sensitive NADPH oxidase. The swelling-induced taurine release is suppressed by ROS scavenging (butylated hydroxytoluene, N-acetyl cysteine) and potentiated by H₂O₂. Ca²⁺ mobilization with ionomycin or ATP stimulates the swelling-induced taurine release whereas calmodulin inhibition (W7) inhibits the release. Chelation of the extracellular Ca²⁺ (EGTA) had no effect on swelling-induced taurine release but prevented ATP-induced stimulation. H₂O₂, ATP, and ionomycin were unable to stimulate the taurine release in the presence of AA861 or Zafirlukast, placing 5-LO and CysLT₁ as essential elements in the swelling-induced activation of VSOAC with ROS and Ca²⁺ as potent modulators. Inhibition of tyrosine kinases (genistein, cucurbitacin) reduces volume-sensitive taurine release, adding tyrosine kinases (Janus kinase) as regulators of VSOAC activity. Caspase-3 activity during hypoxia is unaffected by inhibition of 5-LO/CysLT₁ but reduced when swelling-induced taurine loss via VSOAC is prevented by DIDS excess extracellular taurine, indicating a beneficial role of taurine under hypoxia.

You X, Liu F, Zhang T, et al.
Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulates oncogene Rab18 to result in the dysregulation of lipogenesis and proliferation of hepatoma cells.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(7):1644-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) contributes to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through inducing dysregulation of lipogenesis. However, the mechanism by which HBx induces the abnormal lipogenesis is not well known. In this study, we report that the oncogene Rab18, a member of Ras family, enhances the HBx-induced hepatocarcinogenesis through inducing dysregulation of lipogenesis and proliferation. Our data showed that the expression levels of Rab18 were positively associated with those of HBx in clinical HCC tissues. HBx was able to upregulate the expression of Rab18 in p21-HBx transgenic mice and hepatoma cell lines. Next, we identified the mechanism by which HBx upregulated Rab18. The results demonstrated that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) were able to stimulate Rab18 promoter through activating transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding (CREB). In addition, we identified another pathway that HBx activated Rab18. We found that miR-429 was able to directly target the 3' untranslated region of Rab18, suggesting that Rab18 is one of the target genes of miR-429. Then, we found that HBx was able to downregulate miR-429 in hepatoma cells. The oil red O staining showed that HBx resulted in the dysregulation of lipogenesis through Rab18. Moreover, Rab18 contributed to the HBx-enhanced proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. HBx enhances hepatocarcinogenesis through leading to the dysregulation of lipogenesis and proliferation of hepatoma cells, involving two pathways such as HBx/COX-2/5-LOX/AP-1/CREB/Rab18 and HBx/miR-429/Rab18.

Kleinstein SE, Heath L, Makar KW, et al.
Genetic variation in the lipoxygenase pathway and risk of colorectal neoplasia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(5):437-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
Arachidonate lipoxygenase (ALOX) enzymes metabolize arachidonic acid to generate potent inflammatory mediators and play an important role in inflammation-associated diseases. We investigated associations between colorectal cancer risk and polymorphisms in ALOX5, FLAP, ALOX12, and ALOX15, and their interactions with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. We genotyped fifty tagSNPs, one candidate SNP, and two functional promoter variable nucleotide tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in three US population-based case-control studies of colon cancer (1,424 cases/1,780 controls), rectal cancer (583 cases/775 controls), and colorectal adenomas (485 cases/578 controls). Individuals with variant genotypes of the ALOX5 VNTR had a decreased risk of rectal cancer, with the strongest association seen for individuals with one or more alleles of >5 repeats (wild type = 5, OR>5/≥5 = 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.92; P = 0.01). Four SNPs in FLAP (rs17239025), ALOX12 (rs2073438), and ALOX15 (rs4796535 and rs2619112) were associated with rectal cancer risk at P ≤ 0.05. One SNP in FLAP (rs12429692) was associated with adenoma risk. A false discovery rate (FDR) was applied to account for false positives due to multiple testing; the ALOX15 associations were noteworthy at 25% FDR. Colorectal neoplasia risk appeared to be modified by NSAID use in individuals with variant alleles in FLAP and ALOX15. One noteworthy interaction (25% FDR) was observed for rectal cancer. Genetic variability in ALOXs may affect risk of colorectal neoplasia, particularly for rectal cancer. Additionally, genetic variability in FLAP and ALOX15 may modify the protective effect of NSAID use against colorectal neoplasia.

Yabushita S, Fukamachi K, Tanaka H, et al.
Metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling of human K-ras oncogene transgenic rats with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(6):1251-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most debilitating malignancies in humans, and one of the reasons for this is the inability to diagnose this disease early in its development. To search for biomarkers that can be used for early diagnosis of PDAC, we established a rat model of human PDAC in which expression of a human K-ras(G12V) oncogene and induction of PDAC are regulated by the Cre/lox system. In the present study, transgenic rats bearing PDAC and control transgenic rats with normal pancreatic tissues were used for metabolomic analysis of serum and pancreatic tissue by non-targeted and targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and transcriptomic analysis of pancreatic tissue by microarray. Comparison of the metabolic profiles of the serum and pancreatic tissue of PDAC-bearing and control rats identified palmitoleic acid as a metabolite, which was significantly decreased in the serum of PDAC-bearing animals. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that several transcripts involved in anaerobic glycolysis and nucleotide degradation were increased and transcripts involved in the trichloroacetic acid cycle were decreased. Other transcripts that were changed in PDAC-bearing rats were adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase (decreased: fatty acid biosynthesis), fatty acid synthase (increased: fatty acid biosynthesis) and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (increased: arachidonic acid metabolism). Overall, our results suggest that the decreased serum levels of palmitoleic acid in rats with PDAC was likely due to its decrease in pancreatic tissue and that palmitoleic acid should be investigated in human samples to assess its diagnostic significance as a serum biomarker for human PDAC.

Woessner DW, Lim CS
Disrupting BCR-ABL in combination with secondary leukemia-specific pathways in CML cells leads to enhanced apoptosis and decreased proliferation.
Mol Pharm. 2013; 10(1):270-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder caused by expression of the fusion gene BCR-ABL following a chromosomal translocation in the hematopoietic stem cell. Therapeutic management of CML uses tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which block ABL-signaling and effectively kill peripheral cells with BCR-ABL. However, TKIs are not curative, and chronic use is required in order to treat CML. The primary failure for TKIs is through the development of a resistant population due to mutations in the TKI binding regions. This led us to develop the mutant coiled-coil, CC(mut2), an alternative method for BCR-ABL signaling inhibition by targeting the N-terminal oligomerization domain of BCR, necessary for ABL activation. In this article, we explore additional pathways that are important for leukemic stem cell survival in K562 cells. Using a candidate-based approach, we test the combination of CC(mut2) and inhibitors of unique secondary pathways in leukemic cells. Transformative potential was reduced following silencing of the leukemic stem cell factor Alox5 by RNA interference. Furthermore, blockade of the oncogenic protein MUC-1 by the novel peptide GO-201 yielded reductions in proliferation and increased cell death. Finally, we found that inhibiting macroautophagy using chloroquine in addition to blocking BCR-ABL signaling with the CC(mut2) was most effective in limiting cell survival and proliferation. This study has elucidated possible combination therapies for CML using novel blockade of BCR-ABL and secondary leukemia-specific pathways.

Pringels S, Van Damme N, De Craene B, et al.
Clinical procedure for colon carcinoma tissue sampling directly affects the cancer marker-capacity of VEGF family members.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:515 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: mRNA levels of members of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor family (VEGF-A, -B, -C, -D, Placental Growth Factor/PlGF) have been investigated as tissue-based markers of colon cancer. These studies, which used specimens obtained by surgical resection or colonoscopic biopsy, yielded contradictory results. We studied the effect of the sampling method on the marker accuracy of VEGF family members.
METHODS: Comparative RT-qPCR analysis was performed on healthy colon and colon carcinoma samples obtained by biopsy (n = 38) or resection (n = 39) to measure mRNA expression levels of individual VEGF family members. mRNA levels of genes encoding the eicosanoid enzymes cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and of genes encoding the hypoxia markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) were included as markers for cellular stress and hypoxia.
RESULTS: Expression levels of COX2, 5-LOX, GLUT-1 and CAIX revealed the occurrence in healthy colon resection samples of hypoxic cellular stress and a concurrent increment of basal expression levels of VEGF family members. This increment abolished differential expression of VEGF-B and VEGF-C in matched carcinoma resection samples and created a surgery-induced underexpression of VEGF-D. VEGF-A and PlGF showed strong overexpression in carcinoma samples regardless of the sampling method.
CONCLUSIONS: Sampling-induced hypoxia in resection samples but not in biopsy samples affects the marker-reliability of VEGF family members. Therefore, biopsy samples provide a more accurate report on VEGF family mRNA levels. Furthermore, this limited expression analysis proposes VEGF-A and PlGF as reliable, sampling procedure insensitive mRNA-markers for molecular diagnosis of colon cancer.

Bishayee K, Chakraborty D, Ghosh S, et al.
Lycopodine triggers apoptosis by modulating 5-lipoxygenase, and depolarizing mitochondrial membrane potential in androgen sensitive and refractory prostate cancer cells without modulating p53 activity: signaling cascade and drug-DNA interaction.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2013; 698(1-3):110-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
When the prostate cancer cells become unresponsive to androgen therapy, resistance to chemotherapy becomes imminent, resulting in high mortality. To combat this situation, lycopodine, a pharmacologically important bioactive component derived from Lycopodium clavatum spores, was tested against hormone sensitive (LnCaP) and refractory (PC3) prostate cancer cells in vitro. This study aims to check if lycopodine has demonstrable anti-cancer effects and if it has, to find out the possible mechanism of its action. The MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect. Depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle, EGF receptor activity and apoptosis were recorded by FACS; profiles of different anti- and pro-apoptotic genes and their products were studied by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, indirect-ELISA, western blotting. Drug-DNA interaction was determined by CD spectroscopy. Administration of lycopodine down-regulated the expression of 5-lipoxygenase and the 5-oxo-ETE receptor (OXE receptor1) and EGF receptor, and caused up-regulation of cytochrome c with depolarization of mitochondrial inner membrane potential, without palpable change in p53 activity, resulting in apoptosis, cell arrest at G0/G1 stage and ultimately reduced proliferation of cancer cells; concomitantly, there was externalization of phosphotidyl serine residues. CD spectroscopic analysis revealed intercalating property of lycopodine with DNA molecule, implicating its ability to block cellular DNA synthesis. The overall results suggest that lycopodine is a promising candidate suitable for therapeutic use as an anti-cancer drug.

Zhao Y, Wang W, Wang Q, et al.
Lipid metabolism enzyme 5-LOX and its metabolite LTB4 are capable of activating transcription factor NF-κB in hepatoma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 418(4):647-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
The issue that lipid metabolism enzyme and its metabolites regulate transcription factors in cancer cell is not fully understood. In this study, we first report that the lipid metabolism enzyme 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and its metabolite leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are capable of activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in hepatoma cells. We found that the treatment of MK886 (an inhibitor of 5-LOX) or knockdown of 5-LOX was able to downregulate the expression of NF-κB p65 at the mRNA level and decreased the phosphorylation level of inhibitor κBα (IκBα) in the cytoplasm of hepatoma HepG2 or H7402 cells, which resulted in the decrease of the level of nuclear NF-κB p65. These were confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in HepG2 cell. Moreover, the above treatments were able to decrease the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in the cells. The LTB4, one of metabolites of 5-LOX, is responsible for 5-LOX-activated NF-κB in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that the lipid metabolism enzyme 5-LOX and its metabolite LTB4 are capable of activating transcription factor NF-κB in hepatoma cells. Our finding provides new insight into the significance of lipid metabolism in activation of transcription factors in cancer.

White KL, Schildkraut JM, Palmieri RT, et al.
Ovarian cancer risk associated with inherited inflammation-related variants.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(5):1064-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
The importance of inflammation pathways to the development of many human cancers prompted us to examine the associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in inflammation-related genes and risk of ovarian cancer. In a multisite case-control study, we genotyped SNPs in a large panel of inflammatory genes in 930 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 1,037 controls using a custom array and analyzed by logistic regression. SNPs with P < 0.10 were evaluated among 3,143 cases and 2,102 controls from the Follow-up of Ovarian Cancer Genetic Association and Interaction Studies (FOCI) post-GWAS collaboration. Combined analysis revealed association with SNPs rs17561 and rs4848300 in the interleukin gene IL1A which varied by histologic subtype (P(heterogeneity) = 0.03). For example, IL1A rs17561, which correlates with numerous inflammatory phenotypes, was associated with decreased risk of clear cell, mucinous, and endometrioid subtype, but not with the most common serous subtype. Genotype at rs1864414 in the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ALOX5 was also associated with decreased risk. Thus, inherited variation in IL1A and ALOX5 seems to affect ovarian cancer risk which, for IL1A, is limited to rarer subtypes. Given the importance of inflammation in tumorigenesis and growing evidence of subtype-specific features in ovarian cancer, functional investigations will be important to help clarify the importance of inherited variation related to inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis.

Ding X, Zhu C, Qiang H, et al.
Enhancing antitumor effects in pancreatic cancer cells by combined use of COX-2 and 5-LOX inhibitors.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2011; 65(7):486-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and lipoxygenase (LOX)-5 are involved in carcinogenesis of pancreatic cancer. COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib displays inhibitory effects in pancreatic cancer cell growth. Recently, it has been reported that COX-2 inhibitor may not be able to suppress pancreatic tumor growth in vivo and its application is further limited by untoward side effects. The present study provides evidence that combined use of celecoxib and 5-LOX inhibitor MK886 markedly suppresses pancreatic tumor cell growth in vitro. Compared to the single inhibitor treatment, dual treatment with celecoxib and MK886 exerted additive antitumor effects in pancreatic tumor cells. We found that MK886 reversed celecoxib-induced increases in 5-LOX gene expression and Erk1/2 activation in pancreatic tumor cells. Moreover, Dual treatment of pancreatic tumor cells with celecoxib and MK886 inhibited the levels of LBT4 receptor BLT1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Our results imply that combined use of celecoxib and MK886 might be an effective way to treat clinical patients with pancreatic cancer.

Sethi G, Shanmugam MK, Ramachandran L, et al.
Multifaceted link between cancer and inflammation.
Biosci Rep. 2012; 32(1):1-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence from epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies suggests that dysregulated inflammatory response plays a pivotal role in a multitude of chronic ailments including cancer. The molecular mechanism(s) by which chronic inflammation drives cancer initiation and promotion include increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen intermediates, increased expression of oncogenes, COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2), 5-LOX (5-lipoxygenase) and MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases), and pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), AP-1 (activator protein 1) and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) that mediate tumour cell proliferation, transformation, metastasis, survival, invasion, angiogenesis, chemoresistance and radioresistance. These inflammation-associated molecules are activated by a number of environmental and lifestyle-related factors including infectious agents, tobacco, stress, diet, obesity and alcohol, which together are thought to drive as much as 90% of all cancers. The present review will focus primarily on the role of various inflammatory intermediates responsible for tumour initiation and progression, and discuss in detail the critical link between inflammation and cancer.

Sarveswaran S, Thamilselvan V, Brodie C, Ghosh J
Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase triggers apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via down-regulation of protein kinase C-epsilon.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011; 1813(12):2108-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
Previous studies have shown that human prostate cancer cells constitutively generate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) metabolites from arachidonic acid, and inhibition of 5-LOX blocks production of 5-LOX metabolites and triggers apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. This apoptosis is prevented by exogenous metabolites of 5-LOX, suggesting an essential role of 5-LOX metabolites in the survival of prostate cancer cells. However, downstream signaling mechanisms which mediate the survival-promoting effects of 5-LOX metabolites in prostate cancer cells are still unknown. Recently, we reported that MK591, a specific inhibitor of 5-LOX activity, induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells without inhibition of Akt, or ERK, two well-characterized regulators of pro-survival mechanisms, suggesting the existence of an Akt and ERK-independent survival mechanism in prostate cancer cells regulated by 5-LOX. Here, we report that 5-LOX inhibition-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells occurs via rapid inactivation of protein kinase C-epsilon (PKCε), and that exogenous 5-LOX metabolites prevent both 5-LOX inhibition-induced down-regulation of PKCε and induction of apoptosis. Interestingly, pre-treatment of prostate cancer cells with diazoxide (a chemical activator of PKCε), or KAE1-1 (a cell-permeable, octa-peptide specific activator of PKCε) prevents 5-LOX inhibition-induced apoptosis, which indicates that inhibition of 5-LOX triggers apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via down-regulation of PKCε. Altogether, these findings suggest that metabolism of arachidonic acid by 5-LOX activity promotes survival of prostate cancer cells via signaling through PKCε, a pro-survival serine/threonine kinase.

Xie Z, Bi C, Cheong LL, et al.
Determinants of sensitivity to DZNep induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e21583 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
The 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), one of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase inhibitors, has shown antitumor activities in a broad range of solid tumors and acute myeloid leukemia. Here, we examined its effects on multiple myeloma (MM) cells and found that, at 500 nM, it potently inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in 2 of 8 MM cell lines. RNA from un-treated and DZNep treated cells was profiled by Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarray and genes with a significant change in gene expression were determined by significance analysis of microarray (SAM) testing. ALOX5 was the most down-regulated gene (5.8-fold) in sensitive cells and was expressed at low level in resistant cells. The results were corroborated by quantitative RT-PCR. Western-blot analysis indicated ALOX5 was highly expressed only in sensitive cell line H929 and greatly decreased upon DZNep treatment. Ectopic expression of ALOX5 reduced sensitivity to DZNep in H929 cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of ALOX5 by RNA interference could also induce apoptosis in H929. Gene expression analysis on MM patient dataset indicated ALOX5 expression was significantly higher in MM patients compared to normal plasma cells. We also found that Bcl-2 was overexpressed in DZNep insensitive cells, and cotreatment with DZNep and ABT-737, a Bcl-2 family inhibitor, synergistically inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of DZNep insensitive MM cells. Taken together, this study shows one of mechanisms of the DZNep efficacy on MM correlates with its ability to down-regulate the ALOX5 levels. In addition, DZNep insensitivity might be associated with overexpression of Bcl-2, and the combination of ABT-737 and DZNep could synergistically induced apoptosis. These results suggest that DZNep may be exploited therapeutically for a subset of MM.

Ding X, Zhou X, Zhang H, et al.
Triptolide augments the effects of 5-lipoxygenase RNA interference in suppressing pancreatic tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012; 69(1):253-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pancreatic cancer has one of the highest fatality rates of all cancers, and new strategies or reagents to tackle this disease are needed. Triptolide (TL) is able to potently inhibit the growth of pancreatic tumor cells in vitro. On the other hand, blockage of 5-LOX pathway might be useful for treatment of pancreatic cancer. In the current study, we tested the effects of 5-LOX RNA interference and TL individually or in combination in suppressing human pancreatic tumor growth in xenograft mouse model.
METHODS: 5-LOX short hairpin RNA (shRNA) vectors were developed and screened out for their efficacy in human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990 in vitro. Their antitumor effects were also evaluated by measuring cell proliferation and apoptosis. An effective 5-LOX shRNA was given alone or in combination with TL to treat pancreatic tumor xenograft. Expression levels of 5-LOX and VEGF were measured with Western blotting and immunohistology.
RESULTS: Knocking down 5-LOX gene suppressed cancer cell growth in vitro and intra-tumoral delivering of 5-LOX shRNA inhibited growth of transplanted tumor in vivo. TL treatment induced tumor suppression and greatly enhanced antitumor effects of 5-LOX shRNA in the mouse model. 5-LOX RNA interference or TL treatment suppresses VEGF expression in tumor tissue, and combined treatment further reduces its expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Both treatments exerted antitumor effects in vivo, and combined use of the two approaches produced more powerful antitumor effects. Synergistic effects of combined treatment in VEGF expression may contribute to the mechanisms of the strong antitumor effects.

Park SW, Heo DS, Sung MW
The shunting of arachidonic acid metabolism to 5-lipoxygenase and cytochrome p450 epoxygenase antagonizes the anti-cancer effect of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in head and neck cancer cells.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2012; 35(1):1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has recently been found that 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and cytochrome P450-2J2 (CYP2J2), molecules capable of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, might promote cancer cell viability through several mechanisms similar to those of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We found that not only COX-2 expression, but also the expression of 5-LO and CYP2J2 is up-regulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. From these observations, we hypothesized that AA metabolism by 5-LO and/or CYP2J2 may lower the efficacy of anti-cancer effect by COX-2 inhibition.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Although COX-2 was highly expressed in all cell lines tested, COX-2-specific inhibition showed little growth-inhibitory effect in some cell lines. Inhibition of COX-2 resulted in increased production of LTB(4) and 14-15-DHET/EET, metabolites of 5-LO and CYP2J2, respectively. Combined knock-down of COX-2 and 5-LO or CYP2J2 by siRNA results in a decrease in cell proliferation and VEGF production. Furthermore, these results are dependent on 5-LO and CYP2J2 expression in cells.
CONCLUSION: Therefore, combined inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LO or CYP2J2 may be one way to overcome low efficacy of single inhibition of COX-2 in cancer cells. In addition, combined therapies should be chosen based on the expression of members of other AA metabolism pathways.

Hu N, Li Y, Zhao Y, et al.
A novel positive feedback loop involving FASN/p-ERK1/2/5-LOX/LTB4/FASN sustains high growth of breast cancer cells.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011; 32(7):921-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the endogenous signaling pathways associated with high proliferation potential of breast cancer cells.
METHODS: Breast cancer cell lines LM-MCF-7 and MCF-7 with high and low proliferation capability were used. The promoter activity of fatty acid synthase (FASN) was examined using luciferase reporter gene assay. The expression level of FASN mRNA was measured using RT-PCR and real time PCR, respectively. The level of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was determined with ELISA. The expression levels of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. 5-Bromo-20-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay was used to study the proliferation of LM-MCF-7 and MCF-7 cells.
RESULTS: The promoter activity of FASN was significantly higher in LM-MCF-7 cells than MCF-7 cells. Treatment of LM-MCF-7 cells with ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (30-50 μmol/L) or LOX inhibitor NDGA (25 μmol/L) abolished the activation of FASN. Moreover, treatment of LM-MCF-7 cells with the specific 5-LOX inhibitor MK-886 (20-40 μmol/L) or 5-LOX siRNA (50-100 nmol/L) decreased the promoter activity of FASN. The level of LTB4, the final metabolite produced by 5-LOX, was significantly higher in LM-MCF-7 cells than MCF-7 cells. Administration of exogenous LTB4 (1-10 nmol/L) was able to stimulate the promoter activity of FASN in MCF-7 cells. Treatment of LM-MCF-7 cells with the FASN inhibitor cerulenin (10 μmol/L) reduced all the levels of p-ERK1/2, 5-LOX, and LTB4. Treatment of LM-MCF-7 cells with cerulenin, PD98059, or MK-886 abolished the proliferation. Administration of exogenous LTB4 (10 nmol/L) significantly increased BrdU incorporation in MCF-7 cells.
CONCLUSION: THESE results suggest a novel positive feedback loop involving FASN/p-ERK1/2/5-LOX/LTB4/FASN contributes to the sustaining growth of breast cancer LM-MCF-7 cells.

Chen Y, Sullivan C, Peng C, et al.
A tumor suppressor function of the Msr1 gene in leukemia stem cells of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Blood. 2011; 118(2):390-400 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
We have shown that Alox5 is a critical regulator of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in a BCR-ABL-induced chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) mouse model, and we hypothesize that the Alox5 pathway represents a major molecular network that regulates LSC function. Therefore, we sought to dissect this pathway by comparing the gene expression profiles of wild type and Alox5(-/-) LSCs. DNA microarray analysis revealed a small group of candidate genes that exhibited changes in the levels of transcription in the absence of Alox5 expression. In particular, we noted that the expression of the Msr1 gene was upregulated in Alox5(-/-) LSCs, suggesting that Msr1 suppresses the proliferation of LSCs. Using CML mouse model, we show that Msr1 is downregulated by BCR-ABL and this down-regulation is partially restored by Alox5 deletion, and that Msr1 deletion causes acceleration of CML development. Moreover, Msr1 deletion markedly increases LSC function through its effects on cell cycle progression and apoptosis. We also show that Msr1 affects CML development by regulating the PI3K-AKT pathway and β-Catenin. Together, these results demonstrate that Msr1 suppresses LSCs and CML development. The enhancement of the tumor suppressor function of Msr1 may be of significance in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for CML.

Sharma S, Lee J, Zhou J, Steele VE
Chemopreventive efficacy and mechanism of licofelone in a mouse lung tumor model via aspiration.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011; 4(8):1233-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
Our previous study comparing inhalation and aspiration to administer agents directly to lung indicated that aspiration route is as effective as inhalation while reducing costs for equipment and chemopreventive agent. This study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy and mechanism of licofelone, a dual inhibitor of COX-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox), via oropharyngeal aspiration against mouse lung adenoma. Eight-week-old female A/J mice were given three doses of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P; 2 mg/dose, gavage) to induce lung adenomas. After dysplasia developed, the mice were given licofelone (0, 0.03, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg) for 16 weeks, and tumor incidence and multiplicity in lung were measured. In addition, the expression of a series of biomarkers in lung cancer progression was evaluated at 2 and 16 weeks. Licofelone showed dose-related inhibition of B[a]P-induced tumor incidence and multiplicity at 0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg following 16-week treatment. Licofelone also showed dose-dependent inhibition of COX-2 (25%-41%) and 5-Lox (35%-61%) at 2 and 16 weeks and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA; 41%-61%) at 16 weeks. A dose-dependent increase in apoptosis (1.5- to 2.4-fold) was also observed in licofelone groups. A marginal inhibition of survivin was observed at one dose. In conclusion, this study showed that licofelone via aspiration showed chemopreventive efficacy against mouse lung adenoma with good correlation to early and late biomarkers of lung cancer progression. This is the first study to show that the aspiration route can be an excellent inexpensive alternative to inhalation for direct delivery of drugs to rodent lungs for efficacy testing of potential chemopreventive agents.

Amirian ES, Ittmann MM, Scheurer ME
Associations between arachidonic acid metabolism gene polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk.
Prostate. 2011; 71(13):1382-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is suspected to be involved in the development of various cancers, including prostate cancer. However, the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of AA pathway genes remains unclear. The purpose of this case-control study was to evaluate the association between prostate cancer risk and 14 such SNPs in the PTGS2, PTGES2, ALOX5, ALOX5AP, and LTA4H genes.
METHODS: Genotyping was conducted on 585 white prostate cancer cases and 585 healthy, age-matched controls. The best genetic model for each SNP was determined using Akaike's information criterion. Odds ratios for the association between each SNP and prostate cancer risk were calculated, both overall and stratified by obesity (BMI ≥ 30). Haplotype analysis was conducted for the PTGES2 SNPs.
RESULTS: LTA4H rs1978331 was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk overall (unadjusted, overdominant model OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.91 for TC vs. TT/CC). Among non-obese individuals, the GG genotype of PTGES2 rs10987883 was associated with an increased risk for prostate cancer (unadjusted, recessive model OR = 3.23, 95% CI: 1.27-8.23).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that SNPs in certain AA metabolism genes may influence prostate cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, it is possible that obesity, which induces a chronic state of low-level inflammation in addition to several metabolic sequelae, may modify the impact of these SNPs. These findings should be confirmed in a larger study with power to detect differential effects by obesity.

Chu J, Praticò D
5-lipoxygenase as an endogenous modulator of amyloid β formation in vivo.
Ann Neurol. 2011; 69(1):34-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) enzymatic pathway is widely distributed within the central nervous system, and is upregulated in Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism whereby it may influence the disease pathogenesis remains elusive.
METHODS: We evaluated the molecular mechanism by which 5-LO regulates amyloid β (Aβ) formation in vitro and in vivo by pharmacological and genetic approaches.
RESULTS: Here we show that 5-LO regulates the formation of Aβ by activating the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), which in turn increases transcription of the γ-secretase complex. Preventing CREB activation by pharmacologic inhibition or dominant negative mutants blocks the 5-LO-dependent elevation of Aβ formation and the increase of γ-secretase mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, 5-LO targeted gene disruption or its in vivo selective pharmacological inhibition results in a significant reduction of Aβ, CREB and γ-secretase levels.
INTERPRETATION: These data establish a novel functional role for 5-LO in regulating endogenous formation of Aβ levels in the central nervous system. Thus, 5-LO pharmacological inhibition may be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

Boudreau LH, Bertin J, Robichaud PP, et al.
Novel 5-lipoxygenase isoforms affect the biosynthesis of 5-lipoxygenase products.
FASEB J. 2011; 25(3):1097-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the essential enzyme for the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, important mediators of inflammation. This study investigated whether variants of 5-LO exist in human leukocytes. 5-LO mRNA isoforms that are consistent with alternative splicing were identified by RT-PCR in a cell line or cell type-specific pattern. All evaluated cells expressed mRNA containing all 14 exons of 5-LO with the expected splicing sites. Individual isoforms that retained intron 10 (α-10), lacked exon 13 (Δ-13), and lacked exons 10 and 13 (Δ-10,13) or that lacked the first 96 base pairs of exon 10 (Δ-p10) were identified. Immunoreactive bands coeluting with the cloned α-10 and Δ-13 isoforms were measured in primary neutrophils and in Raji cells. When expressed in HEK293 cells, alternative proteins were without catalytic activity. However, when coexpressed with the active full-length 5-LO, alternative isoforms significantly decreased the biosynthesis of 5-LO products by up to 44%, as assessed by reverse-phase HPLC analysis. Additionally, in stimulated neutrophils the full-length active 5-LO was detected by immunoblot in both nuclear and non-nuclear compartments, while the Δ-13 isoform was only detected in the nuclear fraction. These alternative 5-LO isoforms may represent a new mechanism for the regulation of the 5-LO pathway and lipid mediator biosynthesis.

Fischer AS, Metzner J, Steinbrink SD, et al.
5-Lipoxygenase inhibitors induce potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects in human tumour cells independently of suppression of 5-lipoxygenase activity.
Br J Pharmacol. 2010; 161(4):936-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Certain 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitors exhibit anti-carcinogenic activities against 5-LO overexpressing tumour types and cultured tumour cells. It has been proposed therefore that 5-LO products significantly contribute to tumour cell proliferation. To date, the relationship between the inhibitory mechanisms of 5-LO inhibitors, which vary widely, and tumour cell viability has not been evaluated. This study addresses the anti-proliferative and cytotoxic potency of a number of 5-LO inhibitors with different inhibitory mechanisms in 5-LO-positive and 5-LO-negative tumour cells.
EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cell viability was measured by the WST-1 assay; cell proliferation was assessed using the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Cell death was analysed by annexin V staining, Western blot analysis of PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase) cleavage and a cytotoxicity assay. 5-LO product formation was quantified by a 5-LO activity assay.
KEY RESULTS: The common 5-LO inhibitors AA-861, Rev-5901 and MK-886 induced cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects in 5-LO-positive Capan-2 pancreatic cancer cells; BWA4C and CJ-13,610 only caused anti-proliferative effects, while zileuton failed to impair cell viability. Moreover, the concentrations of the 5-LO inhibitors required to induce anti-proliferation and cytotoxicity highly exceeded those for suppression of 5-LO. Supplementation with mitogenic 5-LO products failed to protect Capan-2 cells from the effects of 5-LO inhibitors. Finally, the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative 5-LO inhibitors also potently reduced the viability of 5-LO-deficient tumour cell lines (HeLa, Panc-1 and U937).
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Certain 5-LO inhibitors cause cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects independently of suppression of 5-LO activity. Thus, the role of 5-LO overexpression in tumour cell viability remains unclear and requires further elucidation.

Wang B, Yu SC, Jiang JY, et al.
An inhibitor of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, Nordy, induces differentiation and inhibits self-renewal of glioma stem-like cells.
Stem Cell Rev. 2011; 7(2):458-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent progress in cancer biology indicates that eradication of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is essential for more effective cancer therapy. Unfortunately, cancer stem cells such as glioma stem-like cells (GSLCs) are often resistant to either radio- or chemotherapy. Therefore, screening and development for novel therapeutic modalities against CSCs has been an important emerging field in cancer research. In this study, we report that a synthetic dl-nordihydroguaiaretic acid compound (dl-NDGA or "Nordy"), inhibited self-renewal and induced differentiation of GSLCs in vitro and in vivo. We found that Nordy inhibited an enzyme known to be involved in leukemia stem cell and leukemia progression, Alox-5, and attenuated the growth of GSLCs in vitro. Nordy reduced the GSLC pool through a decrease in the CD133(+) population and abrogated clonogenicity. Nordy appeared to exert its effect via astrocytic differentiation by up-regulation of GFAP and down-regulation of stemness related genes, rather than by inducing apoptosis of GSLCs. The growth inhibition of xenografted glioma by Nordy was more long-lasting compared with that of the akylating agent BCNU, which exhibited significant relapse on drug discontinuation resulting from an enrichment of GSLCs. Meanwhile, transient exposure to Nordy reduced tumorigenecity of GSLCs and induced differentiation of the xenografts. Taken together, we have identified Alox-5 as a novel target in GSLCs and its inhibition with Nordy exhibits therapeutic implications through inducing GSLC differentiation.

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