ADH1C

Gene Summary

Gene:ADH1C; alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (class I), gamma polypeptide
Aliases: ADH3
Location:4q23
Summary:This gene encodes class I alcohol dehydrogenase, gamma subunit, which is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Class I alcohol dehydrogenase, consisting of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, exhibits high activity for ethanol oxidation and plays a major role in ethanol catabolism. Three genes encoding alpha, beta and gamma subunits are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:alcohol dehydrogenase 1C
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 28 February, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 28 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 28 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: ADH1C (cancer-related)

Wang J, Wei J, Xu X, et al.
Replication study of ESCC susceptibility genetic polymorphisms locating in the ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster identified by GWAS.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e94096 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
China was one of the countries with highest esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) incidence and mortality worldwide. Alcohol drinking has been identified as a major environmental risk-factor related to ESCC. The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family are major enzymes involved in the alcohol-metabolizing pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and ADH1C. Interestingly, ADH1B and ADH1C genes locate tandemly with ADH7 in a genomic segment as a gene cluster, and are all polymorphic. Several ESCC susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster have been identified previously through a genome-wide association study (GWAS). In the study, we examined the association between five ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster SNPs (rs1042026, rs17033, rs1614972, rs1789903 and rs17028973) and risk of developing ESCC. Genotypes were determined in two independent case-control sets from two regions of China. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Our data demonstrated that these ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster SNPs confer susceptibility to ESCC in these two case-control sets, which were consistent to results of the previous GWAS.

Ahrens W, Pohlabeln H, Foraita R, et al.
Oral health, dental care and mouthwash associated with upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk in Europe: the ARCAGE study.
Oral Oncol. 2014; 50(6):616-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the association of oral health (OH), dental care (DC) and mouthwash with upper-aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk, and to examine the extent that enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohol modify the effect of mouthwash.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 1963 patients with incident cancer of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or esophagus and 1993 controls. Subjects were interviewed about their oral health and dental care behaviors (which were converted to scores of OH and DC respectively), as well as smoking, alcohol drinking, diet, occupations, medical conditions and socio-economic status. Blood samples were taken for genetic analyses. Mouthwash use was analyzed in relation to the presence of polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing genes known to be associated with UADT. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95%-confidence intervals [CI] were estimated with multiple logistic regression models adjusting for multiple confounders.
RESULTS: Fully adjusted ORs of low versus high scores of DC and OH were 2.36[CI=1.51-3.67] and 2.22[CI=1.45-3.41], respectively, for all UADT sites combined. The OR for frequent use of mouthwash use (3 or more times/day) was 3.23[CI=1.68-6.19]. The OR for the rare variant ADH7 (coding for fast ethanol metabolism) was lower in mouthwash-users (OR=0.53[CI=0.35-0.81]) as compared to never-users (OR=0.97[CI=0.73-1.29]) indicating effect modification (pheterogeneity=0.065) while no relevant differences were observed between users and non-users for the variant alleles of ADH1B, ADH1C or ALDH2.
CONCLUSIONS: Poor OH and DC seem to be independent risk factors for UADT because corresponding risk estimates remain substantially elevated after detailed adjustment for multiple confounders. Whether mouthwash use may entail some risk through the alcohol content in most formulations on the market remains to be fully clarified.

Kropotova ES, Zinovieva OL, Zyryanova AF, et al.
Altered expression of multiple genes involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis in human colorectal cancer.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; 20(3):707-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the oxidized form of vitamin A (retinol), regulates a wide variety of biological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Multiple alcohol, retinol and retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (ADHs, RDHs, RALDHs) as well as aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) catalyze atRA production. The reduced atRA biosynthesis has been observed in several human tumors, including colorectal cancer. However, subsets of atRA-synthesizing enzymes have not been determined in colorectal tumors. We investigated the expression patterns of genes involved in atRA biosynthesis in normal human colorectal tissues, primary carcinomas and cancer cell lines by RT-PCR. These genes were identified using transcriptomic data analysis (expressed sequence tags, RNA-sequencing, microarrays). Our results indicate that each step of the atRA biosynthesis pathway is dysregulated in colorectal cancer. Frequent and significant decreases in the mRNA levels of the ADH1B, ADH1C, RDHL, RDH5 and AKR1B10 genes were observed in a majority of colorectal carcinomas. The expression levels of the RALDH1 gene were reduced, and the expression levels of the cytochrome CYP26A1 gene increased. The human colon cancer cell lines showed a similar pattern of changes in the mRNA levels of these genes. A dramatic reduction in the expression of genes encoding the predominant retinol-oxidizing enzymes could impair atRA production. The most abundant of these genes, ADH1B and ADH1C, display decreased expression during progression from adenoma to early and more advanced stage of colorectal carcinomas. The diminished atRA biosynthesis may lead to alteration of cell growth and differentiation in the colon and rectum, thus contributing to the progression of colorectal cancer.

Khrunin AV, Khokhrin DV, Moisseev AA, et al.
Pharmacogenomic assessment of cisplatin-based chemotherapy outcomes in ovarian cancer.
Pharmacogenomics. 2014; 15(3):329-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Cisplatin and its analogs are potent antitumor agents. However, their use is restricted by significant variability in tumor response and toxicity. There is a great need to identify genetic markers to predict the most important adverse events and patient outcomes.
MATERIALS & METHODS: We have evaluated the association between polymorphisms in 106 genes involved mainly in xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, the cell cycle and apoptosis, and outcomes in 104 ovarian cancer patients receiving cisplatin-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. Arrayed primer extension technology was used to genotype 228 SNPs.
RESULTS: Ten SNPs in nine genes were found to be associated with one or more of the assessed clinical end points. SNPs in TPMT and NQO1 were significantly associated with progression-free survival. Polymorphisms in ERCC5, RAD52, MUTYH and LIG3 correlated with the occurrence of severe neutropenia. SNPs in NAT2 and EPHX1 were associated with anemia and nephrotoxicity, respectively. A SNP in ADH1C was correlated with complete tumor response.
CONCLUSION: The results obtained suggest that SNPs in different genes involved in drug metabolism can be important in identifying patients at risk for nonresponse to or toxicity from cisplatin-based treatment.

Anantharaman D, Chabrier A, Gaborieau V, et al.
Genetic variants in nicotine addiction and alcohol metabolism genes, oral cancer risk and the propensity to smoke and drink alcohol: a replication study in India.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e88240 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and alcohol metabolism genes have been associated with propensity to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol, respectively, and also implicated in genetic susceptibility to head and neck cancer. In addition to smoking and alcohol, tobacco chewing is an important oral cancer risk factor in India. It is not known if these genetic variants influence propensity or oral cancer susceptibility in the context of this distinct etiology.
METHODS: We examined 639 oral and pharyngeal cancer cases and 791 controls from two case-control studies conducted in India. We investigated six variants known to influence nicotine addiction or alcohol metabolism, including rs16969968 (CHRNA5), rs578776 (CHRNA3), rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs698 (ADH1C), rs1573496 (ADH7), and rs4767364 (ALDH2).
RESULTS: The CHRN variants were associated with the number of chewing events per day, including in those who chewed tobacco but never smoked (P =  0.003, P =  0.01 for rs16969968 and rs578776 respectively). Presence of the variant allele contributed to approximately 13% difference in chewing frequency compared to non-carriers. While no association was observed between rs16969968 and oral cancer risk (OR =  1.01, 95% CI =  0.83- 1.22), rs578776 was modestly associated with a 16% decreased risk of oral cancer (OR =  0.84, 95% CI =  0.72- 0.98). There was little evidence for association between polymorphisms in genes encoding alcohol metabolism and oral cancer in this population.
CONCLUSION: The association between rs16969968 and number of chewing events implies that the effect on smoking propensity conferred by this gene variant extends to the use of smokeless tobacco.

Hakenewerth AM, Millikan RC, Rusyn I, et al.
Effects of polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism and oxidative stress genes on survival from head and neck cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2013; 37(4):479-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Heavy alcohol consumption increases risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Alcohol metabolism to cytotoxic and mutagenic intermediates acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species is critical for alcohol-drinking-associated carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism-related and antioxidant genes influence SCCHN survival.
METHODS: Interview and genotyping data (64 polymorphisms in 12 genes) were obtained from 1227 white and African-American cases from the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology study, a population-based case-control study of SCCHN conducted in North Carolina from 2002 to 2006. Vital status, date and cause of death through 2009 were obtained from the National Death Index. Kaplan-Meier log-rank tests and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated to identify alleles associated with survival.
RESULTS: Most tested SNPs were not associated with survival, with the exception of the minor alleles of rs3813865 and rs8192772 in CYP2E1. These were associated with poorer cancer-specific survival (HRrs3813865, 95% CI=2.00, 1.33-3.01; HRrs8192772, 95% CI=1.62, 1.17-2.23). Hazard ratios for 8 additional SNPs in CYP2E1, GPx2, SOD1, and SOD2, though not statistically significant, were suggestive of differences in allele hazards for all-cause and/or cancer death. No consistent associations with survival were found for SNPs in ADH1B, ADH1C, ADH4, ADH7, ALDH2, GPx2, GPx4, and CAT.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified some polymorphisms in alcohol and oxidative stress metabolism genes that influence survival in subjects with SCCHN. Previously unreported associations of SNPs in CYP2E1 warrant further investigation.

Bonaventure A, Rudant J, Goujon-Bellec S, et al.
Childhood acute leukemia, maternal beverage intake during pregnancy, and metabolic polymorphisms.
Cancer Causes Control. 2013; 24(4):783-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the associations between childhood acute leukemia (AL) and maternal caffeinated beverage consumption during pregnancy, and to explore interactions between caffeinated and alcoholic beverage consumption and polymorphisms of enzymes involved in caffeine and ethanol metabolisms.
METHODS: The data were generated by the French ESCALE study, which included 764 AL cases and 1,681 controls in 2003-2004. The case and control mothers were interviewed on their consumption habits during pregnancy using a standardized questionnaire. Genotypes of the candidate alleles (NAT2*5 rs1801280, ADH1C*2 rs698 and rs1693482, CYP2E1*5 rs2031920 and rs3813867) were obtained using high-throughput genotyping and imputation data for 493 AL cases and 549 controls with at least two grandparents born in Europe.
RESULTS: Maternal regular coffee consumption during pregnancy was associated with childhood AL (OR = 1.2 [1.0-1.5], p = 0.02); the odds ratios increased linearly with daily intake (p for trend <0.001; >2 cups per day vs. no or less than 1 cup per week: AL: OR = 1.6 [1.2-2.1], lymphoblastic AL: OR = 1.5 [1.1-2.0], myeloblastic AL: OR = 2.4 [1.3-4.3]). The association was slightly more marked for children born to non-smoking mothers. Lymphoblastic AL was also associated with cola soda drinking (OR = 1.3 [1.0-1.5], p = 0.02). No significant gene-environment interactions with coffee, tea, cola soda, or alcohol drinking were observed.
CONCLUSION: This study provides additional evidence that maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy may be associated with childhood AL. Coffee consumption is a prevalent habit and its potential involvement in childhood AL needs to be considered further.

Mutka SC, Green LH, Verderber EL, et al.
ADH IB expression, but not ADH III, is decreased in human lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52995 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endogenous S-nitrosothiols, including S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), mediate nitric oxide (NO)-based signaling, inflammatory responses, and smooth muscle function. Reduced GSNO levels have been implicated in several respiratory diseases, and inhibition of GSNO reductase, (GSNOR) the primary enzyme that metabolizes GSNO, represents a novel approach to treating inflammatory lung diseases. Recently, an association between decreased GSNOR expression and human lung cancer risk was proposed in part based on immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal GSNOR antibody. GSNOR is an isozyme of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family, and we demonstrate that the antibody used in those studies cross reacts substantially with other ADH proteins and may not be an appropriate reagent. We evaluated human lung cancer tissue arrays using monoclonal antibodies highly specific for human GSNOR with minimal cross reactivity to other ADH proteins. We verified the presence of GSNOR in ≥85% of specimens examined, and extensive analysis of these samples demonstrated no difference in GSNOR protein expression between cancerous and normal lung tissues. Additionally, GSNOR and other ADH mRNA levels were evaluated quantitatively in lung cancer cDNA arrays by qPCR. Consistent with our immunohistochemical findings, GSNOR mRNA levels were not changed in lung cancer tissues, however the expression levels of other ADH genes were decreased. ADH IB mRNA levels were reduced (>10-fold) in 65% of the lung cancer cDNA specimens. We conclude that the previously reported results showed an incorrect association of GSNOR and human lung cancer risk, and a decrease in ADH IB, rather than GSNOR, correlates with human lung cancer.

Wu M, Chang SC, Kampman E, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes and esophageal cancer: a population-based case-control study in China.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(8):1868-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Alcohol drinking is a major risk factor for esophageal cancer (EC) and the metabolism of ethanol has been suggested to play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including genomewide association studies (GWAS), have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) to be associated with EC. Using a population-based case-control study with 858 EC cases and 1,081 controls conducted in Jiangsu Province, China, we aimed to provide further information on the association of ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms with EC in a Chinese population. Results showed that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.66] for G-allele carriers compared to A/A homozygotes. No heterogeneity was detected on this association across different strata of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Statistical interaction between ALDH2 (rs671) and alcohol drinking on EC susceptibility in both additive and multiplicative scales was observed. Compared to G/G homozygotes, A-allele carriers were positively associated with EC among moderate/heavy drinkers (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.12-2.40) and inversely associated with EC among never/light drinks (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.54-1.03). In addition, statistical interaction between ALDH2 and ADH1B polymorphisms on EC susceptibility among never/light drinkers was indicated. We did not observe association of ADH1C polymorphism with EC. In conclusion, our findings indicated that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC independent of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking status and alcohol drinking interacted with ALDH2 (rs671) on EC susceptibility in this high-risk Chinese population.

Cadoni G, Boccia S, Petrelli L, et al.
A review of genetic epidemiology of head and neck cancer related to polymorphisms in metabolic genes, cell cycle control and alcohol metabolism.
Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2012; 32(1):1-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The purpose of this report is to review the relationship between genetic polymorphisms involved in carcinogen metabolism, alcohol metabolism and cell-cycle control with the risk of head and neck cancer. The review was performed on available studies on genetic polymorphisms and head and neck cancer (HNC) published in PubMed up to September 2011. 246 primary articles and 7 meta-analyses were published. Among these, a statistically significant association was reported for glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferases (GSTT1) and human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) genes. An increased risk for HNC was also associated reported for P53 codon 72 Pro/Pro, ALDH2 and three variants of the ADH gene: ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH7 (rs1573496) and ADH1C (rs698).

Salaspuro M, Mikko S
Interactions of alcohol and tobacco in gastrointestinal cancer.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012; 27 Suppl 2:135-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer prevention is based on the identification of specific etiologic factors. Acetaldehyde derived from the alcoholic beverage itself and formed from ethanol endogenously has recently been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer/World Health Organization as a group 1 carcinogen to humans. This is based on the uniform epidemiological and biochemical evidence derived from individuals carrying alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene mutations. After drinking alcohol, these mutations are associated with increased exposure of the upper digestive tract to acetaldehyde and as well with a remarkably increased risk for upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers. Acetaldehyde is the key intermediate in alcoholic fermentation and ethanol oxidation. Therefore, it is widely present in our environment. Furthermore, it is the most abundant carcinogenic compound of tobacco smoke. Most of the known risk factors for upper digestive tract cancer appear to be associated with an enhanced exposure of GI mucosa to locally formed acetaldehyde. In these process microbes, salivary glands and even mucosal cells appear to play an essential role. Consequently, in the presence of ethanol mutagenic acetaldehyde concentrations are found in the saliva, achlorhydric stomach and colon. Equal acetaldehyde concentrations are seen in saliva also during active smoking. ALDH2-deficiency and high active ADH1C result in two- to threefold salivary acetaldehyde concentrations after a dose of alcohol and this prevails for as long as ethanol is present in the blood and saliva. Regarding cancer prevention, the good news is that acetaldehyde exposure can be markedly reduced. This can be achieved by giving high priority for regulatory measures and consumer guidance.

Duell EJ, Sala N, Travier N, et al.
Genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C, ADH7) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(2):361-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies that have examined the association between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer (GC) risk have been inconsistent. We conducted an investigation of 29 genetic variants in alcohol metabolism loci (alcohol dehydrogenase, ADH1 gene cluster: ADH1A, ADH1B and ADH1C; ADH7 and aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDH2), alcohol intake and GC risk. We analyzed data from a nested case-control study (364 cases and 1272 controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using a customized array. We observed a statistically significant association between a common 3'-flanking SNP near ADH1A (rs1230025) and GC risk [allelic odds ratio (OR)(A v T) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.59]. Two intronic variants, one in ADH1C (rs283411) and one in ALDH2 (rs16941667), also were associated with GC risk (OR(T v C) = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.38-0.91 and OR(T v C) = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.00-1.79, respectively). Individuals carrying variant alleles at both ADH1 (rs1230025) and ALDH2 (rs16941667) were twice as likely to develop GC (OR(A+T) = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.25-3.20) as those not carrying variant alleles. The association between rs1230025 and GC was modified by alcohol intake (<5 g/day: OR(A) = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.57-1.39; ≥5 g/day: OR(A) = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.08-1.94, P-value = 0.05). The association was also modified by ethanol intake from beer. A known functional SNP in ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with alcohol intake (P-value = 0.04) but not GC risk. Variants in ADH7 were not associated with alcohol intake or GC risk. In conclusion, genetic variants at ADH1 and ALDH2 loci may influence GC risk, and alcohol intake may further modify the effect of ADH1 rs1230025. Additional population-based studies are needed to confirm our results.

Chang JS, Straif K, Guha N
The role of alcohol dehydrogenase genes in head and neck cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of ADH1B and ADH1C.
Mutagenesis. 2012; 27(3):275-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alcohol drinking is a major risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This risk may be modified by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, particularly ADH1B and ADH1C, that oxidise ethanol to its carcinogenic metabolite, acetaldehyde. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the association between ADH1B and ADH1C and HNC risk. Twenty-nine studies from 28 articles identified from a literature search were included. Summary odds ratios (meta-ORs) were generated using random effect models. A reduced risk for HNC was associated with carrying the ADH1B*2 and ADH1C*1 alleles that confer faster metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde [meta-OR ADH1B, 0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.37-0.68, 13 studies; meta-OR ADH1C, 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-0.99, 22 studies]. ADH1B*2 and ADH1C*1 alleles appear to be protective for HNC, possibly due to: (i) decreasing the opportunity for oral microflora to produce acetaldehyde locally from a prolonged systemic circulation of ethanol, (ii) preventing ethanol from acting as a solvent for other carcinogens, and (iii) decreasing the amount of ethanol a person consumes since a consequent peak in systemic acetaldehyde could cause discomfort. These results underscore the importance of ADH1B and ADH1C in the association between alcohol consumption and the risk for HNC.

Chiang CP, Jao SW, Lee SP, et al.
Expression pattern, ethanol-metabolizing activities, and cellular localization of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in human large bowel: association of the functional polymorphisms of ADH and ALDH genes with hemorrhoids and colorectal cancer.
Alcohol. 2012; 46(1):37-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are principal enzymes responsible for metabolism of ethanol. Functional polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 genes occur among racial populations. The goal of this study was to systematically determine the functional expressions and cellular localization of ADHs and ALDHs in human rectal mucosa, the lesions of adenocarcinoma and hemorrhoid, and the genetic association of allelic variations of ADH and ALDH with large bowel disorders. Twenty-one surgical specimens of rectal adenocarcinoma and the adjacent normal mucosa, including 16 paired tissues of rectal tumor, normal mucosae of rectum and sigmoid colon from the same individuals, and 18 surgical mixed hemorrhoid specimens and leukocyte DNA samples from 103 colorectal cancer patients, 67 hemorrhoid patients, and 545 control subjects recruited in previous study, were investigated. The isozyme/allozyme expression patterns of ADH and ALDH were identified by isoelectric focusing and the activities were assayed spectrophotometrically. The protein contents of ADH/ALDH isozymes were determined by immunoblotting using the corresponding purified class-specific antibodies; the cellular activity and protein localizations were detected by immunohistochemistry and histochemistry, respectively. Genotypes of ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. At 33mM ethanol, pH 7.5, the activity of ADH1C*1/1 phenotypes exhibited 87% higher than that of the ADH1C*1/*2 phenotypes in normal rectal mucosa. The activity of ALDH2-active phenotypes of rectal mucosa was 33% greater than ALDH2-inactive phenotypes at 200μM acetaldehyde. The protein contents in normal rectal mucosa were in the following order: ADH1>ALDH2>ADH3≈ALDH1A1, whereas those of ADH2, ADH4, and ALDH3A1 were fairly low. Both activity and content of ADH1 were significantly decreased in rectal tumors, whereas the ALDH activity remained unchanged. The ADH activity was also significantly reduced in hemorrhoids. ADH4 and ALDH3A1 were uniquely expressed in the squamous epithelium of anus at anorectal junctions. The allele frequencies of ADH1C*1 and ALDH2*2 were significantly higher in colorectal cancer and that of ALDH2*2 also significantly greater in hemorrhoids. In conclusion, ADH and ALDH isozymes are differentially expressed in mucosal cells of rectum and anus. The results suggest that acetaldehyde, an immediate metabolite of ethanol, may play an etiological role in pathogenesis of large bowel diseases.

Abulí A, Fernández-Rozadilla C, Alonso-Espinaco V, et al.
Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins.
BMC Cancer. 2011; 11:339 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium.
METHODS: CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family.
RESULTS: None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.25, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles) and borderline significant for rs698 and rs2102302. The rs3803185 variant was not significantly associated with CRC risk in an external cohort (MCC-Spain), but it still showed some borderline significance in the pooled analysis of both cohorts (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.98-1.18, P-value = 0.09, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles).
CONCLUSIONS: ARL11, ADH1C, GALNTL2 and IL6 genetic variants may have an effect on CRC risk. Further validation and meta-analyses should be undertaken in larger CRC studies.

Brocic M, Supic G, Zeljic K, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1C and CYP2E1 and risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011; 145(4):586-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have suggested that the metabolism of alcohol is modulated by the polymorphisms in genes encoding ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase 1C, ADH1C, and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase, CYP2E1. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol-metabolizing enzymes may affect individual susceptibility to oral cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between ADH1C and CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms with oral squamous cell carcinoma in an ethnically homogeneous Caucasian population.
DESIGN: Case-control study.
SETTING: Serbian national general hospital.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 123 oral cancer patients and a control group of 177 individuals of the Caucasian race and the same ethnicity, matched in age and gender, without previous cancer history. The control group consisted of 120 population-based and 57 hospital-based controls of heavy-drinking individuals. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1C SspI, ADH1C HaeIII, CYP2E1 RsaI, and CYP2E1 Ins were determined by the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphisms.
RESULTS: After adjustment by potential confounders, the significant increase of oral cancer risk, independent of alcohol drinking, was observed in individuals with the variant ADH1C SspI*2/*2 genotype (odds ratio, 3.029; P = .014) and in combined ADH1C SspI*1/*2 and ADH1C SspI*2/*2 genotypes (odds ratio, 2.605; P = .002), compared to the ADH1C*1/1* wild type. The association of other polymorphisms under study was not observed.
CONCLUSION: This study suggested that the ADH1C SspI polymorphism could play a significant role in the etiology of oral cancer, whereas ADH1C HaeIII, CYP2E1 RsaI, and CYP2E1 Ins could have minor influence.

McKay JD, Truong T, Gaborieau V, et al.
A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.
PLoS Genet. 2011; 7(3):e1001333 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

Kortunay S, Koseler A, Orhan Kara C, et al.
Frequencies of ADH1C alleles and genotypes in a Turkish head and neck cancer population.
Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2010; 32(3):187-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) have been reported to be related to both genetic and environmental factors, including alcohol consumption and alcohol-metabolizing enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study including 50 cases with diagnosed SCCHN and 100 controls with non-neoplastic conditions such as upper respiratory tract infection. The genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. The ADH1C*1 wild-type and ADH1C*2 variant alleles were analyzed with an RFLP method by using SspI as restriction enzyme. The ADH1C*1 allele frequencies were 0.89 (CI95% = 0.84-0.91) in controls and 0.77 (CI95% = 0.71-0.83) in cases, and respective frequencies of the ADH1C*2 allele were 0.11 (CI95% = 0.07-0.14) and 0.23 (CI95% = 0.17-0.29) among controls and cases (P = 0.01). The ADH1C*1/*1 genotype frequency was significantly higher in the control group (77%) compared to that of the cases (58%) (P = 0.02).These findings suggest that a lower presence of ADH1C*1 allele is associated with SCCHN, but larger numbers are needed to more precisely estimate the interaction, if any, with ADH1C. Interestingly, the ADH1C allele and genotype frequencies in our control group living in Denizli were significantly different compared to a previously published report from healthy volunteers living in Ankara (P < 0.0001).

Canova C, Richiardi L, Merletti F, et al.
Alcohol, tobacco and genetic susceptibility in relation to cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in northern Italy.
Tumori. 2010 Jan-Feb; 96(1):1-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Each year in Italy there are approximately 14,000 new cases and 7,000 deaths from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, which includes malignant tumors originating from the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus. Established etiological factors include tobacco consumption and heavy alcohol drinking. The study of single nucleotide polymorphisms in upper aerodigestive tract cancer etiology may help to identify high-risk subgroups and to better understand the pathways leading to the development of these cancers.
METHODS: Italian results on about 500 cases and 500 controls from a large case-control study (ARCAGE) conducted in 10 European countries are presented with the major objectives of updating results on the effects of alcohol and tobacco consumptions in northern Italy, investigating the role of genetic variation with regard to the metabolism of alcohol and carcinogens from tobacco smoke, and evaluating possible interactions of these single nucleotide polymorphisms with these carcinogens.
RESULTS: The present study confirmed the importance of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking as the main risk factors for upper aerodigestive tract cancers, indicating that about 68% of cancers among populations in northern Italy can be attributed to the combination of these risk factors. Significant associations between metabolizing phase I genes (CYP1A1 and CYP2A6), phase II genes (GSTA2) and upper aerodigestive tract cancers were found. A polymorphism of ADH1C has been associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers, suggesting that the less rapid alcohol metabolizers are more susceptible to upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the ADH1C allele modifies the carcinogenic dose response for alcohol in the upper aerodigestive tract, giving rise to a gene-environment interaction. The role of genes as possible modifiers of life-style risks seems the most reliable.

Sangrajrang S, Sato Y, Sakamoto H, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in folate and alcohol metabolism and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Thai women.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 123(3):885-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dietary folate as well as polymorphic variants in one-carbon metabolism genes may modulate risk of breast cancer through aberrant DNA methylation and altered nucleotide synthesis and repair. Alcohol is well recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer, and interactions with one-carbon metabolism has also been suggested. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms in the folate and alcohol metabolic pathway are associated with breast cancer risk. Twenty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTR, MTRR, MTHFR, TYMS, ADH1C, ALDH2, GSTP1, NAT1, NAT2, CYP2E1 DRD2, DRD3, and SLC6A4 were genotyped. Five hundred and seventy patients with histopathogically confirmed breast cancer and 497 controls were included in the present study. Association of genotypes with breast cancer risk was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Increased risk was observed for homozygotes at the MTR SNPs (rs1770449 and rs1050993) with the OR = 2.21 (95% CI 1.18-4.16) and OR = 2.24 (95% CI 1.19-4.22), respectively. A stratified analysis by menopausal status indicated the association between the NAT2 SNP (rs1799930) and breast cancer was mainly evident in premenopausal women (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.20-6.07), while the MTRR SNP (rs162049) was significant in postmenopausal women (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.07-2.44). Furthermore, SNPs of the genes that contribute to alcohol behavior, DRD3 (rs167770), DRD2 (rs10891556), and SLC6A4 (rs140701), were also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. No gene-gene or gene-environment interactions were observed in this study. Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in folate and alcohol metabolic pathway influence the risk of breast cancer in Thai population.

Garcia SM, Curioni OA, de Carvalho MB, Gattás GJ
Polymorphisms in alcohol metabolizing genes and the risk of head and neck cancer in a Brazilian population.
Alcohol Alcohol. 2010 Jan-Feb; 45(1):6-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) in Brazil has increased substantially in recent years. This increase is likely to be strongly associated with alcohol and tobacco consumption, but genetic susceptibility also should be investigated in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of polymorphisms in genes of alcohol metabolism enzymes and the risk of HNC.
METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. We here investigated ADH1C Ile(350)Val, ADH1B Arg(48)His, ADH1B Arg(370)Cys and CYP2E1*5A PstI polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in 207 histopathologically confirmed HNC cases (184 males and 23 females) and 244 cancer-free controls (225 males and 19 females) admitted as in-patients in the same hospital.
RESULTS: Chronic alcohol intake increased approximately four times the risk of HNC. The mutant genotype ADH1B Arg(48)His was more frequent in controls (12.7%) than HNC patients (5.8%) conferring protection for the disease (odds ratio (OR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI ), 0.21-0.85). Similar results were observed for individuals with ADH1B*2 (OR = 0.41; 95% CI , 0.20-0.82) or ADH1B*2/ADH1C*1 (OR = 0.32; 95% CI , 0.13-0.79) mutated haplotypes. Multiple regression analyses showed that individuals with the mutant genotype ADH1B Arg(48)His who consume alcohol >30 g/L/day have more than four times the risk for HNC (OR = 4.42; 95% CI, 1.21-16.11).
CONCLUSIONS: The fast alcohol metabolizing genotypes may prevent HNC when the amount of alcohol intake is <30.655 g/L/day.

Oze I, Matsuo K, Suzuki T, et al.
Impact of multiple alcohol dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms on risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in a Japanese population.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18(11):3097-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alcohol intake is positively associated with the risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) cancer. The genes that encode alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, primarily alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH), are polymorphic. In Caucasians, significant associations between polymorphisms in ADH1B (rs1229984) and ADH1C (rs698 and rs1693482), and UAT cancer have been observed, despite strong linkage disequilibrium among them. Moreover, UAT cancer was significantly associated with rs1573496 in ADH7, and not with rs1984362 in ADH4. However, little evidence is available concerning ADH4 or ADH7 polymorphisms in Asian populations. We conducted a matched case-control study to clarify the role of ADH polymorphisms in a Japanese population. Cases and controls were 585 patients with UAT cancer and 1,170 noncancer outpatients. Genotyping for ADHs and ALDH2 was done using TaqMan assays. Associations between polymorphisms and UAT cancer were assessed by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using conditional logistic regression models that adjusted for age, sex, smoking, drinking, and ALDH2. Adjusted odds ratios were significant for rs4148887 and rs3805322 in ADH4, rs1229984 in ADH1B, rs698 and rs1693482 in ADH1C, and rs284787, rs1154460, and rs3737482 in ADH7. We also observed that ADH7 rs3737482 and ADH4 rs4148887 had independently and statistically significant effects on UAT cancer. The magnitude of effect of these ADH polymorphisms was greater in subjects who were heavy drinkers, heavy smokers, and had esophageal cancer. These findings show that multiple ADH gene polymorphisms were associated with UAT cancer in this Japanese population. Further studies in various ethnicities are required.

Mohelnikova-Duchonova B, Vrana D, Holcatova I, et al.
CYP2A13, ADH1B, and ADH1C gene polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer risk.
Pancreas. 2010; 39(2):144-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic carcinoma etiology and molecular pathogenesis are weakly understood. Based on the assumption that genetic variation in carcinogen metabolism further modifies the risk of exposure-related cancers, we studied the association of polymorphisms in the tobacco carcinogen-metabolizing gene CYP2A13 (Arg101Stop) and the alcohol-metabolizing genes ADH1B (Arg48His) and ADH1C (Ile350Val) with pancreatic cancer risk.
METHODS: Polymorphisms were studied by allelic discrimination.
RESULTS: In a hospital-based case-control study, CYP2A13 variant alleles coding an inactive enzyme were found in 7 of 265 cancer-free controls and in none of 235 pancreatic carcinoma patients. Neither ADH1B or ADH1C polymorphisms alone nor their combinations showed a significant effect on pancreatic cancer risk.
CONCLUSIONS: The first study of the roles of CYP2A13, ADH1B, and ADH1C in pancreatic cancer etiology suggested that the controls may have a lower ability to bioactivate tobacco-derived procarcinogens than the cases.

Chiang CP, Wu CW, Lee SP, et al.
Expression pattern, ethanol-metabolizing activities, and cellular localization of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in human pancreas: implications for pathogenesis of alcohol-induced pancreatic injury.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009; 33(6):1059-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are major enzymes responsible for metabolism of ethanol. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 occur among racial populations. The metabolic effect and metabolites contribute to pathogenesis of pancreatic injury. The goal of this study was to determine the functional expressions and cellular localization of ADH and ALDH families in human pancreas.
METHODS: Fifty five surgical specimens of normal pancreas as well as 15 samples each for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens were investigated. Class-specific antibodies were prepared by affinity chromatographies from rabbit antisera raised against recombinant human ADH1C1, ADH4, ADH5, ADH7, ALDH1A1, ALDH2, and ALDH3A1. The isozyme expression patterns of ADH/ALDH were identified by isoelectric focusing, and the activities were assayed spectrophotometrically. The protein contents of ADH/ALDH isozymes were determined by immunoblotting, and the cellular localizations were detected by immunohistochemistry and histochemistry.
RESULTS: At 33 mM ethanol, pH 7.5, the activities were significantly different between allelic phenotypes of ADH1B. The activity of ALDH2-inactive phenotypes was slightly lower than ALDH2-active phenotypes at 200 microM acetaldehyde. The protein contents were in the following decreasing order: ALDH1A1, ALDH2, ADH1, and ADH5. ADH1B was detected in the acinar cells and ADH1C in the ductular, islet, and stellate cells. The expression of ADH1C appeared to be increased in the activated pancreatic stellate cells in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol dehydrogenase and ALDH family members are differentially expressed in the various cell types of pancreas. ADH1C may play an important role in modulation of activation of pancreatic stellate cells.

Jung AY, Poole EM, Bigler J, et al.
DNA methyltransferase and alcohol dehydrogenase: gene-nutrient interactions in relation to risk of colorectal polyps.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008; 17(2):330-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Disturbances in DNA methylation are a characteristic of colorectal carcinogenesis. Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is essential for providing one-carbon groups for DNA methylation via DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Alcohol, a folate antagonist, could adversely affect one-carbon metabolism. In a case-control study of colorectal polyps, we evaluated three single nucleotide polymorphisms (-149C>T, -283T>C, -579G>T) in the promoter region of the DNMT3b gene, and a functional polymorphism in the coding region of the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1C gene, ADH1C *2. Cases had a first diagnosis of colorectal adenomatous (n = 530) or hyperplastic (n = 202) polyps at the time of colonoscopy, whereas controls were polyp-free (n = 649). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were no significant main associations between the DNMT3b or ADH1C polymorphisms and polyp risk. However, DNMT3b -149TT was associated with an increase in adenoma risk among individuals with low folate and methionine intake (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.06-3.78, P interaction = 0.10). The ADH1C *2/*2 genotype was associated with a possibly elevated risk for adenomatous polyps among individuals who consumed >26 g of alcohol/d (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 0.60-6.30), whereas individuals who were wild-type for ADH1C were not at increased risk of adenoma (P interaction = 0.01). These gene-diet interactions suggest that polymorphisms relevant to DNA methylation or alcohol metabolism may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis in conjunction with a high-risk diet.

Solomon PR, Selvam GS, Shanmugam G
Polymorphism in ADH and MTHFR genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma of Indians.
Oral Dis. 2008; 14(7):633-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Alcohol consumption is known to increase the risk for several cellular disorders like oral cancer. The risk may be reinforced by polymorphism in genes like alcohol dehydrogenase. Therefore, this study is designed to asses the polymorphic status in ADH1B (formerly ADH2), ADH1C (formerly ADH3) and MTHFR genes in order to correlate the susceptibility to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: DNA from 126 OSCC samples were amplified using primers for ADH1B, ADH1C and MTHFR genes. The amplicons were analyzed for ADH1B*1, ADH1C*2 and MTHFR C677T allelic polymorphism by restriction digestion using appropriate enzymes.
RESULTS: ADH1B*1/*1 genotype in cancer patients who were heavy drinkers showed a negligible risk association with an odds ratio of 1.62; 95% CI = 1.08-2.14. In OSCC patients, ADH1C*2/*2 genotypes showed a relatively higher risk (odds ratio 2.65; 95% CI = 1.78-3.53) in heavy drinkers and a less significant risk (1.6; 95% CI = 1.15-2.03) in moderate drinkers and negligible risk in light drinkers (1.23; 95% CI = 0.77-1.63). In contrast, MTHFR 677TT genotype showed a high risk association for OSCC in heavy drinkers (odds ratio 3.0; 95% CI = 2.02-4.0). Interestingly, the combination of ADH1B*1/*1/ MTHFR 677TT genotypes in alcoholic cancer patients showed a high risk (odds ratio 4.16; 95% CI = 2.78-5.53). A similar risk (odds ratio 4.16; 95% CI = 1.18-5.53) was shown by ADH1B*1/*2/*2/*2MTHFR 677TT genotype combination. The ADH1C*2/*2 /MTHFR 677TT genotype combination showed the maximum risk (odds ratio 20; 95% CI = 13.45-26.64) in the heavy drinker group. This combination showed a high risk in moderate drinkers (odds ratio 5.88; 95% CI = 4.24-7.50) and relatively lower risk in light drinkers (odds ratio 2.77; 95% CI = 1.74-3.68).
CONCLUSIONS: The ADH1C*2/*2/MTHFR 677TT genotype combination appears to be more susceptible for OSCC, since it showed a 20-fold increase in risk in heavy drinkers and a 5.9- and 2.8-fold increase in risk respectively in moderate drinkers and light drinkers. This study suggests the association of ADH1C*2/*2/MTHFR 677TT genotype combination as a risk factor for OSCC in alcoholics.

Li DP, Dandara C, Walther G, Parker MI
Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol metabolising enzymes: their role in susceptibility to oesophageal cancer.
Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008; 46(3):323-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a major risk factor for susceptibility to oesophageal cancer in the South African population. The role of polymorphisms in alcohol metabolising enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) in predisposition of this population to oesophageal cancer is unknown. Alcohol metabolising enzymes exhibit polymorphisms that result in variant alleles with either increased or decreased activity.
METHODS: The role of these polymorphisms in increased risk of oesophageal cancer was investigated in 238 patients and 268 controls from Black and Mixed Ancestry South Africans, using the PCR/RFLP technique.
RESULTS: The ADH3*2/*2 genotype was significantly associated with increased risk for oesophageal cancer amongst Black subjects (odds ratio, 2.19; p=0.004). The low activity ALDH2*2 allele was significantly associated with increased risk for oesophageal cancer amongst the Black subjects (odds ratio, 2.35; p=0.0084).
CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that ADH variants, ADH2*1 and ADH3*2, were associated with increased risk for oesophageal cancer, possibly due to the tolerance of the carriers of these alleles to alcohol consumption compared to those with high activity alleles (ADH2*2 and ADH2*3) which are associated with higher production of the unpleasant acetaldehyde intermediate.

Liu Y, Zhu X, Zhu J, et al.
Identification of differential expression of genes in hepatocellular carcinoma by suppression subtractive hybridization combined cDNA microarray.
Oncol Rep. 2007; 18(4):943-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
The genetic background of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has yet to be completely understood. Here, we describe the application of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) coupled with cDNA microarray analysis for the isolation and identification of differential expression of genes in HCC. Twenty-six known genes were validated as up-regulated and 19 known genes as down-regulated in HCC. The known genes identified were found to have diverse functions. In addition to the overexpression of AFP, these genes (increased in the presence of HCC) are involved in many processes, such as transcription and protein biosynthesis (HNRPDL, PABPC1, POLR2K, SRP9, SNRPA, and six ribosomal protein genes including RPL8, RPL14, RPL41, RPS5, RPS17, RPS24), the metabolism of lipids and proteins (FADS1, ApoA-II, ApoM, FTL), cell proliferation (Syndecan-2, and Annexin A2), and signal transduction (LRRC28 and FMR1). Additionally, a glutathione-binding protein involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal known as GLO1 and an enzyme which increases the formation of prostaglandin E(2) known as PLA2G10 were up-regulated in HCC. Among the underexpressed genes discovered in HCC, most were responsible for liver-synthesized proteins (fibrinogen, complement species, amyloid, albumin, haptoglobin, hemopexin and orosomucoid). The enzyme implicated in the biotransformation of CYP family members (LOC644587) was decreased. The genes coding enzymes ADH1C, ALDH6A1, ALDOB, Arginase and CES1 were also found. Additionally, we isolated a zinc transporter (Zip14) and a function-unknown gene named ZBTB11 (Zinc finger and BTB domain containing 11) which were underexpressed, and seven expression sequence tags deregulated in HCC without significant homology reported in the public database. Essentially, by using SSH combined with a cDNA microarray we have identified a number of genes associated with HCC, most of which have not been previously reported. Further characterization of these differentially expressed genes will provide information useful in understanding the genes responsible for the development of HCC.

Terry MB, Gammon MD, Zhang FF, et al.
Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas.
Cancer Causes Control. 2007; 18(9):1039-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Alcohol increases esophageal squamous carcinoma risk but has been less consistently associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of approximately 80% of ethanol to acetaldehyde, a carcinogen. The alcohol dehydrogenase gene has several polymorphisms which may lead to faster conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde, which may increase cancer risk.
METHODS: We undertook a study to examine whether a common polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 3 gene was associated with a higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma using data and biological samples collected for the Esophageal and Gastric Cancer Study (n = 114 esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, n = 60 non-cardia gastric carcinoma, n = 23 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 160 controls).
RESULTS: Individuals homozygous for ADH ( 3 ) (1-1) had a higher risk of each tumor type compared to individuals who had ADH ( 3 ) (2-2) or ADH ( 3 ) (1-2) genotype (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0-2.9 for esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas; OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.7-4.3 for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; and OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5-5.1 for non-cardia gastric cancer). The elevation in risk from homozygosity of the ADH ( 3 ) (1) allele was seen in drinkers and nondrinkers, although the risk estimate was only significant for drinkers, particularly of liquor.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest ADH3 genotype may be associated with risk of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas.

Zhang FF, Hou L, Terry MB, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism, alcohol intake and the risk of stomach cancer in Warsaw, Poland.
Int J Cancer. 2007; 121(9):2060-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic variations increasing blood levels of acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of alcohol, refrain their carriers from drinking alcohol but may also put them at increased risk of cancer because of the mutagenic and carcinogenic effect of acetaldehyde. In a population-based study of 305 cases and 428 controls in Warsaw, Poland, we evaluated the effect of polymorphisms in alcohol metabolizing genes, including ADH1B (Ex9+5C>T, Ex3+23A>G, Ex3+58A>T and Ex9+77A>G), ADH1C (Ex8-56A>G and Ex6-14G>A) and ALDH2 (Ex1+82A>G), on levels of alcohol drinking and susceptibility of stomach cancer. We found that among control subjects frequency of alcohol drinking varied by alcohol metabolizing genotype. In particular, the weekly consumption of individuals carrying the AA, GA and GG genotypes of ALDH2 Ex1+82A>G polymorphism were 3.75, 2.26 and 1.53 drinks, respectively (p=0.04). However, none of the assessed polymorphisms in these 3 genes had a measurable effect on stomach cancer risk. When stratified by ALDH2 Ex1+82A>G polymorphism, alcohol-related increases in stomach cancer risk were restricted to individuals with the AG/GG genotypes, with a more than 2-fold risk among daily drinkers (OR=2.63, 95% CI=1.00-6.88) and 3-fold risk (OR=3.66, 95% CI=1.19-11.24) among those with 40 or more drink-years. In summary, our results suggested that the ALDH2 Ex1+82 G allele may be functionally deficient in eliminating acetaldehyde and discourage alcohol drinking. Furthermore, heavy drinkers of alcohol who were genetically prone to accumulate acetaldehyde may face an increased risk of stomach cancer.

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